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. . . . . .. .. . ..

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This edition first published ill 1997 by Motorbooks International Publishers & Wholesalers, 729 Prospect Avenue, PIO Box r, Osceola" W 1. 540.20 U'SA

Previous illy' published by' Airlife Publishing Ltd, Shrewsbury, Eng ill and,

11· is is an updated edition -0 f

Flugtriebwerke _ Ihre Technik und Funktion 'by' Klaus Huenecke, first published in. Germany in ~ 987 'by Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart.

A'l"l ri gh ts r·e· ·s· '~r" J (3, ~1 w· .' .: t'·~ ;j!.1IJ..... I .•. f.,'.. ' .. ,f:" . . it·' ,. ,:r b .. "; .. ,f' ' .. , .....: ' .. ,. ,.:ir... . th -'

. . ... .• . .. ~, ~ . . ~ 'V vb,. .. I ~1 u .. ~e ex eel' luJ on 0 quo U1.g][Jle, plas sages .wor- r , l e

purpose of review no part of this publication may 'be reproduced without prior \VTi tten permission from the Publis h cr.

Motorbooks Internationa] is a certified trademark, registered with the United States Patent Office ..

The information in this book is true and comple e to the blest of our knowledge .. A~.~, recommendations are made without any guarantee 01111 the part ofthis author or pub isher, who 3l~,SO disclaim any liability in connection, with the use of this data or spe cific details,

'We' recognize that some words, mode] names and designations, for example, mentioned herein are the property of 'the trademark 1 older, We use them for identification purposes only" This is not an official publication,

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:L ibrary of' Congress lea-tal aging ~:. n ~ Publ ication Data. Available,

ISBN' 0= 7603-0459~9

Printed and bound .. in Great Britain by Biddles Ltd, wwwbiddles.co.uk

This book is concerned .. with. lone of the most fascinating machines of

d ,. h bi . G ·b·' hnolosv i

• . 'J' II I·~ •• I', . ~. _,' •• ,'.11 '1:. " I "j . 1···,,;;Ij'j··'_ ",,' ',' . ..' " .lI.· i." ' I !'!Ii' ""1- .-: _' I' '_',' . ,", ," ",', -.:, ,- .':-:-

mo . ern times 1. .. e gas tur me aero engine. .'. as turbme tee no ogy IS

portrayed to provide a concise, well-founded survey of this interesting field of aeronautical engineering, dealing not only with aJI relevant engine components, but also addressing problems of airframe-engine integration, both for subsonic transports and supersonic fighters,

Material for t lis book was gathered from distinguished sources throughout the world, A list of engine main data is given in the

, .. , idix tc ;. ~', K' " t he b -k ". 1·""'" .:.:. ···f .]1" , ." .': '. k .' . if r .. :C' " ,

appenr IX ·0 rna ce . e .. 00 .'. a, so use Il]. as a. wori o rererence a.

This book is intended primarily for those who wish to broaden their knowledge about turbine engine technology and the associated problems, The book is likewise suited to engineers in the shops personnel

." . 'f" . 1'· '. · .. d'; - ' ned f ." ," ~. nd i . d:','" .', ".',: d of. 'fiT I .'. '. t Id:':1 .',' it . ·· .. 1· . I ' ..... , t '. ··f

o air. ines an. anne rorces, am unuergra uate students 1.11 SlJlPPOfl. o.

their training.

A- k led t

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. _ .' I' . '.' I I . I·.'

_ ,CI,[nOW e.gemenl_sl

The material of this book was collected from numerous distinguished SOUT'ces throughout the world. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the following institutions (even ifnames may have changed in t he mean time):

Allied Signal Inc, Phoenix, Arizona USA T:be Boeing Company, Seattle, 'Wash, USA

General Electric Ai ·eraft I .ngines, Evendale, Ohio, US,A, Lock h eed Fort Wort h Texas U"S:A'·

, .... ,,"""'........ ,', III .... •. I ", " . i3;. ..', .

Lockheed Martin Corp Bethesda Maryland, USA Mcfronnell Douglas Corp, St Louis, Miss, 'USA Northrop Corp, Los Angeles" Calif, USA Rolls-Royce plc, 65 Buckingham Gate, London, UK Saab Seania A,B" Linkoping, Sweden

Turbo- Union Ltd" Bristol, U'K

United Technologies 'Pratt & Whitney, E Hartford, Conn USA, Volvo Aero Corp, Trollhattan, Sweden

I am particularly grateful to the following persons:

Donald D .. Archer (Boeing Flight Test), Walter A,~ Barron (Grumman), William A,. Schoneberger (Northrop), Erwin, ~ Schuldt and Alexa 'Oertel (General Electric, Germany), 'Volker Otto . Garrett), Ernst Simon (Deutsche Lufthansa),



1 Turbine atreratt propulslon

,m .1 ' istory

I ; 2 " .ngine classification

:I .,2~ m Turbojet engines

1.2~2 Turboprop engines

1,.2.,,3 Turbofanengines

1.2 . .3 -s I Low bypass-ratio turbofan engines 1. "2,, 3 ~2 High bypass-ratio turbofan engines

1. ~2,,4 Turboshaft engines

1.3 Engine station designation


2.1 2,.2 2~3 2.4 2.4,.1 2m4,.2 2.,4,.3

2 4· ·41

-"iI'! rill j

2.,,5 ?' 6'1"

~! .


3~ '~ 3.2 3.,2,,1 3.,2+,2 3.2~3 3,,2~4,


3 3· '1

~:I'I3. ·"'.1



4 . .1 4.2 4".2.,]


3 4


6 9


~O ~3 2l 24

Jeit engii'n,e, fundamenta $1 Gas characteristics

Engine cycle


Basic laws m.11 fluid dynamics Types of flow

Stream ine and, streamtube Conservation of 'rna tter Conservation of energy

Engine performance parameters Systems of units


2- ,6··~··

.... "



32 3.5 35 36,

.37 .38

40· .. ···,

- .....


,A ii' r intake,s

81] bsonic air in t akes Supersonic flows

Speed of 'Sound and Mach number Pressure waves in air

Compression shock

Supersonic flow over wedge and, cone Supersonic air intakes,

Intake configuration and operation Supersonic intakes - case studies

TlhiiS C'ompre's,s,or

Compressor performance parameters

C'·' . '., I' . u __ _'. if'-:- ~'. c'. -,

ompressor types

Centrifugal compressor


III + _


_ ...


,4 .. 5 ,4 .. 6



6 .. 1.

6 .. 1. .I 6 .. 1. ~2 6 .. 1 ~3

6 'I 41

[ .

'. ~-

6",2 63

[ ....

. '." 'Il-


7 .. [ 7 .. 2 7 .. 3



8. 'I 8,.2



9.1 9.1..1 9.,1 .. ,2 9 . .1 ,.3 9.,1,.4 9.,2

['9" 3,1

-: t

" !I"IIIO'

9 41

, ,

"' ,

9~4 . .1

9' 4l 2~',

!I -:I!.· -


Axial compressors Compressor stage operation

C h ' ...

ompressor C ,I aracteristics

Compressor operation Compressor case studies

90 1[01

1106 1 ~ 0 1 '~,4

[Colmb,us 'ionl chamber

The combustion process Combustion chamber characteristics

"T f b

.ypes or oo'n.1 :US.t'O'fS

Call-type combustion chamber Annular-type combustion chamber Can-annular-type combustors

125 125 127 132 132 133 133


Design and operation Turbine nozzle

Constan t-pre ssure turb inc Reaction turbine

Turbine blade design

Turbine assembly - case studies High-temperature operation

136 136 138 139 140 142 143 1.5]

E,x:haus,t nozzse

Convergent nozzle Convergent/divergent nozzle Reverse thrust

l55' l55 1519 167

Thrust augmlenta,'lion Reheat

Wa ." er inje ··C··· ··t· 'ion

.. _ ._ ,IL " '_ _ I,U,JLlIL

175: 175 i.82

IE '.,

~,nlg,lln,e, ,syst:ems

, uel system,

Fuel pumps

, . ~

Fuel control unit

Spray nozzles

Jet engine fuels Lubrication system Electric system Starting: system Engine starting Types of starte-rs

Engine monitoring and operation


,: .. I

l.85 l86 188 190 191 194 197 199 2[00

20[1 20[3

Enlviir,on mental eons ii ,d,e Ira I:. '0 Ins, Noise

Exhaust emissions

101 10.1 10,.2

206 2[06


E,n 9 iiineJaiillrfram!e i nlte'g ratlon Subsonic transport aircraft Underwing installation Fuselage install ati 011, Overwing installation Combat aircraft

Intake installation considerations Aftbody flowfield


.~ I '~ t '. I,


n.r.z 'ill 1~] ,.3 'ill 1~2 11 ~2.1 11 ~2.2

,219 ,2]9

,219 22,2 224 ,224 2~27 ?:30

App[enldilx 1 [C'om,ml,ercial turbofan en'glinles A,ppen!d~,x: ,2 M:iUitlary turbofan engiilnes Index:


~. ~ ~

Turine aicraf proputsloi

11 t HI ·IS· to ry

• I _ 1_,1 .. , ", ., r "

The idea of 'utilizing the physical principle of reaction on a large seale by means of rockets is usually attribu ed to China in the thirteenth century, Not until after the second world war, however, did rocket tech-

1 - hi h d h "'d f I ical

Il'O o,GY' mature '101 a state wt icr , mace th e :ru rea 01', space- trave a practical

possibility, owing largely to a giant step forward during the war itself,

How similar the delay 'in, the development of turbines! Although earliest models ofthe steam turbine date back to tile 17th century practical application of the turbine engine had to wait until the turn, of the 20fh cell, tury, by CIO rnpeting s uccessfully against the then d 0111j.11a ting reciprocating steam engine, Today, the gas turbine engine is the most widespread (.111nd most effective method of aircraft propulsion, having almost totally displaced the reciprocating engine which up to the 1960s~ was the common power source in, aviation, Appearing in the form of a turbojet, turbofan turboprop, ()f turboshaft engine, the gas turbine represents one of the most important technological achievements in aviation ... the successful introduction of which made possible a tremendous acceleration of progress in all fields of aviation,

The' following' historical milestones are 'worthy of' mention as 'major

t d bi ine devel 1 '" '" "' hi jf" 1

8'1 eps toward turbine engine '_ evelopment, eU .. rmnatmg m the use !O:('_ ne

gas turbine for aircraft propulsion:

1500 - Leonard .. o da Vinci portrays a paddle wheel which is driven. by ascending hot air to rotate a barbecue spit.

'1,629 - the Italian engineer Giovanni Branca designs a turbine wheel driven, by a steam jet. This appears to be the first known evidence of an, axial flow impulse turbine (see Chapter 6),.

1687 - the English philosopher and, mathematician Slit Isaac Newton formulates three laws of motion which form the basis of modern jet propulsion, according tOI which:

1. a body remains either at rest- or in motion of constan t velocity', unless an -e' x ternal fo rrce a tc t so" n the body;

.... '. aJ!~ !~. ." .. , ':', ,,W, JIJ. .ilLi, .... ' ,'. I ,',. . .... , .• : .••.•. _'[: :,

.2 the sum of forces acting on a body equals the- product of the body s mass times acceleration produced by these forces (i.e. force :: mass. times acceleration);

3 for every force acting 0]], a body the body exerts a force of equal magnitude and opposite direction along the same line of action as th,e original Iorce.

,2 Jet En,gines

As a proofof the third law, an attempt was made to utilize' reaction

f· t N'· t ' D' 'II f' th

. orces '0 move = .... ewton s steam wagon. i.rue tOt eXOfSS weight ,0'" t.w: e

boiler structure the attempt failed ...

179'1 _ the Englishman John Barber is granted a patent for a gas= driven turbine engine which utilizes tile thermodynamic cycle of the modern gas turbine," Intended as a. stationary gas turbine for industrial use, the 'power plant was to comprise a. gas generator with compressor, combustion chamber and a turbine wheel _ components that are fundamental to today's engines. The Barber engine was never built, however,

1824 - for the first time in the technical literature the word turbine is used, The =~ renchman Burdin denotes a water wheel designed by him as a turbine,

18:83 _ the Swedish engineer Patrik de: Laval runs the first useful steam tu "bine .. The characteristic shape of the nozzle produces supersonic velocity at nozzle exit (see Chapter 7),

1897 _. in England 3, Parson steam turbine to power a. ship is tested for the first time .. Seven years later the German turbine-driven cruiser Lubeck is launched.

1898 _ the French. Armangaud brothers run the first gas turbine engine -a Ignition of the gaseous mixture of pressurized air and gas oil ms. accomplished by' heated. wires.

1908 _. German Hans Holzwarth runs a gas turbine with. valvecontrolled combustion ell am bier and electrical ignition of the fuel ... air

mixture, ~

191.3 _ the French engineer Lorin is granted a patent on. a. ramjet device ... Attempts to build hardware fails due to inadequate materials. 1918 _ at General Electric in the United States, Sanford Moss develops an exhaust turbo-charger for reciprocating aero-engines .. This is 'the first application of a gas turbine in an aircraft propulsion system.

193,0 _ Frank: Whittle of Great Britain applied for his patent 'Improvements relating to the Propulsion of' Aircraft i:ll1d. other Veh icles', in which 'he describes a jet engine with. multi-stage axial compressor followed by a centrifugal compressor, annular combustion chamber, single-stage axial turbine" ,an,d a nozzle, Based on this patent ~British 347,206), the first Whittle engine successfu .. lly ran i11 .. April, .~ 937 ~ Tile engine ran on Iiquid fuel,

. '1.9,37' _ German engineering scientist Pabst v',o.n Ohain, employed with the I. einkel aircraft company, runs a turbojet engine producing 250 d,a~ (550 illb) of thrust, S·~m11aI' to the Whittle design, Ohain's He 8,-1 e'n~i.ne featured . .31 centrifuga compressor .. Engine fuel was gaseous hydrogen to avoid combustion problems ..

. 19.39~ a gasoline-burning derivative of Ohaiu's engine, the He S,-3B developing 500 d,aN (~~ 1100 lb) thrust, ill a weight of 360 daN (795lb),

flew in a Heinkel He ~.78 experimental jet aircraft Gin the world's first turbojet-powered tf1.~ght ..

1.'9\40 _ the Junkers Jumo 1004 axial-flow turbojet tlU1S at "the Junkers engine company in Germany .. A .. nselm Franz pioneered development of the axial-flow turbojet, as opposed to the centrifugal-flow designs of the original Whittle and Ohain engines,

1941 _ in Great Britain, the: Gloster E28/39 f:.X perimental jet aircraft flew with Whittle's WlA engine which. developed 400 da ..... (:8501 llib) of thrust at a weight 10,[2801 d.aN (623 ttl)"

194,] _ in. the 'US" General Electric was entrusted by the US, Army Air Force with. developing and producing Whittle-type jet engines which. led to th .. e design of the J33 centrifugal-flow compressor engine ... Bell 'was authorized to design the XP'-59A. experimental aircraft.

1942 _ in Germany the Messerschmitt Me-262~ twin-engined fighter, powered 'by the JUJ110 O!04A engine first flew in July of this year. By

M'" ·h·· 9'·'4"-'5', '., ·~I·'·I···t· 6": .. .',010'10 J. ,'. '.' 0"10'14" A: .. ··· iet ,' .. ,'. , ... hs ·d·' b .. · .... bi ilt

arc. .' - . ' ~, ,adl10S _..,:, ... ' umo ' ..... _., .' Je engJ.1l.es ,a,. leen '. lll~,1 ...

194,3 _ ill G-reat Britain development and production of the 'Whittle engine is taken over by Rolls .... Royce. The Gloster 'Meteor l fighter, powered b,y' two Whittle-type Rolls-Royce Welland engines enters

RAF " .. 9"44

. service m rv - ~ ~

These early steps laid the foundation of modi ern. high ... thrust engines ..

F'ig 1-11 'The J791 turbojet of General Electric was licence-built in many countries

According to their task, different types of engine exist. A distinction is made with reference tiD design characteristics SUC~1. as number of'spools principle of compression, distribution of airflow within tile engine . ut i liz a tion of the exhaust gas ..

Basically, there are four types of turbine engine used. in aircraft:

turbojet, turbofan turboprop, turboshaft

. ~ ., _ .... . .. ;(:-_ .. '" c _- . _ _.' .' . ," .. _. .... ..... "

Turbojet and. turbofan engines provide propulsive forces directly by reaction forces generated b,y the exhaust gas .. Turbofan engines, in part icul ar. are classified according to the portion ofmass airflow that

4 Jet En'gines

is bypassed around the basic engine, and are' typically denoted as. highbypass or low-bypass-ratio engines,

In a turboprop, the energy of the hot gas is used to drive an, additional 'but separa te turbine, which in turn. provides shaft power to drive a propeller. The gas when exhausting from the nozzle, has transmitted most [of its energy to the turbines with a small amount of energy remaining fo r the generation of thrust.

In a turboshaft engine, ,a~ .. ~ of the usable hot gas energy is .extractecl and converted into shaft power, 'by all. additional (free) turbine, This type of engine is typically used with helicopters, but 'is similarly employed in auxiliary power UJ1.m.tS t.o[ provide pneumatic and electric power for aircraft ground operation,

'1'~2~ t Tutboie: enqmes

The earliest type of a turbo-propulsion engine was the turbojet, Simple by design, but largely superseded through technological progress, a turbojet is made 'tIP of the following components (Fi:g 1.-2):

multi-stage compressor combustor

sin .. gle or lin ulti -stage turbine

In orde -~ '110 function properly tOI produce thrust aID] air intake and an. exhaust system are required to 'process the airflow.

The air first enters the intake section which, must deliver a smooth and uniform stream of air to the compressor. The compressor is a mechanical die-vice, a fast rotating air 'pump' who se task is te raise the pressure of the air. The res-ultant energy transfer leads to a rise not only in pressure but also in temperature and, density,

On, discharge from the compressor, the pressurized air enters t.he combustion chamber, where fuel is injected and burned, thus adding


fliig 1'-2 Components of a turbojet ;engine

''\i' .. @)

----:~:=:..:':::~ ,: ........•.....•


--,..-- ].








1 Com pressor fro nt 'f!ralme 2 IBeve,1 ge1ar

.a Transfer gsa rbox

4- ACCIBSSOry g'9laMbo.x 5 Ccmpresso r casl tJ1 ~ 6 Hotor

]' Com press or n318r frame 8 Cnmbug,iii:on caslnq

9 Corn bustion assemb ~Y' 1 0 Turbine ,casinlgl

11 TUI~bi ne rotc r

12 Turoln e rear frame

13 Hear cone

141 R,aheat 'wu el [man ifoll d


'1 S Flame hi o~ dEH' 116 Afterburne u

17 Exhau.s~ n ozzls

F'ig 1l11i3 Components of General Electric J7'9 turbojet engi'ne

hugely more energy '_01 the airflow - nergy transfer at this section is achieved by a chemica] reaction, The combustion process leads tOI a steep increase in temperature whereas pressure remains virtually

..J< ._." : '.' '.'. ". " " " ,",' '. " . ',' _' .' .• ' :, "",,,'" , ,"": . , ':" '. . . '"'. '. . '. . . _' . . . " .-

C01181ant. It is here that the airflow 'is decisively processed tOI take on the characteristics of a gas useful for gas turbine o peration , i.e, to produce mechanical work efficiently.

The first station where energy is absorbed from tile gas is ill the gas turbine. which gave this, class of engines its name. A gas turbine is the complementary part to' a compressor, to which it is rigidly linked by a, hollow shaft or spool, The task ofthe turbine is to convert gas energy into mechanical work t'OI drive the compressor, and also. some accesseries necessary for engine operation"

Tille energy content of the hot gas is not depleted when the gas discharges from the turbine. IDn fact, the three components consistinz

, ""='

of compressor, combustion chamber and turbine combined have

processed the airflow such that a gas is available to, do some work" Therefore, these units. together are termed a gas generator, regardless of engine type,

In a turbojet, as its name implies, a major part of the heat and

r h .... ~1 '."~ b 1 b d .. i.: ·

pressure energy or t ie gas IS stn avaitab e to be converted Ul.'~,O' kinetic

energy .. This is. the task of the exhaust nozzle which is ofcharacteristic

t b . '~I'''k'' '" ", ha .' to .r'r'. ""'"'.' " . ',,:,1'· . h .""' .. "" " '. ., .. ' , .. '.' "."' . . 'f':· .,.': ... ' h t 01·'" d

U . le .... fil" e S'" ape. 0 du;c'omp'18 I, e.11ergy Clon,verSlon ,_ rom :e,at,· a,n

pressure to velocity, High exhaust velocity' is, a prerequisite to the generation of hrust.

Exhaust veloeity may be increased further by afterburning IQ'r thrust augmentation, a simple but fuel-exhausting method of adding more heat d .. ownstream of the turbine, ,A famous turbojet of this. kind was the General Electric J79 engine which powered the Starfighter and

. -

Phantom combat aircraft. Although of'dated technology, these aircraft

of the fifties and sixties are still flying with some air forces.Layout of

. -

the .179 engine nicely illustrates basic component design of turbo-

propulsion engines and may conveniently serve to explain modern jet engine technology in subsequent chapters (I·· ,+':g 1-3);,

filg'11-4 F=1 04 and F-4 combat a~rcta.ft of the sixties, powered by General E,litB'c.tric J791 turbojet engine

1,~,2",2 Turboprop eng.in1es

The central element of a turbine engine is the gas generator which typically comprises compressor, combustion and turbine sections, Byadding an inlet and a nozzle, a turbojet res ul S ' .

. f the turbine section of a gas generate - is. designed so that. more energy is abstracted from the hot gas than is necessary to drive the Icon~,presgor and, some auxiliaries, the excess shaft power may be used,

to dri ..." .. iI} ." (.v.:. e" . ') W""'b"' "J"I I b ., 1 . f . b ·

o anve at propeuer "JF.lI"g' 1 ... ,5,/. ·····.··1 :,Ie the basic ayout .01 a turboprop IS

S'~ milar to a plain turboje , it differs mainly 'by:

an additional turbine to drive the propeller,

a two-spool arrangement of tJIC rotational machinery and

a, mechanical reduction gear 'tiOI convert the high rotational speed ofthe turbine to the more moderate speed, of the propeller.

Il11la ~e duct'

Re d lllI,ct~iio n ge,ar

Low-p'lJ',essure' cNJ,miP,mis.sOIr

'H iig h-pre'ssuli,e t u,libi mil e 'L,ow""pressrure tu rbii ne

E:xha,ust InOtZZ~e

COFnbu:s1tiioin cham bar sY'slem

fiig 1 .. .$, Turboprop engine schematic

-W···-'·"'h· ",-- ... , ' ·b··,··~··t,'·'d:,·'i .... ied tl"" ','1,-' 1ij ...... relative jow ~,~-,-.:-.;.

< .. ' .. erea,s a '. u,r ... (l;je _ ls~_,e~:n,gn,e·.. _ 0 3yCCe. ,era.lU,e a r e..Il ai, lye ,OW dll[ mass

fk .. ·,'W····, ~'O'I a l," h', exhaust velocity a turb op 'r'-o"IP''''1 conversely 1'·S''" .. desianed t 0'"

0- IIJ,." " I.~ug_, .... "'_'" lo,J!l1l,.. ""'", ._11".-" _ .. .. ' •. I I·, . '. '. ,I,. "-,, -" .. ' ,._ '., ,.' r.Jl'JIL~ ..... '.'

accelerate a high mass flow to a lO'wv',elocity" This results in unsur-

nass ed "f- I-iii,., 'ft'f>~.·· I Ii"': . alth i .'1 r It. th .~. ··.··.~·,I",,·' of flight ':: eed a id cs bir

passe, ' uer e .. nciency, a~, nougn a ne expense 0 ,I spee an camn



Fi:g ",,6 Lockheed He rc ulas rn i I'j tary transpo rt, powered by to ur G ener.a~ Motors.

T56~A-'7 tu rboprops o'r 4'1100 hp each



1.2~3' Tumoten en gin 195'

At flight velocities around Mach 0,.8 (or' ,0100 km/h at 1" km altitude 500 kt at 40,0010 ft) turboprop and turbojet engines alike operate at low propulsive efficiency- as this. flight speed is. too high for the turboprop, but low to the turbojet. The gap is. filled by turbofan engines, which exhibit good efficiencies at the high-subsonic cruise velocities important 'to civil aviation, bu are a so important to! combat aircraft for long-range fuel-efficient cruise well below the high-drag sound barrier

(Fig 1~,7) i -




Fii g.'. 1,""7' r"), I' ffic h .. f b b f db' rropu Solve, e" 'IG'IEH"1Cy c aractsnsttcs 01 turboprop, turbo an an tur .•• ·oJet


The turbofan has emerged as the mostcorumon type of a gas turbine ensine for aircraft propulsion Similar to that of the turbo --"-O'P' the

.' - "0" ' •. ,JL ~ _ ,W .' '. :" ..•.. _ I"W,,,j,~, ',:, ". . ... : .I. ,~,~Il.. - __ _. I. -., n.~.... T. 'pr, ,,', Hi . e

turbine section IDS designed to absorb more energy from the hot gas than would be necessary to drive the compressor alone, The excess shaft power is used tal drive «fan, 3, low-pressure compressor of larger diameter arranged upstream of the main compressor. 'Part of the air entering

'1101 Jet Engines

ILow- plI'eS,9U1I~e com pll'eSSOlr

Hign~pr'es'sum cJom!plI'·e'ssor

[ >

ICII' -'II"I,D'S- s duct ~y t"''A._ . -

Filig 1-8 Tu . bolan engine schematic

the engine intake after being processed in tile fan section" bypasses the inner or core engine and expands in a separate nozzle to provide 'cold' thrust; some types mix the cold flow with the hot exhaust gas from the core engine to incres se propulsive ef i iciency (as .~ n the V·, .. 2500 engine)

(F!Ii' 1 <iQi[) Ig ,'-0 r: '

The amount of ,air that ." s bypassed in relation to the air that passes

through the core engine is termed the bypass-ratio. A distinction is made bet 'een Iow and. high bypass-ratio engines, he former being employed with supersonic combat aircraft and the latter v ith highsubsonic mili tary [and commercial transpor airc .aft.

1 2· :3 1 L-' b t'· t b " "

., ••. , ..... , [ . D'W·.::ypas[s~r.aJo "u'(".;otan[ lenlg.l,nes'

In. terms of performance, the bottom line today is fuel efficiency,

t, h b ~ d . ~ f 1 1· ,.

nroug ." .' [yp[asslng, mo ern engines use less i uei I. an ear ier engines

of comparable thrust, but wi thou r this techno iO.gy,.

A 'b:yp· a' S·I;! ra t:';IO' in the ran ge of 0 2~ '~I '0", 1'1' is cla ssif ed :~ l'I'J11 bypass ...

• ,! _ io.- L"'Ji ... .ill" ,., ,Lal,. ~:.,. . '"11' ' ~.w. _"_ . • .IlL I . .1J.. .r.:Jl " " . ~~" . !~! . J ... " "... rL1I1",

ratio, This means the amount of airflow bypassed. around the core engine is of the order lof20 to ]100 pier cent of that which passes through the core or if referenced to t e to .. ] i .. ngested air mass, :;: to 501 per cent of the intake airflow' is bypassed around · .. he core.

Bypass-ratios of ] were utilized with early turbofan equipped airliners of the sixties such [as the Boeing 727, which had " ~ee Pratt [& Whitney JT8DI turbofans of by ias s-ratio one. The relati v ely high exhaust velocities, lof these engines generate 110L e levels which nowadays are intolerable fOI. civil application thus precluding the low bypass-ratio turbofan from further use wi h commercial airliners. Howe er, this class of engii es is widely used with modem combat aircraf " and due to, its fuel economy at high-subso tic flight speeds, the' low bypass-ratio turbofan provides ,. be fighter with increa sed radiusof-action,

ig11-10 Pratt s Whitney lF33=·P=

7 A turbofan (thrust 9'15[00 dalNIJ 1 Bstage compressor, 4-·stage turbine, compressor pressure ratio

14: 1)

urbrie aircratt propulsion 11

Fig 11 .. ,9 t.ockheed C-141 powered by 'four Pratt & Whitney TIF33-P-7 A turbofans

12 Jet IEn'gines

Fi'Q 1 ... 1 '11 General Dynamics F-'111 combat aircraft powered by two Pratt & Whitney TF3,o-P-l' tu rbotan s

Fig ',-1:2 Pratt & Whitney 'TF30 ... P= 7 turootan (thrust 9!,200 dla.N!, 116'-8,t,agl~ compressor, 4i=stage turbine, compressor pressure ratio 11 '1.5: 1 )

1 2:, 3, 2~1 H'I"g":~h'" bvoese ... ·f"I~'~I~'D·,·::-' turootsn '5·····,

!I! 'i!' ,'iI! ~, 1· •. ·." ., •. : ~ ,_,..,,'" .,1.- ... ! ,all [.,' :' ,f UulQ ::'

The economy' of transport aircraft was greatly improved 'with, the advent of the high bypass-ratio turbofan. " irst introduced with the,' ockheed C5~A military transport, this technology was quickly adopted for civil use,

E .. r • ," "", .' f' b· ",' " .,.. t· '. ,',.', 5" "1 .,,' ·d·,'1 " " -,', '" ~l"'" .ifie d h '; t:

ngmes 0 oypass-ratro .... an ... more are c ,aSS1 .. iec as nign

bypass ... ratio engines. Tljh~se: found their first civilian use in th.e late sixties with high .... capacity wide-body airliners such as. the Boeing 747" Lockheed t-ion TrmStar and McDo'nnel~ Douglas DC~]O.

A typical feature of this type of engine .is. the large single-stage fan, operatingupstream of the basic o,r core engine from which it is, directly driven, (Fi:g 1 ..... 1.3)),; The core engine primarily acts as. a gas generator which provides a high-energy gas flow tOI drive the fan turbine, additionally to' 'he turbine of the core engine, The major advantage of the high bypass-ratio turbofan is its high 'thrust level, especially at take-off, which results Iargely from accelerating a large air mass bypassing the core, whereas thrust from the core engine is. only about 150/0 of total

: .. , I." I,' th ··I·I·t., I': dd itior th I" h izh I b 1:, '.':' - '.' ti :. '_ . rbof -.' b I-~ ''-' •.•. f' 'I ·1

engme : rust, n a. . ruon, .ne I 19. . ypass rano rur o~, an .. urns ue

veryeconomically by comparison with the' low BP'R engine, or even the

'. h Ili h d b h " 1'm

.. (., ., , ,', I .', .', ".," "','. .' ,', I' , ' ,. "'[' I ,' ,,'., ,",,"''-','-c,'' ,',',,;:.; ',-ce," ,." , .. - ~

purejet at t ,e same ngr t spee i,~ rut not, nowever, as econonuca y as

the turboprop, A~SIO, noise' emission from the high B,PR turbofan is relatively low due to the low exhaust velocities of the. propulsive jet.

High bypass-ratio engines were conceived fun the ~US in the early sixties starting from. resea-eh programs aimed at developing 'both an

., ' , , , '. -. "' .. , .. ·.e . -",' . ... ,.. -- - " b ..

advanced-technology gas generator and a. high bypass-ratio fan, In '96] the two largest US manufacturers of aircraft engines" General

Inl'ermedi,illle;wjpI!'18S;EUJlfe! com pre'ssor

H'ig ll1i""plressure com prn,SSO,1i

Pr,iim,ary ,e,xhaust Ii1 o,zzlle'




.' 1M ode'lfsle ,exihau s~

:Secolnd'ary 've:lloC,flty

elxha1ust nozzle ~alfge aiirflhl'W

FigI1~113, Holls-Poyce RB.,211 hiigh bypass-ratio turbofan, schematic

114 Jet IEngines

Electric and .. P .att & Whitney" started development of advanced core engines: Pratt &, .... hi tn ._.y with a 'light .. eight gas generator and General

'Elec'_ric witl the GEl 'bui ding b ock' 'which was to provide the basis fo '1;*' a whole family 'of new power units, P&W' also started, design of its

Advancec Tie ch n 0': ogy Engine' (A'Tlijwhich "n 1964, led tlo the testing of the STF200 experimental turbofan, TIns delivered 14nl kNl3l;,'OOO Ib of thrust from aZ: t bypass .... ratio engine (ill contrast to today s engines which deliver up to 340 k ~"'/76 0001 lh), 10 her U'S companies contributed 'with engineering studie .. sponsored 'by the US Air Force that in the ease of Lycoming led to the tes' ing of a 6:1 bypass-ratio fan

engine, The connection 'between. these' various deve opments was a . S.AF requirement to power the: giarr C-,5A Galaxy t· ansport aircraft. he sheer size' of this, aircraft stipulated typical propulsion characteristics of high thrust on. take-off and low specific fuel eO'D.SUl nption at cruising' flight, both !of .... hich implied t 'e use of a high bYPtJ ss-ratio and, a 'high turbine i ilet temperature.

Fig 11.14 Lockheed C-5A military transport powered by four General Eleetrtc TF39 high bvpass-rario turbofans

B···th·, ,.' .. c·:. a:' 'E'· ·dP·:&:··~W··: durinzth c" 5:'A'" ~.'~ _:. ~., .

o .. 'COlll.p!aml1es, .. an;.- .:':.";, _ltrlllg .. e ..... , .• '," compe. 110'ml \\ere

requested by the USIAF tOI increase bypass-ratios in their proposals, Subsequently P',&W entered its 1801 k'N .. ',00001 lb) thrust, 3 .. 4: ~ bypassra io JTF14E derivative of the ST'F200'~ and GE used a 2/3 scale G" ~.1/6 engine vith 8::1 bypass-ratio fan. featu 'i .. ,g one and one half stages, As a result of the competition, General ·lect.ric in August 1965· as awarded the largest-ever .: 'S, military engine contract, worth ':459 million, to develop and supply the ]8··' .k·.··· (41..'OO'O'lb) thrust, 8:1 bypass-ratio T -'39 engine fa' the C55·· ". i

Figl 1~'151 Glenera~ E!ectrjic TF'.39 high bypass-reno furbofan (thrust 1,8,,6r[]O dalNj, bypass- ratio a: 1 , ICO mlp rssso r press u reo ratio 2,5.7:: 1 ')

Pratt & Whitney, after losing in the C5 competition con inued development of its JTF" 4. 'in a company-funded test program which provided the technical basis fO'f a. big new civil turbofan t.h,e .19'0 engine ,of 183 kN 41,0001b) thrust and 5:1 bypass-ratio (Fig: 1-16). Discussions about possible commercial applications 'were made with Boeing and '_" .. cfronnell Douglas also losing: contestants in tile C,-,SA. competition, In. the event, the JTl9D W3,S se ected to power the Boeing 7,47 with Pan American p acing its historic order in April 1966 .. Although GE had attempted to enter the civil big ... fan marke with 1.'£8 C. F319 (,a civil version of the T ~39 .' 'or the Ie-SA) the 8: 1 bypass-ratio of the TF39 P"'OI~: ·Ie,d .. j l-matched to commercial trar sports

I n Europe: Rolls-Royce emerged as the sole supplier of high. bypassratio turbo ans .. III .. 961 the British company began design studies for a. large new two-shaftcivil turbofan the RB178, with financial support from. the .•.... .inistry of Aviati on, TI1e engine with a bypass ratio 2~3: 1 ran ill July. J 966 , delivering I 25 k :. .'.28 000 lb) of thrust 'but was. tested .. for a total time 10:f only five hou :s~ 1.11 order' to be technically competi ive, Rclls-Royce had decided that a three-shaft engine of much higher rating and bypass-ratio W3lS necessary.

