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Hecate, Greek goddess of the three paths, guardian of the household, protector of everything newly born, and the goddess of witchcraft -- once a widely revered and influential goddess, the reputation of Hecate has been tarnished over the centuries. In current times, she is usually depicted as a "hag" or old witch stirring the cauldron. But nothing could be further from the image of Hecate's original glory. A beautiful and powerful goddess in her own right, the Greek goddess Hecate was the only one of the ancient Titans who Zeus allowed to retain their authority once the Olympians seized control. Zeus shared with Hecate, and only her, the awesome power of giving humanity anything she wished (or withholding it if she pleased). Usually classified as a "moon goddess", her kingdoms were actually three-fold . . . the earth, sea, and sky. Having the power to create or withhold storms undoubtedly played a role in making her the goddess who was the protector of shepherds and sailors.
A lover of solitude, the Greek goddess Hecate was, like her cousin Artemis, a "virgin" goddess, unwilling to sacrifice her independent nature for the sake of marriage. Walking the roads at night or visiting cemeteries during the dark phase of the moon, the goddess Hecate was described as shining or luminous. In other legends she is invisible, perhaps only glimpsed as a light, a "will-o-the-wisp". Perhaps it was this luminous quality that marked Hecate as a "moon goddess", for she seemed quite at home on the earth. Some scholars believe it is also was because her mother was Asteria (the Titan goddess of the Shining Light or "Star") or perhaps it was because she sensibly always carried a torch on her journeys.
Like Artemis, Hecate was usually depicted with her sacred dogs, although Hecate and even her animals, were sometimes said to have three heads and that they could see in all directions. Although usually depicted as a beautiful woman having three human heads, some images are fearsome indeed (one with a snake's head, one with a horse's, and the third a boar's head). This farsightedness, the ability to see in several directions at once (even the past, present, and future) featured largely in her most famous myth, the abduction of Persephone. For it was the goddess Hecate who "saw" and told the frantic Demeter what had become of her daughter.
The goddess Hecate continued to play an important role in the life of Persephone, becoming her confidante when she was in the Underworld. Hades, thankful for their friendship, was more than hospitable, honoring Hecate as a prominent and permanent guest in the spirit world. Surely this had the effect of enhancing her reputation as a spirit of black magic with the power to conjure up dreams, prophecies, and phantoms.
Hecate's ability to see into the Underworld, the "otherworld" of the sleeping and the dead, made her comfortable and tolerant in the company of those most would shun out of fear or misunderstanding. In her role as 'Queen of the Night', sometimes traveling with a following of "ghosts" and other social outcasts, she was both honored and feared as the protectress of the oppressed and of those who lived "on the edge". In Rome many of the priests in her sacred groves were former slaves who had been released to work in her service. The goddess Hecate was often accompanied on her travels by an owl, a symbol of wisdom. Not really known as a goddess of wisdom, per se, Hecate is nevertheless recognized for a special type of knowledge and is considered to be the goddess of trivia. Hecate's farsightedness and attention to detail, combined with her extraordinary interest in that which most of us discount as irrelevant or arcane, gave her tremendous powers. She knew what the rest of us did not.
Not surprisingly, the people thought it best to give the goddess Hecate (and any friends that might be accompanying her) a lot of honor and a fairly wide berth. When darkness descended they wisely retired to the fireside for supper, but put the leftovers outside as an offering to Hecate and her hounds. That the homeless and destitute were often the actual beneficiaries hardly mattered...after all, they were under Hecate's protection. In a similar fashion, food was often left at the crossroads to honor Hecate, especially at junctions where three roads converged --what we often call a "Y-intersection". Frequently a pole was erected at the intersection and three masks would be hung from it to pay homage to Hecate and to request her guidance in helping to choose the right direction.
Three-faced masks also adorned the entrances of many homes, honoring the goddess Hecate who could, of course, wield her influence over "the spirits that traveled the earth" to keep them from entering the household.
It is hardly surprising that a woman who needed to make a trip alone at night would say a brief prayer to Hecate to seek her protection. The goddess Hecate, like her cousin Artemis, was known as a protector of women, especially during childbirth. Not only was Hecate called upon to ease the pains and progress of a woman's labor, but especially to protect and restore the health and growth of a child. Similarly, Hecate played a role that, in contemporary times, we would describe as "hospice nurse", helping the elderly make a smooth and painless passage into the next life and staying with them, if need be, in the otherworld to help prepare them for their eventual return to the earth in their next life. Familiar with the process of death and dying as well as that of new birth and new life, the goddess Hecate was wise in all of earth's mysteries.
The Greek goddess Hecate reminds us of the importance of change, helping us to release the past, especially those things that are hindering our growth, and to accept change and transitions. She sometimes asks us to let go of what is familiar, safe, and secure and to travel to the scary places of the soul. New beginnings, whether spiritual or mundane, aren't always easy. But Hecate is there to support and show you the way. She loans her farsightedness for you to see what lies deeply forgotten or even hidden, and helps you make a choice and find your path. Oft times she shines her torch to guide you while you are in dreams or meditation. Hecate teaches us to be just and to be tolerant of those who are different or less fortunate, yet she is hardly a "bleeding heart", for Hecate dispenses justice "blindly" and equally. Whether the Greek goddess Hecate visits us in waking hours or only while we sleep, she can lead us to see things differently (ourselves included) and help us find greater understanding of our selves and others. Although her name may mean "The Distant One", Hecate is always close at hand in times of need, helping us to release the old, familiar ways and find our way through new beginnings.
12). Plut. After the mother-daughter reunion became she Persephone's minister and companion in Haides. She also assisted the gods in their war with the Gigantes. Schol. wisdom. 30. we find her identitied with Demeter. and at length became a mystic goddess. and she was honoured by all the immortal gods. ad Tleocrit. Hekate assisted Demeter in her search for Persephone. witchcraft. on the earth. and Argive Iphigeneia. Argon. to whom mysteries were celebrated in Samothrace (Lycoph. Pac. transformed by the angry Eileithyia.) Others describe her as a daughter of Zeus and Demeter. guiding her through the night with flaming torches. iii. Apollon. In statuary Hekate was often depicted in triple form as a goddess of crossroads. who. moon. and in the sea. and others. The polecat was originally the witch Gale who was transformed into the beast to punish her for her incontinence. being . the night. who. Rhea (Cybele or Brimo). the Thracian goddesses Bendis and Kotys. She was the only child of the Titanes Perses and Asteria from whom she received her power over heaven. the Kolkhian Perseis. ad Lyc. Hekate was usually depicted in Greek vase painting as a woman holding twin torches. § 4. ghosts and necromancy. she appears to have been an ancient Thracian divinity. (Hes. lastly. the sea-goddess Krataeis.HEKATE (or Hecate) was the goddess of magic. § 2. in Plat. was a daughter of Persaeus or Perses and Asteria.) This extensive power possessed by Hecate was probably the reason that subsequently she was confounded and identified with several other divinities. ruled in heaven. earth. comp. Orph. and a Titan. according to the most common tradition. 975. ii. Sometimes she was dressed in a knee-length maiden's skirt and hunting boots. ii. Eleusinian Daeira and the Boiotian Nymphe Herkyna. and state that she was sent out by her father in search of Persephone (Schol. i. 478. who bestowed on mortals wealth. from the time of the Titans. the Arkadian Despoine. Rhod. p. Theog. She was the only one among the Titans who retained this power under the rule of Zeus. According to the most genuine traditions. but received by Hekate as her animal. § 2. but all these blessings might at the same time be withheld by her. (Paus. say that she was a daughter of Leto or Tartarus.) For being as it were the queen of all nature. 5. 277) and in Aegina.) Homer does not mention her. ad Theocrit. including Artemis and Selene (Moon). Hekate was identified with a number of other goddesses. others again make her a daughter of Zeus either by Pheraea or by Hera (Tzetz. if mortals did not deserve them. 6. Euboian Maira (the dog-star). The bitch was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe. 2. Other say it was Galinthias. i. and sea. who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by the goddess into her familiar. much like Artemis. 1175. (Procl. Cratyl. Apollod. and prosperity to youth and to the flocks of cattle. 112 . and slew Clytius. 36) . the nurse of Alkmene. 77. victory. ii. (Apollod. good luck to sailors and hunters. a mysterious divinity. whence she is called Perseis. ENCYCLOPEDIA HE CATE (Hekatê). 411452. Schol. ad Aristoph. de Flum. Two metamorphosis myths describe the origins of her animal familiars: the black she-dog and the polecat (a mustelid house pet kept to hunt vermin). the goddess of the Taurian Khersonese (of Skythia).
especially with Demeter and Persephone. she accompanied Demeter in the search after Persephone. Argon. l. and the third of a lion. 1887. ad Theocrit. 48. she is the same as Artemis (Curotrophos). § 2. Heroid. Eurip. Stat. c. 124. vi.) A number of epithets given her by the poets contain allusions to these features of the popular belief. 529. 396. 6. Horat. and black female lambs. § 2. and when the latter was found. Schol. Rom. (Orph. Ov. (Plut Quaest.) Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 12. iv. de Abstin. (Paus. the one of a horse. 405. Od. p. xii. Lith. 1714. 1032. (Orph. besides Helios. Lycoph. and on spots where two roads crossed each other. 35. 1197. Rhod. (Athen. Sat. She herself too wanders about with the souls of the dead. Plot. we find express mention of her worship at Argos (Paus. 861. Hom.) Small statues or symbolical representations of Hecate (hekataia) were very numerous. who taught sorcery and witchcraft. Hekataia). with the commentat. vii. Lith. 25. 472). she is regarded as the mystic Persephone. 45. Hecate remained with her as her attendant and companion.) Besides Samothrace and Aegina. 45. Theb. Orph. Virg. Rhod. 1175. § 8. Aen. ad Theocr l. She is described in this capacity as a mighty and formidable divinity. Apollon. though it is generally current among the later writers. where she had a sanctuary under the name of Epipurgidia. Hesych. i. ad Hom. such as the Cabeiri and Curetes (Schol. 257. iii. and this food was consumed by poor people. . observed the abduction of Persephone. Lysistr. who dwelt at places where two roads crossed each other.. where they stood before or in houses.) The ground-work of the abovementioned confusions and identifications. and her approach is announced by the whining and howling of dogs. not far from the temple of Nice. Strab.) The sacrifices offered to her consisted of dogs. 468.) In works of art she was some-times represented as a single being. pp. Synmpos. § 1. ruling over the souls of the departed . iii.. Med. iv. she is the goddess of purifications and expiations. i. 28. She is described as of terrible appearance.) By Phorcos she became the mother of Scylla. 43. 428 . ii. v. 1467. PARENTAGE OF HEKATE I) PERSES & ASTERIA . honey. s. ii. 645. and as a goddess of the moon. Rhod. and also with Apollo and the Muses. 975. Diod. the second of a dog. especially at Athens. ad Theocrit. either with three bodies or three heads. but sometimes also as a three-headed monster. Eustath. in Cer. At the close of every month dishes with food were set out for her and other averters of evil at the points where two roads crossed each other. xiv. x. who at night sent from the lower world all kinds of demons and terrible phantoms. 609. for. Apollon. 596 . on the acropolis. 49. § 2. Plut. or to her form. (Aristoph. according to this hymn. 16. 829 .) She was further connected with the worship of other mystic divinities. iv. 1211. but this notion does not occur till the time of the Greek tragedians. (Aristoph. 64. she was. Strab. ii. comp. Rhod. 829. Eustath. 12 . iv. (Hom. Schol. Met. With a torch in her hand.) and at Athens. Virg. &c. . Vesp. and near the blood of murdered persons. the only divinity who. from her cave. is contained in the Homeric hymn to Demeter. namely. iv. Aen. she was regarded as a spectral being. and it would seem that people consulted such Hecataea as oracles. p. and is accompanied by Stygian dogs. c.) There is another very important feature which arose out of the notion of her being an infernal divinity. 30. 816. (Paus. 30. Porphyr. iii. ii. xii. 30. 8. She thus becomes a deity of the lower world. ii. (Apollon. Paus.a huntress and the protector of youth. 168. Hymn. p. Theocrit. on tombs. ad Hom. x. 47. p. ii. (Apollon. xiv.
a daughter of Nyx (Night). and that according to Pherecydes. to C1st A. bright-coiffed.C." Pseudo-Apollodorus. Vol. .C." III) OTHER The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius. Library of History 4. . Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.) : "The maiden daughter of Perseus. Metamorphoses 7. Theogony 404 ff (trans. according to Mousaios.C.) : "Hekate. Medea 812 (trans. daughter of Perses] she [Medea] made her way." Lycophron. who is the daughter of Latona¶s sister Asteria?" Seneca. Campbell. O Perseis [Perses¶ daughter].) : "Torch-bearing Hekate holy daughter of great-bosomed Nyx (Night). 18 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B. Brimo Trimorphos (the three-formed). Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A. . 467 says that according to the Orphic Hymns. Fragment 1B (trans. . 45." Ovid. a daughter of Zeus and Asteria.C. Bacchylides.) : "The Titanes had children .Hesiod. Theogony 404 Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter 19 (trans.C. Aeetes and Perses. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B. Alexandra 1174 (trans.) : "I see Trivia¶s [Hekate's] swift gliding car .) : "We are told that Helios (the Sun) had two sons. the daughter of Persaios. 1035 (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th ." . De Natura Deorum 3. how can you not think that Hecate is one.9 (trans.C. whom [the Titan] Perses (Destroyer) once led to his great house to be called his dear wife. Argonautica 3.) : "[The Titanis] Asteria (Starry One) of happy name. who surpassed her father in boldness and lawlessness.) : "If you think Latona [Leto] a goddess. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B." II) NYX Nyx (Night) as the mother of Hekate was probably identified with Asteria ("the Starry One").C." Cicero. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A. And Perses had a daughter Hekate." Diodorus Siculus. she was a daughter of Aristaios. Aeetes being the king of Kolkhis and the other king of the Tauric Chersonese.D. 8 . And she conceived and bare Hekate.4th B. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.) : "Tender-hearted Hekate. . Melville) (Roman epic C1st B." Apollonius Rhodius. and that both of them were exceedingly cruel. that according to Bacchylides. 1 (trans. 74 (trans. Bibliotheca 1. Argonautica 3. Perses and Asteria of Hekate.D.C.Hesiod. Perses¶ only daughter (mounogenes).D.) : "Now to the ancient shrine of Perseis [Hekate. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B. Hekate was a daughter of Deo [Demeter].