":I ".;:

Fiig 1-1'7 Boeingl747 ooworco by four Pratt & Whitn@·y JT9D,-·7' h.i'gh bypass-ratio turootans

1 Fan casl ng

2~ ;S.8a~1 ng Nu. 11

3. Bean ng No, 2

4. IIH i 9 h-pressu re oompressor, '11 sta,ges, 5, I~',an exheust nezzla

'6 20 fuel ~ VI] senon nozzles

'7' Hlp 11"' .... tor ~'NII)' 1m' ,~v '=PO iI:',il:j'Ii"\'. - .

' •• 1 •• '~iU!LU· ~ ".2 .. , . ~ t!'-JIourp'm

18 An n [JJi,a r corn b ustion chamber S Be,aln":ling Nlo",3

'1 0 2·',stags' 11 Ig h-pressu re '~Ulrbif1 e '111 B8\a.r~ng N,~. 4-

'12 ,CCH·'9 eng ~118 GtillLS~ Illg '13 ICQ re exhau st nozzle 14 Fan roto r

11 is 3-8lagle ~Q'w·-pre·5;S ~re com p r!9SS:0 r ~I '6, 'In ... rOf!If'I,!''' 'N,'~ m,~v'~ "',=,o,j"lliIm'"

. f"" ....... \ .. lib' , ~ ..... Yi,Y1; .. \I!IJ!~ 1'1""

~. '7' Il,[)w,ftp 118SSU rye, '~JLnbilF'ileli 4 stag 68

In the course of the development two variants carne out: the .RB,207 of 5: ill bypass-ratio and ,211 kN (47,,5100 lb) thrust for the European Airbus as, well as for the Douglas and Lcckheed twin-engined projects, and the RB21] of 5:1 bypass ratio and 147 :kN (33, 0001 lb) thrust for the American trijet projects that were later t() become the DC= 10 and. L~1101 '~. airliners. Initial US' twinjet studies did not mature ..

For theAirbus projects, both G·E and P&W prepared suitable engirre proposals: P,&'W a scaled-down derivative of its JT9D _. the J'T18D ,of 5: 1 bypass-ratio and 156 k:'N' (35,000 illb,) 'thrust; G'E the CF6l34, of 6·:: 1 bypass-ratio and 151 k'N (J.4,OOO lb) thrust de-rived from the TF39" Jrom which. the core engine 'was retained, but with a smaller fan and. a modified low-pressure turbine tOI drive the fan.

The outcome of these various developments was that General Electric was chosen in. April ] 968 to power the :D'C= 10 trije with its CF6-6 of ~ 78 k,,···· (40~OOO .lb), an:d Rolls-Royce ill. March 19,68 tOI power the L-·IOl j TrrStar witb its RB,211=,,22 of ]87 'kN (4,2~IO()O lb), Th.le Bri. ish Government had earlier withdrawn from the Airbus A300 project, and

P'&W" ., hd '" ff f 1 j'T18D'

I', wit -.' irew its otter 0:.' tne . ' .....,

GE's decision ill. ,~. 969' to go ahead with its, CF6-50 series delivering between 2~.8 'k,····· .. · (49,0100 lb) and 240 k ..... (54,000 lb) thrust not only

COlltrib,tlted. to the sallies potential of the 'DC=lO~ but also gained access, to the 8,-·747 and was instrumental ill launching the European. Airbus A300.

While development of the' 'big' fans was pursued with great effort 'by

Fig 1-116 Pn3.tt & Whitney' JTBD-7 hi'gh bypass-ratio turbofan powerinq first ~eneration of Boe.~ng 7'47 wfde bodly transports (thrust 20~600 daN!, bvpass-ratlo .5: 1, compressor [pressure ratio 24: 1, mass, 'f'low rate 680 kg/s)

IF'iIQ' '1 1181 Lockheed Tristar powered by three Rolls-R,oyee RB211 high bypassratio turbofans

Fig 1 ... 19 Mc.DoU1neIIIIDougla.s. DC-1 0 powered by three General Electric CF6 high by pas s-tatio turbofans

F'igI1~201 General IEJectr'ic ICIF16-50A, high bypass-ratio' urbotan, teatu ing three booster staqes downs ream of fan (thrust .2'2j,2.o0 daN, bypass ratio 5::1, compressor pressure ratio 28,4:1)

the three large engine manu, .acturers, progress of the smaller bypassratio ttl ~'bofans was less vigorous,

In 1971 General Electric teamed with !, rench engin ' manufacturer Snecma to die; elop an e' gine of 'ten to'_ ~ thrust. 'The firs I example of this the CF ~",':' 56'1 ran in. June ] 974, well ahead, of a demand, First application came with the McDonl1,el Douglas DC-,;8. airliners that were to be re-engined with, the C: M 561-2 of 1017 kN (24 0001 Ib) thrust, m: iking tile aircraft much more fuel-efficient hall it h· id been with the original 10,'"" bypas ratio engine " Subsequently, the ''--2', mgines were also used to re- .ngine the KC-135 tanker fleet of the. US,F,. In. 1985 the C'FM56~3 variant of 89 kN (20_ 000 Ib) thrust entered service with

2'0 Jet [Engines

iQ; '0


1 3- TUlfbTne easing 14 I u tl'b] ne ,r,c]I(H'

1.5 Powe,r lu rbiln e~ s,~a;~'t

11' ,ao iD'OW- j ...... t~ nb ·In-.... ......"'!II'r:"'~ It"iig' I![]I IJ .... '. uIIJ JIdI .:1 ~ 1!V~}~~lj I ,"

1 '7' Pnw,9 Ii tu rbin e


" Compressor roto r


1 ,8 Exhaust easi ngl

1 '9 Sump ventill a,lion ,;2,0 Bealii n~g an r

,2'1 01 II su pp'ly

Fig 1, ... 21 Sii korsky C,H=53G he I icopter powered by two Glene.,r.aJ El,ectric T64 turboshatt engines

1 11 Ofq lie shan! i nne r

,,), T oroue shaft ""'llliC!.1I" i£ 11 ~Li ~ _" . ~ I a II UI~~~11

:,3" C,asling

C;OIMIIBUST'QIR ,8 Fu 8'~ nozzl e'

9 Com ~ ustor casl n [J, oute r .~ 0 Ann LJli,rlr cornbusnon


'11 Combustor cas i Ili g! i rmer 12~ '1 st s,tage 'bJ rbi ne glu ~dfe, V'('UiH5S


,22 Accassory dW11ve

,2,3 Hlyd raul lc pu m p d r~e, 24. Dill pump

,25 Fue'! cant rol

26 IFiule,i IPIU rnp and ui~te,r

'he Boeing 737,-300 medium range airliner giving new life to the dated 737 design, The greatest success of the ten ton C ~ M.56 came, however, when it enabled Airbus Industrie to : aunch its A3,20, a 150-seat medium-range airliner ofadvanced technology which entered, service in, 1988.,

Competing with the iCFM56 turbofan for the Airbus 'was the IA:E V.2.5IOO turbofan of 117 kN' (25~OO'O lb) thrust, manufactured by the International Aero Engines (IAE) consortium in which Rolls-Royce teamed with Pratt & Whitney and 'German, Italian and Japanese aeroengine makers, TIle V.,2500 engine, an all-new design, benefited from the newest technology that ga ve it better fuel consumption figures than, the earlier CFM56. The engine entered service, also on th,e A.320, in,


What made the high bypass-ra tio turbofan such a success was. the in creasing public awareness of atmospheric pollution, ill particular aircraft noise, Adding 'tOI this success was that in 198.5 the majority of US' airports we -~e banning the use of' aircraft: with some of the original lo.w bypass-ratio turbofans - hence the reason forre-engining the- DC-8 with low-noise engines,

The relatively low' exhaust velocity of the bypassed airflow causes 'D?,l.l.ch less noise in, the atmosphere, while at . he same time unsurpassed thrust levels exist due tOI the large air mass th .. at is accelerated in the


4 Compresso If frollt fra,m'9 5, Va r~ab te vane actu 9],tion 6, cornoresso Ii eesl Ingl

F'iQI1-22 General E~ectriic Tr64. turboshatt enqine deliverinq 4000 hp

'bypass duct. Excess power of the 'high bypass-ratio engine at low flight velocity is ample for aircraft even to take off at reduced thrust, which not only reduces noise still further, but also contributes to engine life.

"m2",4 Tintiosnet: eng.in,e's

A turboshaft is similar to a turboprop engine differing primarily in, the task of the second turbine, Instead of driving a propeller, the turbine-driven shaft is, connected to a transmission system which drives helicopter rotor blades (Fi,:g 1-,22),.

The compressor of a turboshaft engine first raises the pressure ofthe incoming air ·w rich is then guided into the combustion ehamber .. After being' mixed with, vaporized fue] and burned, the hot gas expands completely through two separate turbines. The first of these drives the compressor, the second delivers 'shaft horsepower' to drive the

22' .let [Engines

C'" iI- f" desi t·

L.ngllne stanon ' esiqna ion

S' 'lNG' LE 'i:"'p" '0'" 'O·,"L TUIf:'IBO-' ~E'T

... _: r.o I.'.~: 1:}15I~_"i ._~ 1,_". _ .:_~ "_ .~ ... ruI! __

'GAS (~EINEIRATOR 11 Ai r i nt9ke'

2 I mp e~ leu- ('co,mptr8Ssor) 3 Di"liflJse:r

4f Tu rb ~n 8 g u ijd e vanes .5 Tu rb i1ne rotor

6 'Gc'mbustio n casln 9

1 ,Gc:rmbu stlon cham her 8 ExnalJ sf du ct

9 Sel8Ji









10"', ••..•

~-~- Exhaust noal11e , iflf'ansfe'lf" tulbe

AtmosplullRl ~ I I'

o 1 :2






4 s 8 TUlr1bitne





n ilfflusel" Afte~b umer i

5, -6, S'






'1 0 DlrUvl8 snaft

111 P~iane~tary qear '12 Be~v,e;l, glear

13 ,a'i I su pply

14 'Oill '~;aJnk

~ IiI
0 1 2 1',4

16, IO'i~ ~i It'e u 17 'Q,ear

118 Aooessory d rhfe'

Fiig 1 .. 23 Alrborne turbosbatr ,engine Sollar T·=62T=27' to glenerate electricity and ai rnow' for e n 9 i n e start [n 9

Fa:n duet

helicopter rotor via a transmission gear .. The gas is finally re eased through an exhaust duct without producing any thrust,

A special class of turboshaft engine is used for auxiliary power 'Units (.A~P'U) to provide air' conditioning, main engine starting, and to serve as a backup electrical power source in. the air and on the ground, rendering aircraft independent fr 0 111, ground support equipment (F~,g '1-2,3). In the non-aviation field, turboshaft engines are used as industriam gas turbines to drive, for example stationary power generators ships and army tanks,

Turboshaft engines employed in, aircraft are of ,BJ. smal size.


18 '19

I~ ~ 7' 8'-'

~ U :.: ,or



,fig 1",24


For the purpose of estimating engine performance, the engine is regarded as a~l orderly assembly of components which conform ti(~ the definition of stations used in. (one ... dimensional) calculation of aerothermodynamic performance (F:i:g 1,·,24)" The implication is to provide a convenient basis for component performance description

d 'm f'" ..

I _. .. . . ;"'. :' .' ~ ~.' " - ,': '-.- ,._. II ._ " -:- . I' .! I 'l .. :. '.' ... I '.' •

an, _ . lovera, per ormance estrmation.

D '. - ~ - - ~ 0' d .. d ,. b d- fl- ,esignation starts at station I. ',' denoting un " .isturbec .-1 ow wen ahead

of the inlet, and ends at station 9 denoting exhaust :n,IO'W' condition of the core engine at nozale ex ~t I, Bypass duct stations. are designated likewise- 'but by' two-digit numbers the first digi always being a '1, starting at number 12, tOI denote inlet fan tip section and ending at number 19 to denote bypass exhaust nozzle discharge (Table 1-1)1 Th , 'e' system 1'S"-

" . '. _,' . ,_. . • ", _ .. , . ",'. I ,',' ~'. . ,J .. :. _.0\..... ." " ' .. 'i: ',,' '" :- I I. ," .0=.0 .,' ~ " • ~ ',: • .' .~ ~ .

generally agreed by industry and related research organizations,

St.atij'on No.

Sta:tiQn No,-

undisturbed flo:w up strea m oi ~'n ~ leu ('I ups tre Ii ml ~:I}I,nin'iJtyll]1




low-pressure (I~p) ICO 1m ipres so r ~ rill i e't} ta n tn ~~ et h IUib sect i Oln



t-p corn presser d1 j,$,c'i'iharg e


~ n tie r rn ed i a 1be-,p rl91:S S,IJ'IrS (~ .. -p) C,OI ml[~I:re'sso r in I et

,111'1,~ ~~

~ .. p COl rn p ressor d ~ sed'i ~r_:g,'e

hi i 9 h-p ress U Irle (h- p) c orne ress O,U i n ~ e't

2- ,Ai .~

h P OQ m preseo r

';;' ,,' :":'1 ,',' , i ! "-, • :" ,

_ _ c ' , ',", I _ - _ " , , _"


fan (US;ctulfgl'e (' i p secti c:n1in l




ia,ftEH bu r Ii e r

(',a,l) 9 rn e n tlolr') 'j Inlll',et

[B,y pass d uet ,m ~:)(JiliU in 11',eI


a u'

BYi~las:$ duct ex h aust no'! %'1 e iiililte rface

B· '-p.;'!i,~,~ dl,- -;j";-iI> Y .: ",.;;:,:"", ' U '"' Il



e'xi'u aust n oz:z I e' tt~1 r,oiat

IBypa:ss d Itlfl ct exhaiIJs:~ nozzla d :~sch,ar.g e

exhaust nozzle d i S,Ch.8Jg e

'l'abille' 1-,1

. let e;ginefundament.als




is. what happens in. ,;1 combustion chamber. If expansion of the gas is impeded, pressure will rise ..

In addition, molecules are considered to be perfectly elastic particles which, due to their ceaseless motion randomly collide with .. ach other or with. solid walls containing the gas, When colliding with. walls, mole-

.' ]'1,·: .,' ··t .. . . ...... Co ,- ...... ,,-- -., .. 1l...., ..

cu. es exer _ a pres SUI e upon IU][Cmm

These are the underlying principles that make up a. special branch ill phi sics known as kinetic gas theory. 'W,t will 110t go into greater detai here as this is. the task of relevant textbooks, But. we would, 'ern .. phasize the point that temperature, pressure" and density" so, vital forje engine

functioning, originate from molecular motion, _

In. a turbine engine, as ill many other mechanical applications, use is made of a. unique property of gas molecules, namely tha energy in terms of temperature and pressure may easily be stored in, _ and retrieved from them, The energy level a gas has attained at a given station of the engine then shows U,P' by its physical state variables such as pressure, temperature and density ~

We will briefly consider these three main variables of state for air:

The pressure of a gas is defined as force per' unit area acting on a surface ,.

I 1;·"

•• ' __ ",": " .•• ". '13

pressure :::: f?ICe

. unit ,area

In the International System of Units (SI units) force is measured in Newtons, symbolized N (~. N ~ 1 mkg/s'), and unit area in square meter's, m". Thus the dimension ,of a pressure is, 'Nlm2; dalNlm2., or !da'Nlclni, the choice being made primarily to avoid numeric values from getting too large,

If th.e Anglo-American system of units is preferred, weight force is measured in pounds, symbolized lb (from Latin Iibra . balance), and unit area in sq uare feet, s'q ft. Thus the dimension of a pressure is lb/sq ft, or lb/sq in (for conversion ,cjCh.a.pte:r 2,.6).,

Some of the components of a gas turbine engine are categorized according to pressure levels to indicate the severity of the operating environment, for example high-pressure compressor, Iow-pressure turbine, etc. Typical pressures in. a jet engine are constantly measured to monitor engine condition, and are indicated on appropriate instru ....

~ h kni

merits ,mn f .' e coc .' pit.

Telnpe.rature, the s'eeOl1d varia'blle~ of state; is a meaS'ltrie' ,ofthe kinetic ener.gy !ofth'e m.,o,illecuill es, and .. in,d.ic:ates "ho!tness" of a. bod:y" Scien.tificatlJ.y·, te.mperatllre is a pr1operty' d.'etermin:ing the. rate- at 'which heat will 'ble.· tr.al1.s:~eJ',re,d to, or fr',o'm m,olecules~

Tern.perature ,m,ay' be measillred 'blotlh mn ,degre·es, K!e1vin a,nd Centigrad.e if SI .and metric 'units are 1L~s.ed';l or in. degr,e,es R,ankine

a'n'd"" p .. ··,·'b'·'·· :, he. ·:·'t ~f·· I·,····· ,-' .. ~I '-··'i~ ,., " , .... _ i~ ··,_··d·" 'D"" .',-.'. ';., K···_,"" '·1 ".-., ".' ·d'

-" . a ,.rel] .... ,el ,l. mperla] u.n.l!)'S afle preller.r,e, . .,>egr1e1es.,.e· V1.n all.-,

In order to understand how the aircraft gas turbine engine operates,

'hi 'rnd b t": ij' a. • 1 f th ,. W h . ~I h

one SL oum oe rami tar 'WIt 1 some 0' ' ie essennal pr ysics taws that

eovern the field of turbopropulsion, Although at g'3S turbine appears

0'.'" ='" - " '_' C' ..... _. ... ,' ... I .. " " .. ' .... ~ .. , .. ' , ... .: ' ... '" ._ .... '.' ' __ '" : ";(_,,

. ;; I'll .. '1 I .,.,

. . '_. -, '. - • "I', ," , . . . ", • . . , " ~. _ ", I. - d'7' . [- l - ,I _ j(' 1 _. - , ....", - - • I' 10 '.

to operate ].n. an essentra y srmp e manner, a. c oser exammanon

reveals it tOI be a highly complex machine, 'with many interdependent and. diverse interac ions, A. brief presentation of elementary principles is therefore in, order without, however, involvin .. g complex maths,

'OrUIr short course will begin with gas characteristics deal with general thrust considerations, and win explain some of the most frequently used. engine performance parameters,

2:11111 IG,as characteristics

Aviation turbine engines use as their working substance a 'hot gas which is compounded of air and the gaseous products of burned fue .. Combustion products result from a chemical reaction. between oxygen contained ill the ambient airflow ingested. through the air intake, and. fuel which the aircraft carries on b'O'3I·d. The mass ratio ms that about 2 per cent of fuel and 98 per cent ,of .air' contribute to' the gas 'which propels an aircraft at cruise conditions.

Air which the eng ine uses as a working fluid, is itse '11f' a'; mixt U'· re of

., "... ..,- • ",I ,_.' • __ ~_ ~I !_.~ ... _ t., . ",'. ". ,1."\ "_, '"_ " ,".' ".- I I h. '."

. .

~ 'm· d m h ., f .. '1

gases, mauuy m trogen ane exygen, in t i,,1 e proportion 0 i' approximate y

.20 pier cent oxygen and ,sOl per cent nitrogen, Small and varying' quan = tities of other gases such as carbon dioxide, helium and. neon have '110 practical effect IOWl gas turbine operation. Of the two main gases, oxygen is necessary for combusting the fuel to generate 'beat;" whereas nitrogen, being an inert gas" generates oxidation prodt cts which, although of small amount, have become of major concern in atmos-

h ~ I'~I·

p eric P'Q, muon ..

A ,gas~, wh.en. viewed nricrosoopieall:y., ,gen,eral]y' co,w1sists of :nolecul,es

·wbj.c'h ,miQ,ve freely-·:: ( .. a'~ln~ d"-' l··n- v"~:~l""b:ly\':')' OIlt 1k.'~;g:.L ~'p""lei;pd"" A······ S··~ m'- c·O··1Ie·· c··n·le·.' S'· -:lif·e·

. __ " ,. . . '.' .... ' -lUll ".... 111,.1 •. , 11U -- 1111 ,~.' _.-. ~": _ 'Iti -= ,I ~ :-.' '~" ..... _:. _ .... ' .:._-.' 11JU_, . ~.'

considered t,o be :pa.rticle·s, laws ofn,ec'hanics ma.:y 'be ;a:p:p~.~ed tlO tb:'elll., Parti,c~e IDotiion depends on the tempe'fature of tb.,e gas" CO'Dverslely~, tern.perature :i~, ·a'·· m .. ··~'?III::!:U. r'~ !.o.··,'f t·iIl1Je "11"-1'01 e·· ·t~c~'· I~·ne·.·.r.·-g··· y .... '0' r- ·t~l~ ml .. ' 'OI'~'~C-U~I~,~ Th' '.'

_ .:.J. "",-,,u,l;:, .. ,.!!i;.t , " ,w, ,K..J .. " .' _ .. II!.. II;F" ._ .....• , . I_ll,i!;.;.f, ..... llli;,.l .. " .lll.1!;;..!~1~ •• .I if;

highe'f the 'te~mperature,. the fas,ter 'nl.o1'ficules In'O;V'e~ If h.eat :is ad.'dedl to a g:,as., 't11.e gas w.ill e.xp,and. 'b1ec,ausc the· m.omecullies llllove fa sl,ef'., This

Rankine are absolute temperatu .. res, i.e. at. zero, degrees Kelvin or Rankine molecular motion theoretically ceases, whereas degrees Centigrade aod Fahrenheit are related to defined '"efe're;n.ce values, For example, the freezing point of water is arbitrarily defined .as zero degrees Centigrade, In jet engine design absolute temperatures are preferred as they simplify calculations, Engine temperatures in. the cockpit, however, are 'indicated. in. degrees Centigrade for example exhaust gas. temperature (E,GT).,

The third s'tate varia-ble of a substance is density, symbolized p (Greek rho), defined as. mass per unit volume, .In SI units, the dimension of density is kilograms per cubic metre, kg/m'; in Anglo-American units slugs 'per cubic foot, or :1 b/cu ft. The inverse of the density p (rho) is specific volume 'V == tlpl" with dimension nl'/k,g' in Sl units.

~ 11 b f '~l II '. d i ·'t

Density indicates the nU.111.'I:er or motecuies contamed in a um .

volume, For a gas '~n particular, this number varies 'with temperature and .. pressure. The variation in density is 011e IQ,f the most important properties of a gas, in which it differs from liquids whose number of molecules remains broadly ccnsta .. nt whatever the temperature and pressure.

Engine thrust depends directly on the density of air: tile higher the density, the more thrust there is available, If airports are at some considerable elevation, and especia ly at hot ambient temperatures, engine thrust performance can become critical One such airport where 'hot and high' conditions have to be taken into aOCOU.IIE 'by aircraft manufacturers is Denver, Colorado, ill the' US.

The interrelation between the three state variables density, temperature and pressure is expressed by the equation of an ideal gas:

'pIp::: RT

R is termed the gas constant (definition ill relevant textbooks).

2.2 En'gl ne cycle

The aviation. gas turbine is categorized as a heat engine. It uses gas as its working fluid and produces (mechanical) shaft power and thrust .. Generating thrust, in particular, is. possible only if the exhaust velocity of the gas is. higher than the velocity a I which ajr enters the engine, In order to accelerate the gas, energy must be added to the airflow within the engine 'which can then be converted into kinetic energy,

In a gas turbine engine the increase of energy is accomplished in two! consecutive steps" and by tW'IO different, though adjacent, engine components. First, pressure of the airflow is, raised 'by the action of mechanical shaft power, This is .. ,d .. one m11, the compressor section. After



. '. .

I t:::::======t. I

F'i gl 2-1 Com pari so n of wo rl·d n g eye lie s. fo r tu rbo jet: e n gin e an d -t-stro ke pi stan engine

its discharge from. the compressor, the pressu .ized air is heated in' 'the combustion chamber where the temperature ofthe gas ]s steeply raised, The gas is now sufficiently precessed to provide physical work, i.e. the energetic state of tile molecules is high. enough for energy' to 'be effectively retrieved from them,

The first station within the engine where work is extracted from the hot gas is. the turbine ... As, the gas expands and accelerates, .it. rotates the turbine, After discharging from the turbine, the gas is further accelerated in the exhaust nozzle, where all remaining usable heat energy is

d '. km ,.

,,"I' ,"'" . "":'. 'I'; .. I - i~' .,.'. '.,.: " . .' I '_ 'J' : '1." :. " .... ,' "": :.' ...... : .• :

converte .mto .metic energy,

At nozzle discharge, the gas is ejected to' the atmosphere at high velocity, where it wiIDI gradually dissipate to the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere, The series ,of changes of the state variables, by which the gas finally reverts to, its original condition, is termed an engine cycle.

To explain the operating principle of a gas turbine by' means of a technical application with which. we a'£'e familiar, a comparison is, frequently made with the four-stroke reciprocating engine (Fi:g ,2~1,)., In both ca ·';;:'(,:···8"· the gas is p rro cessed I"-n four ste ps (o .. rr strok es in the case

I , :.~ .. !JIi " - V/' .. ill, ·>"'Iii.J··LlJIUI-~ .. ·. "IIY.:., dlt,_- il'.I · D · ,.·.·1, .. _" _;' .

C' h'-· '" tor ine) k ,. ". d tioi ~.... .', bi . ..,~~ .

IOJl. t· e PI~S. on engme .·110VID as m '" UCI ~!O1l1., com .. pression, come usnon

and. expa .. nsion, The fundamenta , difference, however is" that iri the reciprocating engine all four strokes tak place in the cy . nder concerned whereas ill a turbine engine separate components are assigned, to leach processing step, making the engine cycle continuous. as €)PI.polsed, tOI intermittent in the piston. engine ..

The indue' ion strok: in. the reciprocating engine is comparable to the air intake step of the turbine engi re, and thle: compression stroke compa ~es 'tiO the rotating compressor ac ion in the turbine. The

busti ., 'b diff b . . t'b " e

com usnon process 'ms rat rer .. trterent.f owever, n. t . ie reciprocatmg

engine, combustion occurs at constant volume, with pressure peaking at the upper position of the piston, whereas in a turbine engine combustion IOOClLlfS ,at constant pressure. This allows large masses of air tOI be processed 'with lightweight combustion chamber componen .s, and it further permits low-octane ft els . .0, be us:ed ..

Finally, when comparing the expansion stroke of the piston engine with th.at iof the jet engine, the analogy bccomcs : uestionable, because the exhaust products of the piston engine are not usable, whereas in a jet e 11 gin If the essentia propulsive forces result :from the exhaust gas .. In this respect, the piston engine more closely resembles a turboshaft



The absence of reciprocating parts in a turbine engine is the greatest aid .. antage over the piston engine, as, more energy can be released for 31. given ngine size. Extracting comparable power levels from a piston engine would :make it 'very large, extremely heavy and practically impossible tomanufacture, and certainly would, preclude its use mn, theweight-conscious field of aviation,

The change of the varia biles of st: .te to which. the gas is subjected 'when passing through the engine, can be illustrated in a, pressure-volume diagram, in which the area bounded by the four curves

~, :c···· , ...... , .': 'f-' 'th" _. l' .... t rd de d Th'~'" hi ... '," t . ~,., .. c· 'I!..... ,.:.] '., . I' . d ,.(" '. .' k

is a measure '0,1 '. e neat ,a: .' .. e." , is nea can ue re easec lor work,

either to produce mechanical shaft power lor propulsiv thrust (Fi:g 2~.2).,

A more common graphical 'e'p' esentation, however is th.e e.nth.a,~pl,y-e,ntro:JJy' diagram, where the differer t forms ·of energy (mechanical kinetic, heat) appear as distances that make component assessment m-uch lea lie : (Fig ,2 .... 2· .. , Enthalpy is a the .modynamic quantilly denoting total energj of tln gas 1(,' s it undergoes change from one state' Or another (symbolized H IOJ h with dimension J/k,g in SI unii s, ft lb/lbm in Imperial units). Entropy; a thermodynamic QU . antity, denotes a theoretical In! . asure of energy which cannot be transformed .. Onto, mechanical work- thus being a mes s-ure of th '. qualitj 1 lor usability' of he,' t. ~. .ore specifically to convert heat inn mechanical wo k requires a differential in, tempera' ure to exist .. Th,I.·· higher t te tempera-

r-------,..- -,- -------c,._·~ '"'---~ir=__~.,."r. - - - ---@.._. .

. ~ ", .~

. .

ill :IIi Gi

~-- :J:: '--il!!llil




..... .,Ii;


= ""

:C!.. I ....... ~ of' -~~I





iD. :1:: ,J:; U:-'
f1_1iIJ iC;U cl' - :::c
e >-- ..J
lC.. 1:.'1' :L
:::JI _, '1;.;1 t,J
m % : %
.' J::
CI.1 """"
m ~:
:Iii;.. W
0.. Figl2111]2 GI8S turbine working cycle in pressure-volume and enthalpy-entropy diaqram

ture of a. gas, the better can .its heat content be used and converted into work .. Entropy is. too, a variable of state of a gas, but it does not lend -. -If" . . ... "~'" t· ... ' '.< ,~., ]. de .' "~ .~ ti .: .... I . " do terr ...... rat ur~' and p'fles

I tse .:: as e,asmllY I 0 per,ce,p'lk U.at. . · .. eserl p lon as I. ~.O emper u . '. !"" - .. ,', I·· , ..... ' ..

sure, for example.

Now, let ·US' revert to the diagrams representing a (simplified) jet

engine cycle, In both diagrams, point A. indicates atmospheric condi-

'.. . ,., TlIJ ~ • '1

tion of the air as it enters the engine. . ne compression process is along

line A.-,B., with poin E B, denoting condi tion of the airflow when discharging from 'the compressor. While the gas. is progressively compressed, its volume progressively decreases .. AIs'Q', due tOI friction of the gas along' the gas path, more mechanical work has tOI be expended to achieve the required pressure (point B) than would have been necessary if the flow were ideal (point .B[)~

H·' ;. ,~, ~, ... d d:- .d t· .' the ." .', "-C' --." 'c"" ,'. ,.' .. ' 'd'" .... .... I .. ·· I' . ,.., '1: ", -1-0 'C' ". M···· .'. 'a' x· l~ O'f"ril iIl1rrn" 'e' ffi '1:1' -

Ie-all!.- m.S ,a".'.eJ .. 0 IL, .e oo,mpress1e_. rur a ong,lne.u=-: ~ .~: .. ',.1 . .1 llll.'I,.U.' .....

..... , ~,., of the com b mstion process r eq uires P ressur e in the combust ion

emeney '.', ;.'\;,.1 I!I.J:', I, :1.: .. .111.' .. ~:.!i.'V.'.;), """', ;c.' .'I!i..'~ ~ .... liZ)i· ."'., .. IIIIi;.,i_! ...•.... L]i ' ...

chamber to 'be kept constant .. Due tlO fluid dynamic friction and. turbulence, a. small drop ill pressure a ways occurs within the combustion chamber (point C)"

Expansion in. the turbine and exhaust nozzle' is along line C-D .. , The

'. ". ··1 .... · bk .. '. :'.' t ..... : .i'. ill-I'" ."." th, " . '". . md···· b ..... ': .. ' .. ' i'b' '}' .' ", - f!:', .; r. t· ,'. "-' .. nless 'fl' 1'0''1'11 avala.;'Jl'e en ergy ~ . 'o'o~ ~.S ess II ,an W 0 lnll '. ..·e p 0'8S1, ;f; In I flC 1,0'0 ': _ _ "lr~~

(p , ·t'DI····1.)·· A' ~I, · the xl sti .. ··,· ,~ .. t ".~ ' '.~ , ."',. :.' (. nd .'. tc '. tmos oh "~C' 'p,re' s··~-

1,'Olnl ." .. ,,~·;,lsO~ .. leex,lau8IIn.g.Jel.lare) expal1.,.,S .. oa. I.OSP. eft·· .. ::.~ ... "

sure, another source of insufficient. us:e of the gas eo ergy ..

. ,.. 'i h fl' . diti h ., hi' 'b

Apart from readily S'hOW111g how I ,ow' CO'-l .. rtions c .. an.ge 'WIt · ... n tne

engine, it also becomes apparent from these diagrams that the engine designer is 00 nfron ted. with numerous sources of thermodynamic and. fluid losses originating at the different engine components.

.Jet oinlg'-"I; n s· :. tun d· . a'" m"" "e' ·lnta· . ls

':'. u' .:::1 ~III··.' ,.,. 1.,:"::,,. ," _J :.:.._ : ... 1

F~g :2""3 Thrust produced by ,a jet 8}dtiing at high 'Velocity from a nozzle

tion ... Basically, a jet engine represents a machine whose purpose is to increase (i.e. tOI change) the momentum mv of the airstream passing through it.

Application in practice is straightforward and allows engine thrust

t . b '.,~ l.. ] ti .d f:' "--,~, - · ... ··11.· t·h··, I . /; ... , ... ,'.' ',. d .... rt '! ',', b·' ,', ... th .. rat k .owl

. 0, 'e ealllCUJ[,a ,e· alri,Y eaSl.ly~, "I.e plr~,m,ary a .. v,an. age lelD,g t,· a . 110W -

ed .. ge of conditions within the engine is. not required. Only the conditions ,at the boundaries of the jet engine matter ..

Calculating engine thrust follows a stepwise procedure. The first step is tOI define a meaningful control volume, as required 'by the theorem of mo men ttl-nil (Fi:g .2-4) "

Propulsion of a jet aircraft is accomplished by the principle of'reaction: a gas jet exhausting at high velocity from a nozzle genera .. es a force in. the opposite direction that is termed thrust (F'ig: 2 ... ,3) ...

The ,am.IO;U11t of thrust depends 10'n the mass of the airflow passing through the engine, and the ex'h.au,st velocity'" 'The prOldtlct of m.,ass m. unld 've]ocmty 'v is termed mon1en:turn, ,a n.atne given to this q'ua;nt~ty 'by Descartes (1644).::

mome:ntum I :_. mass n1 'X 'v1elo1city' v Dimensmo·o. is Itnkgls;2. ill SI u,nits;;

Whenever th.le:r·e is a v,ariation. in. ID,onl.en.tum (an eV'cnt tha, will take s,o·m11.e time), a force will b,e glellerated .. Tl~is is. the ·underlyiI1.g prin.ci-p.]e which. ~onn.s th.e 'basis of jet pr,oipulsi.a,n .. i, It has become 'known ,as, 'the theoJ'"e.m ~f momentum., b'ut i8 oo'mmon~~y d,len,ote,d as th.e tl~rust lequa.'-

c A


Fll,ow vel'Olcity ,Area Pressure Contra,1

'vo lurirte

\, I / Am bient: ._ ~-

.;" ~.~ pressu re

IP .~



f'liig 2-4 Expla.iniinQ the mlom,ent:um theorem

34 Jet Engines

'In the second step, all kn,l()wn and unknown forces acting at the boundaries of the cor t 01 volume must be listed and, their sum formed, Note that a distinction has. i '0 'be made be ween solid boundaries through which airflow cannot pass, and gaseous boundaries which will let airflow (and, thus momentum) pass through,

In the example given, engine stations 0 aL11d '9 represent open boundaries through which the airflow is al 0 " ed to! pass, The only forces tha call act on I hem are press-ure forces, Tile other boundaries are solid walls that make UPI the engine easing" on which both pressure and friction, forces act, These forces are considered as un] nown they constitute engine thrust which is the aim of onr ca culation proced .. UTe"

When dealing with forces, it sho .1.I,d, 'b.' noted, thai forces (like veloc-

ities) a .. re vector quantities which not only have a magnitude, but also a direction, As thrust is considered to' act into the' direction offlight, and the flow approaches from left, the thrust vector also points to the left, bearing a negative sign. (- T)., With this assumption, all forces acting on the engine may be formed as follows:

'pressure force, plane 0: +PoAo (pressure force = pressure x area) P ressure forces, plane 9: (in .. ight direction, i.e. negative):

a) acting at area less exit of exhaust nozzle: -Po(Ao-A9) 'b) acting at exit area of exhaust nozzle:' -P19A9

thrust force: (acting in flight direction): -,T

Considering ,an the effects stated I he thrust eq uation assumes the following [simplifiedj form:

,.,.... T ::: m(c9 - vol +, A9 (PrPo)





subscript 0 subscript 9

rn 'kg}

mass rate o ow ,I.' '[S

. ::,. ,oj,..) . Iii'..t .. " ••. , " '--:1.'" ,,' ,; .1. ~.

jet exhaust velocity, m/s .~ . take velocity 1111 s static preSSllre ,- · .. /m2

a rea' ill" 2,

,'1 ,11.:." I

intake station exhau S·. stati 011



, =

Summing a.1I forces in horizontal direction:

S'I lID + PoAo -Po(A·o-A9.) -P9A.g - " = A9 (PUI-,P9) -

T he third step ., s to d etermine th e ti mewise varia ti on of the momentum, i.e, momentum divided 'by' time, which is equal to the S1..U:D. of ami forces:


a) Assumptions:

P9 ::: 'P'O the exhausting jet expands to ambient pressure

Vo _ 0 aircraft at rest

rn = 50 kglsmass flow rate

C9 :::: 600' mls exhaust '. elocity

Resu t: kg

~T _' 5'~O' x 6"' 00 _ 3,1,10"· O' 010' I' rn ~~::;;: "0,· 'k:·'N····.·:

- .... '.. ,~ " ...,.. Sl ,) ..

The dimension ofthrust is frequently ,g~vlen. in, kilo-Newton Deka-f ewton de.N 'when using SI units,

m = II Ol'b[ll mass flow rate

Vexit::::: 1970 It/sec

kN or

"_ ,j""

...... :

momel1tllm = ~,ass x 've!o,emty

, - .

time time

The variation i momentum emerges as a, product of two quanti ies: '~.ass ~,div~ded by 'time' and 'veloci ty'. The' quautity trnass dr ided by time' IS the airflow passing through the e gine in a given time, and ills termed mass flo 'ltV rate, W'lf. h dimension kgJs in, S1 U' . its, lb/s ml1, British units. Hence, the timewise variation of the momentum is the product I?fm.a.··:s Iow rate and, a velocity. In the case.' of a je engine, thisve ocity IS the exhaust velocity,

The above deduction is, strictly.: alid only for the engine at 1 est i.e, before taking off at zero aircraft 'V" .locity. In flight a 1 'velocity ":0 tr e airflow approaching the engine already carries with it an 'intake momentum m * V[i; whic .has to be I edueted when calculating thrus '.

T m (V,'~xit - V'inllet) g'c

1. ~ 'O:~,blmlsec'* (1970ft/sec - Oft/sJec ::: 6735 lb

3 2: 2'mb 'f'U'-" I b '. ·2

- ,.,'~ ill ,,~- I: sec

:',8 many' flow phenomena follow a regular 'pattern, their behaviour is entirely predictable, This property is also made use of fun fluid dynamics which is a special branch of physics,

2- 4" 1 T· .::-., .... -, . .:. t -I,l'~I~

,1,,11 ypes 10 ""ow

Flow passing through a. duct may be either steady air "U isteady. The

flow is considered steady if fluid parameters like velocity pressure I temperatu '~Ie remain constan et any arbitrary cross section of the dU'CI . Their 'values may vary, however, from one section tiO another along the

Je ·t' En·,g·. ln es

."_ I. .-,' - .. -.

,I} 0,\\1" path, The overall streamline pattern essentially remains .. nchanged · .• 'ith ti ne .. n a jet engine at cruising flight conditions, for example, flov p .rameters are constant everywhere,

At compressor discharge there is high pressure of the airflow, Iow velocity, and elevated temperature due to I 'be compressio i action. Similarly flo" 'p,a ~ameters are also C10 nstant at turbine discharge, though at a different level characterized by much. hi gh er temperature and velocity but lower press __ .re,

.A flow :i8 considered unsteady, '·r typical tl.ow parameters at any one cross section change with time, Unsteady phenomena in a. turbojet engine occur during acceleration and decelera jon when adjusting

hr Fl·' .. . .., . d h II .

t ust, I 0·:.': In a reciprocating engine rs unsteady t rroughout,

2~,4~2' St.re,amJln,e end etreemtube

Flliuid motio . ~ 'when viewed microscopically, consists ofan inconceiv ... ably large number lof molecular particles in motion, If we pursue the path of the particles through a tube I( hich may 'be an exhaust nozzle), these particles are seen. to flow along streamlines, 1\ .. characteristic of a streamlir e is its tangeni 'which at any station P'Oil1tS into the direction of the velocity vector ~ S treamtubes enve lope a l1UTI1'ber of strean lines passing th ough a closed curve transverse to the flow .. A. streamline may 'be thought of as a tube having gaseous walls within which the fluid .: ' lows, A streamtube is. made u .. p of lever changing particles, At steady flow conditions, a streamtube behaves like a real tube with so id walls ..

In general streamlines move closer to each other as the area of the streamtube decreases, indicating accelerating fI!ow (F:ig 21"1'5' . his is what aappens in a convergent nozzle, Conversely, as CT'OSS sectiona



;. ,

1".":· .

S~:lrea.m Ilii n a's, Ina I!'m,w'iin!Q if,I'owacceleratiingjl(nlozzle.),

Stirea.mli nes exp,anldi ng 'ftow d ecelera.li n gl I('~ .• HUlSe'f')1


(;)[ ''f'

r:i'\1 ~

I [I


~ c· I:-~

II ,;i!;,

I r.
I ....,.,.-
C'11 I "
.. _ .
- .,....
_., I
I I - I
[I -
- ,
I ~.
.~r - ,~

m 1

c=:)- Al


fig 2-'6 EXIP~.aining conservation of mass

[area increases ill. streamwise direction, streamlines move farther apart from each other indicating decelerating flow, This is 'what happens in a diffuser, SUCl1 as a conventional (subsonic) air intake.

2'.,·4:~3 consetvenon otmetter

One of the fundamental concepts of physics is that matter cannot vanish, "his is of great significance in predicting fluid flow behaviour.

'--- -lor steady-state fluid motion, the continuity ofmatter may be expressed by using the concept of streamlines. The continuity ofmatter simp lv states 'that the same amount of fluid must flow througl every cross .sectioa of a streamtube; fluid cannot vanish within that tube. If the shape of the tube is known, as for example in an exhaust nozzle where the who e nozzle may' 'be regarded as a streamtube, flow char-

acteristics m,ay be calculated ver~y simply ~ .' .. . .'.

This can 'be demonstrated by' first assuming that fluid velocity Vi 18

evenly distributed aCf'OSS the' inlet streamtube area, A, (Fig 2 ... 6). A. fluid flow of volume IQ per second entering a streamtube of cross sectional area A.I. results mn a volumetric flow rs te of:

Flo,w' R.a.te =' VI Al

Mass flow rate m follows 'by multiplying '_' olume flow fate WIDth

density .P (Greek rho):

IDl - ,PI VI A'I

In the.' same' a, ner, airflow leaving the tube is calculated:

Ill,2; ~ Pl2 V2 .: '·2


. ,'.:'1

As mass flow rates both are equal according 'to the mass eonserva-

tion law, exhaust velocity Vi immediately follows:

v, Pl A.] V" 2 - P2 A~ ······1

WIlen evaluating this. equation, additional information about density' P2. at streamtube discharge is required,

Ex,'" a "mp' In,

.~".. ,.' ~

PI ::: P2 A1·= 2Al

Result V.l::: ~/2V'1

incompressible flow, i.e. density constant exhaust area. twice that of inlet area

exhaust velocity is ha f that of inlet velocity,

2',,4 .. ,·4: Oonsetvstion 0" en'e'rgy'

For a .. n understanding of how a jet engine functions, conservation of energy is ofparamount importance, together with a grasp of the law of mass conservation .. and the thrust equation, 'We chose as an example a section of a turbojet engine between combustion chamber inlet (station 3) and turbine discharge (station 5:~ Fig 2-,7)" This section was selected becau se heat of quantity 'Q is added to, the ,g,8LS in. the combustion chamber, while mechanical work is extracted in the turbine, in the form of shaft power,

c. ()

~I I i I
~ I ~ ~ I
0 I ~ II II ,II
® ® (~) ® <1)
, . .
iil:1 -
CJ C:- C7
p. ;5
P3 1\
1 , 1P1'
"11 13 y' 9-1'
t~1 ~'3 ts ~'1' Fjgl 2,·1 Explainling conservation of energy

.Jet engine fundamen.als



The energy conservation law states that energy' contained in the gas when entering the control volume, plus energy added or extracted within that control volume, equals the energy of the gas leaving the control volume, . .nergy cannot disappear ..

When entering a control volume, the energy of the gas comprises the following components:

1 Internal energy, depending ·OIU]Y on the temperature of the gas, expressed 'by' thermodynamic quantities specific heat at constant volume c, and static temperature t3;, i.e, ey t3

.2 Pressure energy', expressed by static pressure P3 and density .P3 i ,.'f'., p-yi P3

3 Kinetic energy, expressed 'by the square of the gas velocity, i,e, "'1')1

C3~ s:

In the combustion chamber heat Q is added. In cycle analysis, heat (of dimension J = Nm/s in Sf units) is usually referenced to mass flow .ate (kg/s) tOI arrive at consistent dimensions, namely Nm/s /kg/s = ,m1ls2 •.

In a turbine mechaniea energy is extracted which we 'may denote by L, also with dimension. m2/s2 in SI units,

'When the gas is leaving the control volume at. turbine discharge (station 5); gas energy' consists of the fa, lowing components:

.~ In .tIIPm' .al ',' ene rgy c t,

lll.. "'-'. ... " '.' ,.'it. J

2 Pressure energy' plsl Ps ), Kinetic energy c~?-I.2

The following energy balance may now be made:

.... fu C3L: Q 'm - .. t ,+ ~+ C52

Cvt3 + 'P'3'+ 2 ,+ m - lilt = c, s : p's II 2

Without going' into further detail it should 'be noted that the above

equation represents the first lO'1tV in thermodynamics. .'

If neither heat '~8 added to' the gas nor mechanical work extracted

from it, the energy equation will reduce to

h3 + ~- h, + %

'W'e have denoted as static enthalpy h: h .=. c.t, + pIp =: Cpt3

'which together with kinetic energy c2l2 forms total enthalpy H:

tt is denoted as total temperature which will 'be frequently used in subsequent chapters, as we I as total pressure Pil" Total quantities

Jet engine fundamentals 41

merely denote kinetic energy components added to' their respective

.. 1 'S·'· t .. t'·t·' h .. ,. ,

'. . . , ro, I'" ..' .' .. . l ..... " '. . . ' ~.... -n- . '.... . .. .. ,. , ..,' '..

static va ues, . auc quanti ies sue' as. stanc pressure P's or static

i&-,,; . ~ ','C. ,- '.".' t .. "", t .• 'I' th ":", ,'. ,.' """ hich . -c"' .• ',',' be ,."- """, .'. I' : ed ' .. it 'L.., tL.." nd-h ,- 'I"d'

tempera ure -s are 1_ nose wrnc may be measured W].I_u. nano ne ",

instruments, I:n a jet engine where airflow quickly passes through,

. 't,· tic . I'" tit ~ '. .... "": i . ,'~Id:' 'b···· .''_ , .. - , -"" d :·f: . .-' :' c· t, ,'" ,", . t: ','" l1d· be i - - .. d ' .. -"

stauc quanunes COU~.'_:,e measureo I msrruments CO,U], ,'e mae to

move with the fluid, m .. ,le", without registering any velocity, Distinction between static and total quantities serves the 'better to understand jet en .. gine functioning,

Tsp::: ~ with dimension r;

_ TIle specific thrust parameter 'may 'be conveniently 'used to compare jet engines,

Thrust' related to' frontal area

In order to characterize aerodynamic efficiency, this parameter relates

1~~1--- I st 't"I'" t h ' ... '- .. " ~::., '., .. ,' " .. 'I "'-', .'. "'. ,,' . "' .. ~: • '.' .. ' "'f':" tl '.' .. :.-. " ,' .. ' .,

IJJ.~ru~1 0.. e maximum cross-section o I ae engine:



til .. : :)

Performance parameters which are of direct 'utility to the aircraft

designer are thrust and specific fuel consumption, -

A- d ~ d '·11 ~ "' h enzi 'T'h ~ .. ,

f ,._ , , :. :'; ".~' ..... ' ...• II ;",- ('" -_ ",._. (:_. ' . .'."_. I l . 'Ii' .. "'," '. 1'\ "," .: .' . ,. ,>' ,-: -. .a -,-1.,-. / •. ~ ._,:~ .•.... ' ,'_. '. . .. ' ",' ',' . '1' "_". "

. .ero . .ynamlc,.rag WI .. increase wit ' .. en,glne c.ross section. .. e·re. Ofle

keeping engine maximum diameter small is a prerequisite for an effi-

" .,. ll' .'

", ': . ',' 1't"'1 " -'J .,.',.. 11'1.' , ..• J,'

cient engine msta atron


The most important parameter for engine class ificati o,n, is. thrust

(C' h . t-..§'I.' 2' 3"')"

I ..... I .a P'l!.Gf· ._.' ',I,.

Thrust equation:

T -: ri1(C9 = co) +, (P9A9 ~ poAn)

If the propulsive jet when discharging from the nozzle, is not expanding to atmospheric pressure, then ,at the exhaust nozzle cross section area A9 at, pressure force A.9(P9' -. PIO) arises which is acting in the direction of 'the fhrust. However" the maximum theoretical thrust will not be achievable in this case as the exhaust velocity cannot achieve its maxi mum, and the additional pressure force (although su .. pporting thrust) cannot compensate the momentum deficit. Highest efficiencv is.

l~ ,J

obtained 'with the nozzle adapted, which. would require P9 ::: Po~

2,,,6, ,Systems of units

Two systems of'units pertaining to jet engines are in. prac .ical use today: 1 the Internationa] System of Units (Sl system)

2 the British gra vitational system. of units

The SI unit system (Systeme International d'Unites) is a. standard ... , ized system of units adopted by all indu strialized nations, though IlIO!t yet fully implemented. Throughout the aviation. industry' other systems continue to exist, despite obvious shortcomings, Because of the greater familiarity of some readers 'with the British. systems of units, examples and formulae will also b'e given. in these systems together with appropriate conversion procedures ..

S· .. ,tfl-' f I ti· ("S'" Fe:' . )

.. I ,_. I ". . 'i"·' ... " .' .' .. ' '.

P,OCl1IC ue ,conslUDp ... Ion, ," "-.'

N ext to thrust; specific fuel consumption is. one of the most important engine performance p •.. arameters defining the amount of fuel used to achieve Q,D.e unit ,of thrust over a finite '.perilod of time, Specific fuel co nsumptio n is frequently given ill the dimension of kg fuel/dar thrust/hour in SI units, or Ibm. fuel/lbf '. hrust/hour in British units, which are both of equivalent value,

The Jnternati onal System of Uui:ts

This system was designed 'by Italian scientis Giorgi as early as 190'1 and is considered the most modern of all systems used", It uses 6 independent 'units, of which four are of significance when dealing 'with jet ,(,'l!!11CI" n"C' e,c. .

~'" §, . ,.·.·dl~

S ' ecific thrus,t

Assessment ofhow efficiently the airflow of the engine ills converted to a propulsive force may be made by using a parameter which states lOW ,much thru.st i.s, achieved bly one unit ,of In,ass fl.o,w· rate,. In SI {tnits, specifi.c thrust d,en.'ot.es th.le amount lor th~ru8t (in Id.aN !o.r kN) p'.rod:u,oed 'b'-'\j' '~I k···. o-/·':,c- ~a: 'l"r'fl' 0'" ·w·: .. :"

.... J. I ... ~.lIJjj ... ,I ... , ..... !i!

the kilogram (kg) as the unit lor mass the metre (m) as the unit of Iength the second as the unit of time

the degree Kelvin (K) as the unit of temperature

As units of mass- length and time are given, a unit of force ca,n'not be ,ch.'os,en arbitrariI'Y 'but is detennil1e(l by N·e'wt.on:~s S,f)COlld ill,aw (force ':= In.ass 't]~nes a.ecelerati,on). The ll11it ,of £o'fce selected \\las of s;uch In,a.gni lud.e as tlo giv'f' 1 kg mass an accelleratiO'n of 1. mls2~ T.l1is urnt of


[ .,:.'.

Jet Engines


- .

," ','

force .IDs termed. a Newton (IN' = Imkg/s"), TIlls unit IDS too small tlo be convenient for denoting engine thrust .. Therefore multiples of the unit are us ed ':: the Deka-Newton (1 da.N := 10 N) (If' even. more commonly the kilo ... Newton k'N' (1 kN =: 10'010 N). Other uni ts of'measurement such

~ .". "'1-'" '. . . 1- I" .: '!I[J':. ,·'1 ... ' '.', .r<",' -,-e" d e- '1~~'V' "If!ii',d' m1"k· ewi ·S-IP (T: , . s·,·, 'I~ 2·' .... l)i

as pressu.re" en.er,BY" power ar.' '._ .. L ~ .. _ 1Il, , ~'.' '- - -' ""' ,,,.

Also, specific thrust, another engine performance parameter defined as pounds of thrust per pound of mass airflow per second may 'be regarded ,as pounds of thrust 'per pound of airflow weight 'per second, having the same numerical value:

The British. system of 'units

Accepted 1111its of the English gravitational system (EGS) are

- t h e foc I·t· ~ r th ,-''dj" ,.f" leneth

. ,e. 00 ~ as It e [1m IU, o,~. ,w.eng.~ .

- the pound mass (Ibm) as the unit of mass

- the sl'ug as the unit ,of mass

- the pound (Ib) as the unit of force

- the second (s) as the unit of time

- the degree Rankine e~R) as the unit of temperature

It is particularly important to keep in. mind that 1 Ib of force ills defined as the force of gravity acting 0'1:1 a mass of '~ pound (Ibm). Hence I 1 lb ofmass corresponds to 1. pound of weight. For the frequently used engine performance parameter of thrust speeific fuel consumption (TSF'C), defined as pound mass offuel pier h.!on,r'per pound of thrust, this quantitatively mJ:IY ble regarded, as pounds weight of fuel

h d r 1-

. '. ., -. -'. - - ... --'.. . .'.' -. . ~ I ' •.

per 0 IJr per pOIUD,. 0 '. t ar ust:

'-.' 0"" I nd "S of fu el '--:-1:' ieht f1l" . '1-". _. .- .( .... _"1'" ho - .. lb/h

TSFC = P u .. ' ,,, ,,' .c·· weng :,," "~w pe.r ,,,,.Otl[,.

pounds of engine thrust, lb

QU8lnlily' Uni'l D'el'i'nit:iion
I m kg
l' N 11 N 1
N' wt - ""
'orca ., l. ' r- (. .. -
e·· ,anj .2
91n191rg'yl wOllrk Jou~e'~~ ,J 11 J 1 Nm 1 1m2 Ikgl
= ,= ,
=='" - - S2 I
J 2 ,k,gl
Watt~, W W' '1 11 rrr
plowelr ~ ~ ~,
=. ~,
I S 31
, s
11Pla= 1 N
pre SSIUI r'I9 Pascali IPa, -
_ ['_--." :.. J.~' , ml .2
nr ~ bl - .-

, _".. I .', I'. ~ iii]

T,iI-/ e ,2 1

Ai!! ill. t k - -

.... ' .... , .. r I' .... · '1/ .•.. ,

,[I r I n a ces

A·"" k

Illr II ntakes


circular cross-section, the air intake forms the forward part of the engin s. e na celle ,S:', D' bsonic air in take s are also a pplied t·· '0'" some c 'o"'-'m-: b a t

. ', .... ", '" "". ~ .... ~ ,", ... ' ..... 1, ... 11. tli.-JIl. . .w. ._ .. lll.rtll. f. • I. . I lll.ili" .. :' I ... -,'-I... _ ... ~ .. ~" ,ILlI"il•··. '._:' : ...• _," • ....• •

. . .

aircraft and virtua Y' all jet training: aircraft that operate near the speed

of sound. Here 'we find, intake shapes of e liptical, half-circular, Of' even

'. ~ '. ~ h i k d h 4\"" 'mil '·dl

irregular cross-section, wit 1 mtat es mounte on the ruseiage sides 10'('

under the fuselage, An, arrangement with the intake in the fuselage nose, as applied to the- F=10'0 Super Sabre fighter of the fifties, for

1.. 1 d: b '.' ~ 1iI d-I d

examp ,Ie:, IS no ionger use' .• ecause It requires a iong duct extending

for much of the' length of the fuselage, entailing great fluid dynamic losses.

F~,IOW problems associated, with the' air intake result from the extensive operating range of the engine, ranging from full thrust with the aircraft o'n the ground, up to cruising speed at altitude.

Of" -. .~ .... ,if." "' l' ... , : ... ,.'. '··'1"" '. .'. ., trh . " , 't·· m,..· f'-f''- ,t" t" " ,. . . ,. th th ,

: p'arllCu ar l,m,pO'flanCle IS. .' .. "e p!re'-""a,~e-"o'", s··,a_~c case· Wl·.,I,1 . 'e

engine deli vering maxim um t h rus t ~ ,A s t he ambien t air in, thi s particular

In the following chapters we win learn about the five major turbomachinery components of a jet engine: air intake, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and exhaust section. Each ofthese contributes uniquely to the generation of thrust.

Because the airflow first 'passes through the air intake when approaching the engine it makes sense 1.0 start our description with

hi .- ,. 'I" b . .h hi ,-.., . "

t nis section" ,.t soon oecomes apparent t •. , at this relatively simple

looking component poses a 'number offluid flow and mechanical problems, In, some supersonic aircraft, for example, [he air 'intake becomes

an e·x,· tremely ..... ' ... ,1" d' i ", ,. . :, -', - ',' "-I' ~, . " ,-".-"" , ·,ft·,·,,,, - t ."",', . '·,1 .

:',11,'_']],,1.1,_ ,~, compiex oevice requmng enormous e ,IOf, property to,

control the airflow to the engine.

In any application - subsonic transport or supersonic fighter - the air intake is essentially a fluid, flow duct whose task is, to process, the airflow in a way that ensures the engine functions properly to generate thrust.

Depending on engine arrangement and aircraft design speed, a great variety of intake shapes exist, D'U'f to the influence of intake flow on overall aircraft performance, responsibility for intake design rests with the aircraft manufacturer, not the engine maker ~ However both partners work closely together to arrive at an, OPI. imum solution.

The intake must be designed to provide the appropriate amount of airflow fie qui red, by the engine and" furthermore, that this flowwhen leaving: the intake section to enter the compressor will 'be uniform, stable, and of high quality, These conditions must be met not only during all phases of flight, but also on the ground, with the aircraft at 'rest and, the engine demanding maximum thrust prior to, take .. off, Good intake design is therefore a prerequisi ~e if installed engine performance

:", '" t· ..... '. '. ..... .. . .. ;1!, ,0,- t ' .. c'. . ..... fl' -,~; , . -, - b .~ .. ,. 'd' .. ' . 1\. " .," . - . be ..1l.

IS ,0 'C01TJ,e CJlO se 0 perrormance ugures obtamec , at the static test r 'lenCJ11 ~

Intake design basically ills accomplished 'by' applying the laws of fluid dynamics, As the flow behaves differently at S:Uo'bS011ic and, supersonic flight speeds, a distinction 'is made 'between intakes that operate mainly in subsonic external flow and intakes that operate particularly we, m in s uperson W c 110 W',

{}- Crosswlllld

.' Super:s,olll ic flow IPDSSnll~e';,

l'f~ow' " n

S.ta,gn at~o n po,ifllt i_ Extiernal fl,1l\III

I e-

____ ,= _ =,_~.~..-, __ ,_,--:~; .. .;.-'J-"""'_.~ -~~.

Fig ,3~-'1 II ntake flowtield

a) al rc raft at rest (stati c)

b) stanc p~LJS crosswind

c) law-speed 'fJl'~ght

'The standard subsonic air. intake has found widespread application with, high-subsonic civil and military transport aircraft" Being ofquasi .. ,

Air intakes



case is nominally at rest, the air within the inlet duct must 'be accelerated to the 'velocity required 'by the compressor, In. the static case- the intake acts Iike a. sink drain in that it has a core depression drawing in. fluid, In the engine case the fluid .. is air, which is drawn from around the nacelle, even from behind the intake lip (Fi:g 3·-1 a), Airflow from behind the lip. in particular, is forced around the sharply ... bent lip contour where the flow may separate due to extreme local acceleration,", Separated flow entering the engine may, however, critically degrade engine performance. To reduce the risk, of flow separation, the intake Iip is well rounded which will a, ways result in a thicker Iip, On, the other hand, high-speed perf o rman ce requires thin, intake lips, so large-radius

'.' ak' 'm~' b id d

Inti ce dpS mus _ ee avoto eo.

The idealized assumption IO:f ambient air U'I rest and 'with ingestion into the intake uniformly firom all sides is ]10t 'tIO 'be' found ill practice. Due to. the vicinity ofaircraft components such as eng .ine pylon wing-

. . ..... . . - "" .' . __ . , '_' ,~, '- ... ' .. " . .., .. ' .. ..' "., - '.' -.. . _: '. " ' ,_,

and fuselage, deviations from the' idea will result which distort the

'. fl'- d d de i k 4C" Addi ~ ~l h '.'

alr.:, I ,lOW' ,im;n,_ '_ ,Ie,gra ,e In ta ,:e perr o rma.noe '.' _! I . I inonat y,') 'W ·en engutes

are mounted under the wing, a ground vortex, can develop 'which is swallowed 'by the ill take and acts to degrade intake performance, Fortunately 'this vortex disappears with the' aircraft accelerating

duri the take "f,'f" ._-, W·:,·." t' h ,,~ .. ' " "'1 nt .. d - .•. , , :'; .. :'} ··.·· .. _.iIr.··,','

nfln"g ; .. e a, ,e'-'o ' fUln., , 1,. .rear-m,OtUl e. engInes, [a Simi, ,ar v,o,rt,ex.

develops on the fuselage which also disappears as the aircraft takes u,p speed .. These vortices become visible if the runway is wet", or if atmospherie conditions favour condensation effects, and 111,8.y' be seen from

tl .. -;-;". ' '; . ',- .. "', '''-,' .' b '.'"

. 1,e p,as.sem1,ger c,a [·In~

Another source of impairing intake performance is crosswind, On the windward side of the air intake, the crosswind component adds to'

. , . , , •• ' .. ,' I '. • " .' . '" ,I. " ,1- " ,_ ,"",', L '_""",' ",I, . "_ . _. . .'

the flow' at the lip leading tOI a further increase of excess velocity there (FI,g 3-1b)., If the crosswind is strong enough, velocity at '[he lip may even exceed the speed [of sound locally, with separa ted flow entering the compressor ... Because of possible blade damage, some aircraft are restricted from .' applying f· ... ull th m I st before the aircraft 111111218"· attained a

_ L;;Ji·., "...... . ' I ...• ' . .111. Ii., .. ,L) .' .-.,_'_ 11l,.".::,IIL. .. ii' ,tl!'.,· " .. ,I!!,CL...·· ' '.

- .

srp'ecific 'nrininlum g':'.'I'",olun,d rol~fung~~' sp':eed T'hws 18 tllile case [01" example

. :. '.:.:' ..... , .' .. ,., • ... .. " .... ,-. . ." ...• .',. '. '. '_" _ • ..:_' 1.1 ,'I J. ': ~'. " .. _ " .'. , ',' . " .. , " . • ' , .' ';

with, he Lockhe,ed" C5~A 'G,al~lx'y, for w·h.ich a, 'rol.lfun.g~ take-off is

r'oCiolq ... -u~ '1· ·lr1e·· .d·. '}" 'f' 1IIh~' 10f,O·· }S-,cW', 1" n.d· I~'V ~~Q>.dl 'r[! 01 V' ,0. ~ 0'· '.' 1("O't·: Y" '0"'[[1· ~4·· '5:-: kmJ····,.·· " ,h, ( .. 2~·'4·:·- k,· t) _

~, .. _,W ' .. _' ," ~l!r. ~~.. !Wi. . ~,Lr,A,VvU Ll !~-111 ._, ~~,. ~, " '-. _! _ '. " ". '. ::,.

As "'he aircraft ,aooeillerates fu,rther ,durin"g' he gr,o'ulld rol1~ the stream=, Ii-n.e :p,attern [at, the ,air il1ta,ke c.han,ges~ Beca.use air is .n,o' .~ong:ler in"duced ..

. . _

fro,:m downstream ofth,e :~ipl~ d.istu.r'ban,oes frOlm all'I(;Jr.aift oompo,n,ents in.,

tl1Lat a're a aIle lar,geiy e~.inlil1.ated '" H o,,,r[eve r, as lo'ml,g ,as th,fe' aircraft l1as n,f)t ;achieve,d a veloc:mty' suita,bi],e f,or t:h,e comn:press1or, a,irflo'w' 'wit]1

, .. ' . iIl-~.""" ,~, '. ·b· -. ~., "1"" ifi·.i:1iid' ,"t·· 'h···· '1 .,,' "' ',' .. ,'. '1'''-'' d~ ,-, " ~ ·the ,';' ... - 'h' ·t ,'. '" 1 .....

conIU.n,u:e ILO . e acce er,al~I., Will .. 1,.In _~l,e .m,n_at,.K,e ','. UCI!!,.,. =oug. ·o,a lesser

Idegree. This fact is .'~e.fl"ecte[d 'by th.e streal11tu'be p,at_ern i~lp'p,:ro'a~ching the intake (Fi:K 3 ... 1 c) , Because airflow within, thJf str'eam._ub,e' co,rr!es:p,onds to m[ass flow' I"'[ate of tl1e ellgine:; a. con,tr',action, of b.,e streamtu'be wil.~ be'

ibs ',"', '-' d the b "", ", Id·' . '.), '. tr · .. ·c··"i-· 1"'" I : __ I"" 'f' vhich will teo rmina tile' I"1F111 S .. tag na'-'

o . ser\le" I~ e I,oun.mng s e.am. nes 0, W., .t. . .. .'.' '. ;.' .., ... ~Jlll . ,u;;w,_ '-

tion points. on, the cowl. With, aircraft velocity increasing, stagnation points continue to move forward '011, the cowl,

, .. 1 f ~ kei

As C';'O[S8 section, Ao of the streamtube w···II ahead Oi·· the intake W.eS

determined by engine mass flow rate" the size of the streamtube may simp ill Y' be determined by applying continu . ity considerations, Continuity requires mass flow rate m at any cross-section within, the streamtube tal be the same, which is hence a constant. Mass flow rate at cross-section Ao, in particular exactly equals mass flow rate at 'the

. . . .. . ... f'~ A···· vhi h "t ··If'''· . fl" '.' ,~t~·., '. - 1'1- .' '.',. " ..... 'n 0" W" H"le"'n' C·'IiP'·

compressor I,ace '2, W ,I~,C. I. II se I re,lecls en,g ,Ile In,ass .1 .. 0 ,. . , I. "-'",

We have learned in. tile preceding Chapter, that 'mass flow rate may also, be expressed by air density ,P (Greek rho), airstream velocity V" and, streamtube cross-section area ,A". Therefore the requirement of mass, conservation may be expressed for the particular flowpath stations '0 (upstream infinity) and 2 (compressor face) as follows:

station 0 (upstream infinity): rilo = po V nAo

station 2 (compressor face):

rD2 =,P1V1A1.

As 'both mass flow rates are equal by definition cross section of the streamtube at upstream infinity will result as a. simple expression:

- P2 V2 .

.A,o :;:; Ph V-:' A.2

. u. 0

If the assumption is made that air density will not change within the streamtube between stations 0 (upstream infini y) and 2 (compressor face), then streamtube cross-section Ao depends only on aircraft flight speed Vo, because airstream velocity at the compressor face is determ,ined, 'by t.h.e comp'ress,of:, 'with c~)mp,:ressor el11ralfJlCe cross-sectio1n A2 a constan,t 'b,y' d,esign~ 'With, th!ese CO"Dsiderati,on,g in rnin,d", th,e stream~ine pattern at :high~speed. cfuisi:n,g ,flight. 'will b,e' cl1!aracterized .. 'by' a cr,os,s,sJe1ction ,are'a Au ,at 'u,plS'tream, 'il1,fil1ity', w'hich is 'markled~y 'Smaller than the cross-sectio[fl, ,at the en.tr,an,loe of the intake (th[e: il1taJce "rughlig]tt' area)~ T·his. w'iillill r'esttl't i'n, a d:,ece~e,ratioln, of tbe flo[w' inflme,d,iately Ilpstream, ofth.e mntak,ie, witllil pressure inlc'fle'asmng, eve'n befo,re the airflow en ters th.'e :intake f: .g :3 ... ,2:0),.

W!e h,a,v'e lea .. rn[e,d, 'in th,e p,.recedio,g para,gra..phs tl1_.at f:om:~ I~rn ,air'breatl1in,g ,engi~1.e t!o fu:ncti,on G[o'rrectIy ~ e'ofJlp'rl~'ssilon, of air is ,a plre:rlequi8ite~ A.'er'o,d,ynamie co,mpression oCCtl.rs in fl,Qw' ,d'uc'_s 'w'hose cross-,s:ectic)'na1 area, gr,aduaUy incre:ases in S' re,alTIWmSe dir,e1cttioI1l1,., " ,dtLC_

48 Jlet Engines

. '-.

SI . on = th rUlst -, 7"'_ i_""""""_'

within the intake duet, eliminating the need for a. mechanical compressor.

A fluid is relucta .. nt t[o :flow through a duct of increasing pressure, much as water resis s flowing uphill, In fact, a diffuser may be I bought of as a pump with no moving parts that raises the: pressure of the fluid it pumps. In. order to prevent '~lle flow from separating along the wal ills, the interior surface of the diffuser must be carefully shaped and be 81]1,[0[0'111 and unobstructed by steps or kinks, otherwise the sensitive boundary layer (between main stream and diffuser wall) may separate, This would result in a partial loss of kinetic energy' and its conversion into unusable heat, a process tennedjriction which always results in a degradation of total pressure. If it were possible for the decelerating flOIW to convert all of its kinetic energy into pressure, then total pressure of t . ie· flow would remain constant and 'the so ... called pressure recovery' would be 100 per cent. Due to fric tion, which 1S inescapable with rea! flow (as. opposed to idealised frictionless flow), ,:I loss in iota pressure will result, What rna ters is Ian appropriate design of the diffuser that minimizes these adverse effects, Expertise is also required because. calculation methods are still insufficient, despite considerable progress ill the field of computationa fluid dynamics ('CFD). .