Brimo Trimorphos [Hekate]. Diodorus Siculus.C. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B." Lycophron. . similar to Artemis. Argonautica 3. . and is . Apollonius Rhodius.C. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : "[Kirke addresses her niece Medea :] `Nor let them [the Argonauts] go too near the hateful den of Ausonian Skylla. whom men call Kratais. She was also titled Skylakagetis (Leader of the Dogs). to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. she married Aeetes and bore two daughters. 827 ff (trans. . connecting her with the name of the monster. Theogony 404 ff (trans. 1 (trans.) : "The only-begotten Maiden (Koure mounogenes) [Hekate]. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B. OFFSPRING OF HEKATE I) VIRGIN GODDESS.) : "We are told that Helios (the Sun) had two sons. Argonautica 4." II) SKYLLA Hekate was sometimes identified with Krataeis.C. Alexandra 1174 (trans. Aeetes and Perses. she was often depicted wearing a maiden's knee-length dress. . Pherecydes clearly identified Aristaios with the Titan Astraios (the Starry One). . be that Asteria (Starry)." HEKATE & THE TITAN-WAR Hekate was one of the Titan-gods who allied themselves with Zeus. Hekate was described as a virgin goddess. 840 (trans.B. He gave her splendid gifts. Hesiod. Library of History 4.C.N. Perses had a daughter Hekate . the mother of the sea-monster Skylla. 45. and also with the goddess of the neighbouring Tauric Khersonese. In art. Aeetes being the king of Kolkhis and the other king of the Tauric Khersonese.) : "Hekate whom Zeus the son of Kronos honoured above all. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.) : "The maiden daughter of Perseus. that wicked monster borne to Phorkys by night-wandering Hekate. Astraios (Starry) or Nyx (Night). Most poets make Hekate a daughter of night in some form. She received honour also in starry heaven. Kirke and Medea. Apollonius Rhodius. and a son Aigialeus.'" III) KIRKE & MEDEA Diodorus Siculus identified Hekate with the Kolkhian nymphs Perseis and Eidyia (the mother and wife of King Aeetes).
the daughter of Persaios." Hekate appears in a number of ancient vase paintings battling a giant with her twin torches. The bird flew into a hollow cave and hid under a stone. the Son of Kronos [Zeus]. kunos). for Zeus honours her. what god of heaven or what mortal man has rapt away Persephone and pierced with sorrow your dear heart? For I heard her voice. the goddess receives not less honour. And the daughter of rich-haired Rheia answered her not. met her. but much more still. 2 (trans. and in heaven. The son of Kronos [Zeus] did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds. and stood in front of his horses: and the bright goddess enquired of him. privilege both in earth.D. They say that here Herkyna. heard her voice.38 (trans. the daughter of Demeter. and in sea. Then for nine days queenly Deo [Demeter] wandered over the earth with flaming torches in her hands. then. held a goose (khên) which against her will she let loose. So they came to Helios (the Sun). Bibliotheca 1. . so grieved that she never tasted ambrosia and the sweet draught of nektaros. holding flaming torches in her hands.) : "Then she [Persephone] cried out shrilly [as she was seized by the god Haides] with her voice. and spoke to her and told her news: `Queenly Demeter. calling upon her father. Hekate. with a torch in her hands. and the lord Helios (the Sun) . who is watchman of both gods and men.' So. Boiotia] is separated from the grove of [the chthonian oracular daimon] Trophonios by the river Herkyna. as the division was at the first from the beginning. . either of the deathless gods or mortal men. .honoured exceedingly by the deathless gods . nor sprinkled her body with water.) : "[When the Gigantes made war on the gods of heaven] In the course of the battle . But when the tenth enlightening dawn had come. heard the girl from her cave. ." Pausanias. yet saw not with my eyes who it was. who is most high and excellent. But I tell you truly and shortly all I know. and often did she embrace the daughter of holy Demeter: and from that time the lady Hekate was minister and companion to Persephone. . For as many as were born of Gaia (Earth) and Ouranos (Heaven) [the Titanes] amongst all these she has her due portion." HEKATE & THE WAR OF THE GIGANTES Pseudo-Apollodorus. nor yet the olive-trees bearing rich fruit: only tender-hearted Hekate. when playing with Kore [Persephone]. Hekate got [the Gigante] Klytios with fire-brands. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A. bright-coiffed. 34 . bringer of seasons and giver of good gifts. Description of Greece 9.D. Also. may be Hekate:] "[The city Lebadeia. because she is an only child.) : [In the following passage. 39. But no one. HEKATE & THE RAPE OF PERSEPHONE Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter 19 ff (trans. Kore entered and took the bird as it lay . Herkyna." Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter 436 ff : "[After Persephone was returned from the underworld to Demeter :] Then bright-coiffed Hekate came near to them. but sped swiftly with her. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th . said Hekate. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A. the Warding Dog (eruô. .4th B.C.
They turned her into a deceitful weasel (or polecat).D. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A. fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alkmene mad. they say. Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself." Propertius. The water flowed. as a favour to Hera. making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating.D. Galinthias. daughter of Elektryon. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alkmene. who as legend tells. 7 (trans. from the place where Kore took up the stone. the Moirai (Fates) and Eileithyia (Birth-Goddess). They remained seated. and allege that it was the nurse of Herakles. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A. worship a marten [Galanthis]. ran to the Moirai and Eleithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alkmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished.) : "The inhabitants of Thebes. some assert to be a son of Hermes and of Daeira [Hekate?]. each keeping their arms crossed. so I hear. being but a mortal.under the stone. by the waters of Boebeis [in Thessalia] laid her virgin body at Mercurius¶ [Hermes¶] side. The Moirai were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since. 38. yet when Alkmene was in labour and unable to bring her child to birth. Goold) (Roman elegy C1st B. Description of Greece 1. On the bank of the river there is a temple of Herkyna. because they think that serpents are just as much sacred to Trophonios as Asklepios. and were associated with the spring-time return of Persephone. kept Alkmene in continuous birth pangs. daughter of Okeanos. Alkmene¶s pangs ceased at once and Herakles was born. consternation of course overcame the Moirai and they immediately let go their arms.) : "At Thebes Proitos had a daughter Galinthias. She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat. One might conjecture the images be of Asklepios and Hygeia. she had deceived the gods.) : "Brimo [Hekate?]." HEKATE & HERMES Hekate was probably described as the consort of Khthonian (Underworld) Hermes in the cults of Thessalian Pherai and Eleusis. As the birth throes for Herakles were pressing on Alkmene." . or if it was not the nurse. and serpents are coiled around their sceptres. Both gods were leaders of the ghosts of the dead.C. 29c (trans.) : "The hero Eleusis. Metamorphoses 29 (trans. In the cave are the sources of the river and images standing. although Greeks. but they might be Trophonios and Herkyna. 5 (trans. Elegies 2. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A. Pausanias.D. in which is a maiden holding a goose in her arms. the marten ran by her and loosed the bonds of her womb." Aelian. On Animals 12. At all this." HEKATE & GALINTHIAS Antoninus Liberalis. so that Herakles was delivered and at once began to crawl. and hence the river received the name Herkyna. after whom the city [of Eleusis] is named.
. oblviious of her years . shall make thee [Queen Hekabe of Troy] her attendant [after her transformed into a dog].D. . rage linked with grief. that she was extremely incontinent.D. . piled by the hands of thy master [Odysseus].s fair fortune fell. the Thrakian Hekate. . It has also reached my hearing that Gale was her name then. Hecuba. To him in secret Praim gave in charge his young son Polydorus to be reared . and she became the animal familiar of the goddess Hekate. . During the voyage back to Greece she murdered a Thracian king and was stoned by the locals. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A. to C1st A. He [Odysseus] shall pour on the shore offerings for thee. Alexandra 1174 ff (trans. Nor has it escaped my notice that the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature. his treacherous eyes. and is said to have been changed into a dog. and that she was afflicted with abnormal sexual desires. May the goddess be gracious to me : fables and their telling I leave to others.) : "When Ulysses was taking into servitude Hecuba." Ovid. the provinces of Thrace.) : "Troy fell and Priam too.C. . Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B. . Upon the beach cast up she [Hekabe] saw her Polydorus' corpse and the huge wounds the Thracian knives had made . 430 & 561 ff (trans. . that she was a dealer in spells and a sorceress (Pharmakis).C. There lie across the strait from Phrygia. author of that foul murder. Sicily] shall hold thine [Hekabe¶s] awful cenotaph. unhappy one. Priam's wife . where Polymestor had his wealthy palace. . ." HEKATE & QUEEN HEKABE Odysseus received Queen Hekabe as his captive followingr the fall of Troy. after all besides her human shape. And the island spur of Pakhynos [in Sikelia. Fabulae 111 (trans. . Metamorphoses 14. her weird new barking terrified the breeze on foreign shores where the long Hellespont contracts in narrows . made her way to Polymestor. She attacked the king and dug her fingers in his eyes.) : "I have heard that the land-marten (or polecat) was once a human being. . and sought an audience . Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A. In this myth the queen was clearly identified with Bendis. His ill-starred wife [Hekabe] lost. and gouged his eyeballs out . 11 (trans. . Lycophron. On Animals 15. that wicked king took his sharp sword and slit his charge's throat . . the place is called Cyneus (of the Dog) from this. appeasing the goddess of Pherai with sacrifice. fearing the anger of the three-necked goddess [Hekate].D." Pseudo-Hyginus. terrifying with thy baying in the night all mortals who worship not with torches the images of Zerynthia [Hekate] queen of Strymon [in Thrake]. The gods then transformed her into a black dog. Brimo Trimorphos (Three-formed). prompted by dreams when thou hast gotten the rites of death in front of the streams of Heloros. .HEKATE & THE WITCH GALE Aelian. where Ilium was. . she threw herself into the Hellespont. who was offered dogs in sacrifice. for that he shall hurl the first stone at thy [Hekabe's] stoning and begin the dark sacrifice to Haides. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B. When Troy. .) : "The maiden daughter of Perseus.
C.C. Elegies . Ovid Heroides 12.Greek Epic C8th-7th B. Orphica Argonautica 975. Hekate was usually regarded as the goddess of witchcraft. Lycophron.Incensed to see their king's calamity. though it is unclear whether Hesiod is describing her benefits as being derived from the use of magical incantations or merely general prayers to her divinity.Greek Mythography C2nd A." Ovid. Alexandra .D.Latin Tragedy C1st A. Metamorphoses . Jove's wife and sister.B.D. Apollonius Rhodius. Theogony . Pausanias. De Natura Deorum . or Dog's Barrow]. and all the gods as well--all: Juno [Hera] too. and whn her lips were set to grame words and she tried to speak. Diodorus Siculus. Propertius. Other references not currently quoted here: Tzetzes on Lycophron 1175.Latin Elegy C1st B.Latin Philosophy C1st B. did herself declare the tragic end of Hecuba unfair.Latin Epic C1st BC .D. That fate of hers stirred pity in the hearts of friend and foe. Aelian. Plutarch Roman Questions 49.Greek Mythography C2nd A.D. Fragments .Greek Geography C2nd A. the Thracians started to attack the queen with sticks and stones.D. she howled in sorrow through the land of Thrace. Then still remembering her ancient ills.C.Greek Poetry C3rd B. Cicero. but she snaped at the stones.C.362 ff : "Past the tomb of Paris [in the Troad] buried in the shallow sand.C.Greek Epic C8th-4th B.Greek History C1st B. Ovid connects Hekabe or Hekate with the dog-star Seirios or Maira]. Metamorphoses 7. Pseudo-Plutarch On Rivers 5.C.Greek Natural History C2nd . Antoninus Liberalis.168.C3rd A. named from what happened there [Kynossema. The name of her father Perses (the destroyer) was . Ovid. the meadowlands that Maera terrified with monstrous barks [N.D. The place remains today. The poet clearly understood that she was a night-time goddess of witchcraft through the naming of her parents. The Library of History . The Library . Apollodorus. Eustathius on Homer's Iliad 1197 HYMNS TO HEKATE I) HESIODIC HYMN Hesiod describes the wide-ranging divine powers of the goddess Hekate in the following passage. Seneca. Metamorphoses . The Argonautica . The Homeric Hymns . Medea . she barked." Sources: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Hesiod. On Animals . Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides. Trojans and Greeks alike. snarling.C.C.Greek Lyric C5th B.Greek Epic C3rd B.C1st A. Description of Greece .
on mountains wandering. Theogony 404 II) HOMERIC HYMNS "Kourotrophe (nurse of the young) [Hekate]. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement. he calls upon Hekate. but much more still. and easily she takes it away as soon as seen. And she conceived and bare Hekate whom Zeus the son of Kronos honoured above all. the mother of the witches Aeetes and Kirke. Great honour comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favourably. as the division was at the first from the beginning. nurse. for the power surely is with her. Leader. unconquerable queen. and she bestows wealth upon him. in stags rejoicing. He gave her splendid gifts. to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. And the son of Kronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Eos (Dawn). For as many as were born of Gaia (Earth) and Ouranos (Heaven) [the Titanes] amongst all these she has her due portion. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young (kourotrophos). Trioditis [Trivia]. and in heaven. and grant that this woman may reject the love-embrace of youth and dote on grey-haired old men whose powers are dulled. but whose hearts still desire. because she is an only child. Perseis. of earthly. and Perseis. and who pray to Hekate and the loud-crashing EarthShaker [Poseidon]. in a saffron veil arrayed. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men. pleased with dark ghosts that wander through the shade. The son of Kronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds. if so she will. and celestial frame.Orphic Hymn 1 to Hecate . Nymphe. the goddess receives not less honour. For to this day. whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favour according to custom. albeit her mother's only child.And she is good to stand by horsemen. whom Perses once led to his great house to be called his dear wife. she increases from a few. whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea. and brings glory to his parents. give your ear to my prayer. and drawn by bulls." . then. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep. easily the glorious goddess gives great catch.Hesiod. watery. goddess of the underworld. never doomed to fail. and in sea. nightly seen. and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. sepulchral. for Zeus honours her. So. if she will." . or makes many to be less. huntress. hail! The world¶s key-bearer. then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. hear the suppliants who with holy rites thy power revere. she is honoured amongst all the deathless gods. Also. "Asteria of happy name. lovely dame." .connected with both Persephone. for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy. solitary goddess. and her mother Asteria (the starry one) was a goddess of the night.Homer's Epigrams 12 III) ORPHIC HYMNS "Hekate Einodia. privilege both in earth. Good is she also when men contend at the games. and is honoured exceedingly by the deathless gods. and these are her honours. and to the herdsman with a favouring mind draw near. She received honour also in starry heaven.
.. Argonautica 3." .. and all ye golden Astra (Stars) who with Luna [Selene the Moon] succeed the fires of day.Apollonius Rhodius. But when the tenth enlightening dawn had come. Brimo [Hekate]. "Asteria (Starry One) . she [Medea] stretched her arms to the stars . the twinkle of a thousand torches lit the scene.. came up ." .. and hounds of the underworld barked shrilly all around her.Greek Lyric I Sappho or Alcaeus.." . Theogony 404 "Queenly Deo [Demeter] wandered over the earth with flaming torches in her hands [after the abduction of Persephone] .Ovid. and stood in front of his horses" .] "Torch-bearing Hekate holy daughter of great-bosomed Nyx (Night)... and thou.55 [NB Hekate empowered witches with the power to draw down the moon. [and] sped swiftly with her. when men have intercourse.Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter 19 "[Hekate] the golden-shining attendant of Aphrodite. nightly seen." . night-wanderer of the underworld (nyktipolis khthonie).. Metamorphoses 7.840 "Hekate Brimo ." .] "In the deep stillness of the midnight hour .Apollonius Rhodius. So they came to Helios (the Sun).. hearing his words from the abyss. She may have been a goddess of the moon or rather of moonless starlit nights.1194 "[Selene the Moon cries:] `How many times . Brimo." . Hekate. She was garlanded by fearsome snakes that coiled themselves round twigs of oak.Ovid.. O Nox [Nyx the Night]. holding flaming torches in her hands.. Metamorphoses 10..162 "Out of Erebos and Chaos she called Nox (Night) and the Di Nocti (Gods of Night) and poured a prayer with long-drawn wailing cries to Hecate.Hesiod.HEKATE GODDESS OF THE NIGHT Hekate was a torch-bearing goddess of the night..Apollonius Rhodius. making the night moonless so that you might practise your beloved witchcraft undisturbed." . pleased with dark ghosts that wander through the shade . have you [the witchMedea ] disorbed me with your incantations. met her .. divine triceps (three-formed) Hecate.Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides.. Mother of Mysteries." ..Orphic Hymn 1 to Hecate "Propitiating the only-begotten Maiden (Koure mounogeneia) [Hekate] with a midnight offering . with a torch in her hands...." .. who knowest all my enterprises and dost fortify the arts of magic. nurse of youth (kourotrophos). the leader of haunting ghosts and inspirer of the night-time baying of hounds. Argonautica 3.403 . Frag 23 [NB as the goddess of night... Frag 1B "Hekate . Queen of the dead (anassa eneroi).. Argonautica 4.. conceived and bare Hekate.
driver of the silver car! If thou art Hekate of many names. stones brayed and bellowed.110 "At another time you [Egyptian Isis] are Proserpina [Persephone or Hekate].218 ..198 GODDESS OF NECROMANCY & GHOSTS The gods Hekate. night-wanderer of the underworld (nyktipolis khthonie)." . the summoning forth of the ghosts of the dead." ." "Brimo. Doubtul Fragment 249 (from Plutarch.Nonnus. and are appeased by various rites. queen of the night.. the spattered sward was soaked with gouts of blood." ..840 "Hekate .C.Apollonius Rhodius. nurse of puppies because the nightly sound of the hurrying dogs is thy delight with their mournful whimpering. dogs began to bark." ." .Ovid. "The lady Hekate was minister and companion to Persephone [goddess of the underworld]. Dionysiaca 44.403 "Baying [of Hounds] loud as that which rings at the grim gate of Dis [Haides] or from Hecate¶s escort [of black hounds] to the world above. solitary goddess. Argonautica 6. Argonautica 3. come nightwanderer. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B. nurse of all! O Selene (Moon). black snakes swarmed on the soil and ghostly shapes of silent spirits floated through the air. You wander through diverse groves.) : "But either thou art frightened of a spectre (phantasma) beheld in sleep and hast joined the revelrout of nether (khthonia) Hekate. 166A) (trans.Valerius Flaccus."Hecate. On Superstition 3. pleased with dark ghosts that wander through the shade. and whose triple form restrains the emergence of ghosts as you keep the entrance to the earth above firmly barred. Golden Ass 11. Queen of the dead (anassa eneroi)." Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter 436 Aeschylus. if in the night thou doest shake thy mystic torch in brandcarrying hand. I) GODDESS OF GHOSTS (GENERAL) Hekate led the ghosts of the dead to the upper world at night. Mene (Moon) of many turnings. whose howls at night inspire dread.." ." Orphic Hymn 1 to Hecate "Out of Erebos and Chaos she called Nox (Night) and the Di Nocti (Gods of Night) and poured a prayer with long-drawn wailing cries to Hecate . and appealed in these words to circle Mene (Moon) in heaven: 'O daughter of Helios (Sun). Perseis. Her passing was heralded by the baying of dogs. Persephone and Haides presided over the oracles of the dead and the art of nekromankia (necromancy). Metamorphoses 10. a groan came from the ground. Argonautica 7.Valerius Flaccus. the bushes blanched.Apuleius.515 "Dionysos waited for darksome night.
. "The Sibyl [performing the rites of necromankia at the oracle of the dead at Cumae] first lined up four black-skinned bullocks.Valerius Flaccus. the woody ridges to quake. soon to prove persuasive. she placed these on the altar fires as an initial offering. and terrified at the sight of the shade. to use him now at last for these hellish practises. and with one hand upon the horns of the fated victim speaks for the last time [cursing his half-brother King Pelias] . Aeneas sacrifices a black-fleeced lamb to Nox (Night). and with his last sacrifice offers a prayer to the Stygian abodes." . if Shades summoned forth [using the magic of Nekromankia] might give her surer knowledge. and bound they stand at the mouth of Orcus [Haides]. the mother of the Furiae. according to the custom of her evil race had kept him. but King Pelias is plotting Aeson¶s death] . chosen above all others. insubstantial. Aeneid 6. and then. laying upon the flames whole carcases of bulls and pouring out rich oil over the burning entrails. Argonautica 1. and a baying of hounds was heard through the half-light: the goddess was coming. poured a libation wine upon their foreheads. Hecate. calling aloud upon Hecate.II) NECROMANCY OF THE CUMAEAN SIBYLLA & AENEAS The Cumaean Sibyl guided Aeneas to the Underworld through the Oracle of the Dead near Cumae.257 III) NECROMANCY OF AESON & ALKIMEDE Aeson and his wife. [a path then opened up for the Sibyl & Aeneas to travel down to Hades].. Then he [Aeneas] set up altars by night to the god of the Underworld [Hades].. and when he had sipped the blood he began to utter these words [tells him that Jason is safe. for without that no thin shade will the dark ferryman [Kharon] take away. Terra (earth). a bull still stood. The witch [Alkimede]. and caught the fresh warm blood in bowls. But listen! . panting and restless. the beast too was downcast. When Aeson saw that the bull still remained at the hour of the awful rites unslain. who shares her anxiety but who hides such unmanly fears in his heart. Virgil's account of the story is partially quoted here. are here described performing necromancy to learn from the ghosts of the dead the fate of their son Jason. the ground underfoot began to mutter.. he dooms him to death. "Unto the lord of Tartarus [Haides] and unto the Stygian ghosts was Alcimede [mother of Jason] bringing holy offerings in fear for her mighty son [the Argonaut Jason]. and also to bring down the curses of the dead upon King Pelias. who has sentenced them to death.at the very first crack of dawn. Then he appeased the goddess of triple form [Hekate goddess of earthly ghosts]. and her great sister." Virgil. his brow rough with the foliage of yew.730 . and a barren heifer to Proserpine. rehearsing backward a spell soon. Beneath the gloom of an ancient cypress. yields and is led by his wife. dark blue fillets on his horns. and [the ghost of] Kretheus gazed upon his mournful son and daughter-in-law. squalid and ghastly with darksome hue. plucking the topmost hairs from between their brows. And now at the sound of the spell rose a face. Even Aeson himself. While other laid their knives to these victim¶s throats. In a trench stands blood and plenteous offering to hidden Phlegethon and with fierce cries the aged witch calls upon her departed ancestors and the grandson of great Pleione [Hermes guide of souls]. the witch Alkimede. He [Aeson] returns to the holy rites [of the Underworld Gods]. powerful in heaven and hell.