When considering the 'three characteristic intake flow cases of static" low-speed and high-speed additional fluid dynamic effects must be taken into account that. pertain, to an optimum intake [design". First; it should 'be noted that a nacelle causes aerodynamic drag, which accounts for about .3 per cent [of total aircraft drag. r ... ot only that, a nacelle contributes to aircraft weight. Both factors affect payload and

J~a~1 nge

, ,. ,,f" !Ii


Economic requirements therefore dictate that the e I gine intake must

'be a lew-d .ag, lightweight construction that is carefully and exact y manufactured .. Because many requirements are conflicting, the final intake design must necessarily be a. compromise, The primarytask of the intake, i.e. to provide a flow' of , high quality must not. be compromised,

The requirement for low-drag will primarily be imposed 'by the highspeed cruise case. Today' s high-subsonic cmise flight lv ,ach numbers which are ir the range of ". ach 0 .. 78 to 0.,85,; call for an intake desigr which featu ·Ie·s a relatively 'thin intake [ i.e. where the external. dimension of the intake is not much greater than. the inte rnal diame er. This will result in a small nose radius, . eading to a relatively thin-lipped air intake. The external flow surrounding the intake streamtube will effeclively be prevented from deve oping ~ ndesi ~a.bl.e excess velocities at the lip minim izing h . risk [of flow s .paration with its correspor .ding increase :,n drag, What Is IR'O[ -'[e" if the external flow is mac e to pass the intake lip 'correctly " addi ional drag resulting from ram effect ahead of the intake may effectiver be educed, Such reduction is accomplis ed

T'· ~

AIiJ[ --_~-~. ~----.,," =-~---t/~/----L_r---.- __

1 ~~~"~

. , ,_,..-r-<---

»< _.,.../


." :res,llJlltliil'g sucUo:n fo[rce!

Excess flow, \

\ causing suction force


Stagna,non polnt

iFigl3 2 lntake 'f~owtlield at h~gh speed (cruise)

a) flow s.ta.gnatin9 ahsac off intake

b) ideal "f,low a.rou nd intake nose

with the ability ,.1 o reaa .d a. flow and convert its kinetic energy into press rre energy IS termed a diffuser.

. ~ At su~fic~ently high flight Mach numbers, for .i n stance at cruising flight, airflow approaching the engine will be faster i han v ould be tolerable for the compressor. Due to the diffuser ac 10'0 [of 'the air i~take" which is 18. deceleration of the airflow and a build-up [0 I :J pressure, [alrs,~~:am .ve~[ocity will be adapted to the need of the comp ·'essor., Additionally due to the rise in pressure, a considerable benefit to, the engine cycle results so . hat less mechan ical energy is required for [Coll~p'r,e.sslon. ~ It . hould be no eJd that, in tl e cas, IO:f a. ramjet engine (which w, " will not consider here) tile complete compression OCCli S

50 .let E,ngiiins8

so' ely' by the airstream flowing around the nose. As the flow' follows

. . f , . l' ., '". ~ d I hi h

" .', . . .' . ',' '. . . • . " I :. ,': ,I', . '/;;. '!. .":": ,.......,. ',', .... I a. -:' '. ',II I ':- .' I 'J:' -' .' -_-," ,",:: .' -'!II .•. ' ~: •

the contour 0 the nose, excessive velocmes can ~ eve 'O',P w ]C' may

even attain (mow) supersonic speeds This will cause a, zone oflow p ressure around the intake's circumference, leading to the exertion. of an aerodynamic force wi ,11 a component acting in . he direction of engine

• "_ ••••• : ,'_ , •• ,',.. • •• '._ ~........! _. ' • ~'," """'. _,"_ - ._ .~."" •• ' • • - ~.. • ~'. • • • .' • _. • •

thrust and termed nose suction (Fig: 3 ... ·,2b)~

However beneficial a. thin intake is For high-speed cruising flight, performance at take-off or even low-speed flight 'will 'be greatly degraded. Due ·.'0' an alteration of the streamline pattern at these offdesign flight. phases, the strong curvature at the sharp, nose will cause the flow to separate at the interior part of the intake lip. Appropriate

d ,. b ~I ~ d fl' .'.' tl

,ieslg:n measures must be applied to prevent ':' 'O;W' separation 10_ aese

critical phases of flight, even at the expense of a. reduced high-speed performance.

One of these measures calls for an, increase of intake cross-section the better to match engine airflow demand at low-speed. high-thrust

- ,

engine settings, However, high-speed performance will inevitably 'be

.. d A' ddi . mm t"" b . . k ·1'11 h b

compromrseo ,.'_.,Itilon,aj[JIly~ curvature 0:, the intake wiu r ave to' oe

incre ased within th e intak te ductwh ere the flow t'e' 1i11,d· S·· to separate If not

.ILJIL.I .. ~ ' '.".:. I .. ,,·JJl: . ', ", ,. ~ I, ~ , •.... ," __ .• _:_lIJ·, .. ·. __ .: :.' ~ I ", ' •. ", • Iii " I ..••• , ...

done correctly, sonic 'velocity may be reached by the intake flow at the 'throat' where the cross-section is smallest causing .. blockage (. t he

'" " ,', _. _ _ ' , .. ',,' '. ,.,'. IW'1i]! ',,' ." " ,'. I, . ~,'.'''.'''''' I" c·,... . ~ ~,.,. ' ~ '" :",.,.,:.,., . .", .

blockage effect is further discussed in. the nozzle chapter),

Another measure which has proven, effective, particularly' with sharp-nosed high-speed intakes, was the introduction of additional secondary intake ducts that open at high-thrust, low-speed or take-off conditions, Driven by' a pressure differential between intake duct and external flow, a number of spring-operated doors around the intake cowl open inward to give passage into secondary flow ducts which serve tOI increase the effective intake c .oss-section and. hence, the airflow A: :.,t th e sam e time flow thro .: ugh the main int a' ke cross-section

.~~ ••..... II! •. t!Jr. .. ,.,!iZJ" , . LlIL~L.'I., _ 'n ._l" ... ,.11.. ..',. u·~ 11·· ~.'. Lr '. JL. !i.'l. L ..:. .... ~,~. ,

is reduced with the additional benefit of preventing the primary airstream from attaining excess. velocities, (This measure is no longer appli ed tlo' modern commercial transport aircraft because of the

in c "._',.~ sed . ,',.- ", .: '1" '" .. '. " ....• ; ,".' .: ,,' ... :.-." " .': ~, ~" th ," 'I .1l . ..",- ..... ' d ,'. ..,. .. d: ., "

1.', . leas. compressor noise escaping I. rougn pnmary all secondary

intake ducts.)

W, , ,,"]'1 ' , " . , .. 1 .. ·.- ,·,'k· .. ,It t'- .. · '. ;. ''''d'~, "'.~ , , ' If'"'' ,', ','1 ,. tl t d ." -." - t .~. t . th " e WI ' now ,,0'10,,', .a,I~WO! raruware examples tna ....• emons rae ILl, e

" f~' b ., . ~ k

comp exrty 0, SU,I_'SOflJC air intakes

The first describes the intake of the Lockheed, C-,141 Starli ter military transport. This intake is particularly noteworthy because of its extremely short duct, denoted as 'zero-length inlet' by Lockheed" which enabled a Iightweight construction of high aerodynamic performance [Fig ,3-3)" Due to its, small radius, the intake lip' is relatively

h· d d '1). h d d .' k h

S rarp-eugec W,H1C, mane necessary a secondary inta ce system, tna

comes into effect at high airflow rates with the aircraft static, or at low

Slot ,m .a.uxi Iii Sty :llntallm --I.-!' C:om,n!re,sso'r entrance -t----i

. , IT""

. _._. ~Hr·----lHlit-·· ----f-"'

Av';sym m- . 'etlr~c' In'1"~J~ 11i"">,'T"'n' '118' ,

A,I .,' I '.. II" _~o·~ IL.FU ,'.,


~'a'n streaml eiXhaus;1

Fijlg 3·3 Air intake of Lockheed C-14'1

52 Jet Enqines

speed" The slotted inlet I unbodies 12. sets of outer doors pivoted at the cowl, TIle doors open against a, spring . orce if a pressure drop exists between the 'low' static press. re o,n the engine side of the doors relative tOI that of the external side of the doors.When the doors open, addi ... tional flow passages of nozzle shape (i.e. area decreasing in streamwise direction) are provided that. terminate ,at, the' circumference of the intake duct a ead of the compressor face,

It ills interesting to learn the reasons for designing a duct . hat short which SOl favourably contributes so little to the aircraft' s weight, The an sw ze r 1 s found 1"'0' t h Ie' req 'UI .ire nn . e nts 0"[ t hi e'·· airc ... ra f a, n d I the t'y':' pical

IlL 'Cc' ,11,. 1 I . . '" ,J I.. . I ", ,.." Jt.." . ," . , .' ,JIL "", ~ _ " . _' ',".'

charac eristics of the engine. The C-,]41 transport is designed to :fly at around 430 kt (800 km/h) 'which is significantly lower than the speed of present-day SUbS011ic transport aircraft flying at around 9001 km/h (or Mach 10,,85 at II. km altitude). The Pratt & Whitney TP ... 33-P-7 engine, on the other hand, tolerates a relatively high compressor inlet

Vie' "'110,- C.·'l"'!I1-·y O,O:"t' *1' ·0'0 far below free stream velo .. icity F·' -~O' m'" what W· 1.pI! h a '-V'" Ie·:

.c I,. I~,~, .' a- IU., '. I •. ' ." w _,', aj! , "-' ( , 1111. '_]" ,I!,IIJ,. .. ~' . . I , • :. '.' """"," " .

learned about the relationship of streamtube cross section and 3,IDfflow velocity, 'we may easily conclude that, m the case of C,-,]41 aircraf " the streamtube cross-sectional area A2 at the compressor face is only marginally greater than tI11e streamtube cross-section A, upstream ahead of the intake. In other words, the crucial area ratio AQ/A2 auains a fairly high value close to 1 ~ Another 'benefit of the engine's high inlet velocity is the elimination of the need 1.0' decelerate the oncoming flow in the diffuser which would necessarily be accompanied by a reduction in aerodynamic efficiency due to fluid dynamic losses 'in the duct,

.t should 'be n"o ed, however" that the; 'C-, ,41 transport is a. dated

design that first flew in 1963 3l11d ell ered set vice' with the 'U'SAF in ~,964~ Similarly with the engines, The TF-33 engine's bypass-ratio of lo'n ly 1 ~4: 1 reflects t . e state-of-the-a .. rt of \' he early sixties, Present day engines feature bypass-ratios of 5 and more, 'with grea 'Iy improved perrormance. These engines require an intake that precludes a shortdu c ... ,t 8:'0' uti "I; on' A··· 11180' fr om n 0' iis Q con sid eratio as a,' sh ort-duct in et is 198"~

.:.' ,I :! ...... !U .. , .. ,,,~.'I .. ;, I. " I .... ~.\J"i:., - ,'.~." .. ! .l!..1 ·,.Ul·- 1.1 LJ.l.IJ.l .. I. _' ,', .IlL .. ', JL,.I.III.~ i.#.!

desirable, However witb the a.. ailab e technology of th'e' time the intak e of the C-lli4] constitutes a'n engineering masterpiece on which we can draw e·. en today when seeking advanced engineering solutions with state-of .. the-art hardware,

The second hardwar example deals with the air intake 0" the Lockheed C-..5 Ga axy military transport (F~"g; 34). The C-5 truly is considered lh.' precursor of all modern wide-body civi transport airplanes of today .. The C-.5 is powe -,ed by fo If high bypass .. ratio engines, the 'TF~39 from General Electric with a bypass-ratio of 8:] ~ First night was ill 1'968 a" d entrx il11-,O service with the USA, in 1969~

When ir v s igating a zero-length intake design for '11e high

Air intakes



hlillak!e doors Crul~sing

close f Igh '

1'.00 ~l~~_____:;J~" ~~ .. -----,.--____:_,,-_'~-,-=. _"T. ~~-"'_,_=~==::::::J:-:;!, ....

B>,; .... , .. ---, .... ._,_,_: .... -.: ~_,,,,, .


''ii' ,',

llfft' oft' ,

1iiIIi··· I

~.1 .. , ' .. ,I







0. . .'4



F'lgl 3i"'4 A~r intake characteristics of" Lockheed C--5A


I··· I


Jet Engines


, "

bypas:s-:ratio TF-39 engine, it became clear that the design (- cruising' flight) streamtube cross-section ahead, of the intake was much smaller than the frontal area ofthe big engine and this made impossible a prac ...

,:~ ,,1 ., .... ' .""""" of ' ch a intake A:,",·r'·t· ",-,:.,., t·· I"'" studie lit··, , ·d·" ,.', intake

nca version 0' sUCJ~ an 1.11, _a",c., II er In ense S uates to reo uce mta ce

, d izh ,. ith dil d if"

length anc weight, consistent with gooc low-speed pertormance, an

intake design emerged featuring double-slotted auxiliary inlets that required only a single row of external doors. Instead of depressing at one end about a hinge line at the other (as 011 the 'C=l41)- these doors

U1d di llv i ds exnosi '. ~..... iii •

'WOUJIlI· .. open ra ia ly mwarcs exposing access to! at parr ,0'11 slots, one just

forward ofthe inlet throat (where cross-section is smalfest) and another at the diffuser exit (F'i.:g 3-4A)~ This design reduced inlet length by 270/0 relative to the best competitive single-slotted inlet. In addition inlet. perfo .mance, both statically and during cruise, showed a significant improvement. Lift -off performance at Mach OI~2, however, was slightly inferior, Due to extreme sensitivity of the C- 5 pay oad to take-off and. (~sec,onid,-s.egn1en,t') climb performance (with. one engine inoperative), this intake design, eventually had to 'be' discarded.

The development program then Focused OIl the question whether the advantages of a non slotted intake as a simple, reliable and low-cost

~ . . I'd b il':!" b th d d igh ,. fa si m

altemative, CO'-U..'e' ottsetby tr e r,ag' ano weight savings 0" a smgie ... ·

slotted design, Detailed trade-offs showed that a nacelle with, n,IO slots would require a diameter ofZ, 74, m ('108 ill) compared to ,2..,610 m (1.102,.5 in) if a single diffuser exit were selected, In, the light of greater aerodynamic drag, increased frontal area and greater interference risk associated with. the larger-diameter nacelle, the unslotted approach was eliminated in favour of the, single-slotted shorter inlet (Fig .3-4,B)..

Again 1t should 'be noted that today's stringent low-noise requirements together with advances made in intake design have eliminated slotted intakes 'in, present ea day airliners, = evertheless, the slotted intake was a remarkable step, forward, in matching the low-speed and high-

d ,. fl' ,. fhi h b ,. .' f ,.

spee arrnow requirements ,0 i' I .ig .1-S''l~,I-'SonIC 'transport aircra t engines.

It W~"''ll~' ·"1 'li s· ,0".', e·,l11I",,·11.0·,:,y··, ad·' 'w··.·· ~it' '1']· e··· '?If']Y':': B····~o·'·:·,e··l'· 'n° g') 7' ,4~,7, a' ·"r~l~n' e·'· r'~

'.' I~~ IW .' ," . ,. ,J~ . _ u. _ I .. ,J, ·a~ III . ,I ", '"' t,~ . _' " "W.ll '_ ('].1

, , ' . ," . '_',

In this. context it is worthwhile discussing some of the criteria on 'W', , -hich 1"'0' ·t' a'{ k .e efficien c ~y,,:': 1:' S· ju .d ' ged

. .JL~.,...OJ' .,", .: ":' .. JIJ.~ .~ _,', :,' .: I ... : .", '. ~ .'

One of the major figures-of-merit that describe intake efficiency is. pressure recovery', defined as. the ratio of total pressures. at the compressor face, Pll2,; and that of undisturbed flow ahead of the intake"

P .,


Intake- pres sure recove ry :nilU~.ke ....;, Pll2lp~o

As total pressure is the sum both of static ,p'IeSS'UI'e, and dynamic pressure, the pressure recovery .fSJ;Cl'O,r is a measure of how efficiently the kinetic ,e·~,le:rgy of the intake flow is converted into pressure energy. Due to the friction of the airflow in contact with the intake walls, a loss in total pressure will. always be present such that total pressure P'l2 at the end, of the intake (_, entrance into the compressor or compressor face) is, less 'than, th,e freestream total pressure :PtO~ The goal of goodintake design is to minimize fluid losses by appropriate J11],et duct and nose shaping in order to enable a pressure recovery factor as close to

'. ,. 1 ~b'lli

' I' ", .. , ",. ,.' '1 " '-' ',C, __ -. , '." ,- ..

unity ~ 1...le., '. ,. a,s PIOSS~ _' e~

'The importance of the pressure recovery factor is demonstrated when reconsidering the intake of the Lockheed C-5A, military transport (Fig 3-4)~ The shorter inlet 'with two auxiliary intake slots showed results that were distinctly superior to those of the single-slotted design. 'both in the static and the high-speed operation. However, in the critical Iift-off and second-segment climb regime (with one engine inoperative), inletperformance was inferior and, it was finally decided to revert to, the heavier single-slotted design,

Intake flow is, not uniform at intake discharge cross-section, Zones of smaller or higher pressures develop ,a,Cf'OSS. the exit, varying quickly

b tl · ~ d .' .' h ., ... ,- ~

iOI ,1 111 positron an intensity as the engine setting rs changed.

Therefore, the flowfield willil always show some degree of distortion which degrades engine performance. In, order 1'01 safeguard the engine

ao'a' 1'·11IC'1t S-" rsrin ,,' ,. xi b , d st ut z . ' ... ', ". d ',~ to . ti .. ,. · d ,'.' ~" , .... , .. ,,, .. '. ""b' ··'d·' b' ".'

<I,b,.!' ,~,I, . ur6,~n.g canse"y '. l80.1,.10'0" a . IS. or UJ'11 ,ln~ex ~s prescrm1e ...• y

the 'Dl,,8],I1Ufacturer 'whdch the ople:ra.-tor ,h,as to r,espect.. Compr1esso'r blad"es 'm:11,ay vibrate severe:illy or eV'en 'break 'w'hen 'm"o:viJlg ,at hig'h s,pood thro,ug:h a n"o,n.'-'-u,nifonn {l,owfield .. A wid e,1 y' 'us'e,d fi"guTe~'of~'mer]t th,at 'qu,an,ti:fi"es the de,gree of ,distol:rtion to 'be ·to'h;~~'rated b"Y' ,a, ,p'articul.ar engine" is th,e D C601 p'(l.rameter 'w'hich ]s ,determin,ed frolm tOIt.al. pressn,re me,aSll,relnen.ts withi.11 th .. e intake (Fig ,3~,S),. Th,e ,DC60' pa,rameter :ms

d f... d' e·111ec,. as:

lmta,ke figures-o'f-m,eri,t

'T'h ,., f' 'b ., '. '. k ., d· d 'b h ]11

. ,,: e CO'lnpl eXl yo. !a SU'SOin'u;~ a1Jr lnta 'e~, ,as llD',llcate,_ "'Y' t ; ,e ,exam,piIes

" b '" 1 d ~ , t ... , d . ','.' f

g~ven, o .... vmous· y refl.',:,ers ~,nta~e ".esi.gn an oner"OliS task. In, s..pjl1t,e ,a,

tremlf11,dous advamlces nl,ade iIl1 th,e fieilld o,r e,o"m:putati:on,a'I fl,'uid. d~tn,nnics.~ inta'ke d,e~dgl1 renl;a111S essen'tially ,e'x'pe:riln,elltaill" in, :p'arti,cular wl1en slep!' arati n g' ... ' fl,ow 'must 'b'e tConsid,e' ,~pd·· For exp·· erim,etnts ,~r,ua" we-, d' .

• . •..• I. ''''.: ' '"'. ",' 'to .... ,"' !i.'.! .:.",. ", ...• ,.1 "," .' ", . ~ .. ~11t! ~ I. _ '" ".:. 'J. I:' I -.":' :,-,1 ~~ - i .. ·· ..... _

intak,e 'mode~s .ave' mIlv'estigatle,d at different freestr'f'am veilliocities and a'~rflow ratios (th,at co'rres.p,o':n,d to eng:·ne set_irDlgs). After a nttm'ber ,of :nelcess,a.:ry' m.odiflllcatio"ns" the olpt~lntUD, intakie' co'nfigllratio,tl vvil1 ble se~ected al1id illv'esr igl~lte,d ,on. a ,fun-scale m,o,det Due to :possibl,e size effects~, n'l,odifications nl,ay nevertlleilless st"ll be re'qu,i red. ,.

DC6JO ~ 'P'IT!a.v = :Pt~6o.mm q

In this ex,pression :P~!t=UV' is the ,a,ve:ra,ge t,olta1 p,r,essure at the intake as me.asu.red, 'by a rake 'nl"an,om,ete'r which 'u,s,l!aily 'ha,s, six arnl,S". Th,e

pressure .pll .. 60nltl] is also an average value tha is defined as follows:

Along each of the rake's six, arms a radial pressure distribution is measured by several pressure taps, For each of the radial pressure distributions the average is determined and plotted as a function ofthe circular arc position. Then a 601°' wide sector is selected which shows the lowest total pressure and thus the highest fluid loss,

The difference of these two pressures gives the maximum deviation from aml average and tl1,US defines the Dle60 parameter. Finally, because the DC60 parameter is non-dimensional, the difference has to! be referenced to' a~l averaged dynamic pressure yielded from static pressure measurements aCflOSS the intake section,

As an, example we consider the intake ofthe VF~W 614 aircraft, For the M45 " turb 0 fa 11 " 'the manufacturer, Rolls-Royce had guaranteed surge-free engine operation if the DC60 parameter 'were mess, than 01,,3. Intake distortion was mea sured in 'the wind tunnel using 6,-a,r ned rake's",

With these remarks we 'will conclude our short course ion subsonic intakes", In the following chapters we win turn to supersonic intakes"

When a 'body is moving through air faster' than, the speed of sound, it will experience a different reaction from the air than that when flying at subsonic speed, In order to permit aircraft to fly' at supersonic

needs their ··"lJh:~ ',' .. h -"., tc b',,· ade oted to the ""1 " ~'" '" cha ··,: .. cteristics of

speeo s, .neir s ape. las 0 e a ap ti. 10 I ne pecnuar c I, arac ens 1CS 0,

. fl": Th ~.. '. ill Iv : t· ~.' k

, - ,- -- ~ ~. - - - j • ", "1' " " ,. i .', I .. - • ,",. . "', '. - '," " . " I' . " ','"' . , .. '

supersonic ,O'W,. I 'is is parncu ar ,y true tor arr intakes.

Before considering intake aerodynamics, !3L brief survey of the typical

,r','" ·t" '" I,"" ", f"""111 . ,.' . "'1' ," . f"l" ""1', :",'. :"'" d . " .: _," .(". 'b', 1,'" A: k I'" to th .'. ,. I ' .. d .~.; sta I id ." ,', . - 'f',-'

,W,lea UIes 0, su,persoruc I .ows lse.Sl],a"e." .·.ey . ,0 " "e un.:_llerSI_an_ In"g 0,

'=11 . 'h': fl" "''''.' , ',,' ,·tl:', 'II ',' .. ',...,"," ertv '. f s .".' '-.- - . ssibilit Wh .. .F ' ,- .

sue nows is a par leu ar ,PI1'O',p,e:r . y 0 .gas,. compress: .'i_ I ',Y ,,' !" en, a. pres-

sure is exerted U,POID, a gas, more of the gag's molecules are packed into a given volume. A liquid, by contrast, is largely incompressible,

3 2······~· '1" Sp eed ot 5""--0" ··un~'d·· ~n'd""- - M,:·-g·c·' hi n U' m' , ',b" er

I Iii" I. _ ! ~" .,! . 'I~I.' LI. ,. J •• ,_. I . .:..., PI:'::' r 1(:iI!,I._:', I ._: I I .:., ", ",'

We assume that a sound-generating source wi ielnit small pressure disturbancesinto the air, a spoken word for example, We know from experience that the propagation of a sound 'will take a recognizable in terval, WOe see a lightning flash (:= disturbance), but hear the 80111nd of it (thunder) somewhat later. The velocity at which such pressure disturbances lor sound, waves travel in, a. fluid medium 'is termed the speed of "", 'sou vid .. W', ,··:~h'i?'n .. · co m ~'~;,d·. ~1, "~"n, ig a ffir·· ',;:}IS,· t-·1],OJ,·, fl uid m : I ed I 1·:11~.'Jm·1 the speed of

1: . !;:Ii !l:4),f II',: • .. • _, !!i..!, I!i;..I ,(),,[,_ ,Il0,,l. ,111, . ' • .II!... t.1I!.- l """ " .. ~ .... ~v· .' ~, , ,w, II..,. . ..... .• ..

sound is seen to depend largely on absolute temperature 1t:, and may easily be' calcu ated:



~ .'

." ...

, . . .

... . ~ '. ~

1 ~


D'·' .. rt- ,. - - - - - - 11>.'- 11" n "0' . en IP m _, P'Iij[lIimIn

:IISIl'O '., II on palrame~e~ _:.1.: uu' =: - q'



.' ~

, ..

, '

, .

,,-,--- - . __ . .,--~:II--

_"-.:;.cL.._, __ ._ ~ lIP


Explai:ning distortion factor

ratio [of specific heats (see re evant textbooks) gas constant, for air R -- ,287 Jrkg K

absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin K

58 Jet Eng!i1nes

K - Cpl' 'Cv"

~ .. '1 ..




;F'ig 3-6 Pressure taps on rake of mode! i ntake an d fu II-s~ ze intake

It call easily be seen that as temperature decreases 'with altitude, so the speed of sound also decreases,

Because of the interrelationship of pressure, density and temperature a'S manifested by the state equation ofa perfect gas R * t = pl,p, the gas constant R and temperature t in the expression for the speed of sound may be substituted 'by pressure p and density Pi (Greek rho), Thus the speed IOC sound may also be exp ~es,se[d by:

- . 'M"

speed of sound a - ,'K' P

,Ai r i ntakes




a) Calculate the speed of sound at sea level for the Standard Atmosphere

Temperature of the Standard Atmosphere at sea level: t = l5°C == 273 + 1.5 = 2.88K,

III the British system of units, the speed of sound is calculated like-


speed of sound a == 'YKgR'4

l( == Cp/ev ratio [of specific heats (as 'before)

R gas constant, for air ,R ::= .53.,3 fl lb/lb OR

D·, . iderati

tmension consrderation:

gravity constant, g - 3,2~ 7 It/sec'

total temperature in degrees Rankine ,R with t[('[O[R:) == 'tOF ,+ 4' 5: '9.1

. t.,. ',"' I." 11 '.




British sys tem:

Temperature at sea level: t :=: 59'°;, ~'459 + 59 : ~ .518,oR

speed of sound: ,::1 == V 1 . .4~, x 32,.' 7 x 53,.,3 x 5~, 8, ::: l 1 I 5 ftls

b) Calculate the speed of sound at II km altitude for the Standard Atmosphere

Temperature of the Standard Atmosphere at 1. ~ km:

t ::::: -.'5",.:1'6··[- 'j;O,C<- = 2-7~·3'·,: '5"':,'['61 5····:1 :::;; 2,'11,'6:·,', S;'K':>

'"' ,"·.1.·· . . . '." If' . . • ' ..

speed of sound: a= y 1~4 x ,287 x 216~5::: 295 mzs

The same example in British 'units:

Temperature ofthe Standard Atmosphere at 36,0891ft (= l I km):

t - 3:'8{9- 7"R"

~ .:IJ·'}·.' ....

.• . • 1. .

speed, of sound: a = V ~,.4 x 32.,17 x 53",3 x 389,.7 = 967 ftls


This expression for the speed of sound more clearly states the influence of the most important property of air WhCl1 dealing with high speeds, namely that of compressibility, primarily being expressed through pressure and density, When an aircraft flies at low speed,

com" . p' ressibility effect II:! ar \6il!; ·nQ;g11~g·1· ble; the' ~ ~ir' . _ s d· en sit y" d '0"': e'HC'I not ch" a" nge

.... ,i' ll, ._ .. :'" "',11, . ,J,.lIl,,[JI. ," I~" .'kI'kI LJi ~._ ~ '~" 'J . .w..:~·.f .. :" ,I~- -or .. IUJJ, ", ,,", 1"-",, : I • ':" ....... )", dl .... I I.,: .111..1,:" :,,:.

. _ reci a b '~II Y ;iJiI i('i th hbi I!JiI '1·' r flows ill 0 n g tile g,,~ rcr aft If h 0 W' iCI'v'e· r the ai rcr aft' s a'pip'~ >~ .~ I,~.:.· as 1 i e au .1.- .:i: "I .,:: I I' ai 1~,Ji '" I . ~ 11 "i II~. ,II ~ ai 1 c '., I ,

speed is high enough, the air :11[,0 longer behaves incompressibly. The resul t primarily is a marked increase ill. drag, but also in. a. different behaviour ofthe aircraft's handling qualities, ,A pilot, therefore, ought to know if his aircraft is likely to experience compressibility effects,

Bee "Jill c tJij, t- h 01 p"r' '0' P er ry o f a11"" d ;!JJ;,"p" £iJ,11 d:1 c' on t:l ~I t1· FU d e.fl I ~ Ig" 'he t sp ... e.Q!J d ,.g, 'I 0: n ;Q '1· S"

._-_(,!I,,_:.i,3I!!.,;.o" ,. '",,", . .I .... '._" _.' ... : __ !l .. _I",",.,.~ ... 0" .. a.J._ !.._:.'~.I!i;".;", .. 11.,'·'.1 .. : oJI':_'I;;..II,I!tl:.-. .. .I.!!.,;.o" '.

110t a reliable indicator of compressibility effects. When referenced tC) the speed of sound, however, a unique measure of altitude effects on aircraft aerodynamics is provided, This ratio of airflow velocity and speed of sound is termed Mac}: number, in 110n!Ol~r of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach (~838-19~6)::

Mach number M = airfl10w v'fdo,cit~{ V

.~'. " "'-,,, , " speed. of sound a

Because Mach number is a ratio of two velocities, it has no dimension. Aircraft designed to fly only at subsonic speeds. (practically all transport aircraft) therefore fly at Mach numbers lower than one (M < l), whereas supersonic combat aircraft and the Concorde airliner are able to 'fly at .... .aeh numbers exceeding one (M > 1).,

,3,.,,2 .. 2' Pressure wave's in a'ir

The basic difference in the' phenomena associated with subsonic and supersonic tl,~ ght speeds may' be explained qualitatively by' considering sound lor pres S ure waves emanating at regular intervals from a hypothetical point source (Fig 3 ... 7)., Ifthe source is not moving, sound waves propagate spherically in all directions at the speed of sound. Wh.e.11 viewed as propagating in a .. planar manner, successive waves form. expanding circles like waves from a stone dropped into water (Fig 3-7:a )..,

Now consider the source tOI 'be moving (frOIU left to right) through air at rest, at a speed less tl1J111 the speed of sound, i.e. less than the propagation speed of the pressure waves emanating from that source (F:i:g ,3- 7b). The illustration depicts the momentary situation of the source at the position Sih0W11, together with waves. generated when the source was at the appropriate position of its 'flight path' (marked ,m through 5)" As the source travels at ,81 velocity below the speed. of sound, the wa ve front in the direction of flight is always ahead of the source. ~f therefore, a_n aircraft is approaching an observer at subsonic speed, it may not only be seen, b .. u t a ~I,~O, .. l1Ie'~1 rd bv 1:- ': m

. . , .. .. _ .~.;:,) " . ~~ I . _ . ,Y ,1 H. " ..

....... ',~ 'W,Qve IPlropagiatiing , ,at senle vellQcity'


. A:adiius of I~Hropa,g,a~io:n

r' ~ time ,t * Yle~oe~t' of SOIU nd a


Fig 3·7' Prop.aQlation c'f pressure waves

a) sound source at rest M =: 0

b) source moving at subsonic speed, M <: 1

c) source moviing at sonic speed, M + 1

d) source rnovinq at supersonic speed, M > 1

!\ill = '~I


M,aeh line

,=: envelope ,of cirel e.s

A."i'r intakes 6,3

This will nc longer be the case if the SO'Uf!(,e travels exactly at the speed cf sound (Fig' 3-7'c) .. An aircraft flying at Mach one competes in a race 'with, the sound waves it produces. These waves aggregate into a

, .. ' '", 'W IQI ve fr '. '0' 11" ' II'JI, "'C" "0"" C , -',.., ",' , " iii- h ,,:. , r--t- A" ~i- iI- '" ' ," - ~ tt

strong ,"',(-~,",,- """"",I_ accompanying t, Ie aircra: ,,,,,s me arrcra

approaches an observer it may bie visible, but win, 11()t 'be audib e to, him U11tH passing by with a roaring noise,

Now consider the case when the aircraft 'moves at a speed greater than the speed ofsound i.e M .... ," > 1 (F'li'g' 3',:· ... 7:d)" A,,·,',',,"'I'm consecutive wave

• "_"" : ., _ L. '. __ .:_. ,", .' .' "~_ ,"" 'Ii!l!i.ti _ . I •. -=1 ,t," _. ' .•. : ,·,.I,W ': .. ' I _. ~l ·U. JIl '.1 ...... ,(.!IL. :,'.

fronts it creates lag: behind the aircraft and cannot overtake because of their slower speed. Consequently, ill every successive position, an, aircraft flying at supersonic velocity is outside and ahead of the wave fronts it has produced,

AI], 'wave fronts combined are enveloped 'by a conical surface, termed Mach cone, that travels 'with. the aircraft. Any disturbance or sound wave produced ws confined within the Mach C'O'De'. The half-angle of the cone is called Mach angle. The faster the aircraft flies; the smaller the'

Maf'"'h 3i11"'ii gle I' '-, ,-- "," "','" "",,' t iide of tl ' M:" .' ch ",~,"', ,,' the .. ·'· ~. . .. ,ff:, ted .14..< " ,~_,,u,, ,',. n regions OUI sx e '0, I, 1_ re ' 31C" cone. tne an IS unar rectec

by the aircraft's motion,

The foregoing discussion was intended to present basic concepts of supersonic now phenomena in order to 'make aircraft behaviour ,a,t high velocities easier to comprehend,



iiii.<,1'~ r!l'!2; ~

P.2 >, IP'1 ~: >- ~!1 12:> 11

li,b'i = T1i ~~ P'~ -c Pt1

.. ' -~


'9't .ji. - 'BP~81h,1Ie b,a":""'rft " ~M~I!" s~'hn","I'-' ,~, a Ii"e VirilIl! IE~ U~I: : _2~'ll !i,I!,~ ,;' 0 IIIL~~II ., IV~'1i'\

press U Ii'e' Pl~,. P' P;2,!' P'i2
.• __ 1 1~
'b!!mpl It, tu i!2, tt2
densUy ~1 ~2 fig 3-8 Normal compression shock

3'.2'. 3' Compression shock

Under certain conditions a compressible fluid like air may' abruptly

change its state. A, typical example is the explosion wave, -

Sound waves are considered smal perturbations, that propagate at the speed of sound. However, abrupt perturbations associated 'with, detonation 'waves may propagate at velocities considerably exceeding the speed of SOll11d,., Because ,of the large pressure gradient caused 'by such waves, they' become audible as a supersonic bang; and the phenomenon is termed a compression shockwave. A familiar example is tile so/tic boom phenomenon caused by fast-flying aircraft.

wave .. As a result the airstream, when passing the shockfront, win, abruptly decelerate, However, 'not ,aU, of the kinetic energy is converted into, pressure energy, A considerable amount is turned into, (unusable) heat, so that. the static temperature is increased more than under idealized conditions (t2 > t.). In thermodynamic theory this is denoted as isentropic flow.