and thou. when she flies from her uncle¶s [Haides¶] threshold and resumes afresh Diana¶s kindlier shape [Diana is here regarded as a dual Artemis-Hekate] . offers the half-dead tissues and yet living entrails.. the cattle fell under the stroke. makes first libation. and the palace of the underworld. throw open in answer to my knowing the silent places and empty void of stern Persephone. `My prayers are heard. Then he entwined their fierce horns with wreaths of dusky hue. handling them himself. their lofty heads marked with the sword and the pure sprinkled meal. Haste ye all together.. The ghost of the same seer is consulted by Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey. lord of Avernus [Haides].. as among the seed of Cadmus. Tisiphone. Oedipus 569 "There stands a wood.. then the virgin Manto [daughter of Teiresias]. for thee. and moving thrice round all the pyres. who in Erebus.IV) NECROMANCY OF TEIRESIAS In the following passage the seer Teiresias performing necromancy to commune with the ghosts of the dead. `prevailing words I uttered. most cruel of the brothers [Haides]. go on before with snake thrice brandished and blazing yewbranch. be thou their leader. and the flames cowered at his voice: µAbodes of Tartarus and awful realm of insatiable Mors [Thanatos.. so much is poured out as the dry earth will drink.for the burning heat surges before his face.410 V) NECROMANCY OF WITCHES . and the sad priest bids there be three altar-fires for Hecate and three for the maidens born of cursed Acheron [the Erinyes]... and strong and erect in age. with foliage aye unshorn nor pierced by any suns . and turn aside the ghosts that lack the light. and for the tribes of Dis [Haides] a way is given to the upper world. death]. are most in number. And now. Then they roll tree trunks thither.Statius. but for those who died in crime. let the ferryman [Kharon] row back across the Styx with groaning bark. in front and on every side the cypress of lamentation intertwines them. Her arrows whistle unseen through the wood. nor let there be fore the Shades but one fashion of return to the light. as her holy sire commands. daughter of Perses [Hekate].'" .he exclaimed.. Nor do the shadows lack a divine power: Latonia¶s [ArtemisHekates¶] haunting presence is added to the grove . and first at the edge of that well-known wood [sacred to Hekate] he nine times spills the lavish draughts of Bacchus into a hollowed trench. and the eternal punishments of the damned obey thee." . the whole place was shaken and the ground was stricken from below. to whom the Shades are given to serve thee. thrice the deep valley gave out a mournful noise. And when Tiresias heard the branches crackling in the flames and the grim piles roaring . a heap of pinewood though sunk into the ground yet towers high into the air. and the cloud-wrapt Arcaidan [Hermes] with rod of power lead in separate throng the pious denizens of Elysium.' says the priest. and the pyres trembled. and send forth the multitude that lurk in hollow night. and gifts of vernal milk and Attic rain [honey] and propitiatory blood to the Shades below. and throw open the light of day. her hounds bay nightly.Seneca. enduring of time. [Teiresias performing the rites of nekromankia] bids the dark-fleeced sheep and black oxen be set before him . next to this an altar of lesser bulk is raised to Ceres of the Underworld [Persephone]. blind Chaos is burst open. do thou. catching the blood in bowls. Thebaid 4. and the fiery vapour fills the hollows of his eyes . nor let Cerberus interpose his heads. nor delays to set the devouring fire to the dark foliage. "[The seer Teiresias performs necromancy:] Loud bayed the pack of Hecate.
" . who surpassed her father in boldness and lawlessness. Aeetes. VI) ORACLES OF THE DEAD The Oracle of the Dead in Thesprotia was a shrine dedicated to the gods Haides and Persephone.1 "[Athena] sprinkled her [Arakhne] with drugs of Hecate (Hecateidos herbae). suspecting his daughter of plotting against him consigned her to free custody [that is. Aeetes. none of them shall pain my heart and smile at it! Bitter will I make their marriage. and bitter my banishment from the land!" . founding a temple of Artemis and commanding that strangers who landed there should be sacrificed to the goddess. yet..Witches were practitioners of necromancy. partly because of his own natural cruelty and partly because he was under the influence of his wife Hekate. and when she had no luck she would turn her arrows upon human beings instead of the beasts. and a son Aigialeus. Library of History 4. But since Medea as time went on opposed the purpose of her parents more and more. After this she married Aeetes and bore two daughters. made her escape and fled for refuge to a sacred precinct of Helios on the shore of the sea. and in a trice. bitter Kreon's marriage-alliance. touched by the bitter lotion [the girl was metamorphosed into a spider]. and then. Their magic spells were also worked in in necromantic-like ceremonies. however." . Most of her magic is described as nocturnal and / or necromantic. Kirke and Medea.139 II) MAGIC OF THE WITCH MEDEA Hekate was the source of the magical power of the witch Medea. and so succeeded to the throne. she was also fond of hunting. my chosen helper Hekate. who dwells in the inner chamber of my house [household shrine].Diodorus Siculus. Aeetes and Perses. Being likewise ingenious in the mixing of deadly poisons she discovered the drug called aconite and tired out the strength of each poison by mixing it with food given to the strangers. she became know far and wide for her cruelty. And since she possessed great experience in such matters she first of all poisoned her father. Medea.Ovid. Metamorphoses 6. Hekate was probably invoked as the mistress of ghosts in the rituals.Euripides. on parole]. And Perses had a daughter Hekate. and that both of them were exceedingly cruel. it is said devoted herself to the devising of all kinds of drugs and discovered roots of all manner of natures and potencies such as are difficult to credit. Aeetes being the king of Kolkhis and the other king of the Tauric Chersonese.. Although Kirke also. notwithstanding that she was taught by her mother Hekate about not a few drugs . had given his approval to the custom of slaying strangers. they say. "[Medea curses Jason who plans to abandon her and marry Glauke:] 'By the goddess I worship most of all.45. HEKATE GODDESS OF WITCHCRAFT I) GODDESS OF MAGIC (GENERAL) "We are told that Helios (the Sun) had two sons. Medea 396 .
or you may ruin everything and never reach your friends alive. This salve was named after Prometheus. Argonautica 3. The dark earth shook and rumbled underneath the Titan root when it was cut. nurse of youth (kourotrophos). There.840 "[Medea to Iason:] Medea forced herself to speak to him. we might banish from our minds all fear of your defeat in the ordeal [yoking the fire breathing bulls of Aeetes]." . and using it like oil." . sacrifice it whole."As a rule she [Medea] did not spend her time at home.Apollonius Rhodius.Apollonius Rhodius. Argonautica 3. µHear me now." .250 "[Argos. neither the spear-points of the earthborn men . night-wanderer of the underworld (nyktipolis khthonie). which the flesh-eating eagle had dropped on the spurs of Kaukasos . Argonautica 3.Apollonius Rhodius. of whom she was priestess. It will endow you with tremendous strength and boundless confidence . A man had only to smear it on his body.529 "[Medea prays to Hekate]: And yet I wish he [Jason] had been spared. wait for the moment of midnight and after bathing in an ever-running river. anoint your body.478 "[Argos. and check the movement of the sacred moon. Perses¶ only daughter (mounogenes). but was busy all day in the temple of Hekate. when you have invoked the goddess duly. Brimo. Yes Sovran Lady Hekate. in the gloom of night. and while they [her handmaidens] were getting the carriage ready she took a magic ointment from her box. Let him live to reach his home. melt this charm." . arrest a star. Medea. kill a ewe and after heaping up a pure over the pit.Apollonius Rhodius. Argonautica 3. and Prometheus himself groaned in the anguish of his soul.¶ she said.. either by footfalls or the baying of hounds. With these she can put out a raging fire. Argonautica 3. If we could win her over.. And to not be tempted to look behind you as you go. In the morning. When you have met my father and has given you the deadly teeth from the serpent¶s jaws. To make the ointment. this is my prayer. to become invulnerable by sword or fire and for that day to surpass himself in strength and daring. µThese are my plans for you." . had drawn off this juice in a Caspian shell after bathing in seven perennial streams and calling seven times on Brimo [Hekate]. to Jason:] ¶You have heard me speak of a young woman [Medea] who practices witchcraft under the tutelage of the goddess Hekate. withdraw from the pyre. Argonautica 3.Apollonius Rhodius. nephew of Medea. with a libation of honey from the hive and prayers to Hekate. to the Argonauts:] ¶There is a girl [Medea] living in Aeetes¶ palace whom the goddess Hekate has taught to handle with extraordinary skill all the magic herbs that grow on dry land or in running water. after propitiating the only-begotten Maiden (Koure mounogenes) [Hekate] with a midnight offering." ..735 "She [Medea] wished to drive to the splendid Temple of Hekate [in Kolkhis].. It first appeared in a plant that sprang from the blood-like ichor of Prometheus in his torment. strip. go out alone in sombre clothes and dig a round pit in the earth. Queen of the dead (anassa eneroi).Apollonius Rhodius.466 "[Medea persuaded by her aunt Khalkiope to help Jason:] µAt dawn I will go to Hekate¶s temple with magic medicine for the bulls [to protect Iason from their fiery breath]. Then. nephew of Medea. clothed in black. she can stop rivers as they roar in spate.
calling on Hekate Brimo to help him in the coming test." ." ." .¶ So said Selene. Medea. Argonautica 4. the rest he had taken from the ship itself. enchanted by her song. and heard her in her sweet voice invoking Hypnos (Sleep). Titanian goddess. and the dread goddess (thea deinos).39 "She [Medea] meant to reach the temple [of Hekate]. She was garlanded by fearsome snakes that coiled themselves round twigs of oak. Argos had fetched him some milk and a ewe from a farm. and Dawn arrived. and so had everything he needed with him.Apollonius Rhodius. She also called on the night-wandering Queen of the world below [Hekate] to countenance her efforts. and for her the very doors responding to her hasty incantations swung open of their own accord. the twinkle of a thousand torches lit the scene.1022 "Iason waited for the bright constellation of the Bear to decline. but clever as you are. Iason from behind looked on in terror. when I was bent on love. He kindled the wood from underneath and poured mingled libations on the sacrifice. Iason was terrified.55 [NB Hekate empowered witches to draw down the moon. piled up billets. I that burn for beautiful Endymion and seek him in the Latmian cave. when all the air from heaven to earth was still. and hounds of the underworld barked shrilly all around her. The little god of mischief has given you Iason.. During the day he had prepared himself. and many a heartache with him. When he had found an unfrequented spot in a clear meadow under the open sky.Apollonius Rhodius.Apollonius Rhodius. the Lady Selene (Moon).Apollonius Rhodius.Apollonius Rhodius.] "As he [the Kholkian Drakon] writhed he saw the maiden [Medea] take her stand. as he retreated. to charm him." . as witches do.Apollonius Rhodius. and laid the sheep on top of them after cutting its throat. steel yourself now to face a life of sighs and misery. came up to accept the offering of Aison¶s son. having often roamed in that direction searching for corpses [for necromantic rites] or for noxious roots. chanting a spell. Argonautica 4. She knew the road well enough. Argonautica 4. and the Nymphai of marsh and river who haunt the fens by Amarantian Phasis cried out in fear. he did not once turn round. he began by bathing his naked body reverently in the sacred river. The whole meadow trembled under her feet. But the giant snake.143 . and in wicked glee said to herself: µSo I am not the only one to go astray for love. sleep fell on him.1194 "The beautiful Medea sped through the palace." . Argonautica 4. Then he dug a pit a cubit deep. Argonautica 3. he set out like a stealthy thief across the solitary plain. Well. dipped a fresh sprig of juniper in her brew and sprinkled his eyes with her most potent drug. And so he found himself among his friends once more. hearing his words from the abyss. but even so. and as the all-pervading magic scent spread round his head.48 "Rising from the distant east. How many times.. he withdrew. go your way. This done." . the conqueror of the gods. saw the girl [Medea the witch] wandering distraught. and then put on a dark mantle which Hypsipyle of Lemnos had given him to remind him of their passionate embraces.nor the consuming flames that the savage bulls spew out will find you vulnerable. have you disorbed me with your incantations. and then. Argonautica 3. was soon relaxing the whole of his serrated spine and smoothing out his multitudinous undulations . making the night moonless so that you might practise your beloved witchcraft undisturbed! And now you are as lovesick as myself.