Contrary to the rising of static temperature across the shock tota! temperature does not change, i.e. '~2 = tu,. The reason W8 that the energy of the flow will remain constant if neither heat nor mechanical work are added to, ,o,r extracted from, it. In other words, energy' within a closed system cannot vanish. And total temperature represents energy,

The total energy of the flow' is commonly expressed by two terms:

a) its heat content (usually denoted as enthalpy) cp t" which is equivalent to the SUll1 of the interior energy c, t caused by molecular motion plus the pressure energy of the 'flow, p/p~

b) th,e kinetic energy of the flow, expressed by its, velocity V' as V2/2.,

If the flow is brought to complete rest such that V = O~ the kinetic energy will be converted tOI increase the enthalpy ~ which becomes total or stagnation enthalpy ICp I ~" formed by total or stagnation temperature t; This is 3, fictitious assumption, as the gas com inues to flow across 'the S11,Q'ck, but the idea may serve better to understand energy phenomena. When passing the shockfront, pressure and density abruptly increase" a18'0, causing a rise in static tcrnperature t and thus in heat content. ,A'_ the same time, velocity and kinetic energy are decreasing, If no, heat is allowed to escape, ' otal tem,pe',ratu,re O'fl, both

sid,es of the shock, is e'q ll(i,Cp ttl ::; Cp t12).,

Normal com :r'lf's.sio:n shock

Consider a fictitious tube in which a stream of air 'moves faster than

he speed of S'Ol111d,. i.e, M >' (F,ig .3~8)'i' At some station of the tube a compression shockwa ve may have developed as a stationary wave front. We will now investigate how the state variables of the flow change across the shockwave.

Themost remark abl e effect that can 'be observed is a. steep rise in ~ sta t" c) ~p'fes sure (P2 > Pl)~ coupled at tile same time 'W~ th an a brupt rise m density (P:z >, P'] .. I hence the- term compression shock,

~ Th.e energy required tn, compress the flow is extracted from the k]D,etlc en,ergy which the aiIstreaJn poSSe8~H!',d Ulplstream of th,e Sll,iock-

Contrasting stagnation temperatu -~e characteristics discussed a bove, stagnation pressure will decrease as the flow passes a normal shock. 'We- will remember that total pressure is made UP' of static pressure p and dynamic pressure q, == Jhp,V2 (with ,P' density V velocity). Even if 11,0 Ileal is extracted from, the flow, a. heal exchange within the extremely thin shockwave will nevertheless take place, causing the decelerating process not to ,DOC'Uf without, brut rather 'with" the addition of heat. This, in turn, prevents the flow from attaining pressure and density levels possible without heat addition, a process similar '~Ol the flow within a diffuser, where heat due 'to! friction moss is transmitted t,o, 'the flow"

I_. should be' noted that the' amount of loss in total pressure increases with rise in. Mach, number ahead of the normal shock This is of point w hen selecting the type of intake for a supersonic aircraft,

Another peculiarity of the normal compre ss ion shock is that:

a) downstream of the shockwave the flow ills always subsonic whatever the velocity of the supersonic flow upstream of the shock a .. ··n: d

'" -., _.- ,.

b) the flow does not change direction across the shock.

Because of the sensitive reaction of jet engines to flow disturbances, a loss in total pressure is 10f' major concern to the supersonic aircraft designer. This will be dealt with ill subsequent sections. Before 'I hat, we will discuss how a supersonic flow can be decelerated more efficiently through an oblique compression shock, a method which is of major concern in supersonic intake design,

Ob.lique compresslon shock

,A typical feature of the normal shock' discussed previously is 'that the

surf ,. ]- ik .-.- ". 'L.· :.,: .. '~,.. ,c,-.,-. -- ,t' ". ."." 'jl 't" *" r d .' .. '. . ,,' al"" (. ~ " . -. - ..... d '.. Ia r) '-, -. th

o ,", I, ace .... m.~· e S_W,lOC,~ rron IS orrent a teo M10Im ,-I, ,_' perpenoicu sari to t e

:n"QW direction, and the flow when passing the shockfront, does not change direction, In. many practical cases, however a. supersonic flow will be forced to alter its. direction, for example when, approaching a 'wing; which bl)! its mere physical presence effects a 11,10'11 displacement. Where this happens, a shockwave will develop which is inclined at some angle with respect to the freestream direction, Such a shockwave

'1;'C! "!Jj~'SIO" ,t", .. ""d ·~f'-·'~· ,",\- -," fl··- .... ~-' ... , ." .... , ' '--'" '- -- ,,"--.- ,'-',,1,' ._-·~,t· - 1 -., -. ,"'d···· .,' 'mi

,~u,~".· •• · tonne,,_, II a ,gas, II OWU1g a., su,perS1onlC ve oem, y all,oin,gs,l'e a w,aru,-,,.

is f~orlced to ,ch,all,g-e ,directio,n, at ,a, cOin'v'ex oo·rne:r (Fig ,3..,9): B'f-cau,s,e: ,of the in,el~'ned lor~ellt:a.tmlo'n, ,of the sb,olck. (as. iopposed, to tll,e 'perpend'icu.lalf o,rm,entation of ,a n,o'rmai s11,lock) this s.hock,wavle' is term,edl ,an, obliquecomp'ression shock ..

TIle 'maill d'ifferen,ce from tll,e :n,ormal sh~]ck is ,a cllan,ge in directio,n, \\l:hen th,e f]OVl passes the shoc:kft,olnt. But othe,'wl-se the state v,ari.~lbh:~:s of th,e ,gas (press,u~re, d,ensity', b~~'m,peraturle etc) chclnge simil,army' to :'h_e


M2~~'~ 'M;2 '<M~I


:Njormal shock .....

b-~I IJ

fiilg 3 ... '9 Supersonic corner flow'

a) attached shockwave'

b) detached shockwave

normal shock although the changes are less severe in magnitude. In general, the intensity of the oblique shoe ,,·'s not as g' --eat as hat of th.le . -. - .. .. al ,. h- - ck - -' d l.'j k .'" :. , for th - f'1- . d d " . ," '. '. ~ 1 . - TiIk., ,~' ,. 'I'" I ~ ....' no'rrn',' , S. OC ... ;, ,ani "t. eWIse . or I~ . e' lli: ... ynamlc lI.O'$8., ulS 1S ,a m,3Jor

reason 'why the oblique shock concept is so attractive to the supersonic aircraft designer, Another characteristic ofthe oblique shock is that the flow in general stays supersonic across the shock although Mach, number drops 1· e M········· < M····-:I' with both 'M······ -:>] and M······'· > 1-

, "'" I 'i;,..o"" '" .' ,~', .." 1 ' ' .. ' 'I' '.' .r . I .':2" . ,tJt... ,1' . -e

The inclination of the oblique shock cannot attain any arbitrary angle, because of a unique interdependence 'between freestream Mach number M1llp'stre,am ofthe shock and flow deviation angle. If the flow veloci ty drops below a minimum supersonic Mach number, or the flow deviation exceeds a maximum angle, then the conditions for the favourable oblique shock m:1O longer exist. In this event the previously oblique shock instantaneously jumps upstream, changes character to become ~I normal compression shock, at least near the wall with a

.. r . sid ,,' ,,' bl :'. ",," ,-'" , ,. -. 'fl'- -., ]1, •....... 'C ',} IF-' ~" , 3- • 9··"b· )'1 T·}· '. ·'IIb-,-·- ,-J!' "- then sa id

conSl'· .. era . ,e ,~nCI,ease I,n. , ,ow ,~osses \. ,Ig ": , .. le s OC~ m,g .,H,ell salli.·.,

to h·" '., ...J .[ - .'. 'k' zd ,n·. - - __ --.' r- .- •. ' d t" :-.-. bei .. 'ttachi d if I "b' ·I~:·q'ue_'· S hock condi

o . ave ,ue ace, as opplose1 ,I,D' . :,enng a ,~lIC" e 1. 0.111' .. ,1_ .',' "I, ... ' ... I." .... JL=

tions 'a' .r e m ~"r

.Y.J. ", ... r.jj! '. ,', .. I!Ii.r l Ii'

3'~2~4 Supe,ts'onic flow o~er weldge end Ic.01n,e

In the d"esign 'of's~llJ)ersonic air i~lta:k,es, :n,QW cOlnditio,n,s ,over wedge and co'ne aI,e of the gr1e-at1est '"mp'orta.n,lce" as these ar,e Siltllp,~,e g;{.~oln,etrmc bOldfues and, relativemy e,3lsy '[0 'm,anufacturei' L·et u.s fiI's.,t co,nsider sU.p'ersonic flow ,o'v'er a 'wedge .. Such, a ,d,evice is illstaU,led in tl,e air ,inta:k,es of the 'majo'rity of m"od,le,'---'D su:persollic oO'mbat aircraft such, as th,e F,-IS', F-:t4, ,MiG-29:, Sl[-27. but a1so1 in th,le' .sup,erso'nic ,a'irIin,er 'Co:nc1ord,e,.

We ,assume at wedge 'O:fll11,iitnited, ,length, to 'be~, latera~.ly ,inlmersed in a St~:~:H~'rs,o'njc ,gas streanl, (Fig 3·,l'Oa,).. Flolw cOlr},lditm,ons Itere are similar t,o t.11e pr,f")ViOlllsly d.iscusse:d corner flj,ow w:here streamJin!es~, a ter :p,assin"g

AIr intakes 67

616 .let [Engines


U ndJstUiribed filo'w


I I ',~

Fig 3-10 Supersonic 'flow over w'·ed'ge

a) attached shockwave

b) detached shockwave




the sh ockfrorr ~, are everywhere tangent to the 'wedge cross-section. Due to the compressive effect of the shock" the streamline pattern downstream of the shock is more compact than it is upstream,

If the wedge angle exceeds the maximum value permissible for that particular Mach number the oblique shock will no longe -~ rem ai n attach ed, but will jump abruptly upstream to form a (detached) ,bO~I; .. shock, Part of the blow' shock immediately ahead of the' wedge apex acts like a normal shock caus ing the region between shock and wedge to b e

. .. -', '- . - , .. (,_,!J .. -- . _ ,( __ . ,. . _ ': . ,. __ '. _", _. , __ -'. _ .. ,!oJ! __ '' __ '.' __ ,.__ . ' __ ', . _' ' .. .

subsonic, i.e. M -c 1 (Fig 3 ... 1.0·b). Adjacent regions of the shock surface bounding the centre nor nal. shock region, increasingly bend in a downstream direction to form an oblique shock with, finally, degenerates into a (weak) Mach . line (not shown)"

Because shock strength grows as the shock inclination approaches the vertical, until a normal shock is attained at 90'0 to the direction of flow', i.e. zero inclination, wave drag increases accordingly, In order to design aircraft of low wave drag, the angle of the shock front must 'be Sl11,a1t TIJis implies, apart from the supersonic 'Mach number flown




~. o

'I"'" W
::; m
~ ~
'U 0
,.!Ii: -1---01
111) m
,11) 00
:1,;" "'Cl.
-- 'b
10) co
.. 00
'1iP '00
.D .0
E m
:;::"Ji ~
,~ ~
,~ 00
'u m
1m !L,_
:5E ,0.
1lL, A"'" k

__ .!IIF ,lllnta.~·e8

that nose sections cfintake and wing must be given a. knife-edge shape, We :now understand why s ubsonic intakes wi' h their well- rounded nose sections are of less use in a supe '~s,onic flow: the detached 'bow shock creates high drag which will absorb much of the engine' s thrust, so that supersonic flight speed is virtually unattainable.

The usual presentation of flow over a wedge is made on, typical

1 howi h ., ,. f stacnati ,.

charts snowing t ie variation 0: stagnation pressure or statrc pressure

ratio across an obliq ue shock versus initial Mach number M·, for

.. , '- - - -", " ,. -.1 '- ,- ~'--', - - " - ,- " ."" .. - ,," ~ .., -- .... ',-. 1. , . "

various half-wedge angles (F~,g ,3-11 left), ' aking a 30-0 wedge as an

."'... '~I. _.' e ,'-- '", --'d'-- ' , of .] 5~o ll! ~,~t ... ,jr' . rl , tnt '1 . --,-,-', '" ' -' m ,'" - ,t M" ,-' .~." h 2'_-, .. ,

exampie, r.e. a, we .ge 0", ." nan ang 'e, torai ~~)JeSSUrf ioss a; • ac ". is

only 5 per cent with. the shock attached (Ptllptl ~. 0,.95), 'but 28 per cent with. the shock detached (Pt2/p'l'l ::= 0.72),. On the other hand, the enor-

., f' stati h

mous mcrease 0' stattc pressure across a. sl oek becomes apparent,

Taking the same 'm5° half-wedge at Mach 2 as before, 'the pressure rise is twofold across all. oblique shock, but five-fold. aCf,OSS a norma] shock (Fi:g .3-11).

So much for the wedge. We will now discuss conical flow the second major design. element of supersonic intakes, W'e will remember that when viewing streamlines over a wedge, their direction downstream of the shock is. found 'to; be- parallel to the wedge surface at whatever section of an. infinitely long 'wedge" Because wedge length is apparently of little significance in this basically' three-dimensional flow, '[he flow over a wedge is frequently referred to' as two-dimensional, which greatly simplifies the description of such flows, In, contrast, flow over a. cone :is different,

'First, some examples of practical application, Conical- fl,QIW diffusers may be found as a full cone in. circular intakes such as on the American S'R - 7 i high ... speed reconnaissance aircraft, the Russian MiG-2] - and. the' British Lightning; or as a sector of a cone in side-mounted inlets

.. 11.11 .... ed with th A-'" '-"-' "' .... ,,,",, -F' I-n4 s"t· 'ii"'--' hte .. ' id F--· .h 'M" "',,., -, '

empmIOyie,_ WII " .. ',Je ··m.et}Cal1. _ - lU, >, :!ar [,g. er an.· '. rene. :,1 lrag1e

figh: er which feature semi-cones; even a quarter-cone shape has proven possible with the American F-] ll bomber In general, however, aircraft with. conical-flow intakes are all of dated, design,

What once made the cone so attractive was its greater efficiency as indicated 'by its streamline pattern. After the flow has. passed. the conical shockfront where pressure abruptly increases, streamlines initially are' n.OI[ parallel to the cone surface (as over a wedge) but rather continue 1[0 follow a curved path, only to adopt a parallel pattern farther downstream. As long as streamlines get closer to one ano ther, static :pressure wiI .rise~. W'e th .. u.s o'bs,elr've ,a nlecb.,anism. by w:hilc'h ,3]. supers,o'n1c ,flow is dec;.e~.era.ted ab,(u"pII ly tllirro,'u"gh a oo,nj,cal shockwa'vle., ,and th~n. ftlTth,ler- d,ecelerated. co'ntinu<'ollsly until strea:rn.~in,es. fin,a~l)l 3,f'f' p'aralIe,lli, wi ~h ,fl. ow' st-HI s.upers,oi'nic .• ,Fi:g .3 ... l2)..

Th.e ~na ~ or a.d.van ta"ge of a (s'llperslo,nic) cOllm.cal flow' ,ills a snl,a]~er t,ota~,

t1' \!I




...... ¥


'l *-







pressure loss (when compared t,o, a wedge of the same half-angle), together with the fact that a conical shock sustains lower Mach numbers until it becomes detached, tOI form a high-loss bow shock. A

., ., ,;, , - f- .' 1- fl .' h . +-" ~ ~II - f""

major disadvantage !o" CO,DJCa. 'I, ow 18 tt .at mt rs ress tolerant o. asym-

metric flow conditions which. cause distortion to th.e intake flow, As combat aircraft are frequently required te manoeuvre at higher anglesof-attack, the flow inevitably gets asymmetric - hence a preference for the (horizontally arranged) wedge in all modern combat aircraft,

d ,.., d d cr.' "

.e:srpl te ~ 'i_ s rec 1 ce .•.• , ,e,~.:1. iciency .'

This brief introduction to! some basic problems of high-speed aerodynamics may serve usefully as a basis Cor considering supersonic intakes ill greater detail.

·3,:··:1 ,3· .. : S,<,U'P- ",-',9· •.• •·· rs son leal r intake s

·,,·1 . - . - -. ~- - - - - -. . .

Appropriate design of the' air intake 'is of the utmost importance tOI modern high-performance aircraft. Special attention must 'be paid t'OI carefully arranging 'the intake to match the requirements ofthe engine,

O - h - - h - h --, 11"" -- d . - int 'k' - , --" -'fI'-, :., :1' ~" ,- " I " ," ,. ,-. _-,-,'iI' ft '--,':,"-, '-_- ,--'" ,.-" C'"", ,- •

n tee ot er . ana air m _aL.· es are. 'amy iarge aircrart components

which require harmonic integration into the overall design of tIle aircr,aft so! tb;a·- ae'roidyn.amic efficiency is nlo'~ im.plaired.,

We wi1l. fOlleus 'n.ext on. tll,e :inte-rn.a.m ,a,erod,yna.1nill.cs, of th,e :Illta.ke].Ie~l,vin.g ,airCf,aft/engine int,egration 'to ble ad .. d,resse,d elsewhere (see Ch,apter 11).,

speed), Adj acent regions of the shockfron t, however, increasingly bend in 'a downstream direction to adopt t11.1f~~ oblique-type shockwave

h h k .. h di ..

whereby supersonic flow is maintained across t e s . oe '., WIt ..... ,1 lre{~:tlOJn.

changing a;n.ld. M,ach. nu.m.bier r'le,d·ucin.g~

Now SU:PP'ose th!e airflow demand. of th.e e~n,g]-ne to' be.' gre,a·ter th.an.

h' k "d A- fi" th·.." ., Itt d t

-. ;-.'.,,' '~ .. ' ;' ,... ....• "] ,. " . I ,",'iJ , '~', 1'·,.-· '" ' .. '.' . I' .. ' 1'1" ;. ~. 'I

t e lllta <e can .P1.0\1,.e,. ·tmrst, I .. IS lS, eq.Ulva .en._ 0 a pressure. fOp a .

the c,om:pres,s.or in].et, with. pressure ,d e1cre ,a S.iEl ,g' upstre,am, t!QO,., This wimm eventuaJ~y' ca.u.s,e the sh.o!(:.k to be sw·,aU .. ow·e,d., ,a~"].d the airstream tOI enter the SUb'S,Qllic Idiffu.ser at supe~s!onic '.e].oeity., Th,e' incOIlsmste:ncy of duet ,ge,om,etry 3Llld. flow' ·vel.,o·c·~ty f,esults in .a conl.pl.lex s,}1Ioc'kw3rve pattern. wmthin the duct w'h'~ch, to,getb.erwmtb ,a tbic:k 'blound}a'-~y l,ayer due' t.O' f1.ow separ,a·tion at the' d.lIJ'c_ waUs- c,auses "lLnaIDcepta'bh;;~ fl,o,w tiO the en.gin.e-

3·.,3~ 1 In:ta1ke contiquretion enaooerstlon

PI .. " ... - ... ··t d ... ··· r turb ""~nIQ ~1'01i"'O'''' e'''n'' Ig' .". - e's' . '-'eq' - ire e b "'S' -· .. ·1 ,. ,". fl'· - ..... ~ .if- th . ..,':. t· ". ·t·· ',' .resen I·~. ay .... ,w .. " .. ~ ICW~.~-'·, "i:::Ull' . r,.::. Uwf· ~ ul'_·onIe OIW at !l, Ie le.n,ry "0

the compressor, ,ev en. if the aircraft is flying at supersonic speed." The tas:k of the air intake- is therefore tlO decelerate the supersonic external :n.OW to a subsonic speed acceptable to the comp ressor. As intake discharge Mach numbers are required to be in the range of Mach 0",'4 to O~ 7 ~ great care must 'be exercised. when decelerating the fl.ow in order to keep total pressure losses tlO a minimum, Depending on tile designed operating speed of the aircraft, different intake types are employed their complexity increasing with Mach number,

For aircraft operating at a maximum speed equivalent to Mach 1. ,,5, a normal shock difJu',5'er is generally sufficient to decelerate the supersonic airflow efficien ly t,o the speed needed by the: compress .. O::iT This

... ~ - - .:' . 11.. ~. . -- . . ..... '.' . . . _ '" r ,. _ _" , ,~ ,. "" L .•

simple tYPI~ diffuser does not require any sophisticated mechanism for adjusting the fl.IO'W ~ .A t the design point of the diffuser, the no rm a]. shock is a tached .. · to" he inlet li p "'1 n d m ~ V'~'n'FlIIUlm' .' P r·!jQI.1(! sure f;O;"...,.·O: V' erv ~ e s tab ~I' .

L', . ; "-I!!.-i_ " "",', ,; .. '" _ .. 1 .... Im, _ ... t· .!II. _', '-I. .'. ~ . I~ll llll.. . .' I ..1 ~,j;,c!!,I. I.II!."I .'V!!"'/' .. :: .. , .1Il. ,J ~,~ _ ....I.IIly

. I·tt . ,.,;" 'd' I(P;;' . 3':' 13)1 -TII)·· ·,.f-· .' f" diff I.. .... _. .. t·h·· d 'm ..... tic .' ffl, .....

a am.n:e:_,.I'lI.g.- .... ne action '0:_11 U81.fl .. g, i.e. u e ueceiera non 0 O'W

and build-up of pressure, is accomplished in two steps:

I the : .. :.'.; ..... " ..... ,"., .. ',.;; flow '~':" (ab uptly) I' d ..... " .}I·· .. ···.·. ted throi zh '.' .· r c,··1 .• ' ... ·m

... .ne stl.pers.OfllC ~. ow 18 aorup ,y eceiera .. e., .' roug a norma]!

shock, to subsonic velocity with an accompanying abrupt increase in static pressure;

2". in the diverging (subsonic) duct of the diffuser, where the flow .is still faster than. would be acceptable to the compressor, deceleration. of the flow continues 'with pressure increasing further.

A· I", h ;" .. "'~"" '-, t ir- ,''-, ,f th " d. ':"'.:. - .' I···. , 'It .~'''' .'" th . ~ .' ,!If, ke ' .' ths t jf-lk·. ." .

C I .. arauCl,ermSl1C 0 e I . estgn potn . ror I. ,e run lU,a ce IS. a I IlJULe cross

section of the capture area is 3, maximum, corresponding to! the

'1 ~, . I';" ," . fl" ( .. :- .~,.-, ,- '1' " - '. . t· I . f'-" t hi," .. '.' I' .. ,"' "" 'Th~" - . , .. "'1' d '.it-' ,' ., .,.' ,: ·'n"· .. '.'. ·t· '.

ma.xm.m.um a1.r=_ow eqllmremen .. o .. II e e"n.g~.n,e .. , ~ illS con,lllon .ap'p .es ,0

'0.11e particular flight Mach number and one particular altitude .. If, for the same flight Mac.h number" the engine thrust setting is changed, by altering engine RP.M .. , for example, then pressure at the COInpreSS01~ inlet (_, w ntake discharge) will ch ange accordingly and cause the upstream shock tlO change both position and type"

Suppose the airflow demand of the engine is reduced ... T he 11. static pressure :P2 .at the compressor face will ri se, less air is allowed 'to enter the intake, the excess airflot .' after being processed through the shock

fr·lo·:.ot ~i,~ ·~o·:··Yrc··d·· ·tl···' fl"1 ." , .. '.. ", I' '"~·,d·l- *'h"~"" ·"·;··~·~·-·t· "' ~". 1·.· .. ·=:. "1] . d'· ' .. ····:-·':l"]'·· .. , .. fl" "';"'"

.. ' '. .Jl~1 JU.il.... e.. . 1.0 .11 ow OU. 81.·· .Ie 1U" e In.w.e. as a so-c,a .11.e· ..• ~'PI~. ,~,-,ove.r ., ow

(Fig: 3 ... I. 3b) ... Since a n.o'rnl.al S110ck ca.l]!SeS a SlJlPlerSoln~mc flow til) 'beeom,e su'bsonic, '_hat p,ortioll of th,e flo!w' s·pilh!ld. ,over (and 110W su.bsonic) wOlu~.d 'hav'e t,o, me·rge: ·witl]. a su:personic ,e.nvirOnmeli]t; whicl1. would. bie' pl:h.ysicaliy u'mlstable ,a.D'd. thus, u'na,t·,ajn.,a·bi.e with a no:rma~. shock atta,c·h,ed.~ As a :res'uIt~ tIte sllloc:k ·i.tsel:f·beoo,mD,es. ,det.a;.che.d fflom. the intake ]ip' in or-d,er to fin.ld a. more sitabl'f; plosition farther ·u.pstre,amCi In. doio,g S'O 'the centra par' of the s\h,ockfi""Oltl.t co·n.t~m1.·ues to b'e of the n.ormall shoc:k type (whi,ch ,d,ece'Ier'ates ,a flo'w fr'olD 8u.p,ersonic to sub's'()nie

T ..... -.~-~-.=


__""'1iI!J .=-.-----::~.== ........ ~;

A _.,A

1':0_"-' '1'


M.<.1 11


v: .....


N!orma.11 siha,ck'


'Oblliique sho'ck' ~~~


. ~----


II :> .Ao;=Al

=------_ ~~ i ~ _ ~ .. iiIiIiiiiI. _3~~~~~6e.'~~~~,:;

A·" , , k

.IIir intakes


a.) C,l'liUea ~ IOlpelr,alion

b) Sub cr'irtiica.~ iinmriiolr _, plr,essu re' ·~oo II,arge

\, S' "oi" II

e r » Upel1I!CIi~ I! I'ca

i nl'e'lii'Q1f - .press:u I"f!' 'to o! sifilaill

Ai r i ntakes



a situation to be avoided during normal operation of the aircraft (Fig 3-l3c) m

A major disadvantage of the normal shock diffuser is a rapid reduct~'O'11 in efficiency as Mach number increases, The reason 'is that a, normal shock incurs large total pressure losses even if the shock remains attached to' the intake lip. This situation prompted the idea of conducting the supersonic to subsonic deceleration n,IO ']n, a single step (as by the' normal shock)" but by' use of a, number of mess detrimental oblique shocks before terminating the supersonic deceleration by the unavoidable normal ShO'Ck" The strengthofthe normal shock will then. be weak enough to cause little loss,

An intake configuration able to provide such a staged supersonic deceleration will require either a wedge or a cone-shaped body suitably positioned within a subsonic diffuser .. The number of oblique shocks will, 'be determined by the number of corners at the contour of tile wedge or cone (Flg ,3-14a)~ The flow thus corresponds to the cornerflow type previously described. To what extent flow losses can be reduced by this method ills shown biy comparing tW'OI different supersonic diffusers at the same Mach rmmber (F'''g 3 ... 1 4c)..

By using a normal shock diffuser at Mach 2" fO'f example, pressure recovery is only 710 per cent (i.e, :Pt2lpl0 = O. 7)'J whereas with a multiple shock diffuser of three oblique shocks and one (terminating) normal sh .. ock, pressure recovery is 95 pier cent (plt2lpl0 ::: 'O~95).,

The operational characteris ires of an oblique shock diffuser may be summarized in three typical conditions, Ifthe normal shock that tenninates tbe supersonic flow regime is. exactly at the position of'the diffuser throat (i.e. where the cross-section is a minimum), the airflow rate is a maximum (Fig ,3mo,15a,)., This condition is denoted as critical. The incli-

nil a t.11· 0 .. · m I an ele 0-[' th Ie: U'1' rst 10'·, bli q u:e·· sh 0: ····c' k.· 'W::~I'V' 'e ,; C' th e n ,d,·' etermine ,d:j b ':0' . t h b 'y,,'-'.'

, I _ .' "j!iUJ. ::,1 _" "_. l. , JL.:Ii. "._._ '~'" ,,'"_ ""' _ ~ ~', ',,' , ,'l~,' JILl> IlL" , "_'l~ _:,,_ .. ,.11.1, ,I], ',', ,'_ ":',', ,'":

th Ie freestrea m M········· ':rcl c h n umber and t he ap 'e· ··X··· {JlI1"Ii'gI' '-,{;!110 0'" :·f-- wed ge 0'" 'r' C'O' -, n le-" B- .:' y: r

!Il.. '.- ",!i;,.I . .;1 J;,'","", ..... i[,!I, . ··IIUI""Jl.!l._" oit!!l.-".,JIl .",' ... '. u.L.W., !I,.,.o." \'¥\,;.o',_liv·. , 1 •....•.••• ~ ""_.

axially translating a central cone 10' by laterally pivoting the 'wedge surface at the apex, the oblique-shock may' be adjusted so as. always tOI be tangent to the outer part of the intake lip. Such at. shock configuration assures acceptable intake efficiency and usually corresponds to the design. point of tile diffuser,

In the case of a pressure drop at the compressor face the normal shock will be swallowed t10 adopt a quasi-stable position farther down-

t ithin h ,. k d (F't:3 I 5' ) Thi di ,. ~ d d

s ream "'I I n tt e mt a ce c uct ( I ',g ,.": -'.C· '. I rus condrtron ]8 enoted as

supercritical and, due to the greater strength of the (terminating) normal shock, .POliO'[ flow Quality results.

Now ~ assume a, rise 'W.11. pressure at the compressor face such as caused 'by a reduced airflow demand ofthe engine, The normal shoe < will then be expelled from its throat position, and airflow lis, reduced, Intake operation in this. case is subcritical (Fi.,g' 3 ... 15b).., Such a shock position


N,or,mall ,ShO'C:k

'Obllii,q,ue, :s,hoclk

. 'Olb- - I ~Il'q- '1Ie- shee I\.., .' ", ,. 'I "1 g" : '~I '~,,~


F'·' '314

~Ig '.:""'_ ~_

Multiple~shock diffuser

a) twin-shock diffuser

b) triple-shock diffuser

c) Max.imuml total pressure recovery P'tjp'tO

is highly unstable, the shock oscil ating all. a high rate between swal-

. -11 ~ ~

lowed and expelled positions. This OSCI .. atmg motion causes

high- requency pressure oscillations ill the intake" known as diffuser buzz - at sound feared by pilo: s as it can" indicate one of the most dangerous conditions of the propulsion system,

In, a known case, a highly subcritical operation of'the inlet (i.e, major

... - ."io.-'"' 'fl···· -, ·}'1' .... - .. , "") ., .' '., d' " . stabl ' d ~ff" ,',' "fl-' I'" t . rd -:' .' . d .... ,'." ,-

excess ow spru-over, causec unstaore ,'W .... user iow exten mg uown-

stream into the com bustion chamber where the flame was instantly extinguished, This in turn caused. pressure 'in, the diffuser duct to drop, the shock t,O be swallowed, and the fuel-air mixture to re-ignite. Rise in pressure thereupon caused the shock to be expe lied again, 311.d the

- ' .

process repeated, The pilot had no means of correcting the situation

,~111d. the aircraft crashed, Such are the consequences . hat can. result fr01TI flow anomalies in a supersonic intake.

3~3~2' Supersomc sir intesce - esse studies

An aircraft showing the typical application ofa normal shock diffuser is the American F .. 6, now a prod act of Lockheed, but developed and originally built 'by the General Dynamics Corpora .ion. The F-16"s

74 Jet IEngines






- - - - -,~=,~-------.-=



A" " t k

rr mtaxes


a.) ClriUcal 0 p'era.lhln

b) S WI bcrirtiiC,8!11 -

inlter i or Ip-li'es!u:ll1"e' 't'OD la Irge!

F~g :3 .. ,16 F,_·16 combat aircratt teaturinq a normal shock diffuser

c.l' Slllpe'rcl(ttic:a~ ,_,

i nterlor pressu re 1001 s rna III

intake is [of' he fixed-geometry type; without movable parts - a deci-

d 1"" d ~ P ..

sion fila e ear y III tie' aesrgn process to save costs .. :"rov sion 'was,

however, made for the possible Incorporation of a mo vable iota' e design at some later stage, but that appears unlikely ever tOI happen,

'hat i k bl b L ,:: . I ..., . ,. m fai 1 11 f

What 1S remarl . at e about this in let IS its positromng ' . .alr y 'we' . ,a it

under the fuselage - a sol ution resulting fr 01 111. requirements of the aircraft, The F-16 was designed tOI have exceptional manoeuvrability and this required ~t to, operate at. high angles-of-at ack. In these conditions the long fuselage . orebody performs a shielding . 'unction which serves I 0 align the airflow bet er with the (inc Iwn.ed, a" is of the intake (Fig ,3-17a), 'TIle intake itself features a. short duct which 110,t only contributes to the lightweight design of the aircraft, but also minimizes flow distortion ... head of the compressor.

Another problem facing combat aircraft is ho gas from gun muzzles that 1111ay be ingested and cause engine HI' me-out, By placing the' gun muzzle above 'the; leading-edge extension or strake the high- temperature gas from 'I lIe gun will 'be kept effective y a·W3lY from the' intake before being carried away by the external ow (Fig 3-170).

However this intake conf gurati [0' 1 is not beneficial in every aspect, The major disadvantage is that a normal shock sysu rn was employed which is less beneficial with regard to 'pressure recovery and maximum speed, Both factors were nevertheless deliberately accepted as the prim 'a" ry d " e' sign (Jo'a W" "a" s manoeuv fa' .bility not sneed

' .:. ".: :. ·It:. !t.'1. r..,' . ",,' .(J!!. . .IIIII.' .~ I JlIIJ...:, ,JI!..i.u.' ... 11b L).lI:.~~ _ ,,!

Besides, more difficulties remained to be solved. One was the thickening' of the boundary ,.a.:. ,e'f that develops at high angles-of-attack along the lower side of the fuselage forebody, In, order to prevent lowenergy flow f om entering' the er gine the intake had tOI be offset from the fuselage t,o free it. from ' he boundary layer which uninterruptedly passes alo rg the fuselage.