the swift hounds of Haides (kunes Aidao) who feed on souls and haunt the lower air to pounce on living men.1018 "Listen to me. made her escape and fled for refuge to a sacred precinct of Helios (the Sun) on the shore of the sea.. Nor must I let myself be tempted to describe it. they say. for all his brazen frame.442 "I [Medea] swear by Helios¶ sacred light and by the secret rites of Perses¶ night-wandering daughter [Hekate]. and though before this time she had never used them to destroy human beings. She sank to her knees and called upon them. was brought down by the force of Medea¶s magic. three times in song. high on the jutting cliff. She steeled herself of their malignity and bewitched the eyes of Talos with the evil in her own.Apollonius Rhodius. Library of History 4. when he grazed his ankle on a sharp rock and the ichor ran out of him like molten lead. Father Zeus. on parole]. He was hoisting up some heavy stones with which tow keep them from anchorage." Diodorus Siculus. But the altar they built for the goddess on the beach is still there for men of a later age to see.Apollonius Rhodius. Argonautica 4.6 "She [Hekate] married Aeetes and bore two daughters.¶ They took the ship out of range. had given his approval to the custom of slaying strangers. But since Medea as time went on opposed the purpose of her parents more and more. Yet it was thus that Talos. and a son Aigialeus . Library of History 4. and rested on their oars waiting to see what marvellous device she would employ. Medea went up on the deck.Apollonius Rhodius.45. as Medea had asked."She [Medea] reinforced her words with magic. But with what ritual she prepared the offering. no one must hear. whoever he may be." . and in an ecstasy of rage she plied him with images of death. however. Argonautica 4. that people are not killed only by disease or wounds. Medea. Kirke and Medea. But even his strong legs could not support him long. unless there is immortal life in that bronze body. Aeetes.¶ she [Medea] said [to the Argonauts].Apollonius Rhodius.245 "[Medea] said [to the Argonauts] that she had brought with her many drugs of marvellous potency which had been discovered by her mother Hekate and by her sister Kirke. She flung at him the full force of her malevolence. partly because of his own natural cruelty and partly because he was under the influence of his wife Hekate. my lips are sealed by awe. with incantations.1 ." . and Iason led her by the hand as she passed across the benches. Is it true then.Diodorus Siculus. All I ask of you is to stay here keeping the ship out of range of his rocks till I have brought him down." . µI think that I and I alone can get the better of that man. suspecting his daughter of plotting against him consigned her to free custody [that is. Argonautica 4.50. on this occasion she would be means of them easily wreak vengeance upon men who were deserving of punishment. Argonautica 4. Aeetes. he began to sway.. she invoked the Keres (Spirits of Death). three times with spoken prayers. and he came down with a resounding crash. She covered both her cheeks with a fold of her purple mantle. but can be struck down by a distant enemy? The thought appals me. all power went out of him. Medea had told them to land there and propitiate Hekate with a sacrifice.1659 "They [the Argonauts] made fast their stern cables on the Paphlagonian coast at the mouth of the River Halys." ." . Then. He stood there for a short time. scattering to the four winds spells of such potency as would have drawn wild creatures far away to come down from their mountain fastnesses.
under my spells even my grandsire¶s [Helios the Sun¶s] chariot grows pale and Aurora [Eos the Dawn] pales before my poison¶s power. went forth alone upon her roaming way.Ovid. weary and worn by weight of years. then kneeling on the stony ground. ye Venti (Winds) and Aurae (Airs). my chariot here. by my art I sunder serpent¶s throats. you placed upon their necks. the leaves hang mute and still and all the dewy air is silent. and by her father¶s father [Helios the sun] who sees all the world. bring back the bloom of youth. and thou. His love touched his wife¶s heart . my magic song rouses the quiet. I bring the clouds and make the clouds withdraw. only the stars shimmer. a greater boon. necks never yoked before. in the deep stillness of the midnight hour. `O Nox [Nyx the Night].for what can they not do? .. if but her aid Triformis [three-bodied Hekate] gives and with her presence prospers the bold tremendous enterprise. Serpentigenae (Serpent-Born). at my behest. For not in vain the shimmering stars have shone. I call the winds and quell them. Lacus (Lakes) and Amnes (streams). and answered: µHow vile a crime has fallen from your lips! So I have power to transfer to another a period of your life! This Hecate forbids. broad rivers to their source flow back. shook the . her long robe unfastened. nothing stirs. She mounted. Aesonides [Jason]: µDear wife [Medea]. divine triceps (three-formed) Hecate.74 "Aeson [father of Jason].¶ And there the chariot stood. Then she was sure. But more than your request. Mother of Mysteries. bright Luna [Selene the Moon]. Then by the pure rites of Triformis [three-bodied Hecate] and by whatever Power dwelt in that grove he swore.yet. sent down from heaven her purpose to fulfil. you lulled at last to sleep the guardian [Draco] that knew not sleep. no sound comes from the hedge. I¶ll aim to give. You at my prayer tempered the flaming breath of the dread Bulls. by winged Dracones drawn. barefoot.. to war against themselves. and sent safe to the homes of Greece the golden prize. then when she shone in fullest radiance and with form complete gazed down upon the sleeping lands below. bid the mountains quake. Then said his fond son.take from my youthful years some part and give that part to my dear father¶. though thy throes the clanging bronze assuage. you turned the warriors. and his tears fell unrestrained. Thee too. deep in the forest in a shady grove. the curving plough. she [the witch Medea] made her way [to meet with Jason] . now near to death. you who have given me all. Now men and birds and beasts in peace profound are lapped. not with your years I¶ll dare the attempt but by my arts. and all ye golden Astra (Stars) who with Luna [Selene the Moon] succeed the fires of day. who knowest all my enterprises and dost fortify the arts of magic. and all ye Di Omnes Nemorum (Forest-Gods) and Di Omnes Noctis (Gods of Night). if this thing your spells can do . be with me now! By your enabling power. [Jason] grasped her [Medea¶s] hand and in low tones besought her aid and promised marriage . I banish..¶ Three nights remained before Luna¶s [Selene the Moon¶s] bright horns would meet and form her orb. These you will give.. calms the angry seas. Medea. not right nor fair is your request. her hair upon her shoulders falling loose. Metamorphoses 7. to whom I owe my own return. and by his triumphs and his perils passed."To the ancient shrine of Hecate Perseis [daughter of Perses]. Now I have need of essences whose power will make age new. whose bounteous favours exceeded all my faith . nor stands in vain. thrice a wailing cry she gave. who dost for magic potent herbs provide.. and thrice she turned about and thrice bedewed her locks with water. the living rocks and mighty oaks from out their soil I tear. the deep earth groan and ghosts rise from their tombs. I move the forests. stroked the harnessed Dracones¶ necks. ye Montes (mountains). their banks aghast. kindly Tellus [Gaia the Earth]. the prime years win again. Then to the stars she stretched her arms. to win again your father¶s years long gone." .. and straight the magic herbs she gave into his hands and taught their use [making him invulnerable to fire]. and thou.
many she chose beside Apidanus¶ green banks and many beside Amphrysus. and hoar-frost gathered when the moon shines full. only the heavens covered her. then with streaming hair. and thou . summoned the Numina Terrena (Deities of Earth) and prayed the sad shades¶ monarch (Rex Umbrarum) [Haides] and his stolen bride [Persephone] that. she surveyed. and wings and flesh of owls and the warm guts of wolves that change at will to human form. not yet renowned for that sea-change the Euboean merman found. and warned that eyes profane see not her secrets. from old Aeson¶s frame they will not haste to steal the breath of life.light reins and soared into the sky. Then Aeson woke and marvelled as he saw his prime restored of forty years before. next from a chalice poured a stream of wine and from a second chalice warm frothing milk and. though untouched save by the wafting odour of those herbs. and all his limbs were sleek and proud and strong. and with a spell charmed him to deepest sleep and laid his body. of their mercy. white for long years. the Dracones. The herbs that Pelion and Ossa bore.Ovid. driving her Dracon team. chanting magic words. Meanwhile within the deep bronze cauldron. Olympus. stretched on a bed of herbs. guardian of the nuptial couch. Before the doors she stopped nor crossed the threshold. Then with a seasoned stick of olive wood she mixed the whole and stirred it. and where the froth flowed over from the pot and the hot drops spattered the ground beneath. with gem-stones from the farthest Orient and sands that Oceanus¶ ebbing waters wash. Plunging a knife into a black sheep¶s throat she drenched the wide ditches with blood. nine generations old. And seeing this Medea drew her blade and slit the old king¶s throat and let the blood run out and filled his veins and arteries with her elixir. some with the curve of her bronze blade she cut." . To them she adds the slender scaly skins of Libyan water-snakes and then the livers of long-lived gazelles and eggs and heads of ancient crows. Metamorphoses 7. Thessalian Tempe. and thou [Athena] who didst teach Tiphys to guide his new barque to the conquest of the seas. and all at once was laden with fat olives. the left to Juventas [Hebe goddess of Youth]. she shunned Jason¶s embrace. Othrys and Pindus and that loftiest peak. Then she returned. Lucina [Hera]. With these and a thousand other nameless things her more than mortal purpose she prepared. she bade bring out the old exhausted king [Aeson]. yet sloughed their aged skins of many years. ecstatic round the flaming altars moved. and in the troughs of flood dipped cloven stakes and lit them dripping at the flames. his wizened pallor. and from Anthedon she plucked the grass of life. white with bubbling froth. at once his hair and beard. nor was swift Enipeus exempt. And now nine days had seen her and nine nights roaming the world. then two turf altars built. the rich elixir boils. vanquished. And behold! The old dry stick that stirred the bubbling brew grew green and suddenly burst into leaf. fair springtime bloomed again. and thou. and thrice with water. the right to Hecate. Away! She ordered Jason and away! The ministrants. through wound and lips. wreathed with the forest¶s mystic foliage. regained their raven hue. and gazing down beheld.162 1] Ye gods of wedlock. far far below. thrice with fire purged the pale sleeping body of the king. thrice with sulphur. and dug two trenches in the ground beside and then performed her rites. Peneus too and the bright stream of broad Spercheus and the reedy shores of Boebe gave their share. Roots from the vales of Thessaly and seeds and flowers she seethes therein and bitter juices. and everywhere flowers of the meadow sprang and pasture sweet. and when Aeson drank. lifeless it seemed. and those that pleased some by the roots she culled. And when in long low-murmured supplications the deities were appeased. then the Serpents¶ course she set for regions that she knew of old. fled away and firm new flesh his sunken wrinkles filled.
with heaven¶s law confounded the world has seen both sun and stars together. Medea 570 "Nurse: `Monstrously grows her [Medea's] grief [at Jason's betrayal]. losing my hair from its band after the manner of my people. Medea 6 "[Medea:] `I have a robe . ± But listen. Phasis has turned his swift waters backward to their source. and Titan [Helios the sun]. Now call on Hecate. you. ye bears. These plants felt the knife while Phoebus [the sun] was making ready the day. the heart of the ancient woods has lost its shadows. she assembled her evil store of baleful herbs . gift by the banks of Tartarus. and "[Medea cries out to Hekate:] `Thou [Hekate-Selene] who doest show thy bright face as witness of the silent mysteries. greater is the monstrous thing Medea is preparing. I have driven the seas back to their lowest depths. the scaly brood leave their lairs and come to her . whatever burning Libya¶s sands produce. ye ghosts.. Prepare the death-dealing rites. do thou [Hekate]. The waves have roared.. squeezes out serpents¶ venom. Leaving your punishments. what Taurus. Drawn by her magic incantations. Let my sons bring these as gifts unto the bride [Glauke of Korinthos]. orb of the night [as the moon]. stiff with arctic cold. O three-formed (triformis) Hecate. has checked his boisterous streams and flowed sluggishly in all his beds.. holds fast in his everlasting snows.. drawing down the sky. Often have I seen her in frenzy and assailing the gods [Sun and Moon]. who dost portion out bright day unto the world. mysterious. and a hoarse screech-owl¶s vitals cut out alive. funereal gods. and by my compelling Ceres has seen harvest in winter-time. and with these mingles unclean birds.Seneca. murky Chaos and shadowy Dis¶ dark dwelling-place. the heart of a boding owl. things occult.. have bathed in the forbidden sea. Now." . and ye gods by whose divinity Jason swore to me . She seizes death-dealing herbs. put on thy most evil face and come. For now that with maddened steps she has gone out and come to her baleful shrine [to Hekate]. in some is the ravening power of fire. The order of the seasons have I changed: the summer land has blossomed µneath my magic song. I have yet curse more dire to call down on my husband ± may he live. when the bright day has come back to them at . haste to the new nuptials . hidden. and let now their fires resound within the palace. She adds to her poisons words. and. [and] a gleaming necklace of woven gold and a golden band which the sparkle of gems adorns. supplicating the grim altar with her left hand.Seneca. his tides outdone.. and Hister. she summons destructive agencies. the shoot of that was clipped at midnight. and in like manner.. with bare feet have I trod the secret groves and called forth rain from the dry clouds. though the winds were still.[Poseidon].. divided into many mouths. and Oceanus. let altars be erected.'" . feeds its own fires and renews its former strength. All nature shudders as she begins her song. in others numbing frost¶s icy cold. and you. has sent his crushing waves farther into the land. When she had summoned forth the whole tribe of serpents. but greater than such deeds. Other objects the mistress of evil lays out. the abysses of dismal Death. her frenzied step has sounded. with which the air is encircled. arranged in separate heaps.' Medea: `I supplicate the throng of the silent. and. no less fearsome than they. For thee. and marshals her whole train of evil powers. summoned by my sacred rites. she lavishes all her stores and brings forth whatever e¶en she herself long has dreaded. the mad sea swelled. and she chants her incantations. while this was severed by finger-nail with muttered charm. but let them first be anointed and imbued with baneful poisons. grim ruler of the deeps of sea... threatening in all thy forms. and all monstrous things.
My prayers are heard: thrice has bold Hecate bayed loud. that traitor ferryman. to thee with bared breast will I as a maenad smite my arms with the sacrificial knife. Althaea. Phaëthon. Argonautica 5. Prometheus gave it me. to draw the sword and endure the sight of beloved blood. Mulciber hath also given me fires which subtly lurk in sulphur. for thy sacred rites. ghastly. and taught me by his art how to store up its powers. Do thou now [she takes a phial] poison Creusa¶s robe that.Seneca. who caused Jove¶s throne to tremble. Argonautica 5. Within this tawny gold [she takes a casket] lurks fire. pardon. darkly hid. my hand. to thee is brandished the gloomy branch [the yew] from the Stygian stream. with full face. moved by my incantations. I have uttered my magic words. Let my blood flow upon the altars.commandment of my voice. I have flames caught from the bull¶s scorched throat. and let precious Corinthian bronzes resound. not as when.238 "[Medea the priestess of Hekate] in her sacred fillets by the twin torches¶ light [which she held]. To thee on the altar¶s bloody turf we perform thy solemn rites. ± You have given forth your voice. the cause. Phoebus [the Sun] has halted in mid-heaven. and bolts of living flame I took from my kinsman." . of my too oft calling on thy bows is one and the same ever. terrify the peoples with new dread. to thy aid. The hour is at hand. which. let her limbs melt and her bones consume in smoke. to thee. and has raised the accursèd fire with its baleful light. [She slashes her arm and lets the blood flow upon the altar. With these ashes the pyre on Oeta sank down which drank in the poisoned blood of Hercules. let burning fire penetrate to heart and veins. Now all my power is marshalled. the creeping flame may consume her inmost marrow. I have gifts from Chimaera¶s middle part. each entwined with nine serpent coils. she skirts with nearer rein the edge of heaven. for thee a fillet. Add to these the quills of the wounded Stymphalian bird which felt the darts of Lerna." . In this is the blood which Nessus. I see Trivia¶s [Hekate-Selene's] swift gliding car. bestowed as he expired.350 . To thee [Hekate] I offer these wreaths wrought with bloody hands. with mournful aspect. Jason. I pray. Medea 670-843 "Medea who now is consectrated to Diana of the Underworld [Hekate] and leads the holy dance. tossing my head and with bended neck. hither call my sons that by their hands thou mayst send these costly gifts unto the bride. Let them cheat the sight.] Self-smitten have I poured forth the sacred stream. I have bidden to guard their bane in silence." . but as when. ye altars. the avenger. O Perses¶ daughter. even he who expiates with ever-growing live his theft from heaven. let them endure the touch. harried by Thessalian threats. to thee a torch caught up from the midst of a funeral pyre has illumed the night. Hecate. I see my tripods shaken by the favouring deity. and with her blazing locks let the bride outshine her wedding torches. Here thou seest the billet of a pious sister but impious mother. So do thou wanly shed form thy torch a gloomy light through air. she drives the livelong night. Dictynna.Valerius Flaccus. Give sting to my poisons. radiant.Valerius Flaccus. totter to their fall.. and the Hyades. these serpent limbs which rebellious Typhoeus wore. well mixed with Medusa¶s gall. to thee. and in my gifts keep hidden the seeds of fire. These feathers the Harpyia left in her trackless lair when she fled from Zetes. binds my flowing locks. accustom thyself. O Phoebe [Hekate-Selene]. when she has donned it. lying in funeral fashion. But if thou complainest that too often thou art called on by my prayers.
like silent firs or motionless cypresses . and in the power we sway!" Valerius Flaccus.495 "[Aphrodite plans to make Medea fall in love with Jason. sprung of the gore that dropped from the liver of Prometheus." ." . then over all the mountain pain contracts his limbs. There remains yet a direr task. awe-struck.Valerius Flaccus. where the Colchian [Medea] is wont to shed the light of sacred torches and with her company of maidens dance around its Queen. she beats upon the ground.Valerius Flaccus.Valerius Flaccus. nor though a captive shall thou ever be despised by thy false lord. and from the depth of her heart uttered these words: µAlas! thou dost leave our woodland an thy maidens¶ bands. and murmuring into her clutching hands calls on the Queen of Night [Hekate] and Dis [Haides] to bring her aid by granting death." . Nor let dread of Hecate now come over thee. against the thunderbolt. And already had she begun to take the Titanian herbs and Persean [Hekate's] potencies from her bosom « and forthwith with groans and tears she proffered the poisons to the youth [Jason]. unhappy girl. let her even venture: straightway will the passion pass to her [Hekate]. of potency sure beyond all others." ..311 "The maiden [Medea] addresses Jason: µ . who beneath the tenth shining of Phoebe¶s [Selene the Moon¶s] light reaps the harvest of the mountain-side and rages madly among all the gory relics of the god. but stands.179 "[Medea] wearies heaven above and Tartarus beneath with her complains [of love for Jason]. fruitlessly doth he groan. immortally fresh. then showed she the plant to her handmaid [Medea]. when the Vulture rises from his feasting on the flesh and from his open beak bedews the cliffs. Argonautica 7.. would that thou hadst so much faith in me and in Hecate. believe me. fostered and strengthened by that blood divine among snows and grisly frosts. and grass wind-nurtured. a task which .515 "She [Medea] prays to Hecate to send her now more potent spells and mightier powers.ah. so in the midnight shadows of the grove did they two [Jason & Medea] meet and draw nigh each other."Persean Hecate dwelling in her lofty groves beheld her [Medea being led in love to Jason by the goddess Hera]. nor. and threatens Hekate not to interfere:] 'To the shrine of light-bringing Diana [Hekate]. to wander in thy own despite to the cities of the Greeks.. Argonautica 6. fear not lest she hinder my [Aphrodite's] efforts. Argonautica 7. and in the midst of lightnings its leaves are green. and to send him who is the cause of her madness down with her to destruction. and I will compel her herself to subdue with triple chant the fire-breathing bulls.. Argonautica 7.. Argonautica 7. queen of the night. my dear one. The Colchian [Medea] began to move through the dark night with sound of magic spells .Valerius Flaccus. Nay. and when they came to the tall trees and the shade of the triple goddess [Hekate] . That flower knows not the languor of life. and all his fetters shake beneath her sickle [Prometheus suffers anguish when the plant sprung from his blood is gathered].. Yet not unbidden goest thou.. nay. Then she girds up her robe and takes forth a Caucasian herb. Hecate first. he shall know me for thy teacher. nor abides contented with the drugs she knew. A signal record of they flight shalt thou leave behind.. tore forth the strong stalk from the rocks. plying a blade that Stygian springs hardened. and to suffer embraces. at the huge tree of Mars [Ares] [the quelling of the mighty Drakon]. and that I grieved with shame that he robbed me of my handmaid. beholding the face of the Colchian maid. will I forsake thee.352 .
the bushes blanched. she touched their faces with her poisoned wand. a groan came from the ground. Library of History 4.Hesiod. became Hekate. The woods (wonder of wonders!) leaps away. Metamorphoses 14. Frag 215 (from Philodemus. chants which she used to eclipse Luna¶s (the Moon¶s) pale face and veil her father¶s [the Sun¶s] orb in thirsty clouds. the bushes blanched.Diodorus Siculus." . Kirke and Medea. and unknown chants to worship unknown gods. Although Kirke also." . it is said devoted herself to the devising of all kinds of drugs and discovered roots of all manner of natures and potencies such as are difficult to credit. She sprinkled round about her evil drugs and poisonous essences. "I know that Hesiod in the Catalogue of Women represented that Iphigeneia was not killed but. Theseus having gone away with Peirithoos to Thesprotia. notwithstanding that she was taught by her mother Hekate about not a few drugs. and out of Erebos and Chaos called Nox (Night) and the Di Nocti (Gods of Night) and poured a prayer with long-drawn wailing cries to Hecate. none kept his proper shape. dogs began to bar. Now too the heavens are darkened as she sings. says that Iphigenia did not die.Pausanias. Aphidna had been captured by the Dioskouroi and Helene was being brought to Lakedaimon. the earth breathes vapours ." .45.1) "Stesichorus in his Oresteia follows Hesiod and identifies Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia with the goddess called Hekate.1 "[In Argos] near the Lords [shrine of the Dioskouroi] is a sanctuary of Eilethyia. the group of courtiers stood aghast. Guide to Greece 1. Hesiod says that Agamemnon's daughter Iphigeneia was carried off to the region and transformed into this goddess by Artemis. by the will of Artemis. They [Picus¶ courtiers] changed on Circe (who by now had cleared the air and let the wind and sun disperse the mists) and charged her. in his poem A Catalogue of Women. and at its touch each took the magic form of some wild beast. the spattered sward was soaked with gouts of blood. the spattered sward was soaked with gouts of blood.III) MAGIC OF THE WITCH KIRKE "She [Hekate] married Aeetes and bore two daughters.. For it is said that she ." . but by the will of Artemis became Hekate. Stunned by such magic sorcery. stones brayed and bellowed. stones brayed and bellowed.369 THE TAURIAN HEKATE & IPHIGENEIA Some poets identified Hekate with the goddess worshipped by the tribes of the Tauric Chersonese (the Black Sea Crimea). Piety) "Now I have heard another account of Iphigenia that is given by Arkadians and I know that Hesiod.1 "Then Circe turned to prayers and incantations. with her guilt and claimed their king and threatened force and aimed their angry spears.43. black snakes searmed on the solid and ghostly shapes of silent spirits floated through the air.43. yet. black snakes swarmed on the soil and ghostly shapes of silent spirits floated through the air.Ovid. The woods (wonder of wonders!) leapt away. and a son Aigialeus." . a groan came from the ground.. dogs began to bark. rightly.Greek Lyric III Stesichorus. and as they gazes. Catalogues of Women Frag 71 (from Pausanias 1. dedicated by Helene when.
Guide to Greece 2.7 "We are told that Helios (the Sun) had two sons. Kirke and Medea. fair to see. And on this matter the poets Euphorion of Khalkis and Alexandros of Pleuron. while the bronze images opposite. was delivered In Argos. After this she married Aeetes and bore two daughters." . and founded there the sanctuary of Eilethyia. and so succeeded to the throne. O Hekate.1 . she was also fond of hunting. Depictions of the two goddesses were near identical. with flameful brands. were made respectively by Polykleitos and his brother Naukydes. Frogs 1358 "Aeetes succeeded to the throne." . who surpassed her father in boldness and lawlessness. Diktynna. Hekatos (the far-shooter) was also a common Homeric epithet applied to Artemis' brother Apollon. Over against the sanctuary of Eilethyia is a temple of Hekate [the goddess probably here identified as the apotheosed Iphigeneia]. founding a temple of Artemis and commanding that strangers who landed there should be sacrificed to the goddess. and hunt through all the house with me. huntress. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. agree with the Argives in asserting that Iphigenia was the daughter of Theseus.. thou maid divine. Aeetes being the king of Kolkhis and the other king of the Tauric Chersonese. Suppliant Women 674 "O Artemis.. had given his approval to the custom of slaying strangers.45.Pausanias.45. and then.1 HEKATE IDENTIFIED WITH ARTEMIS Artemis was frequently identified with the goddess Hekate. she became know far and wide for her cruelty. and even before them. and then. Stesikhoros of Himera. and when she had no luck she would turn her arrows upon human beings instead of the beasts. Library of History 4. Library of History 4. the companion of Demeter in the search for her stolen daughter.Aeschylus. partly because of his own natural cruelty and partly because he was under the influence of his wife Hekate. also of Hekate. This one is of stone. torches and a hunting dog. Aeetes. giving the daughter she bore [Iphigeneia] to Klytaimnestra." . and that Artemis-Hecate watch over the childbirth of their women. and that both of them were exceedingly cruel. The attributes they had in common included a short-skirt and hunting boots.Diodorus Siculus. while she herself subsequently married Menelaos. and the image is a work of Skopas.22. Being likewise ingenious in the mixing of deadly poisons she discovered the drug called aconite and tired out the strength of each poison by mixing it with food given to the strangers. O bring that keen-nosed pack of thine.was with child." . And Perses had a daughter Hekate. And since she possessed great experience in such matters she first of all poisoned her father." . who was already wedded to Agamemnon. "We pray that other guardians be always renewed.Aristophanes. and a son Aigialeus . founding a temple of Artemis [usually described as a temple of Hekate. Artemis the playmate of Persephone perhaps becomes Hekate.Diodorus Siculus. Aeetes and Perses. but the author equates the two] and commanding that strangers who landed there should be sacrificed to the goddess.