The intake cowl features a moderately blunt lower ' '"IP thai transi-

t:·.'· .. ,"' ::,11' '. ~ sha 1·· di 0 '. ed '. .. t '. " .. " . ~ ~ ilitt .. ,'. ~ -i\-.. th ..

ions into a S : arp . ea .. · mg-ecge ex enston '011 sp uter p are on I lei upper

side (close to the fuselage). The splitter plate extends 25 cen imetres (LOrn) ahead of tile lower cO'W' ','" Pi to isolate the inlet normal shock from the fuselage boundary layer' Fig 3-17b). Ashort length of the splitter plate keeps boundar .. layer build-up small, 80 eliminating the need of boundary ayer bleed. on the splitter. The blur t lower cowl Iip was

1 d . r fl ., d fl· di .,

selecte .. to prevent up O'W separation all. ICOI' . sequent' O'W". ~S' or ion

during aircraft manoeuv res at high angles-of-atu ck,

Similar reasons also lead the sidle intakes of the (once' YF-17 (now' F -18) 1.0 fea 1'1 IJ'e blunt Ii ps. The inlets 3lre located under the leading-edge extensions 'to the front. of the inner main '. jng, .arge splitter pla es separate the fuselage boundary layer from the intake . IOW~ and then channel the Iow-energy boundary tl 10 'W' through wing .oot slots to the top of the aft fusele ge, Of' along the botto through a low-drag tunnel

.A,iilr intakes 77'

Spllifte,r' p ate (I s.ohdiill 9 she ck

~rom 'f'll!Jlsella!ge' "-~ -----...., ~

It!! enJ ndirry Ila,Y'er)

Slmple no 1n1lall shock diflUise-r' (weiight~ c.os,ts,II!Qw)1

Fusella'ge.,l!Is;hield,ed ii nta lite ("'o,w stral 9 hteirned by' fo~ebQdy" gill n m uzzl~e' gas, lkep,t: flroliilli ,en"eri fiI!g lintalke'),

R:oUlnldied , iip (t<o. Pi re,vent: fllow separsUo n at 1;;III'Qre inc ~ dance)

IF]I ilg hi: d~ re ct:iion




Bounda,ry' ~aye.'r

. G,ap SC'rn

ntake nO'w

Fig 3 ... ,17 Characteristics of 1F-16 normal shack ditfuser

J E .

: I . .,". I - .. .i ',,' 'j

at nqmes

Ailr intakes

F'igl 3,.'118 L~ghhNeiight fi'ghter prototype YF-17 featurinq normal-shock diffusers.

Splitter plates on fuselaqe sides to keep tuselaoe boundary layer from enteti n 9 ~ nta kes

F'igl 3-'19 ~Aultiple holes on the splitter plate' ahead of intake to remove boundary layer of; plate

between the engines, Newly-forming boundary layer (In the splitter plates is 'bled off , hrough numerous holes on t he split ter just ahead of th,e in' ake ..

Increased thrust levels available from new high-performance engines are demonstrated by both the F - ~ 6 and p,-, 18 " which easily achieve twice the speed of sound (Mach 2) despite employing higher-loss 'normal shock diffusers. Losses to the intake flow can be marked Y' reduced,

Fig 3~.20' Min3.Q'8 IIII 'fighter 'featuring side-mounted oblique-shock diffusers


1 ••• _:

Ai r ~ ntakes


Fliig 3-,2'1 Axisymmefric oblique-shock ditfuser (Lockheed SR'=?1)

taken to arrive at. this ,go,am constitute a masterpiece of ingenuity well worth dealing 'with in more detail,

It will 'be: remembered. that, for the efficient deceleration of supersonic flow, a multiple-shock diffuser is required 'because of its ability to process the intake flow through a number of oblique shocks, with a final terminating norma shock at the throat that transfers the flow from supersonic to subsonic speeds, Downstream of the throat, the subsonic flow is further diffused (= speed, d'O'Vl11, pressure up) 1[0 a lower

M·II,h .'.' I'Ll-: '," ;1":' .' .-- "':' 1·'-"1-' d b- th - I',· ... "1 -·,~·"."-'·'-·II-

,ac .. nunler ,as reqUlI,e.'y t ... le COll1preSSOf.,

All supersonic diffusion mus be accomplished by turning of the flow .. , With, aircraft operating up' to 'medium' flight Mach numbers

(I' a' .ro nmd M""': a C: c'bl 2',' 1)" 1 ',1_'- ·'·.~ •. ,i iic d liffu .~·1·0·. in' ~'S' .'I'fl· al ' 11::, 1' .• '.' ,.', -,11- ted wh e'·--····

.... '_', , "_ .. , . __ .. '....... sU.personl . _ H, "'~ ,'" lh gel1er _ Jly comp e'u'e _ w _ . n

the' intake flow' arrives ,at the cowl lip, As this process occurs outside the duct (i.e, over the cone), it is termed external compression.

At stl-n g.' reater supersonic sp eeds (Mach ? 5 and overj external

. " .:1 '" • . _ I "_ , I ," , ".". "." ' '. ,.1.,... .:_', .:l , .. , ~_ .. " .-....! -.! '" .'.' '. :.' • ',.", .' I " : ·.A I.""

compression alone proves increasingly inefficient because of the disp roportionate rise in shock osses, AJ.SO', with an all-external compression inlet, the turning of the flow lD,USt be away from the in~et axis, leaving the flow at a high angle at the cowl lip. This in turn causes high aerodynamic drag of the cowl due to displacing the externa flow, not to mention he difficulties of turning the internal flow back towards the engine,

A more efficient method is. therefore to conduct only part of the supersonic diffusion as. external compression, while the remaining

. ., '1·' h d ;, t '. h '. .- k d . I '.

part 1.S accompnsnec withm tie intake duct as tnternai compression.

This is achieved by' means of a series of oblique shocks that reflect immediately do,'wnstr,eam, of the cowl lip, as one oblique shock. By careful area variation in the ducting, supersonic diffusion continues in the S'·' uper so mic p assa OQlo 0": f t; 1hp in - let te rm ··c- in a tin g a t the nu .: n irnum cross-

.. ,1Ia..r.r !IU ~ .. , .1 .... Jl. , "" Itlt ..... o~ _.,. J . .I,~ JIL .IL,l' ~~.: ".... .. _" JillL.. ..... ~' ."., .,

section, of the inlet (throat) by means of a relatively weak normal shock (Fig 3-2Z)m

The efficiency of'external compression is further increased, and pressure recovery' imp roved bv shaping I the conical centrebody so as to

. ,. I " .. '"' . .. _.: ... , .. , ..... - ~ . ,J I·) ... . ._. I. : .. " ... ::."'"" .1.... .. .... .' "." . " .... p.:. ... - .....

[ ,." ,1i'; .. " .. lti 011 .. he cks '-.~' t-'h-' .. th: '" · w. -' _.' .',' t-- .--.' k Th····· i - ·,hl .. ·_ .. '·· '. "'d-

generate mur rp . ie s ]IOC. ,,:,S rau er an oruy one snocs '.' .... 1S IS ac uevec

by giving the in et centrebody a conical 'jPI section a slightly-bent middle section acting as (1, conical-spike diffuser to create amultiple-

h;'-""k- It· . t· ..... "d' .... ""~'1- ""d ['. t:·· , .. ·h· .... ,lIl·· ·t·,·-·-,····· ·t-h-·" 1 ..... ·" t·,·,.,

s, ,Qc .. ···. s"fucure, an_, a IClonmca" ell·. seCl010[, W lc,wl0ge er I,ea Ulle

.. d ..

c,o,m,:p:re-s,slli[O'll. 1~\n,l. _' n OJ!], -co,m,preSSmOll][ Z!OImes ~

B··' '. - d·l .. -, 1 '-.- -,- - ·th· ·'·k· __ '. ,". b] .. ··d· ·fr-· t.'L-f"'" 'oh'" , . '·c. ''''1 .',.', .. ' ·-·'t· '"- '.' .-,.,.'

oun ,;ary !layer 0111 _'" ,e S..pl ,e .1S .... e:~. 0.1. 1 111IO'U"D ' . a ,porous sec m,OD on

the- ce.ntreb,o,dy ~ n.ea,r th,e th.roat of th,e inlet. Cowlin,g bOiul1dary la:yer .is b, cd ,off throug'h a s,e;ri[es of ['slh,o'ck tral)S' consistmn.g, of 33 byp,ass tmibes that chanile'~ tl1is air' into, the 'b'YIlas,s, ,annlllus of tb_.e nacell.,e .an,ld the'n("Je ·to t- ~l - e· eC'FO r'

- n,e' J ~_:' ~.'..,

Ell1p'~Oy· .·il10' an axi~)"y:'m'mnetrjc ,difflJse"~ 'p-rO'ves b'en,e.-fici~l as 1011Q' as the

. ' .. , . _- .. -_ ." '. b' . -".' __ '" ,··c -" I .. - '." -' . .. • '. - _.'" (:.' . -" - . - ".0' Cl -- .-

however with a two-shock diffuser as exemplified 'by the Fvl 04- Starfighter, a, famous airplane of'the fifties .. , The same principle ofaerodynamic compression is ,a]S,OI applied '1,0, French Mirage fighters which feature half-cones within their intake ducts, Side-mounted intakes are offset from the fuselage sides to prevent low-energy fuselage boundary layer from entering 'the intake duct, By axially translating halt-cones. the shock position can be adapted t,OI a, changing flight Mach number .. This proce 11.:".(;'1 ';'ii:' cont roll e. d .... autom ~1·fj;Iif""'''''''l WI' 'y.: .. th roug h th e a' ir d ·l~a·· com puter

. .. - ... .. \;{iiJI'.:li .lll.iW!I ... , .. . '-.' .. .' , I, , . , .' . IU" 'J...1 V(;1I,.III., . . ", " , . , , '.' "~ IU" V. ,w ,-!Io,;r' ,

" , . . ,

'to which a number of measured flow' data are fed" such as dynamic

. "

pressure, static pressure, air temperature

Only very few supersonic aircraft featured full-circle axisymmetric air intakes, examples 'hieing: the Russian MiG,-,21 and the British Lightning fighters, both designs dating from the sixties, A prominent member of this group is also the American S,R-71 from Lockheed, a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft that flies ,at Mac'h, 3~ Aillso a desi,gn [of th,e sixties, the aircraft was 'wit11dra'wn fro·.m activ'e servioe in 1993 on ,grounds .of .high Clost;. 'but three ,aircraft I'lettl ".ned to .fl,ying' status in ] 994 after a ser.I1ons gap in U'Sreconn,amssance capa,bility' 'was :rec 0 g11iz!e,d"

D'ue to '_he extrao:rd,inary' speed capaLbirty of this aircraft~ n.,oli,ceab'~.e atso b,y' its llll,usual shaple" in'ta,·k.e :now ·~a.d, to be ,carefully :pr'o,ces.,sH:~,d, in, o,rder t.o m"a"ke po,ssible: 'maximwn perfOITll;[Ul,Ce~ Tb,e u.n,llsual me[asu,res.

,Bent .' Stmiight

Ailr intake's 83


Boundlary Ilay,elr


Fig ,3H2:2 Mb<'8d-compression inlet (Lockheed SR-71)

now is aliened 'with the centrebody axis Major disadvantages arise

- - - '- L - (: , - e ". . - - "." _ . "' . - .". - -" .' . - :' ,,- -" ... ~ = , .... _' . - "- - _. - - ,- - - -;-' - - - ,- - . - "

t, O;I'W'-'.-:-. ·e.-··'ve-. oro' '1· 'r-' th ·e··'- direc .. 'tl· o'--.'n, I of *h- e. - flo w m ~S·. at !~ll n an 0'1 e , to lfi- h e in tak e·' axi s ..

w, ,I .. " .. .. l' " .• j '. . "' _ v '. .' ~ ,ll1. __ . I " • .~. ~ ;!J (: b . t. lil. ~ ~ t . ~. ~JJ. I

Such a condi tion will occur d uring sideslipping lor manoeuvring flight, and it may cause the engine compressor to operate dangerously close to the surge line" 'with flow distortion likely to occur (see

Ci1l,.. ne -- 41)'-

ri. a p<er _r '.

J h di . 1 d'·ff ., h more beni

11 contrast, the two-dunensiona I Ii 'user is mucn more oemgn to

non-symmetric flow' conditions" even though at less favourable pressure recovery levels. A classical application of this type of diffuser can 'be found itl the Northrop F-5 combat aircraft" The intake ramp is arranged vertically and slightly offset from the' fuselage to avoid

- -

ingesting the boundary layer .. Issuing from the sharp-edged ramp, an

oblique shockwave will form as a standing wave, impinging on the intake cO'W tangentially, This will, however, occur only ifthe aircraft is flying at its design Mach number. At off-design flight Mach numbers, for example when accelera ing, the position of th,e shock is unfavourable because the 'velocity is transient and the shock not

,,', d . iii,· ble , . ",. 'b1 . , .. ,- . ..... to '1'1 t· " .... -" .' f~' ~:"" . ·d·' '. ' ... - .. .' .. t· -

a t. J us ~,a I • e - a pronrem common 0 a", Y,P"f'S 0, JlIXe, = geome ry

d ~ ffusers, In order to assist the diffuser to 'start' properly [i.e, to work as designed), numerous small holes are arranged in, a pattern so as to constitute a perforated wall at the throat 'Section .. Porosity of the wall allows overpressure downstream of the shock to 'be reduced and, thereby the risk of the intake to choke minimized,

Good efficiency of the fixed-geometry diffuser "'8 achievable only within. a narrow speed-band .. A more flexible solution for adjusting

Fi g 3-23, North rap F·~-5 with vertical-ram p two-di men sio na~ ob I j' que-s hoc k d iffuser

intake geometry to a. varying flight speed is provided by the variablegeometry diffuser, Hardware examples are ". he MeD~'nnle': i Douglas F;c4 Phantom combat aircraft 'with a vertical ramp diffuser and the Concorde supersonic transport with, a horizontal ramp diffuser. Also of the horizontal ramp type is the diffuser ofthe 'US- N avy F - '~,4 Tomcat fighter, tbe operating principle of which 'will now' 'be discussed in glome detail, (F.ig 3-25)

Grumman F-,14 eaturinq horizontal-ramp two-dimensional obliqueshock diffuser

In order to control airflow to the engines, ramps in the inlet duct are designed to pivot SIO as to alter the cross-section of 'hie flow-path, Duringtake-off at' d ow-speed flight, th,f' ramps are allowed to 'overcollapse upwards, widening the throat area. 8.1:1d so increasing the airflow without the need for auxiliary inlet doci S 0111 'the sidewal s of the intake. I( , ig 3-25a.

In supersonic flight a combination all fo _. r shocks (three oblique" one normal) co "press and decelerate the air for entrance to the subsonic duct (Fi.:g 3-2~5c)" The first oblique shock is generated along the fixed-ramp leading edge relative posiaions of the other shocks lare controlled b:y variable ramps. The first mo . .aI,e' ramp, hi ged [a, the fixed ramp structu ~e carries the moving hinge for the seco. d movable ramp, A. third, aft-facin .. g; ramp in the duct is hinged. to the primary intake structu e, and by' its motion 'i' forms the subsonic diffuser and the throat slot height, Ramp movement is automatically scheduled by Mach signals from the air data. compu: er ..

The bleed door on top of the intake is ill we-position device 'which opens both at high angles-of-attac I .to preserve th.e engine stall margin, and at hi g' h sp e e 'd , t' o P re v ent all gi '0' I~ ,. b "l-[Z"'Z;· "

. . !ii_ _ I", _ ~~!IJ.I .. . . ..... . If-J.. ~~, - . ,,~ .... _ !Ii

. . . .

__ mL L-


~--I~----'---_ r • _ .. _ - , .

--~- .. -- • --- ------ -- - __ F " _ 1 :....

~----. -~-'II!"--- _._

--"~- _ -- _ -- _ .. _m_ ---- .... ..'_ . __ """"'! 01 _

"1 -_ -_. __ .. _ _- - . . _ _ .. ,,_

Blo'undary I!ayer and e'xlcess, ailf e,xhaus,t



h . .

F-14 intake c .aracteristics

a) subsonic fllow at hiqh anqls-o -attack (manoeuvring 'flight)

b) transonic flow with normal shock emerging on ramp

c) External corrpression of supersonic 'flow throuqh tour shockwavas {3 oblique shock plus termina ing normal, shock)

In each category of a turbine-driven ,aero·~·en,gilln.e·- turbojet, turbofan, turboprop air turboshaft _ the compressor is one of the most importan t components. It is the task ofthe compressor to increase the pressure of

',. that i f '. h d b h "., k Th'· .

the airstream tnat :IS, urmshec .. ;·y t re air intake ,., 1S process IS accom-

plished by supplyin .. g mechanical energy (= work) to the compressor, the rotating blad-es of which exert aerodynamic forces on 11.e ,ai rfl ()W',.

A h I' r" hi hl d . .

t the compressor out et, a stream 0:. rngn y compresse air rs

discharged to the combustion chamber, where more energy is added in the form of heat.

In a compressor, mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy, TIle amount of energy required, and 'the ,q uality of achieved energy' conversion, is characterized by compressor performance parameters. The most important parameters are:

C'O'Olpresso' .~ efficiency compressor total pressure ratio air-flow rate

The efficiency parameter denotes the amount of energy supplied to the compressor from the turbine, by' means of the rotor shaft, that results in, all. increase of pressure energy, This parameter, therefore, denotes the amount of loss that is always incurred by' converting energy, Engine manufacturers exercise great efforts, both in research and manufacture, to keep tosses as O'W as possible .. Even the smallest efficiency improvemen S may become decisive m the selection of an.

e"n' 0"1 ne by a custom er

"!e~:: . :<' .. ',: ~.···",~tl.:·1 ,:' I.: "!

Next, there 'is compressor pressure ratio .. This parameter is defined as the ratio of the total pressure at compressor discharge (Po) and at compressor entry (Pt2)" US'Ul.8l]~.y denoted by the Greek symbol n (Pi):

'Comp:res",il,:'l'o-r' p"'r-~~~,u'r"A r"'a .. "t]o···' 'n = Pu

. . . . -' oJ!. . .. !Ii;..oril'il - .. ~ ." lit... '" " P't2

The imnportal1],ce ·of,tIle com.pressor pressu,:r'e ratio 'is because· o'verall en,gi.n,e 'performance is ~'nfluenc,e'd 'by th'Is.. param.eter ,as it 'bears !directly

on thrust, fuel consumption, engine efficiency', .. Engine weight, too, is

di '.' .tl ' , ,'1 .. t .. d t '. ';','- ''-' ' ,'" tic A······,·,· ' , · . '-" ,:"',. "."""""'., .. ' .. atic 1"','.

rrec JIly reia e. . 0 pressure fa 10~ ,. n ~.nCI ease 10 pressure rano, .110'f

instance, may' require the number IO.f stages in the compressor tJO be increased, which will result in. higher pressure and tempera ture levels within the gas generator, This ill turn win necessitate a heavier engine

~1 b ~l h '" b desi d ithsi d

overau because not O'~1I1y must t _ e engine oe re-aesigne to withstand

the higher stress levels, but usually the combustion chamber and turbine as well,

The mass flow rate parameter denotes tll,e airflow volume that the compressor is capable of processing within unit time, usually one second. Apart from the importance of this parameter for thermal cycle

....... 1 ~ + ~ • ,. 'II ,. fi'- ,. ., . b ' .' ~

,aLll,w·YSI8, It ,aJlSO permits engine crassi icanon wit ( respect to, engine size

to' easily be made.

All three performance parameters are closely interrelated ... , Changing

fl ~ 'rn ·'U di 1·' fl " d'

mass ow' rate, tor example, W~,~~ .u rrect y mt uenee pressure ratio an, ;

in most cases, engine efficiency too, Because parameters change with varying flight conditions, data given £011' engine classification are usually referenced to agreed, standard conditions, such as zero flight

d ~. d ., 11!. ( ~ d .. h di )

spec 'j; zero altitu '.' e, 'm,aXImll,m thrust 1 see engine .•• : ata m tl e appen ....• .IX" ,.

Present-day compressors achieve efficiencies of U,P' to 9101 pier cent, com PI' ressio ,11 ratios '0' f '~,6"':'''1 ("'3.'0'."'] with high by .. 'pass ... ratio turbofan

." .."..J . " '...: _. " .. .:' , " ..... t!: '.1, ' . '.,. . .. ....' , .: "," , . . .', "," ," , ~ ,

, ..

engines), and mass flow rates of 'UP' to 2010 kg/s (up to '900 kg/s with

high bypass-ratio turbofan engines), ..

Compressor types

Basically two types of compressors are in use namely .. s :

,. ,.',' ".1. ~ _"',_': _ ','_. ,"", ~ _~, .: I. _",_ :",'_ I:. :"." ~," .. ':'''.:' '," _,' ",_._ I ''', ..... , 1," ..• , " iI!

_ the centrifugal-flow compressor, and -_. the axial ... flow compvessol:r ..

When engine technology was in its, infancy (up to '~,9501) the radialflow centrifugal compressor prevailed, both with Western and Soviet military fighter aircraft, although German combat aircraft of the Second World War utilized the axial-flow compressor. Today, centrifugal compressors are used only in, small engines such as shaf engines for helicopters, auxiliary power units, turboprop engines, and some low-thrust engines for business aircraft. The majority of engines, however, employ the axial-flow CO'D1.preSSO'f, 'this supremacy being a natural Oiu,'tco'me of its a,'bility to 'litan,dle largie: mass ,flow rates, a ,p're.req."uis,mtl~ for Ille ,high. thr·us.t lev'els r,e"q.uired by t'od"flY;S high-performance aircr;mft.,

Th,e ,d,esi,gn)ation gjv'en t,O' the· two dif(e'~lent ,compr,ess,o'r t:yplf;S resll1lts fr',om the' d.m~rection of the flo'w' rei a.tive to th.le COlm,p:ressor shaft axis" I:n

BB Jlet Enqines

.. - .. trif .. I' -1 .' ., t'h'·· '-' -. "- . '-.- ed ai -- di ":h" ,-.... ad ~. lill .

a cen rt ugai compressor, _ .... e compresseo air ._. lSC urges raarauy

outward, at 901 degrees to the spool axis, whereas in an axial-flow compressor the direction is parallel to the Sl)O'O':~. axis, ~

4,",2,,, 1 ,C,en'trituga'l' compressor

A centrifugal compressor basically consists of a- rotating' impeller, a fixed diffuser and a manifold which collects and .turns the compressed air. Pressure ratio may be increased by arranging t1A!IO single-face compressors ill a f!O'W" which was successfully done with the RollsRoyce Dart engine that powers, ,aI11011.g others, the Fokker Friendship turboprop transp ort ..

, • • , 1

F'i'g 4-1, Components af a si'ng le-staqe radial com pressor

IF'i'gI4 .. 2 Turboprop enqine Hells-Boyce Da.rt w~tlh two radial compressors arranged ~n tandem

Th'e"_ corr p '·r·:e· issor 8:··'9··';'

III . I '.' . ..... _ ,"-

Exiit: 'fllaw'

--,----- -'-.-'----------~--.-.,;;;;;;;;;;;;;~~ .

- ." .

E:ntry now

P'll'es,s;ure ...

VellDcj~y '..,

Fig 4-3 Pressure and velocity lapse in a oentrituqal compressor

.A derivative of the single .. face compressor was the double-face compressor which had a smaller diameter for a given airflow, Because of problems in. supplying air to the rearward- facing impeller, and due

t ',' t .h: - ~-, .. al --,' --.: ,--- " " -'.' d--._ t·,·· "f" .d ".' .-." r'- ".- . ':"0.- this t , ·-·-·f· ...

o tecnnrcai progress Ina ... e .10 res uce engine size, _,1,,1S rype 0

compressor is no longer used. in aviation applications,

A. major benefit of the centrifugal compressor ~s a large pressure ratio per stage (of tile or-clef of 5,: 1), and relatively low-cost manufacture attractive features both for the small engine market and the automotive industry,

O tl' 1'!Ii I

peranng prmctp e

The' impeller is, dri v en. 'by the turbine and revolves at high, speed, usually of the order of ,20,01010 to 310,,000 rpm, depending on engine size. At the entry tc he impeller, near the hub, air is ingested a nd directed towards the outer circumference OlD. the compressor by a series of 'inlet guide vanes (Fig ~3). The airflow is induced by the- high rotational speed of

h '" U Th I' h '" fl b ~"ld

t .. e impeller. " I.1S process not on y causes tt e am ow to 1_ uuc up

' .. -' ."- .' .'. bt t '. ·t the '- -, .... ' . ti '.': to d' '". h .. ,··" . I' f" ·"0- '·m·· tl 'ho imp e'~I'IIQr' at hi .:. h .pres sU.re, ·n a. I[, e s.ame Imle 0 .'. l.SC, .ar ge ~.,' ... , i., • .! ~ ,.' L,ll.' _ ill .. L! '.___, ... g. '.

velocity, III the diffuser section, the kinetic energy of the high-velocity at is converted to p ~essure energy which lies ults 'in, a low-velocity highpressu .e ail flow, The diffuser also serves both to straighten the 'flo"!'

an/d. to change its direction through 90 degrees to suit. i for flowing through the manifold c,olm .. ponen t. In practice, half of the pressure increase is accomplished in the impeller, the other half in the diffuser section (Fig: ,4--3)~

L··· ibl . if 1

arge mcreases In pressure are pass} . lie. In a centn uga compressor,

typically of tbe order of 5: 1, at an efficiency of 8100/om Pressure ratio may be increased further by· increasing rotational speed. but efficiency will deteriorate rapidly, T,· e reason is that the circumferen ial velocity of the airflow discharging from the impeller wil be supe sonic and SOl cause shock waves to form wi hin the diffuser, with attendarr high


Arranging t.W·IO impellers ill. tandem as in. the vintage Rolls-Royce Dart engine, fie-presents all intelligent engin eering SIO'~U ion tal increase pressure wi. hout exceeding the critical rotational speed -e Less benefi ~ cial, however, is to turn the flow 180 degrees behind the: first stage because it increases ler gine weight, Furthermore, turni ng the airflow so radically makes it prone to flow separa ion within the airflow passage that requires careful design in order to minimize .~.IOSSles ..

4",2'~2 Axial compressors

Most present-day turbo-engines for aircraft employ axial comp .essors, I~ was he axial compressor that made possible the modern generation of medium to high-thrust engines and, in. turn the aircraft propelled by them.

The principal advantage of the axial compressor is its ability t[o deliver high mass flow rates together with .. large pressure ratios at . he same time - features which the centrifugal compressor, due tOt is method of compression, cannot provide, The axial compressor is also beneficial :

inte .nally because the air flows. in a uniform direction which eli In mates the need for turning the flow

extern I" lly, because the smaller cross-section red uces aerodynamic drag of t re engine nacelle,

The method of'cornpression is different for each type of'eornpressor.

Whereas in a Dent ifugal compressor mechanical energy is trans erred by means of centrifugal forces, in an. axial-flow compressor energy is transfern d by means [of (lero,d_,n,aJnicorCesE .owever, because airflow in all axial compressor '·s diffusing (i"e~ press ure up, vel : city dov n), it ]S much more se nsitive to flow perturbations, Tills mu: t ·be taken into account when defining the operation aI en: elope of sue 1. engines, Ano: her- disadvantage of the axial-flow compressor i its complex .. true ure which greatly contributes to engine overall cost and weight,

Fi[g 4111\4 Axial compressor assembly (General Hectric J79 turbojet)

Comp essor constrnction

The axia compressor is usually made IIp of a la~ge n~mb~r of individua parts, ofdiverse function .. , ;··mtl1oll,gh the vanety ot eng ne ~~k~s. available on I he market differ according to the requirements of individual applications, distinc i ypes of components are typical t[D any

compres JIO:r~ These are Fi.,g 4· )::

compressor front frame'

compressor [casing with stato ~ vanes ro tor' wi ·_11 rotor blades

ICO=~ pressor "ear frame

Fig 4 .. S Co mpres sor front frame of ,General Electrlic JI79 turbojet englins, seen frorn rear. Variable inlet gu~de vanes with trailing= ed gie exhau 81 exits for

dl ,. .

e-icmq air

Compressor ffiOUt frame

The airflow, after being delivered, to the compressor face by the air intake duct, first passes the front frame. Tills. is a ring-shaped single-

. I" h ~ ht s' d f I '. ~ 11 I 11

" 'I' 'I . 1 ", I." <' . ; I' ,. I." ", I' '.' I . .... . 1 ',- ..;, I". ,', , I, I' ' ... ' i '::.'

piece hghtweig It structure mace 0, arurmnmm a oy or stee " usua y

east and then machined, Characteristic to this component is an outer ring, an inner hub and 6 to :8 streamlined supporting struts.

The task of the compressor front frame is to accommodate tile rotor front bearing and to transfer rotor forces to the outer casing by means of the supporting struts, The aft facing flange of the front frame mates w~ .. h the compressor casing to which it is tightly secured by bolts, The supporting struts are hollow to accommodate, for eX81I111)Me, tubing to lubricate and ventilate th,le front bearing, and tOI provide space for electric cables, where an electric starter is mounted forward of the shaft,

'P" ower i s-: l,.· I" I '~1'1 .t .. , . t d f~" '. tho ". ".' '. '.','. , , .. shs C't- t d'~' ", I'"

, ,I. '. m IS aJllSIO llStlalll.) ex, .rae e, rom .. ,Ie cO.m,p.re.ssor S . ,3,1, t. .0 I. !f1lVe

the accessories. This is done by means of an inner gearbox and a radial shaft, which runs through one of the radial struts to the engine bottom transfer gearbox connecting 'with, the accessories The interior ,of the

h ·'n t"'SI t·· ." .. 11, .. ',.' -d ~ , '.' .'"' ' .. c·- ~".',-~ ,'- . ., , -. "".- d .-., ' ~. -'. thr t fr,':"!

ouow 31 U. S IS aiso usee as a warm at passage tor ... ie-icmgt e s ruts

themselves ~

Some engines feature movable inlet guide vanes downstream of the

DetaUis of stator

1 Com pressor upp Sir cssl ng 2 ,2 nd s~g'e bl!sed

:3 .5,tl1 stag lei bleed

4 .Bth stalg91 blas d

5 Comp lfeSSiO r low91r casing 6 Separator

"1 Stator btade.s,

8 Compresso If ulPpe r cas'j ng 9 Stator blades

1 ~ Fixingl button

11 2nd staglS' bls ed diu et

1,2 lflrxingl button for Ibllae d duct


IFiig 4·'6 Compressor casing (Orenda 14 tutboje!t)

Shroud I!"ings

Compressor casing

The compressor casing is a, tube-like construction typically split lengthwise to facilitate engine assembly and maintenance. After the rotor has been installed in. the casing, both h alves are bolted together through longitudinal flanges, 'Casing' 'material is usually lightweight titanium forging, but stainless s eel has also been used in the past, Modern highperformance engines employ alloy materials that were: specifically developed tiD allow expansion of the ease due to' heating during engine operation, yet keeping rotor tip clearance margins acceptable .. Such a material is the "Thermax' alloy of Inconel, Corp, used i:n Pratt & Whitney's 408,4, engine to power the Boeing 777"

The inner surfaces of the compressor casing are machined with circumferential Tvsection grooves to re: ain the stator b ades, Modern engines also feature variable inlet guide vaneJ~ (IGV) to direct flow alignment.In this case variable vane 'blearing' seats are formed b,y radial holes and counterbores through circumferential suppor ing ribs,

A proportion ofthe compressed (and thus heated) air is permanently

bled, either through circumferentially arranged 'bleed manifolds IOf through hollow stator vanes. Bleed lair is used for aircraft systems such as cabin pres surizati on and heating, wing leading-edge de-icing, and for electronic systems temperature control, The engine itself also requires bleed air both for de .. ,icing the front frame support struts and

, -'., " .:., ]11 . d ,r., ', .}", ," th .' t 1 b _",.., fn .'- " '. 'd': b.-·l, d ..

mlose eOWJIl, all, lor C'OO In,,g . e 1 ur,lne 1 ,rame an.' .. ', ',a es.,

Stator blades are locked in, the compressor casing, either directly

h 1 T· - bv retai '" W' h d d· 1 b~ d

I ".,' . _I," " .• "":""',:, .~ .. ~ ····11· ''''1"'': Y' i·.' .. ,- .. ' -. I," I ' .• ",' I" ," Ij' ", . _", j'" ·1"· .. ······- . .'.: .:", : " ..

t roug 1, grooves or .' y retaming rings. . I en secure . , .' rrect y" ... .a .. ,es

m,ay' be integrally shrouded at their tips to minimize flow Jesses. Longer

bl d ., th f t t iii""" tl t d' ~ k

ac es rn I_ ie rron 81 ages are rrequen y mounreo m pac ;'S as a measure

., 'b'l d ~b . i,

..... .. ',. ="-:.': I ,'t.' .. ". '", . 'J' ,'1,- i' ",

agamst 1_ ,a, .. ,e Villi. ranon .

In. compressors employing stator blade retaining rings, the blades usually have axial dovetail ends that fit into the rings, After' each semi ... ,

,. 1 m h . d "'. .' b I d th '. d

"1 " .. ," "(' " I'~ . I::' : .:: .... ,','" - ...... i· . 'i :.:-'., ....: ... , ," : . - 1'-. I' '. . ," - t' :'..., .~. 11'- t. " • J.. ", ..•. •..• ..•. I'. ,J.. .' ' .•. ,', I!I' 'I"" .'. I

eire e rmg nas accepter its appropriate .. ' aces, t Ie rings so prepare

'w'iU, 'be placed 111101 the grooves of the casing and firmly locked in such

.. -.' ii th .' t h " , '·'~'I'~',· .' t ','! t,· t .'. ',. , ·dl t}' .. .. . :' '.

a, manner ~ nat 1" ey MUl no 1.0'1 a e aroun , 11e casing,

G······ ride :.-. '.' ','" ed to ' .. .- .- : ", ." desired d irectior tc th .'. flow aud

.IUI. Ie vam}es. ,are u,se '_, ·0 I1n,plose ,a .. ,esmre· .. !. mrecluono' e ,0 '~_" an .

to convert rotor exit swirl velocity into a static pressure rise, The . _ - ber 0 f' O-Ul'· d evan es W' ;'t- hin a com P resso r 'JiISS em 'bl' y m ay b . e S'H' b

num •· .. ····r" e, .'.,_~..J-"~"~' m t ... ': I'" .... ss •• ,j[. Ul~'r'!,_ .. "~J.,_ .',-

stantial in some cases. several hundred.

Rotor assembly

The rotor is considered the most complex component of 'the compressor assembly, Energies of several ten-thousands of'horsepower may be processed in, some compressors, ill particular those of high

Ifil1.- 4' 0'" ·lh· .. · ... ' ..

'~,g_~... IIil8 casing

assembly of a highpe rtorrnance jet enqine may hold several hundred stator blades (Stator of General Electric J79 enqine, view from rear)

bypass-engines, Such severe load conditions req uire uniq ue methods of rotor C011St' ruction.