ill-omened threats.e. in answer to our call." . to thy aid. and let precious Corinthian bronzes resound. summoned by my sacred rites. and illumined the battle-field with near-approaching chariot. and who upon the solitary mountains art alone held holy. may he feel answering flames. Phaedra 406 "With such swift course as the lord [Helios the sun] of stars hurries on the centuries. Ensnare his mind. O three-formed (triformis) Hecate. by whose changing beams the universe shines clear. with mournful aspect..Seneca. O great goddess of the woods and groves. Troades 386 "[Statius. favouring our undertaking. put on thy most evil face and come. The goddess stooped her horns and made bright her kindly star. terrify the peoples with new dread. and in different shape comest down into the woodland . may no witcheries of Thessaly prevail to drag thee down and may no shepherd [i. may he. give ear unto our prayer. hear now our prayers. O Phoebe [Hekate-Selene]. harried by Thessalian threats. compliant. fierce.e. lo. Medea 770 "[The witch Medea summons the power of Hekate:] `I see Trivia¶s [Hekate-Selene-Artemis] swift gliding car. when thou drivest thy car through the nightly skies. So do thou wanly shed form thy torch a gloomy light through air. may he turn him back unto the fealty of love. she skirts with nearer rein the edge of heaven. the clouds all scattered. glory of the night. Be near.. ghastly. if as they say thou dost vary in threefold wise the aspect of thy godhead. ARTEMIS & SELENE The triad Hekate-Artemis-Selene was popular in Roman-era poetry. for thy sacred rites. thou who in solitude lovest thy mountain-haunts. grim. hostile. thou art at hand. change for the better these dark. Endymion] make boast o¶er thee. Soften his fierce heart. goddess.e.Seneca." Seneca." Seneca.Seneca. radiant. Medea 6 "[The witch Medea casts her spells:] `Now. Thebaid 10. but as when. in the passage that follows describes Artemis as a triple goddess incorporating: Artemis-Hekate-Selene:] Cynthia. To thee on the altar¶s bloody turf we perform thy solemn rites. not as when. and in such wise as Hecate [Selene the moon] hastens along her slanting ways. To this end direct thy powers. so mayst thou wear a shining face [Selene the moon] and. Dictynna [Artemis-Selene].Seneca." . Conquer the unbending soul of stern Hippolytus. do thou [Hekate].TRIAD OF HEKATE.365 . queen of the mysteries of the night. Medea 750 "The hour is at hand. threatening in all thy forms." . bright orb of heaven. fare on with undimmed horns.Statius.'" . Medea 787 "[Phaedra prays to Artemis-Hekate-Selene:] `O [Artemis] queen of the groves (regina nemorum). with full face [i. so. orb of the night [i. she drives the livelong night. "[Medea cries out to Hekate:] `Thou [Hekate-Selene] who doest show thy bright face as witness of the silent mysteries. O three-formed Hecate. the moon]." . the moon]. may he learn to love.
when she flies from her uncle¶s [Haides] threshold and resumes afresh Diana¶s kindlier shape. her effigies wrought in pine or cedar and wood or very tree are hidden in the hallowed gloom of the forest. driver of the silver car! If thou art Hekate of many names.. the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature. enduring of time...Apuleius. be thy brother¶s helper now!. come nightwanderer .5 "[Nonnus in the passage that follows describes Artemis-Hekate-Selene as a triple goddess:] O daughter of Helios (Sun).. On Animals 15. if in the night thou doest shake thy mystic torch in brandcarrying hand. that she was extremely incontinent .. [Teiresias cries out summoning the ghosts forth:] `Haste ye all together. Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself.. a dealer in spells and a sorceress (Pharmakis). Thebaid 4. Argonautica 3." Antoninus Liberalis. Or when she is weary from her ranging on the hills.. her hounds bay nightly [as Hekate]. and the cloud-wrapt Arcadian [Hermes] with rod of power lead in separate throng the pious denizens of Elysium. nor let there be fore the Shades but one fashion of return to the light.11 "They [the Moirai] turned her [Galinthias] into a deceitful weasel (or polecat) .Statius...1194 .. with foliage aye unshorn nor pierced by any suns . do thou. Mene (Moon) of many turnings." .. Beneath is sheltered quiet." .. nurse of all! O Selene (Moon). and strong and erect in age. The Golden Ass 11. If thou art staghunter Artemis. Her arrows whistle unseen through the wood. skylax) "Hekate Brimo .Aelian."[The seer Teiresias performs necromancy in the grove of Artemis-Hekate:] There stands a wood. and a vague shuddering awe guards the silence. daughter of Perses [Artemis-Hekate].. and hounds of the underworld (kunes khthonioi) barked shrilly all around her. Nor do the shadows lack a divine power: Latonia¶s [Artemis-Hekate's] haunting presence is added to the grove. Metamorphoses 29 II) DOG (Greek kuôn.. came up .Nonnus.198 SACRED ANIMALS I) WEASEL." . and the phantom of the banished light gleams pale and ominous.'" .. Dionysiaca 44.." . POLECAT (Greek galeê) "I have heard that the land-marten (or polecat) was once a human being . hearing his words from the abyss.410 "To the trilingual Sicilians I [Artemis] am Ortygian Proserpina [Hekate]. and the sun high in heaven invites sweet slumber. while all her spears stand fixed in the earth around . if on the hills thou dost eagerly hunt with fawnkilling Dionysos. here doth she rest with head flung back carelessly on her quiver.Apollonius Rhodius.
where they sacrificed dogs. Metamorphoses 10. dogs began to bark.v."Zerynthos [in Samothrake].Nonnus. divine friend of dogs.Ovid. cave of the goddess to whom dogs are slain [Hekate]. which were erected to ward off evil and the malevolent powers of witchcraft.403 "Sapaeans [a Thrakian tribe] ." .Lycophron." .. Golden Ass 11. these too sacrifice a puppy.198 "Hekate and the Zerinthian cave.Pausanias." . stones brayed and bellowed..257 "Baying [of Hounds] loud as that which rings at the grim gate of Dis [Haides] or from Hecate¶s escort [of black hounds] to the world above.. In classical sculpture Hekate was depicted in one of two ways: either as a woman holding twin torches.Apuleius. where she was worshipped as an associate-goddess of the Mysteries." .. Aeneid 6.218 "Hekate.Lycophron. nurse of puppies because the nightly sound of the hurrying dogs is thy delight with their mournful whimpering." Virgil.9-10 "She ." . According to Pausanias. Fasti 1..389 "A baying of hounds was heard through the half-light: the goddess was coming... Alexandra 1174 "I know of no other Greeks who are accustomed to sacrifice puppies except the people of Kolophon. out of Erebos and Chaos called Nox (Night) and the Di Nocti (Gods of Night) .Nonnus.61 "Hekate . There is a good example of an Hekate Trimorphis in the Vatican Museum and also one in Antiquities Museum of Leiden. All' ei tis humôn en Samothraikei memuemenos esti She had few public temples in the ancient world. Dionysiaca 3. small household shrines. .Valerius Flaccus..Ovid.. nightwandering. at night. Alexandra 74 "[Dogs] terrifying with thy baying in the night all mortals who worship not with torches the images of Zerynthia [Hekate]." . Alkamenes was the first sculptor to portray her in this so-called Triformis style." ." .110 "At another time you [Egyptian Isis] are Proserpina [Persephone or Hekate]. however." . or as three woman standing back to back and facing in three directions. Her most important cults were those of Eleusis and the island of Samothrake. offer the guts of dogs to Trivia [Hekate]. were quite common. Hecate. Guide to Greece 3. Argonautica 6.Suidas s." . a black bitch.. Dionysiaca 44. whose howls at night inspire dread.14. to Enodia (of the Wayside) [Hekate] .
) : "If you think Latona [Leto] a goddess. at the household shrine]. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B." [N.] Euripides. Offerings were made to Hekate on the morning of the new moon] Cicero. Sandys) (Greek lyric C5th B." HOUSEHOLD SHRINES Small household shrines were erected to Hekate to ward of the harmful influences of witchcraft and the power of the evil eye. and that there would be such before every door. Wasps 804 ff : "I have heard it foretold.) : "It was the first of the month when this befell. Idyll 2. Medea 396 ff (trans. De Natura Deorum 3. that one day the Athenians would dispense justice in their own houses.C. Vellacott) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C. how can you not think that Hecate is one. food placed inside her door-front shrines] and that the poor make it disappear before it is even served. in my opinion.) : "Ask Hekate whether it is better to be rich or starving.C.) : "Lady (despoina) Hekate. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A." Aristophanes.B. who first made three images of Hekate attached to one another.D. placed at the entrance of houses. and the gracious Hekata.B.e. 18 (trans." .C. 36) (trans.C.e. before the portal of the royal halls. 2 (trans. Plutus 410 ff (trans." Aristophanes. Hekataion were statues or chapels of Hekate. Description of Greece 2. Fragment 216 (from Scholiast on Theocritus. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B. that each citizen would have himself a little tribunal constructed in his porch similar to the altars of Hekate (Hekataion).) : "It was Alkamenes [of Athens].GENERAL CULT Pindar.] CROSSROAD SHRINES Aristophanes." [I. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B." Pausanias.) : "My chosen helper Hekate. the maid of the ruddy feet. Frogs 440 ff (trans. 30. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B. was thereby sending us a message that was longing for fulfilment. Aeschylus.) : "The Lady Hekate's wayside shrine. her shrine by the gates. who is the daughter of Latona¶s sister Asteria? Is Hecate a goddess too? We have seen altars and shrines belonging to her in Greece. Paean 2 (trans.C. who dwells in the inner chamber of my house [i." [N.e. she will tell you that the rich send her a meal every month [i.
a figure called by the Athenians Epipurgidia (on the Tower). . Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A. that all may happen for the best at this gathering. Day-Lewis) (Roman epic C1st B. ." II) ELEUSIS Town in Attika Hekate was one of the chief goddesses of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Io Paean! Io Paean! Let us rejoice!" CULT IN AIGINA (SOUTHERN GREECE) I) AIGINA Chief Town of Aigina Pausanias. before every door. it stands beside the temple of Nike Apteron (Wingless Victory) [on the Akropolis]. Description of Greece 2. its wooden image is the work of Myron. 30.C.D. . Orpheus the Thrakian established among them. they say. Aristophanes. pray to Ploutos.) : "Of the gods. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B." Virgil. . both for the greatest advantage of Athens and for our own personal happiness! May the award be given her who. Kourotrophos [Hekate]. to C1st A. 2 (trans. in my opinion.) : "You see Hecate¶s faces turned in three directions so she can protect the triple crossroads.) : "Athenians . . has most deserved it from the Athenian people and from the women! Address these prayers to heaven and demand happiness for yourselves. Description of Greece 2. . Demeter and Persephone :] Woman Herald : Silence! Silence! Pray to the Thesmophorai." CULT IN ATTIKA (SOUTHERN GREECE) I) ATHENS Chief City of Attika Aristophanes.C.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B. Wasps 799 ff (trans.Ovid. The story of the Abduction of Persephone describes her role in the sagas of the Mysteries. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D. Thesmophoriazusae 280 ff (trans. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.) : "Hecate whose name is howled by night at the city cross-roads. the Aiginetans worship most Hekate. altars of Hecate . who first made three images of Hekate attached to one another. . Fasti 1.) : "It was Alkamenes.C. in whose honour every year they celebrate mystic rites which." Pausanias.) : "[Description of the Thesmophoria festival held in honour of the Great Goddesses. Ge (the Earth). and it has one face and one body.D. Demeter and Koura [Persephone]. Aeneid 4. Within the enclosure is a temple. alongside Demeter and Persephone. Kalligeneia. Hermes and the Kharites (Graces). in their own houses . . 2 (trans. 609 ff (trans. 141 ff (trans. constructed in the porch .C. by both deeds and words. . 30.