In its general design the .otor may be ofthe drum or disc type, or be: a combination shaft and, disc structure. .In a disc-type rotor (which is.

th , .' . ,'1.1 ' I" ' .. I"~ I' .. . ':~ t -. '1 . ti "-':' i) th .' .. I' ,11'.';," bl: d I· ',. :, ' c· ,',. t .. , d :.. " .. d "-

I .f: mos. common cons rue ron ... ' e ro 0(1 . a. es are moun e· .. , on, m ... 1

vidual discs which are then separately secured to the rotor shaft, often divided 'by spacer rings, Individual construction varies with engine

E b tth . '. i f . ferri d ial 1 d

"-'. .'. I ' <.1 '.' "II:e,: 'I 'ii' ":' C,'I"···"'· .' .... '. ~.'. I, .... '. ,,' ',"'1'1 II.'.' .a- . ..... ' ', ... '

"manu acturer, but the pnncip e 0, translerrmg torque anc axiar 1.03. S

. h .,... h ... f ial fl"1

at tl e same time '1S charactenstic 0, any aXI:,.1 . :~O'W rotor,

The shape of the rotor blades (like those of the stators) is comparable t,o' a miniatt re wing featuring the typical aerofoil section .. , . nlike an aircraft wing, however, a rotor' blade may be highly twisted from

.' btai he onti 1- f. 'k h fl

'~' ... ' .... I" .. '.". ~,.- - . "'1'" ~ ... , '.' . ".' . ,. ."-

root to t~"PI to' 0' .ta.ln tie optimum ang e-o -attacl to t .. e ttow every-

where along the blade length .. The reason IS that the root section travels much slower than 'the tip section and. 'views the flow from a different direction. The necessity for blade twist.arises from the requirement for constant axial velocity being maintained across the flow path, The length of the blades decreases progressively downstream in, 'the same proportion as the pressure increases,

Although out of production for decades, one example of a

,2 I nte r,m,ediate rottO-f d rum ,3, Rear roto r drum

4 Fa 'MIa] ~d :stub sh a:ftt 5 F f,ont rotor eru m

6 SSlpawa'Ung ri" 9

1 Rea r stub shaft:

f" 4 g" Ilg~'.

Thel compressor 97'

1 fasten ing rod for n otened 'torque shaft

5 Slhel~u pin

16 M'iddlle drum 1 [Rear drum

8 Cl,amlpin g ro d

91 R'eoa.r stu b sha:ftt 10 First s:tagle disc

2 ilFr();nt: stub shaft ,3 .J aw coupliing

4 IFront drum

F'ig,4,..'10 Drum rotor construction - a development of the fini'e,s as. a. step towards the hii'Q h-perto roman ce roto [' of today (Oren de 14)

R,eI:a,illl1l iing pliin land lock:

n...,./t"~lt\~ '1'111 "0' J"'IO'''i'

lUU"¥·~ 0, II .ull.

.a- IFli'r' ... 'tree'II"IOM

and II ee king lpdlate

Fig 4·,11 MB'thods of securing rotor blades to disk

drum-type rotor may' ·b·e usefu in explaining the underlying principle

( · 4 9~ l .,. th C' d' 0 d 'm 4 ,.

Flg,-·."". 11·: engine IS I . e .. ana I Ian. ·· .... rem [31. ~.I:., a veteran. ! .nit once

fused in the F-86 Sabre fighter ,0' " the fifties.

The drum of this engine C011Sists ,of tho ~ree elements 'which, together 'W ~ t11 two stub shafts, arejoi ned by bol ts to form a single unit (Fli:g .4-" 0). The connections ar " made with fitted bolts which. 1_ ransmit torque from the rear serrated stub shaft that connects to .he turbine shaft.

Holding . ~oltor blades in place t .. hile they transmit considerable loads has led to characteristic attachment m thods of securing the blades to 'the rotor, Two types of blade root design are primarily used,

fir tree and dovetail. both of which permit blades to be firmly at. ached to the disc and. still allow space for expansion during engine operation (Fi.K ,4~11)~ The fir-tree blase is of greater' complexity and is 1 sed only where blade loading is high, whereas the simpler dovetail is now the more common 'base design, Dovetail bases may 'be of the axial type which are mainly used in the front. stages, lor of the cireumfe ·,ential. type which is found more often in the high pressu e stages, .A simple yet effective method is to secure blades 'with fitted bolts, a method em .. :rJoyed., for example, with the fan blades of the General Electric TF·~·34 engine,

fli!Q 4·,12 Carefully checkino the rotor during main enance (Orenda 14 jet engine of the fifties)

1 B LJlm e r assernb ~y sock.e~:

2 M.o unf [1g fiangel fo If burner :3 Dllfuse r duct

4 5-th .. st8!g8.1 bleed a.iir pass agle

.5 M'Ountung flange for cen~rajl bear·ng 16 M ountn ng flange f(~ r middle fra.!me

7 :2 nd stag e b he ad a~ r exhaust

,8 Air axheust nozzl·e·


9 Conln ecto r fa r 10 i I S upp[IIY line '1 0 Centra.~ bee ring 0 iii supply. 11 M,Qunting f~ange

12 Com p r[9SS0r I,abyri ntn seal '1.3 1 Ot~ .st.age bleed a;i r passage 14 Oi~ supply connector

F~g [4.13 Com p res so r rear fr arne co n structron for €,n 9 i ne with can - type combustors. of the fiftres (Orenc a 4)

Till" ]., 'bw"" de of the 'f:" ~ . t··· '. 1-' ".' ':f';t '-. f"" ..... t . , '''.', '. "1' "'j tl- ,.;-

ne ong oiaues or ae rom SI ages are 0 .ren ree 0 move S ign Y In,

- - ., h ~ b "f J' ·c h h .' n

their seats" trghtenmg up ny centn .uga torces wr en, t . f' engine rotates,

This m 'e,"'- hod has b ieen fo un" d'" usefu Ii 1"1'11 reducing st {""e" ~S'" £""'0' incen t"f' ations

.MI.~ ,1",,: __ .,111,1.,., ,,!It.:.., ,!I.,,..'II;;.,.o. 11", "", __ ,,11 ... """".,~_,:::,,, _,,!JI', 'v.,\;.;" ,I 'J._ ,IL

near the blade root.

After final assembly the rotor must be carefully checked, for proper 'ball ance.

great importance, In most cases it is here (or close hy at the compressor casing) where the primary en gi n If' mounting ills located. and thrust forces are transmitted to the airframe.

f isd ,. . d b th

The centre of the compressor rear , rame rs e esignec to nouse t __ e

rearward bearing of the rotor, a ball-bearing that absorbs the longitudinal thrust of the rotor, With high-thrust engines this bearing must withstand extreme loads,

The struts of the compressor rear frame, in. addition to contributing structural strength to the compressor assembly, may aJ8101 serve to facilitate lubrication and venting of the bearing as. well as the supply of ble ·e·.·'.d.':. air .

. j[ . .." i:.11.Jl ~

C r

I'" .. --, ' ....... ,--,., .. '," " '. 1 ~ . -'i -"'"

om,p,ress,or rear rrame

The basic airflow function of the compressor rear frame is to guide and deliver the pressurized airstream to the combustion section, 'Flow

Path design therefore reflects the ty pe of combustor emp loy ed

. ," ., '_' Ii. .... 'I', .-"" 1 . , ••. ~.' .,' .. ,. .,' •. ".' . .•. . ... . ~ .• •• ., "', I' .. ' . '.

Whet]. can-type combustion chambers 'were 'used" the flow path through the rear frame had to be equally apportioned to each combustor (Fi,g: 4-8),. The' cross ... sectio n of the flow path progressively increases downstream to act as a diffuser, i.e, to reduce airstream velocity and increase pressure.

'With, regard tlO engine thrust forces, 'the compressor rear frame is of

FlOg 4-1,4 Thrust bearings are heavy-duty components of a jet engine. Careful assembly of bearing in Holls-Boyce Olympus 59'3 engine, for Concorde supersonic transport

Axial compressors typically contain between 8 and 16 stages, Anexcepti 0 11, is the fan of a high bypass-ratio engine which may be considered .. I

as a 8in,g e- ... stage c,ompressor,. ,

,A stage is the term given to a particular turbo-machinery unit in the compressor or the turbine, In the compressor, a stage consists of a rotor wheel carrying rotating blades, followed 'by a stator assembly carrying stationary blades orvanes (Fig: 41~ 1:5) ~ U pstream of the first stage :proper a stator assembly may ble used to provide optimum flow direction for the first rotor wheel, with vane incidence made adjustable '1,0 allow for d 1 ffe rent thrust settines.

'," ,. "-" - -" '-- - ' ·b

The operation of a stage is most readi y visualized by considering

the flowat some midspan blade station" usually in. the middle between hub and tip, Conceptual unwrapping of this 'middle section' results in am1. array of aerofoils representing [O,tO!' and stator 'blades and, termed a cascade (Fig: 4 .... 15:, centre), Investigation of stage aerodynamics m.s usually carried out in a cascade tunnel, an ex,per'~.~emltal setup where single or multi-stage cascades are tested unde ~ sun ulated flow conditions

~ • _ ......... ~ • of!

~. or study purposes flow ill a cascade is considered to be,liiargelY.,tw,o,dimensional, whereas in au ,:lCI ual compresso ~ three-dimensional effects IOOC'Uf .. , Before ,going into detail of'easeade flow" however, 'we will

. '. '1 'I

consider flow velocity nomenclature fora rotatmg w·l,eet., '

The OOIW when approaching a rotating blade at, some (absolute) velocity V will 'be viewed by the blade as approaching ,rut some reJ."ative velocity 'V're], 'because the blade itself rotates at a circumferential velocity U. Distinction must therefore be made between these three velocities:

1 Absolute velocity V' as 'seen;' 'by an external observer standing next

he enzi

I .- ,,-,' - ,I I" I"

tc 1t ee ngi ne .

'Olrilcumlilliii,g' 'flow' (,abs,ol~lule' vIEd ocity' V)i

Ro,taUoli'1l ,(,cii[lGIl.J mfe'relnnal~ vell'oCii't.y' u)

Aben,-llluloe" y. ,~'IIA;I!";<:·lhl 'V' .

~v ." t.,. ;~IIU~l ".1.1 '_'

'C:lr,cu mfereni~'mal \fe~Ot~jt,,· lUI

S'la'" -

'. ,.,,' .. ,'j

.·· ..•. ge

I S1iai101'


".' '."

2 Circumferential velocity 'U" depending on rotational speed (rpm) and radial position .. ,

3 Relative velocity Vre1 ,as seen by an observer 'sitting' 011. the rotating blade and moving with. it.

All three velocities may be combined into' a, velocity triangle, or equally, the absolute velocity V can be assumed to' consist ofa circumferential and a relative velocity component, Because velocities not only have a magnitude but also a direction, they' may 'be expressed as vectors i.e, arrows of at length corresponding tOI their respective velocity, and pointing in the direction of the flow ([OI example: em- 1. 001 11118; ~j~'Fig: 4-1:5:,. bottom right),

'We are 11'O\V sufficiently' briefed, to comprehend the compression


. . to mealn • line!


l /




Sf!. '"





,Axi,al 'flo'w ICOmlpOlnent: ,of V',. I(i"e., 'V~ )

.' '--rut

Cli'rc·u mfEu~enrlia ~ co,mp-onent of: V'"}.

(i,.!e"., V ~u)

process within a stage. Consider the flow approaching a rotor aerofoil at absolute velocity VI (F.ig: 4~16J. The energy content of the flow is determined by the static pressure p., static temperature t] and kinetic

V. :2 energy 2 .

Together 'with circumferential velocity 'U (which depends on engine rpm) relative velocity V],rel results, with a direction corresponding to the rotor blade mean line. With. these components the velocity' triangle at the; entry station. of the rotor is known (which we denote as station num ber 1~, hence subscript 1., cf : 'i.,g 4 ... 16),.,

Because there is an. increase m.11 flowpath cross-sectiona area between adjacent rotor blades d ownsrream, a diffusing action results and causes relative velocity '1'0 decrease and pressure to increase. (We thus observe ~h,e very same principle ofdiffusion alrea dy discussed in Chapter 3, Air intakes.]

The: flow exits the rotor at relative velocity V.2jf..f~I. which is smaller , han V]"rel. at rotor entry (hence the term . retarding cascade), Direction. of exit velocity V 2,rel corresponds to the mean line slope of the blade trailing edge (Fi.g 4-'16),. Together with circumferential 'velocity' U, the velocity triangle at rot-or exit can be ,d. raw n to y-ield. absolute velocity V1,.

What is noteworthy 'here when comparing absolute velocities V2 and 'V ." is the marked change in. flow direction imposed on the flow by the rotating blade, This change in. direction 'results from the momentum which the rotating blade has imparted to' the flow as a direct input from the torque of the rotor shaft. The energy that 'has. been transferred, to the flow causes a swirling motion art the rotor exit and a ell an ge of the stale variables of the flow (i.e, higher values of pressure Pi], temper-

I. . ' '_. "... . ,',.., V··2

ature t2, absolute velocity V2 and kinetic energy .:2 ).

. .In t~is energetic state the swirling flow enters the stator assembly, Direction of flow velocity V 2 should ideally ~ coincide with the meac line slope of the stator blade. As. the stator blades are fixed and not rotating, . there ills. :no, relative 'vel 0 city and nOI energy transfer. Again, because flowpath area between stator blades is increasing, a further ~'ecTe,a_se' ·'n. 've.ioc.ity results together with. aJ1. increase of pressure, Tills ,~.s at self-sustained mechanism driven by the kinetic energy contained in. the flow. Since kinetic energy is converted, t.o pressure energy, total energy (apart from flow osses) will rem ai n constant in the stator ~,ectioll '?f' a stage, The rise in pressure is complemented by the drop In. 'velocity 8.0 that the absolute ve ocity V3 at stator exit is less than V2 at stator entry, with swirl ideally removed. from the flow ..

Flow conditions at the stator exit of a particular stage constitute the rotor entry conditions 01'" its successive stage. Because the maximum

pressure rise possible with. a single stage is only 201 to' 3110 per cent (CO.f~ responding 1.0' a pressure ratio of 1 .. 2, to 1,.3 per stage) a multi ... stage compressor ills required to boost pressure to a ratio of, say, 15.

After discharging from. the last stage, the pressurized air will ideally be free from swirl and ready' for the combustion process, If" however, the flow is still found. to possess unacceptable levels of swirl, more vanes can 'be added in ,:i second or even third" row the better to turn the flow in. all axial direction, With only one vane, separation of the flo w '. m a y .. 10': ccu '1i"'

". ", ,.::,", ,. ,",' .... . ... :"_ -.,1;, I.

Bearing 'i.11 mind that the energy transmitted by the compressor results in. a change io1" the gas parameters, a simplified example may' serve to demonstrate the enormous amounts of power required 'by' a. co'm:preSS-()f ~

At compressor discharge (engine station 3),. the total energy of the flow consists of t.WO components:

1 static enthalpy (=:: energy) h, =: cp't.:h largely influenced by the gas temp e rature;


'7 kinet ic energy ' .. J

,___ ,J!\. I 1 ··u· I~ Jill.. .... . •.. .2

Both terms may 'be combined to form total. enthalpy V' 2

H1;:: c.t., _: cl·t, + . :2

~ It' I~.-' ./ ,J! .

(with. tt3 == total temperature, cp = specific heat at constant pressure cf relevant physics textbooks.)

From total enthalpy H3 at compressor discharge, total enthalpy V?

H2 = 'Cpt2 + 2: - 'Tt12

at compressor entry must be deducted, because this was the energy the flow had possessed before. This yields specific compressor work (rela tied tOI tun t mass flow ra te, 1. .e. I :k,g/s air):

He ~ Cp (tLl-ttl)

"U sing the simple transposition ('0' (t t) ,- p t (' tlJ 1 )

'~p l't3- ,11 - '~Dl2 I. ttl ,- ,.1

and the so-called 'isentropic relation'


tt3 _ (lJ'lJ) K"


tn~' P'L2··

ideal compressor work Hc,i~ results:

. 1(-]

He: i~ == C11 tl2'[ ( Pp.t3)' ,~.". - 1. ]1

, t: - I. Il2

compressor entry temperature to: == 288K (15°'C)

Example: Ca culate the 'power requirement of'a compressor havingthe following characteri sties:

compression ratio Ppt3 ,_ 10


H ' :::::: III 010'\4,' "" 2. 8··',:8'. "\.I' '5,:0'1 'x [ill' 0°·285= 'I] = 13," ·4 '1110' k W··· .: .r

C,]It'!- JIl ',,' .........., .. '" ,A"., 1 .. ' , ._ .. , , ' 1Il... ,'. ','

where compressor performance must meet design requirements with regard to mass flow rate" pressure ratio, and efficiency. Additionally, however, the compressor will also 'be required to, perfo 'm adequately at lower rotational speeds, which ills termed, off-design performance.

Engine off .. design behaviour is, particularly important when the aircraft is on. the lauding approach, with glidcpath controlled byrapid changes of engine thrust. Another condition where off .. design behavjour is of point is engine starting" Engine flow must be stable enough to allow for fast acceleration.

Compressor characteristics are derived from experimental testing in a specially designed test. facility that allows airflow to be varied while the compressor rotates at, constant rpm, Mass flow :ra_te will be controlled by 'varying the exhaust cross-section usually with a cone that moves in and out axially,

A, compressor operating curve is obtained at a. constant rotational

speed. N' by measuring the following quantities:

total pressure ,Pt2 at compressor entry

total pressure PtJ at compressor discharge

mass flow rate rh (by using the pressure and temperature data of the entrained air);

efficien cy facto r ~

Testing usually starts with the discharge nozzle fully open to allow maximum airflow to' the compressor (Fi,g 4 .. 17, point t). By stepwise moving tlhe translatable exit plug closer to the nozzle discharge, airflow rate win be reduced and pressure increased" Drawing a line through, all points so obtained 'will provide a speed curve 10'0, which rotational speed

N' is constant everywhere, .

The rise in. pressure 'by' gradually blocking the exit section has a limit.

A condition will suddenly be reached at 'which further blocking causes only minor pressure gains, indicated by the flattening of the sp'ee~ curve slope until finally, pressure 'begins to, decline ,@,S 'blo~.k:age is increased further. The flow til. e 11. stalls at the compresso ~ blades, and the compressor ~s said to surge ..

In practice, engine surge must be avoided because it can ,destro.y· th,e engine, A means of determining the operating limit of the engine IS

given. by the first occurrence ofcompressor surge, " '

Additional test runs are made at different constant speeds each. of which 'win yield another speed curve, until the complete speed. ran.~e is covered I ·,ig ,4,__,J,8)~ Connecting the points 011. each speed, curve where compressor surge is just avoided, defines the limit of compressor oper-

ation, the surge line"

Points of constant compressor efficiency form another set of curves,

mass flow rate 01, = 50 kg/s

Di .. kJK kc kW·" ,

lun,e-,nS",o'n,: k' K x:o =:',

<g, S

In. a compressor efficiency is always degraded by' the losses due to clearances between rotating blades and the casing This is accounted for 'by an efficiency factor' defining the amount ofpressure energy actually obtained in relation 1.10 work expended:

eomnressor efficienc . =: 'pressu.r~e ~nergy a.vai~ab~e ,

p y '11c mechanical 'work expended

In axial compressors efficiencies of 85-90 per cent are achievable, whereas in radial compressors the efficiency is less, Assuming an. efficiency of 8510/0 in the above example, i.e. fl,e ~ 0.85" compressor power required is:

H - H'c~is = I' 5~, 7'7'6:' k-,.W··: "

e .. , ,~ ....

. 1Jc

Using the more popular, yet obsolete horsepower conversion lof 1 ,kW = 1 ~3,l hp

yields 'He - 201:,667 hp.

This example clearly demonstrates the enormous power required b,y this typical compressor, The plower' requirements of com' Pi "essors 'use1d in, modern high bypass-ratio fan engines 'with mass flow ratios of the Girder of 9001 kg/s is very much greater.

A · I-I' desi d h .. ~.

'. . .... '.,' - ..... '" . ~ , . . .. . . . . ,. . .'. '.. '. -- . . . - -I ... ". ,- . . -"" " . ,-,. .. - ,- -. ,~

, rCompresSOI IS USlla, , Y i r esngn,ei_, I O meet tr e req U~~: enlen ts L 01 ,Q'll,e ,pal[-

ifr:'· ]. : 1if'11 ~ '1-" .. ~,.. . d " "i':" ..... .... " .,.. ., f', ted b . ... .... _" .'. ." fie tl,'· r.." t M': . . ... h .. · -: e. ". b '. l~lC"u, ,ar ,~d,g 11l, con ItlOll, ,manillies. e , • 'Y ,il speCl J.e ' ,.m.gJU. __ , .... , ac, n.u~n" :Ier

and, a specific flight altitude (for example: Mach number : rJ , Or = O~ 84, 311 ti-

n d .. 'HI = 'ill k . (. 3':6'· '~0101 ft')")' TI[...':' ~. nd iti ", .. ' t, .. .d the ,1 ... " , ." ~ ,t

U I.e . . - 11... ,,111 ...'", ,~. .' ,I .' ui S COIl _It IiQ,n llS . erlne, e ae St g n pO,ln:;


Tra,nsi~alurng cone f'Olf v,(ll'l'yilng exhaust area

,~ Ill. ...,;,;;,



,..., .......

I ....

iiIiiiII ,m ~

MeasurillQI polnt " ,',-',

INlolfmiill!1 ope'ratio,n

IRotatilo,1i1I COIm,sf;8lnt:

.F'igI4-111 Compressor speed curve

the efficiency lines of typically elliptic shape .. Efficiency is highest OiD the inner curve,

The parameters discussed above are used in constructing the compressor performance map" Data on such a map is not presented as measu red, but is corrected to a practical form" TIle reason for the correction is that it is impractical to! accumulate experimental data for 'the bewildering number of 'possible operating conditions, or to account for data obtained at different facilities. .A, solution whereby the da a. mass is brought into Iii form that is. universally valid comes from 'dimensional analysis", a mathematical method which has provided maJ1Y useful non-dimensional or modified performance parameters that are

, 'Op-eratiing Iliine


C Il, .... ,d i ...4'11 ]'811 \1' 1112

erreetee 18 '1111' OW "-'

, ,-" _ _ - , ',n


Fig 4·18

Compre ssor map showin 9 compressor P ressu re rat! 0 VB rsu s rn ass flow wate

adopted throughout [he propulsion community as. a standard. Among those ofgreatest importance are the following two parameters:

.' the Corrected Mass Flow Rate at th .. e compressor face (station 2) is defined as






U sing corrected parameters, a compressor map is universally applicable" independent of meteorological conditions of I hie testing day.

~ requently, data is referenced '[iO the compressor design point, allowing lines of constant corrected wheel speed and, corrected mass flow rate' to

b ,,' ,.', ,-, , -,'_ taa ifd ,'i' " "", id .1t:~' " :, '

e given as. percen I ages 0 ,,_~)eslgn con _1 ions.

1110 .Jet Engines

Finally, the operating line. It will be remembered that a speed curve was obtained 'by changing the exit area of the compressor exhaust duct, The' majority (If jet engines, however, utilize a. constant-area (nonadjustable) nozzle, In this case, only one point is possible on each speed,

CII'IIi"V<P C": onnecting , these points .. yields . be operating I line of the pa rtic-

, Jl "'"" ~ . . , " ','," _ I ' . . ,.;J . = , . ., . IH~,: ,f .,. " I... III. ,!I;,..

1,~'1~ .. ," """111'1.' C,' (:F··:II!!'c., 4'.18":')"

lud.r en,gul,e, Ig: I ifiiii_, ' ,~

E ,. "'. 'h fterburni l db' '.' f'"

",", : "'.' '. ", II : I . II I''', :.. ",' , ... , .... ' ," , .... ,', ",' "':1 I:' " .'" , -: ,' .. ' '1- " : .... ' ...... ,(., ,~. ""1 ,',. ·"C" .. ,

.ngmes wit , a terburnmg ale emp .oyeo t.o power combat aircra t

and. the Concorde supersonic airliner. Such engines feature ,O'lle operatin ig line for each nozzle s·,e·:· tin ".0'

, •. ,. ' .II! , L.- 11 '" ...... >l, , ",n, £..L..,h",i .. ,~, "0'"

Basically there are two modes of compressor work that have to be considered: stationary mode where engine parameters do not change (cruising flight), and transient mode where engine parameters rapidly change' (engine accelerating to maximum thrust).

S d ., ,. dl ., d b h ilib '. "1"

~ teac y-state operation is I. epicted by t e equi ibnum operating nne

which denotes balance of power between compressor and turbine, i.e. the turbine provides just as much power as the compressor (including

,","', :"l"·j, "_. ...... ), d nand: , Aircraft fl', iaht I" oeratioas "~yo .... """,.,, tl '. "0"· I' to auxiuanest cemanos. Aircran ugnt opera nons require tile engine 10

be able to intercept any 'point ofthe operating line quickly. During these transients deviation from the' steady-state operating Iine is permitted for short periods, Hazardous flow conditions, however are not allowed to occur,

III this respect the most critical phase is when the engine is accelerated" Accelerating the compressor can 'be accomplished only 'by having the turbine produce more power than the compressor is able to absorb, This happens by the injecting and burning ofadditional fuel, much like opening the throttle in a car engine. As a result, turbine inlet temper-

a' t U[iP t· , l1l11"I"'~1 ri se' which has t hi' ,4."f' '" t t1f ... .:,' !, ~ '., I:' '," ..... " r. .. ', '. ". ts

I, I , ...• ,Lr ,t4 Y\ .. ill ,ll"", ,~" l t'l.se ell ec ,J[1.alll, e,n.,g~n~ COlnp,onen, ,S,

do,wnstrealrn, of th,e compr,esso,[ (combust,o',r, tu.r'bine·, 'nozzle) ,ar'e

". , .. ", t·" ',' "':'1 . ~I,.. . ' t,· ',-,' . - f" th·· .'. fl'" " .. ",' ,th'" ': ttl" .. , ··f':t" "t) TI-I~' '.. r-,' ,,'

mornlen ,all.. ,y ,~e8S accep 11lg a'l I, e , .. OW ... rOil I ,e e,! .I.'eel ... I" 1,m.S Ul . u.rn,

causes C'Ofllplrlessor disch,ar,ge p,re.sStlre (lJlps.trlca'nl) tio' ris,e~ an,d th,e co,m'presSOlf p'res.sure ratio, '110 ,rilsle~ tOIIO. This con .. d.itiol1 c'o,uld 'be

'h~'~ d· ... " t·· t'll..·:·· .,,.,. .. ,, .C'o'. '"'''' ~', ,. '·f"fi-h' .. ,",', ... t'" . "'.,' it- ' '." .... , .. f- , . ,. r. . "h '

, ,(lLZar, OU,SIO e,U,e 'complesso 1, Ii. e plowerratlSmenw. wele Il.IO' cause I _,_e

comp'f'eSSH)f to' exoo,e!d th,e S'U1I",ge mine. In order tOI 'm,inim'ize the r~s1k of th,e tCompress:olf sllrghl,g'" a stlrge margin (betwaen ()peraJing :~,m.11e and, surgle line) is pr,o,vid,ed" tlsuaJlly by' settin,g :maxil1flum 'O,p,eratin .. g Iml1e :pJ[lessu,re I'.atios 20 pier 'Dent belovil th:o'se of the su,rge ,ii.ne,.

A ]alf'ge surge margin. m.s~ 110'wever~ gl~Illerally' irnplossible to'm;ain.tain, over the e.nt~re operatm.n,g fle.gi,Inl,e of the comp;,~eSSlor", At low co,rrectedl, en,g-ine s'peeds, fo'r exa.'m,phe, if n'e ,c,orrie,ctive action is take11 ,at tl~if; cOI]lnp'resso, -~., Ihe stea,dy-state olpierating'lliill,e 'willlulavoi,da'bly appr,oach

the surge line, with a risk ofblade vibration (the origin ofwhich 'will 'b,e deal t with, su bsequen tly),

As ,31 precaution, compressors employ either oftwo methods;

a) bleeding air at at mid-compressor stage ,~111 order to adjust

, h bi ,!' d d

nass flow rate tal . ne turbmes •.. iemano;

b) modulating compressor airflow by variable stator vanes, Examples will be given in the subsequent section,

A lapse in the operating line, that is where the operating line is approaching the surge :I"' ne, indicates where unsteady compressor operation may ble hazardous, This. may happen either at very ~,IOW 0,[ at very high corrected compressor speeds, indicated by either 10'0 low or too high tlO _~d, temperature values tt2 at the compressor face .. The key to avoiding a hazardous situation is by knowing under which conditions these temperatures occur. It will be recalled. that total temperature t, is formed 'by static temperature t plus a quantity containing Mach number (Chapter 2),. Therefore, high total temperatures occur when flying at 'high, speed (M large) and low leve (t large), whereas lowtotal

- - d hi' h 1 ~ d ('L..

temperatures result from flying low-speed at . ign altrtu es i eecause

temperature decreases 'with altitude ),. From this it can, easily be deduced that combat aircraft flying high-speed low-level sorties may face compressor problems, 'whereas passenger transport aircraft always. fly slowly ]11 the vicinity of the ground 'because they are either landing or taking off, At high altitudes, however, any aircraft mUSE avoid, flying slowly (because iof low Mach, number and low temperature), This could, for example inadvertently happen to a passenger aircraft flying a holding 'pattern, at a' titude, As a precaution, the engine manufacturer will clearly state what the safe operational limits of his engines are,

'Consider n,QW the case 'o,r an (inadvertent) engine operation beyond the surge limit, A distinction must first be made between two modes of unsteady compressor operation, surge and rotating stall.

Strrge 'may be explamn,ed as. a'misma'tch iofthe c(Jtm,M)ress.or ,o,n, the one h:an,ld, and. d,O'Wl1str'e.alll e'ng~n,e cOlmpOln,ents on the other (oo'mbu.sto,r, turbine, no:zJ!Je). Tl~,ese d,o'wnstream, (~Om,p!ollents 'm,a y. be consid,e'red t.o lunctioln ,as, ,a sin,gle lInit" ",i_I1, a, ,c,ha '-~acte:risti.c th,;a[ can a]so be ,drawn

on the com'pressor map' (Fig 4-l9)r. .

N'o'w' (:: 011 sid,'fI' tl1,e ,coffi'press,o:r to (ll:p!erate o,n the safe sid,lf of 'b'.l.t

c 'os,e 'bo, th,e su,rge mine (ploin't B)" If fo,'f 'Somlf:' reas,o'n, ,airflow I',ate ms red'uee,d, t:h,lep':ressllrle.-~at]o iof the (.)ombusto'f-turb,i.11e-'nozzle s,ystem 'wiJ d1e(:;r,ease '(ploint 1), bu', tl1C' p'f1essufe ratiO' of 'tIle Icon1.plflfss,or w.," I d,ecm .. eatu:~ even more (p,o'int 2).. The resul~ is. a relilevin,g of the hi,gh pressu,re in, the oo'n]press.o:r d'u,e to p'fles'8'u,re clq'ualizing ill, the ·u,pstrealD. ,di-rlection" c,a'usin,g' 'i h,e: comb'usto'r-tl~rb,:ine-no'zzle' sys,teln to beco"me


Complf1ess,o,r ,9IU rQle' I ~ne

Sucoeedi ng sy~slt,em clhar8C'le ris,t'j c (,ciom bustor" lurbi ne, exh aust nozzle')

FI'g 4-19 Explaining compressor surpe

le S,I~ r'l'e' st rict ive to th e airfl i·O····,W' 'a_-' nd '-C" '0'(-- " "1 I ",:,~ .. 1J-- ".' of_- , .. , fl" ,":"'.," ifi-,":' . ' ... r- '--:i" s, . ",'

~ .:. ,00 .. L', j[ _ Lo Il.. t· 1~1(l., ,I. ·.··,';;1" ,uj ,', mpressor allir ow IILO recover

(cor .'." :',. _-·"·'I·· .. eratir eretu ·."";,~, ,.,.,'.': .. ;"If- B:')I Th""':" I" I"', ""II(J' act ",' '.""

" compressor opera .mg rei ]]1 nmg 1I10' pomt ,.... . is surging ac m10}1 may

occur several hundred times pier second, causing audible engine buzz

d severe enzi ib . C h , .

. I ' - --'J 1'- -. :;'" I. " ". -'1 :: • ..~. '", . '. '1' ..... '.' . : ; - : ... .' • .,..:."", '-'J" -' , , . ' :'" -"!Il"' -. 1 . . -. '.. . . . ". • ." I w":-', .", ;' ,_.....': ' . . I '.'

an severe engine vibration ..... ,onSJeq,uences to t e engine may range

fro i i sirrn 1'1': d .' ,"'., '.'" of th st t·· t t'ii 'J ""': .. ', "d"" sst 11"""'1

rr In simple .... ecay 0 .nrust _O rotar engine aestrucuon.

N OIW consider that the compressor ills operating' at point ,A., a safe distance away from the surge line, A reduction of airflow will again

caTI I' "'. ed .. .ti " '·r'" th "",;0,' ..... ',,.;,,- . atio ith ". t'" .'~. t .

ause a re,UCI1.CHl 0.1 .ne pressure rauo wr mn ne eo'mlollS,.'or-'

turbine-nozzle system (point 3)., but the compressor even. at this reduced airflow is able _'0 deliver a higher pressure ratio, (point ,4)., In .

. hi ~. .. ]1" ' d ~ h ~

t us case pressure equa tzauon IS, accomp ishe wit .. Oint. causmg a

hazard to the engine (return to point A)~

So much for the engine surge, However, there; exists another mode of unstable compressor operation which can initiate blade vibration, and be rapidly succeeded by blade failure, To explain this phenomenon, w'e start with the assumption that the compressor is working at the border of but still within, its safe operating envelope, and at low rotating speed, In. this case the- forward stages will operate closer to the

surge boundary than the middle or end stages, A. small local perturbsti 0 11. may be sufficient t_OI trigger flow separation Ion just one blade (Fi,g 4-.10)~ Such. local flow separation will ,r-e,d'~(le the D:1.ass., flow r.~te within the now passage between two neighbouring blades as it acts like a loca] blockage. As a consequence, flow ve ocity upstreamofthe blade concerned will decrease, causing: the approaching flow to' deviate away from the fluid obstacle: This will mean that the flow angle-of-attack at the first blade win decrease (1) and that of a succeeding blade inc rease (2}. As the flow at the: first blade recovers, flow of the succeeding blade will separate, A third blade is about to encounter this perturbation

zone (3)., .

The separation sequence appears to move opposite to the direction

of rotation and successively befalls each approaching blade, though only for at fraction of'a second .. This mode ofunstable compressor operation is termed rotating stall. Investigations have shown the; circumferential stall propagation velocity to 'be slower than the rotating speed of the blades.

Rotating stall Inay' not "be confined to a. single blade cell as shown, but may spread over two lor more neighbouring cells, Because of the


Explaininq rotating stall

unste ady ch arac t er b ," ~ ;iJi1 d ~ VI'b' rati '0" rr '1" S 1 t', k e I "y *" 0' 0' ccur th ";:l, t m ay ell d '

,I, ., ," !Io.,.o", .', ,',', ,11i,..r,; ,!ll'L)IJ,' 1Iiu,o"_"il"it __ ,,1, ,',W, , "_' ", " t" , 'v.~ I I' I£_~, ,1,( :_ :",',:1',-_ up

in, blade failure,

Over the years, engine designers have developed methods that have greatl y reduced, the f'~ sk of rotating stall,

Having learned about flow phenomena that can occur in a single compressor stage we will 11,OW turn to S om e typical hardware examples

a'm' ' 110' J:"!Ilg; t h" ;Oil va, 'J'" ~ e' ,'t" of ,', ,',' , " '" .. , , ,',,' /" d ' , J' - d _ ", .' t ' .' '~'I ~II b ' eful ," ,.1, u ,'" ,~ ':" ,t Y ,'" compressor esigns, _n comg S,D" ,W,I wur oe use ill

'1,0 consider the compressor not as an isolated component, but rather fun the context of the complete jet engine,

, TIle multi-stage axial compressor 'was evolved because the pressure increase required for higher power outputs could not be provided by a single stage, It 'was found, however, that aerodynamic loading is not

di ib d ,m ' hi

! istributec evemy within a compressor assembly, a factor that has to

'be taken into, account when designing an. efficient engine,

Arriving at ,&1, good design appears t,o be least difficult for 'the design point, since wel l-defin ed requirements in terms of mass flow rate, pressure 'ratio, and rotation speed must 'be met" Additionally, however, acceptable compressor operation is also required at ,0 ff-de sign, con ....