The sanctuary is built upon a hill. Description of Greece 2. 11. 22. 1 : "In Titane there is also a sanctuary of Athena. and founded there the sanctuary of Eilethyia. Description of Greece 2. For it is said that she was with child. also of Hekate. and the image is a work of Skopas. appeasing the goddess of Pherai with sacrifice. were made respectively by Polykleitos and his brother Naukydes. the Mater Theon (Mother of the Gods). . giving the daughter she bore [Iphigeneia] to Klytaimnestra. Sikyonia] are dedicated images of Dionysos and Hekate. 7 : "[In Argos] near the Lords [shrine of the Dioskouroi] is a sanctuary of Eilethyia." CULT IN ARGOLIS (SOUTHERN GREECE) I) ARGOS Chief City of Argolis Pausanias. He also performs other secret rites [of Hekate] at four pits. into which they bring up the image of Koronis [mother of Asklepios] . . while she herself subsequently married Menelaos . Alexandra 1174 ff (trans. . who was already wedded to Agamemnon. Over against the sanctuary of Eilethyia is a temple of Hekate [the goddess probably here identified with the apotheosed Iphigeneia]. taming the fierceness of the blasts [of the winds]. and he is said to chant as well the charms of Medea." Pausanias. was delivered In Argos." . and Tykhe (Fortune). These are wooden.It was Alkamenes. Aphidna had been captured by the Dioskouroi and Helene was being brought to Lakedaimon. Description of Greece 2. 12. . in my opinion." CULT IN THESSALIA (NORTHERN GREECE) I) PHERAI Town in Thessalia Lycophron. . 8 : "In the portico [of the temple of Askepios at Titane. dedicated by Helene when. with Aphrodite. and on it the priest sacrifices to the winds one night in every year. This one is of stone. while the bronze images opposite. at the bottom of which is an Altar of the Winds." CULT IN SIKYONIA (SOUTHERN GREECE) I) TITANE Town in Sikyonia Pausanias. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B. . who first made three images of Hekate attached to one another [in Athens]. Theseus having gone away with Peirithoos to Thesprotia.) : "Brimo Trimorphos [Hekate] .C.
C. Geography 10. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B. cave of the goddess to whom dogs are slain [Hekate].CULT IN THRAKE (NORTH OF GREECE) I) HAIMOS & STRYMON Mountain and River in Thrake Hekate was closely identified with the Thrakian goddess Bendis. choral dancing. Alexandra 1174 ff : "The maiden daughter of Perseus. and leaping with rhythmic steps. and quickened the dancers with its rollicking tune in time to the bounding steps. 3. offer the guts of dogs to Trivia [Hekate]. Fasti 1. . Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.) : "Zerynthos [on the island of Samothrake]. and above all to Demeter." CULT IN SAMOTHRAKE (GREEK AEGEAN) I) ZERYNTHIA Mountain & Cave of Samothrake Lycophron. And branch-bearing. . Alexandra 1174 ff (trans. Apollon.C." Strabo. while the double pipe made music. Brimo Trimorphos (Three-formed). already the helmeted bands of desert-haunting Korybantes were beating on their shields in the Knossian dance. 10 : "Now most of the Greeks assigned to Dionysos." Nonnus. Alexandra 74 ff (trans.D. 3. 20 (trans. however. 61 ff (trans.) : "Some. to C1st A." Ovid.) : "Brimo Trimorphos [Hekate] . Aye.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.) : "I have seen Sapaeans [a Thrakian tribe] and your snow dwellers. everything of an orgiastic or Bakkhic or choral nature. appeasing the goddess of Pherai with sacrifice. . Haemus [mountain in Thrake]. queen of Strymon. the Mousai. Lycophron. Hekate. believe that the Kouretes were the same as the Korybantes and were ministers of Hekate [in the Mysteries of Samothrake].C.D. as well as the mystic element in initiations .C. and initiations are common elements in the worship of these gods. terrifying with thy baying in the night all mortals who worship not with torches the images of Zerynthia [Hekate] queen of Strymon.D. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B. Geography 10. . 389 ff (trans. and the trees whispered. and the oxhides thudded under the blows of the iron as they whirled them about in rivalry. Dionysiaca 3. shall make thee [Hekabe queen of Troy] her attendant [Hekabe was transformed into a dog]." Strabo.) : "Already the bird of morning was cutting the air with loud cries [on the island of Samothrake]. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A. to C1st A. ." Lycophron.
Dionysiaca 29. queen of the island of Samothrake. Zerynthia (trans. Also Zerinthian cave. Packs of bears joined the dance.] Hekate with their torches in the night." CULT IN DELOS (GREEK AEGEAN) I) PSAMITE Islet near Delos Hekate was worshipped on Psamite an islet in the vicinity of Delos. The initiates supposed that these things save [them] from terrors and from storms. Suidas s. the revelling pipes rang out a tune to honour of Hekate. . They say that it is called this because the goddess is honoured with psamita.D. There the mysteries of the Korybantes [Kabeiroi] and of Hekate took place. divine friend of dogs. which some call Psamite. Dionysiaca 4. . . and swung about a festal torch of Hekate from his own country [i. Hekates nesou : "Hekates nesou (of the island of Hekate) : On the approach to Delos lies a certain islet.e. the foundation of renowned Perseis [Hekate]. Dionysiaca 13.v. those single pipes. where the rocks are thronged with torchbearing mystics of the Maid.v. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A. which they supposed efficacious as a charm against certain dangers. . the forests held jubilee with their intelligent movings and shakings." . A psamiton is a particular kind of cake." Suidas s. sane in their madness. 400 ff : "Zerynthos [on the island of Samothrake] of the unresting Korybantes." Nonnus. where they sacrificed dogs. Samothrake]. the revelling companies of my mother¶s [Elektra." Nonnus. and the Dryades did sing.v." Suidas s. 213 ff : "[The Kabeiros] Alkon grasped a fiery bolt in one hand. All' ei tis humôn en Samothraikei memuemenos esti : "In Samothrake there were certain initiation-rites. skipping and wheeling face to face. lions with a roar from emulous throats mimicked the triumphant cry of the priests of the Kabeiroi. In some accounts this island was the metamorphosed body of her mother Asteria." Nonnus. which the horn-polisher¶s art invented in Kronos¶s days. where they used to sacrifice dogs. In that place were also the mysteries of the Korybantes [Kabeiroi] and those of Hekate and the Zerinthian cave.the rocks boomed.) : "Zerynthia : . 184 ff : "Grottoes of the Kabeiroi and Korybantian cliffs [on the island of Samothrake] .
having long leaves and an edible stem. 1. is at Lagina. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B. There are two temples in the country of the Stratonikeians.) : "They [the Argonauts] made fast their stern cables on the Paphlagonian coast at the mouth of the River Halys. 14." CULT IN KARIA (ASIA MINOR) I) LAGINA Town in Karia Strabo. Description of Greece 3. Both the sacrifice of the Kolophonians and that of the youths at Sparta are appointed to take place at night. and its seed when roasted and the root chopped up with figs fetches a high price. 2. a black bitch. Asia Minor] is a settlement of Makedonians . 245 ff (trans. 15 (trans. Also Rhodians wreath Kore [Persephone] and Artemis [Hekate] with asphodel.D. But with .) : "I know of no other Greeks [than the Spartans sacrifices to Enyalios] who are accustomed to sacrifice puppies except the people of Kolophon. and it draws great festal assemblies every year. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.CULT IN RHODES (GREEK AEGEAN) Suidas s. these too sacrifice a puppy.D.v.C. that of Hekate.C. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A. ." II) KOLOPHON Town in Ionia / Lydia Pausanias. HALYS River in Paphlagonia Apollonius Rhodius. who made the Hekatesion (Shrine of Hekate)." CULT IN PAPHLAGONIA (ASIA MINOR) I) R.) : "They [the priests of the temple of Artemis at Ephesos] showed me also some of the works of Thrason. Medea had told them to land there and propitiate Hekate with a sacrifice. 23 (trans. 9 (trans." CULT IN LYDIA (ASIA MINOR) I) EPHESOS City in Ionia / Lydia Strabo. Geography 14. Asphodelos : "Asphodelos (Asphodel) : A bulbous plant. Geography 14.D. [It is] sacred to Persephone and the underworld [deities]. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B. Argonautica 4. of which the most famous. to C1st A. to C1st A. to Enodia (of the Wayside) [Hekate].C. .) : "Stratonikeia [in Karia.
Of the Three-Ways Of the Wayside. Terrible One Lady of the Underworld Three-Formed. fearing the anger of the three-necked goddess [Hekate].what ritual she prepared the offering. Three-Bodies Of the Crossroads. . He [Odysseus] shall pour on the shore offerings for thee. But the altar they built for the goddess on the beach is still there for men of a later age to see. my lips are sealed by awe. unhappy one. And the island spur of Pakhynos [in Sikelia] shall hold thine [Hekabe¶s] awful cenotaph.) : "[The goddess Hekate] shall make thee [Hekabe queen of Troy] her attendant [after her transformation into a dog] . . prompted by dreams when thou hast gotten the rites of death in front of the streams of Heloros.C. Nor must I let myself be tempted to describe it. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B." CULT TITLES OF HEKATE Hekate had a number of cult titles. no one must hear. for that he shall hurl the first stone at thy stoning and begin the dark sacrifice to Haides. piled by the hands of thy master [Odysseus]. Alexandra 1174 ff (trans. variously referring to her cult functions and the locations of her shrines:-Greek Name PerseiV Transliteration Perseis Perseïs Latin Spelling Destroyer. Translation Brimw Brimô Brimo Aidwnaia Aidônaia Aedonaea TrimorfiV Trimorphis Trimorphis TrioditiV Enodia Trioditis Enodia Trioditis Enodia ." CULT IN SICILY (SOUTHERN ITALY) I) PAKHYNOS Town in Sikelia Lycophron. Daughter of Perses Angry One.
the Latin equivalent of the Greek Trioditis A shrine of Hekate was called a Hekatesion:-Greek Name `Ekathsion Transliteration Hekatêsion Latin Spelling Hecatesium Translation Temple of Hekate POETIC TITLES & EPITHETS OF HEKATE Hekate had a number of poetic titles and epithets:-Greek Name NuktipoloV AtaloV Cqonih KourotrofoV SkulakagetiV Kourh mounogenhV Transliteration Nyktipolos Atalos Khthoniê Kourotrophos Skylakagetis Atalus Chthonia Curotrophus Scylacagetis Latin Spelling Nyctipolus Translation Night Wandering Tender. Delicate Of the Underworld Nurse of the Young Leader of the Dogs Only Begotten Maiden Bright-Coiffed. With Bright Headband Kourê mounogenês Core munagenes LiparokrhdemnoV Liparokrêdemnos Liparocredemnus .) Of Mount Zerynthia (in Samothrace) Ennodia Ennodia Ennodia Zhrunqia Zerynthia Zerynthia The Romans title Hecate Trivia.Of the Crossroads Einodia Einodia Einodia Of the Wayside (Epic spelling) Of the Wayside (Thessalian sp.
23. such as Hecate or Persephone (Apollon. Ther. in Dian. 31.) BRIMO (Brimô). 861. 116). Eos (Eurip. 123. Paus. ii.) Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ad Lycoph. ii. v. the angry or the terrifying. p. 148. Nyx (Orph. A surname of Hecate. ii. .) gives a second derivation of Brimo from Bromos. Hymn. l. (Theodoret. § 5. ad Callim. 987. 9). Artemid. iv. ii. Hymn. 1180. Rhod. because she was a daughter of Zeus and Pheraea. Paus. 70. Ion. CHTHO NIA (Chthonia). Hymn. 2.) The Scholiast on Apollonius (l. and Melinoë (Orph. (Tzetz.) PHERAEA (Pheraia). Orph. (herod. iv. whence it is used as a surname of infernal divinities. § 8.e the Dead) ENCYCLOPEDIA HEKATE TITLES A NGELOS (Angelos). 1). Schol. 35. § 6. Orph. the protectress of the fields. and Cybele. and according to some accounts the original name of Hecate. c. Phosphorus also occurs as a surname of several goddesses of light. s. under which she was worshipped at Syracuse. or because she was worshipped at Pherae. Rhod. Spanheim. Tzetz. iv. 1157) and Hecate. 10. A surname of Artemis at Pherae in Thessaly. or because she had been brought up by the shepherds of Pheres. 170). Helen. ad Theocrit. or the goddess of the earth. where she had temples. such as Hecate (Apollon. so that it would refer to the crackling of the fire. 699. but especially of Demeter.Anassa Eneroi Anassa eneroi Anassa eneri Queen of the those Below (i. ad Lyc. 12. as Artemis (Diana Lucifera. Serv. 1. iii. Demeter (Arnob. c. the daughter of Aeolus.) 2.) PHO SPHORUS (Phôsphoros). 1171). Rhod. occurs as a surname of several divinities. ad Aen. Hymn. ii. v. (Hesych. at Argos and Sicyon. (Callim. Hymn. 35. i. 569. 259 . 39.. A surname of Artemis. that is. as Hecate was conceived bearing a torch. 12. Apollon. (Eurip. 1211. 8). may mean the subterraucous.
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