Sin,gls=spool turb,ojet with low compression ratio (General Electric C'J-, 6101 B'-s.tage oompressor. compressor pressure ratio p~3/pt2;;;;;; 6,8j mass 'fll ow rate, ,20 kg/s! rotation a I' speed 1 61500 rpm I statl c th ru st 12.65 kNI/2aOO Ib)

I'he compressor 1115

ditions, thus calling for stable engine operation over a 'large operating envelope, This has led to compressor construction developing a ,IOO"g " 'U ~ll ~' • -sta n ,d,: ;::PI 1t'-,d·-1 'm,~ ne s

q,_ "~'i.:I!l .;J< '. ,., ,,!C1UL. . JIlJll ,.',' ""i

T . 'I..o~ et Onm'D£!ii'iC ur'IlJ,I,J'~i_ ~,.~l... ,:"':d

In, its simplest form, this, type engine ,is confined, to the low-thrust class spectrum of smallerjet-propelled aircraft, Because of a relatively small 1111ID,b,er of compressor stages, operation is straightforward requiring little 0'1' no sophisticated means of adjusting the flow 'within, the compressor, Typical is a single-spool assembly '01£ turbine and compressor, The plain turbojet, although reliable in operation, has a low position on the ladder of efficiency, and, moreover, is extremely noisy ~ Which is 'why it is today to be found only in J he older civil aircraft that were no .. hushkitted or in some military jets,

To raise the efficiency of ;8[, Pi I ain turbojet requires considerable effort, in particular with regard '[0 off-design characteristics. At off-

,- '" d" , th f m .... ' 'h'l! 11 d d th th

design conditions, I ae ront stages are more rug .,' ,I,Y' roaaeo tr an ine

middle or rear stages causing the front stages to operate C oser to the 'Surge boundary, whereas the middle and rear stages operate at a safe margin (F~,g 4 ... 17)" By' adjusting the flow with variable stator

Fig 4 .. 22

Var~ ab Ie stators 0 n in let g! uid e' va nes and forward stator rows to rei ii eve compressor front stages 'from h~gh aerodynamic loading at on:=design conditions, Bllade adlustment is accomplished by hydraulic jack, anqle lever and actuatlnq ring (General Electric J-79 turboiet engline)

vanes in the front stages" the optimum angle-of-attack is provided for

th t - b lad' DCi 't- 'hat 1· r('!I nece ssary Ir'O -,. er gin e off d e - ign .r:'Ii.' --fl'-

ne ro or I!,." '., .es 1,','.1 : ',L:', r ,~,"'L..JI'~~', ,u-'l·ID]'w,'" -' ',,11 ,-ISl~', am ,OW'

demand .'

The design concept of variable stator vanes was pioneered by

G 1 E~ ~ II 1- f 1 'I! 'II d hi '1.L." d' ,. h

enerai Electnc, W1l10' a JiO' success Ill, ry empioyeo tr 1.S method wrt ~

smaller engines and even, turboshafts, The concept has demonstrated

1 higl f . ibl ., '1 ., 'J 1 .

I' 'I' - "r" ,', " -, -' '-, .,,' '. ' ,.;;, ',.;,.,' 'I" "I - 1-- I" " , '''-' '" --,' "'I' " • ,-,- ""I • "

t aat l i, pet ormance IS ,P'OSSl" e even with sing ,1e--SPIOOI_, engmes as

"-1 '- .. '- ,,' bv th ~..., '" 'I' J7,:19< I" ,,-i, 'I" of 'h' m'I*" fifti --" -"", ,',--'", -,,' ',',',,',',' - '~,-, ,:,' ,

810wny I, e i,amou,s, , , , el1gtn~ 0 "e m,a~e ,J, J,es, onoe powerIng a

number of the most modern airplane types oftheir day such as - m 04" :F,~4" B,=58 . and Vigilante.

Turbofan engines

The low propulsive efficiency of the pure turbojet engine at the medium, to high subsonic speeds at which civil transports operate, led, t,o the development of engine design featuring 3.'n additional, secondary air passage surrounding the primary or core engine", The secondary

.. , · 1] h '., inecvcl £, . . ,

, I' , .. jJI. . ' ".,'. '.' • ,[ [_. -'.,' .." • .' ........-.::'..... . -: 'I'" ].1. h , D' - iii' I.' - . ,~ . ,',' lJ'j", 'Ifl'" .

au stream essentia y r as 11s own engme eye e eatunng a separate

compression and .. expansion process, This type of engine is termed a bypass or turbofan e ngine. The mechanical energy to compress the airstream is supplied 'by the primary 0' - core engine and transferred through either a single- or multi-stage fan,

A once innovative solution of file turbofan principle tile aft-fan, was developed by General Electric in the sixties", Turbine and fan, form one 'unit which can rotate freely and independently, as no mechanical

-' + - th- ' .., ,- c" , .'.. ',- ,-

• '.' '.', , '., 'I' . . J ,", • ." .; , '" '" • , 'I . ," • I ", . '" ... , ,," ", fA"'. . " .. _

connection to .. .e core engine exists onnecuon is purely aer odynam-

F~g 14-,2;3 Developed from the Imi~ I itarv J85 turbojet engine" this early civil turbof'an t'8sulted by adding.a single-stag;ls, turbine/fan uniit to the rear of the or:iginal turbojet (General E!ectrlic e,F-70G)

Th _- e'" C" '0" m p' rl8" IS" so r· -ii_Ii' '7,_" ..

_ . . .. .... ....1:---: •..•. ,.. ... II

ical, through the gas stream of the core engine. This method, at a. time when the turbofan engine was in its in fancy , constituted, a relatively simple way to develop a turbofan engine from a:n, existing turbojet, The

., ., 1 111 '1·' d '1 deri f h ~1' it

very same pnnciple was I:iJlSO app teo W len, ,er~V111,g , rom t - e muitary

J79 turbojet the civil C-805 turbofan engine that was used tOI power the

- d ~ '. d

Convair Coronad 0' tour-engmec transport,

A,"', disad '. - to, .. m,. ifthi desis .. th-I" ", eatlv diffe ing '~te-'i1II1')·Q'1r-

, Tl1,aJ or·. ~sa. " v ~ln, "a.ge 0, . lrJJS I .. " eSill,gn, lSI 1 If grea. Jl Y .' I,ll j[ e I'I n,·~· 1U, Il 'W',I ' ~1IL '~

atures 'in, the sing e turbine/fan wheel assembly which materials of this compact design must sustain: high temperatures at the inner turbine blades, low temperatures at the outer fan blades. Because of'these diffi ... culties, the aft-fan type was eventually abandoned, to give way tOI the

f 'f"" d th - 'I' tv .'. ~ t", --- ,

---,',', -,- ,,',', ".: "_---, ,', " "'--: ,'" ,'" ,'I ',' "_-" ,> .. "I",. I ,': --', I' .", '_- 1'- '

ront- ,a11 type; nowadays . I .f; on y .. ype exis mg.

After passing th rough a CrO:11ll1l0n air' intake and the front fan, the' low-compressed airs ream then divides to the outer (cold) bypass flow' and the inner (hot) core engine flow" While the inner airstream is, entering the gas generator section ofthe engine (where it wi~~ 'be further

, , "-- - - " sd h "f' ,- d .. _-, d ", ,,' _- -, d , "do' )" th f: '", , _-" ,. -", ... tr .. , " ,_- '.,,- '_--_-., '-" ,""',

compressed, . eate ". an expan re ""."Ie, an airs earn 1.8 passing

through a duct" at the discharge end ofwhich it accelerates through an exhaust nozzle without receiving any more energy,

Another milestone in the development 10, "the modern turbine engine resulted from the fact that a high-performance multi-stage compressor is difficult to control because all the rotor blades are operating at the same rotational speed. This led to the two-spool compressor arrangement, where the compression process is shared by' two 8111,a~1,er, separate compressor units, leach of which has about half the number of stages


;:~~ .. ~~~c_~~.



·AI,_'Dt'a-ne-· Illo-··-w· ... -p-: p'e-ce'li :ilre· -.

~-iii:I!l ~~'.-'.' .-.' . 1·-·.IJ"·la~UJ ,",'

0-'11' II

,iii cooter

compressor Ph;llneta 1rJ' gea:F'

,A'CCiE!;sso,ry driy,e'

Sii ng h~!"'IS'bJ !Qle hi'Qlh ... press1ull'e ce:ntrifu:gall' eompressor


IFigl41""25 Turbofan engine 'fea~LJr~ng axial and radial compressor tayout (Garrett All'lResearch IFE .,,31 ~,2, 16 J3. kN thrust, cornp ressor pressure ratto P~JPt2' ~ 114,,6)

ofthe single-spool unit. Each compressor is driven by its own separate turbine and, both halves can thereby operate at different rotational speeds, Because there are 'DO mechanical links 'between the eompres-

.' ~ flexi b~ ~ h ~ b d . d

sors, operation IS very nextoie as either umt COOl oe adjusted to run at

optimum speed, Reflecting their function, the first compressor is termed the low ... -pressure compressor (LPC), the rear' compressor the

h~h (HP=-C)··

, ,-,- '.-' ....• :,' .• 1' °l'.· "1 : 'J,"' ",'~ - - -. _._ ," I ;"'III" '1" •••• - .. ,. ,"

, 19·. -preSS1£r'(!:' ,compr,ess,o.r I . . ·c '/ ,',

An in teresting d evelopment o-·f· a m tulti stage two spool compressor

_-_ , ~ ." IIZJ.I :1 1.1_, I~·._. 'c 1,1" .. ,.) .. l~. .,. '1 .• : ',., ' •. , .w.~'O"1J.. :~_/':~ L'W": C_li.J!l, " ,1., __ • '." _,"_.' ,: I . . '__ .. 1iZJ!·:·I. .

was developed by Garret .. a with the TFE73l engine (F,ig: 4 ... ,25)~ A three-

. "III bi dri C' 'j

s ta g,e 10 w'-'p,reS8111"'e' tur 'J ,n,e '" _ r . 'lies, ,a tour-sta ge- 1. 01 W' .. p,fles SU.r,eJ co'm pre SSO,[

and also, via a reduction gear, a, single-stage fan, A single-stage highpressure compressor of radial type is driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine - a noteworthy combination of axial and radial compressors in a very compact arrangement.

The COmpJ8BSOr 119

Hi:gb bypass-ratio turbofans

An, important parameter in, classifying a turbofan engine is bypassratio (B,PR), which denotes the amount ofair bypassing the core' engine relative to the airflow going through the core engine .. The range of bypass-ratio today is between 10 .. 2 and 8,. High bypass-ratio engines are classified as having a bypass-ratio ,of over .5"

High, bypass-ratio engines with more than 50'J1000 lb (2,22 kN) of thrust are used to power modern widebody transport airc .aft, 'These en gi nes , developed from, first-generation turbofans, are remarkab e because of the tremendous power they are able to generate - evidenced, by their size ~

It may be worthwhile to recall the underlying principle of this large amount of thrust by' referring to' the thrust definition of Chapter 2::

Thru st = air ma ss flo .• w::.,:' r ate )( ve '1, O··'·IC··· ity chang: e

." .. '" . '_ ... 11l~1"".1 ,~ "... ,u, ... . ':" .


(kg)' )

- '"; I '0:""

=m ,r",S

Fig 4-26 The h3J.rgl€-diarne'ter fan is the characteristic teature of high=oyp.ass ratio turbofan engines (Pratt 8i. Wh~tney JT-90i)

by a high exit velocity 'V~ of the exhausting gas, or by a large air mass flow rate' m exhausting at a moderate exit velocity V~l.' It was the latter'

hoi 1 '. hId .- h d I t r' th hi b b t·' t b

.... , ' ,.',' .. , . i',' ,.\ .. , , , ,- (", I' .-.' .: .. - - .. ,.·;-.c·. ',' .. - . "1'" •.. ' c .. :,.· '. '":". "':"'·'1 .-- ,_,'--'.' " : 'II ':. '·'1' _

rC I 0' ce W,11c"e tot e . _eve opmen 0 . ,e tg" 'Y,pass .ra, ~o ,llr . 0

fan, whose typical feature is a fan diameter of over 2·.5 metres (100 inch).

Partieula rly noteworthy are long fan 'blades that enable air lTI,aSS flow rates of over 600 kilograms per second being processed", The plower transmitted within the compact space of the fan req uires a characteristic fan construction, which wil be detailed next 'by referring to' the CF6 high. bypass-ratio turbofan of General Electric ..

'The 'CF,6-6 series fan assembly comprises at sing e-stage fan (long blades) and an additional booster stage downstream (short blades, Fig 4-"'"2,7)., The booster stage, basica ly a low-pressure compressor, is required to further compress that part of the airflow (about 16 per cent)

., hl· ," ··h:· .... ,. t " th ..... '" .:.' ,. , "'f' .... ,"'. L': t .. ,,,,, .', ,~. ".'~ .' "f': t h I ,C·····F··:,6·~ ",', .,/,.- .... , .-. "': th -'.

WIC .. en, ers ~ .. e COJe len,gIne,.a er serMes 0 . le· ... ·, ". en,gJJ.n,e,~ e .. ,g., I~ e

'CF6-50,A" feature a. three-stage booster. Downstream of the lowpressure compressor (booster), variable bypass 'valves are provided to discharge air into the fan stream to establish proper flow-matching between the low and high pressure spools during transient operation .. , Engine testing of the fan/low ... pressure compressor unit with its automatic control and bleed system has shown excellent stall margin characteristics, As has become usual in, the design of modern large fans,

Fain bll'ade,g


II ~~ ~~'LI"""~e,~.~.r

Fan section of a hiigh bypass-ratio engine (General Electric CF6-'6)

The comoresscr

,"' I" _" I" -" .. -.. ", I." .• j ....... :,', • ;.

- - ':.:- -::- '_ ',' 1:.·,," . :., .. 1.


lFi'Q' 4~281 Typical circular-arc arrfo~1 shape of fan blade upper section operating at supersonic velocity. 'To reduce vvei'ght each blade has 22 1101:[9S. Behind fan is a three-staqe booster to raise pressure of core engflne tlow (General EI,ectr~c C,F6=H)

there are no inlet guide vanes. Canted outlet guide vanes are used to reduce swirl ve ocity of fan air d .. ownstream of the rotor tOI keep noise levels Iow .... see Chapter 1 0) ~

The ICF6 fan 113S 38 titanium fan. 'blades, each carrying 22 drilled holes :31" t th e tip b ,0· . th to reduce weig 'll}1 t a nd 'fr,o·: k eep r esonance freq 'uen-

., 11;.;.0. I.." .' '.. !,', II U I!l,. ,M! 1i;.,I. _ .. _:. .: 1. ,.1 l., '__.. !f;;..o1i1l . ,(JIi... 1II",o'lio.--' '" ......" _ "'" '"

cies outside the engine operating range, Because the tip of a fan. blade is operating at supersonic velocity, the aerofoil section at the tip is of circular arc type ill conformity 'with. the characteristics of supersonic

fl·· ,. , '1 '·1. 1" ';'" '1' (. [ b ." , .. ). . ,". ', ..... i ." '. :, . '1' -. c.... . "d:' "I th .... ·· 1· .. ",.., '. ,., .ow, W,11~,e ciassicar .'SU isomc .. wing sections ale rouno m e .OWleI

part of the same blade as this part is operating at s'UbSO'IDC speeds,

Stage, 2 disk. plliatform

~~,'\- ............ "~" ,t " .. ' j'_""_~"""""


Fig ,4 ... 29 Fan brace assembly 'to rotor d isk (General Electric CF6-IOr)

In order tal minimize the aerodynamic drag of the insta led engine,

'" '. k h 11 d .. 'n ibl 'I' h

rot is necessary to mas e t re overa r _: iameter as smau as. possible, n t .e

case of tile CF6 engine, this resulted in ··.11e use of a small hub radius, an d .- he refo ·r'· e 10: 'IW' .'. 'W' ..... he ·,e·l1 S'·' .p .... ,G!!o I,Q!; ,d", at tho ,;CIi, blad e ro "'0·" t In o rd e 'r' t 0"" m i!'_]j in t ain

__ .!l-:,', _ ,_. , .. ,11 . ~, .. :. .. ., ... .IIl.,. "!i..!!!..o,, ,tl!!.- _ ... !i;,..o' " .. "....,. .,. , ... ,. '.. .... 11JI....w. ' .. ,Ull .

the required efficiency and stall margin figures, it 'was necessary £01' the fan blade to be' designed as a non-constant energy stage; that is to say more energy is transmitted at the tip than at the hub, The low ... pressure compressor must therefore supply additional energy which is. required

"d di 'J .. ( h bl d f

tOI provic e a constant rarna . pressure ratio lover ti ie "·'1 ac e· . rom root to

tip) at the exit of the low-pressure compressor,

Length of the fan blades makes blade vibration control and the avoidance of high vibratory' stress a key consideration in. the fan mechanical design, in order tOI ensure a 3;10,;OOO~hou,r life. One of the structural clements tha reduce blade vibration are mid-span shrouds that lean to neighbouring shrouds to form a damping ring structure, Other factors tl~,at would degrade service lite such as foreign object damage, blade ero sion due to rai ,- ~ hailstone and ice ingestion, and high inlet distortion, had . also to 'be taken into account early in the design"

The aeroelastic design permitted the fa] to sustain. loads at 1.20 per cent overspeed, as required by the .FA .. A., .'01 withstand such excessive

No,,1l ban

SIP iinnre'Il" cone

lPiiJJ""" ~,Ij;;. e~riJln'l1

Ir.UII l~ lUI a _. -"3

i nine Il" race!

F'o,~ard s n!aft I

Pressu rizatio'lil 8'nd 'vent manUolld

. ..::11, ~-~

Figl 4-30 Fan rotor layout (General Electric CF6-6)

] d 'b'll dl d f .-c d ~" hi h 'dl 1

.oaosv m . ac es are 111. a I e 0:: .. torged titanium ·W. icn proviues amp e

" t· i!I ... I ...... , th . iIi- ..... .ini l'll.·lEI '''~N:J!.l" 'g ... ! h I

Sit eng _" ,a~ fl]~.n]m. _,' ... , n,",: ... '"

A. crucial area in the design ofa fan is where the blades join the rotor disk. Because ofthe high loads that have to' be transmitted, a close and reliable matching of both components is of paramount importance . . Added '~O this is 'the req uirement that individual blades can. 'be removed from, the rotor with th,e' engine installed in the aircraft. These requirements are well met by designing the fan blade root as .(1 'dovetail' that fits into a rna tching slot of the rotor di sk (Fi.g 4-:29)~ The basic dovetail shape 'used in the 'C.F6 engine has proven reliable in a number of General Elect .ic turbofan and turbojet engine designs.

The rotor disk must accept all loads from the blades and transmit forces to the engine structure, In. order to provide a reliable disk, titanium was chosen because of its optimum strength-to-weight ratio commensurate with the requirements of' greatest safety in airline service,

b ~ db tb d'" k

Loads thet have to' e sustained : ....• y 'I. te rotor .... ' JIlS:' are:

centrifugal forces due to rotation

~ axial and bending forces due to aerodynamic loads of the blades vibratory stress

Two bearings support the fan. rotor assembly, The forward bearing

is a thrust bearing, the rear blearing a. roller bearing I .• .- ig_-30). Rotor

shaft, disk and spacers are attached by fitted dowel bol s.

12,4 Jet Enqines

Usually a large 'number of tests IDS required .,0' ensure that the fan, construction is capable of withstanding all loads that occur ill daily service, wi'£110Ut impairing the ~ife requirement of many thousands of hours (30,'0001 hours a'n,d more in the case of the C,F6=6). Some of the tests also require the ingestion of birds, which the blades must wi ths tall d.

The necessity for fuel to 'be 'burnt at the highest level of efficiency is fundamental in the aero cas turbine enzine Combustion efficiency

. ,1.1 '.' , ' . '. . ", 'ID' ,. ,.,1"1,, 1,.1., _" '.01 II", ... ' ,',' ",', I. ,_. ,,,,!II..,_II,,I,,,,,,,.

directly affects the fuel load/aircraft weight/payload equation, and therefore the operating costs and range performance. Added to this are environmental problems ca ling for a reduction of dangerous emissions that resuh from combustion,

The development of combustion chambers is 'based" essentially on experience with previous systems of similar design, In, spite of a multitude of possible solutions for a particular combustion system, certain principles ofdesign will bie found in any combustion chamber.

Th basi k f 1 b '.' 'h ber i id f""1~

ne oasic tas .'. 0:. the com. bustion c. .~. am .. Ier IS to' 'P' 'oV]I.,e ,a stream ,0, I hot

gas that is able to' release its energy tOI the turbine and nozzle sections of the engine. Following an increase in pressure through the compressor section heat is added to' the airflow by the burning of at combustible gaseous 'mixture of vaporized fuel and highly-compressed air" The combustion process. is confined within the constrained volume of 'the combustion chamber and, 111U,st be aecomp ished at a minimal lo ss 0 f pressure (00 n stall t.- p ress ure combustion).

Combustion chamber refinement was greatly influenced by requirements resulting from the increase in air traffic and the environmental pollution that carne with it (see Chapter ]_O)~ Before going into the details of combustion chamber layout, met us look at what happens

'. h" b ~ h b ~ b" f··~ h . d .

, • " .. .. , . .• .. , ".'- - -, - .. "!I! .' . . . . l -.- . I ~ , " "1'iJ""' • • ~"" " Co ~ ".-"" " • "

wit un a combustion cnamoer; l11 t,11S case lone 0'1, the can type' use, In,

early engines (F"":g 5- )~

T'h""'" ,.,~:i'l' : 'fl' " zher di -·1 .. ,· rzed f' the " ~··,,'!L.'.·.··' ._ ·~I ':. 'the.

,1,1 'e all nla.SS . !O'W w,en 1_ISCllal gee- rom,lJ1e eom,p![ess,or en,~ers I" ,e

combustion chamber at a velocity of around 1.50, m/s (490 ft/sec) - far

t : 11...", "t..1 to .,' ' '. ifi- .. ,. ". '.' fl·" ~ ',", .' " £\ , ' .", ", .:.' b . ti . '1,111., t·, ':",'. '.' ,.', _. 'ld'ij .". ~I·L· fl':, ':." t

00 mgn I. 0 SU,81~amn a, "arne lor corm USI ron. 'tV 11,3., 1.8 req uireo U1 me Irs

,'~. . ... ~. m .. ' ... d'l '.,' '. . f" th . ii .". 'n ".,' TT,.,,:, "', .,,. .. ·h':···:,··d·· ,.".'.- "b:· 'f" .'.' ,~, , ' •. rd

place IS. ,m siowmg uown 0' , I .. e ,auf. [,OW .. I ms rs acmeve _. m e orwaro

section, of tile combustion chamber which is formed as a diffuser; that is the' flow passage cross-section increases in the downstream direc-

.. :;. .. "'.. ",. . .. ,... . '", '"" .'. .. . , ,. ..., .. . .

tion. The result not. only is ,3, decrease 'wn airflow velocity, but at the same time a further increase in pressure Airflow velocity is n,Q'W around ,25 m/s (8.10 ft/s), still too high, for order y bu 'ning of 'the kerosine/air mixt U' 'Ii~e '.110.' W' .e- v·: elo " ·C"l"~Y'·:·:, there '(."'0'·· 'r""~· m' . ust be further d imin ish e·' d .. ';'

, . . ... j[ J..l.JIIJIl. . I· ~ .II . ...!!;..I .' .,!l..' . . """ '. 1 i .. ', !Ii.'" I!;.;1Il . . '. I!J.. " . " .""" ".:II, .

Air cas,i1ng

D'il utiioln aJi'r elliltr,ance

Fuel nozzl!e


,S.esil i 111 gl ri ng

Corrugated ,j oi nt

Flig 5-1 TYlPica~ can-type burner assembly

down, tiD a. few metres per second. This is accomplished by means of a perforated disk that surrounds the fuel nozz ~e~

The second essential task of the combustion chamber is to provide

h ' ~.I"" .

t e correct uera r mixture. The mass ratio of the t.wo components that

react W.11 the combus ion process namely fuel mass injected per second and air mass forced each second into the combustion chamber, varies with the operating conditions of the aircraft and may range between ratios. of 1,::,4,5 to Ll 301• TIle fuel/air ratio for e" Iicien t combustion, however, is in the order of 1.:~, 5" which means that only a fraction of

.he incoming air is, required for the cia. rbua ion process, The task of reducing flow 'velocity for the orderly burning of the i ,lllel and, appor~iornin.,g tile' airflow to achieve complete combustion, is accomplished in he orward section ofthe combustion chamber.

, ... " pportioning the air for-combustion is achieved by meaJ.1S of'a short air duct (snout) which has a. number of drag-producing swirl vanes a_. its exit to reduce flow velocity, Airflow 'passing through the sno at is only 20 pier cent of the total mass of ajr entering the combustion chamber .. BI" far 't ie largest part is d cted around, the internal flame tube, from where gradual admixing wi tll i 1], tIle fla nl e tube is made by

Di[IIUf~:~O n a iir

10 B'nol :. - .'-'. UfJO

~ _,, __ ,iiiiiiiiI_--.....;;;;!~~· .

prirm~a.[ry c=:>"' ..... ,. 'Bllf I.

I.' I L.

---~-~-,-......::. - -

~. > I

~~ ~,--,--~--'- -IL.dI""'o": ~,.._.

Fig ,5··2: Schematic flow iin combustion chamber

means of various-size holes arranged behind the primary combustion zone (Fig, 5-2)"

: uel is pumped in i 01 the injection nozzle at . igh pressure, The form ,or the injection fl'OZZ e ensures. that the vaporized fuel is discharged as a spray' cone which provides intensive mixing with the ,amr passing by (Chapter 9).. Fuel 'burning takes place in a relatively small space within the flame tube, the primary combustion zone where temperatures may be as high as 20010K (3,,1600R)~ ..... [0 flame tube material would be able

to withstand such temperatures if the 'Nalls were not intensively cooled. To, this. enid a system of small 1101es and. slots. in the liner wall allows secondary cooling air to provide a protective shield ill order to insulate the flamen 'be walls from tile super-hot flames ( L ig 5 ... ,3),., The remaining part of the secondary' air (about 50 per cent) is ducted along the flame tube and gradually added to the hot gas, The combustion process lTIUSt have ended before this tOI prevent incomplete combustion due to 'low' te [}1 peratures.

Combustion is usually initiated 'by electrical spar ' ignition an,d then continues as a elf .. sustaining process.

1 . for onti b '. tb .,

T . e requirements lor optimum combustion must oe met at certain

cri tical aircraft operating conditions, Ie, g~ flight speed, cruising flight at.

'128 .Jet [Engines

Fla,me b.llbe' walll

Fi'g 5·3 Coohnq of combustion chamber liner (General Electric CF6)

altitude, accelerating during take-off etc, Specific parameters are used to describe combustion chamber characteristics.

Efficiency of combustion

In general, the injected fuel does not burn completely and thus produces less heat than would be possible theoretically The reason is that appor morning the exact amount of air necessary for complete combustion is difficult to achieve" and particularly with respect to the wide range of aircraft operating conditions ..

The degree of'actual fuel [usage is characterized by' a combustion efficiency factor giving the amount of heat released, by combusrion in relation to the heat theoreti cally available in the fuel:

,,' ','. , . b " . ,';, ... , ·'f'u,., " _, heat re eased "QI

com, us on efficiency - h t th .. ,. t ·,T bm Q "ea. . eo e ,. aval,a ,e. ··· .. 0

Modern combustion chambers. achie- e e lficiencies between 901 tOI 98 per ceil' (TI,e - o. 90~_jO.98, '. Values could be 'much improved if stoichiometric combustion were possible, i.e, if the correct arnot .nt of ai completely to burn a given amount of fuel were.' apportioned. I! his is not yet achi evable,

Another important performance parameter 'is total pressure loss beca ,e i a gas turbi i e cycle the aim is to, attain co bustion at

cion stall , pressure. Some loss of P',I essure will una voidably be incurred due to the s, /irl necessary i or efficient combustion, a id due 11.,0 friction, These losses have to be minimized by careful design of the combustion chamber, The amount of to Ita I PI' essure lossis characterized by the ratio oftotal pressu res at combustion chamber discharge, 'PM and tota pressure at combustion chamber entrance, PtJ",

Typical values of "hie total pressure loss coefficient are "between 0,.93 and O,,98~ which means pressure losses are between 2 and 7 per cent,

Stable operating range

III contrast to a ground-based gas turbine plant ~·I, turbo-propulsive engine used for aircraft is s'u'bject to large variations of engine speed, and operating altitude, Within the complete operating envelope ranging from flight idle thrllst to max take-off thrust, and, from seal leve static pressure to low pressure at altitude, extinction of the flam Ie in the com bustion chamber must be prevented.

According to' varying operating conditions the following quantities change at combustion chamber ent '~y.:

ii.:'t· atic nre S'ClU' re I)'

!.J", ,I., J:-'" .• .. "") , ~" ... )

- static temperature, t3

Tile stable operating range is usually cha racterized by a permissible margin of the fuel/air ratio at which stable comb stion is maintained .. The operating range' is narrowed by' decreasing atmospheric pressure with increase of'flig t altitude, which will cause entry pressure into the combustion chamber to diminish (Fi,g S4)~ Jet engines feature a high, pressure ratio (such as the modern high bypass-ratio engines used _in SUbS0111C transports) are less sensitive to tbis effect. In ... he case of a. stoichiometric fuel/air ratio stable combustion would be maintained even a less favourable conditions.

The combustion process is also sensitive to a high entry velocity into the combustion chamber '.: hi ch may cause the flan e . 0 be carried away

. emperat re distribution

Optimum engine performance wi 1 be achieved if the average temperature of the 11· .. ·· 't gas is as close as possible to tho temperature tolerable

1310 Jet [Engines

:Slta b lie' lop.erafon

I I ~ ~ - -



SI'o i1,;;. h; 0 m""'""r"I'I" II!I.§!/I;" "lI I, .III"'" I II .•. , r $1. ~ 1I·II;I.lLJIO A

Fi 9 5-4, Facto rs a"ffe e:t j: n g' fl am e sta b i ~ i'ty

:Stoli'c.hiiometrie f\ue~-,ah"' rano A

to the turbine blades. If the temperature dist .ibuti on is non-uni .orm such that hoi spots exist in the gas, the turbine entry temperature must be reduced to prevent damage 01 the b ades, This, wi I inevitably red.uce engine perfoi mance,

.-,.I]]O"~e intense mixing ofthe fuel with t ~ e airflow generally improves

temperature distribution, but may increase t.otal pressure loss (= flow losses) in he combustion chamber,


Ignition of the fuel/air mixture is made easier if pressure ,a~1 .d temperature is high and flow velocity is low. If the uel/air mixture is too' lean

too ri ch t'g-' ition w 11 b e impaired

lor .11 .. ··' .'!.,..; I.' .:~~nlll.··' ·1 .•. ': _ .II!.. .. ~: .. lI .. " I ...


In. case of a rich fuel/air mixture, the endency of molecular carbon to form deposits is increased because the available oxygen is insufficient for complete combustion, Changing the fuel/ai _ ratio may also change the location in the combustion chamber where carbon will ble

d .... d

1_ eposrtec ...

Deposits are also dependent Din fuel qua ity which may greatly vary' 111 etwee n airports,

The several reasons given above illustrate that combustion chamber

des' ;gn' [.IP<'q' uire S:·~ c a reful ass e ssment of c xmtradictory factors

," ",I • l,U,L:, ,. I, Lt . . I '.' '. ~, ' '" .' '_ II l~ t. . rLl~a., . . :. . .: " ,', _ '...:" . I~ " ", I " ,':' ,. I!I

. .

'ilfa seall

Fuel manifolld

Fllange' jo,ulnt

Ciom b1Ll91~o n ,chambe."

IP riilma,ry ali r entry

D raii n lube

Fig ,§1-5 Circurnferen .ial,ly arranpsd can-type burners

,32: Jet Engines

51~3, T'yp'8S lo;f combustors

Classification of combustion chamber types is made according tOI geometri c3"I characteristics. ,,'11 ere are basically three types:

can-type b urners

c nnular ... type burners can-annular type burners

5~3,.·1 Cen-type combusuon cnemoer

.. his type is found in early jet engines, A, number of single burners are arranged in. parallel circumferentially around the engine axis. Each chamber is supplied with a stream of airflow by a separate air duct that connects upstream to t te compressor outlet t Fig: 5-5) .. Burn rs are linked by interconnectors that enable the flame to spread to neighbouring com b'USII ors thus igniting th e fuel/air mixture there, whereas start-up ignition is 1111ade only at two combustors, The interconnectors also act ill equalizing the pressure among all burner cans to ensure iden-

1 Casing

2 ~ n ner casl ng! 3 F~ame tubs

4 Heat sni,e~dtj'ng

ror rota r shaft 5 Roller bearing 6 Ca.rbion s€',aJ

7 Sea~ carrier

B Bsari ngl housl ngl 9 T u rhine' selsi

1 0 Tru min e' nozzle

If':,g 5 .... 6 Annular-typo combusnor chamber (General EI!ectric CJ61 0)

Combustion chamber 133

F'ilg' 5-1' Schematic 'flow in annular combustion chamber (General Electric CF'6)

tical operating conditions in all combustors and thereby prevent asym-

n:le' ric turbine loading. _

Because of the inefficient use of avai able space and inherently unfavourable fluiddy amic effects, the can-type burner is no longer used in aero-engines. However, i did constitr te a necessary step in turbo-engine development ..

5- 3· 3'·'" C·· ·a· n enn u,"~r fILl-niB·· CO:· . ·'mblu'S···f'o·:·r,C'"

,.<',1' .', .' .. ' -1_ .' I" ,'e:.; -'.T~".: ,<.' _., ···.'"I.till'~'

An intermediate solution towards the modern annular-type combustor was the can-annular- ype, Fo . engines developed in the sixties.military and civil alike, the can .. -annular burner was the Pi rev aili ng type.

Coo Iii n g ai Ii' enfh1~

IBulrlt1er h.ead

Co n necti n'QI 'fillngl!!


g' ,enell'atlnl t1 . - -- - - :liJ1



FlO II!:' O' I 9 o-e

Can -annu tar -type co rnbu sfion chambe r

The supply of secondary air to the flame tubes is made through a common air casing while primary ai '.~ for combustion .is supplied through individual air intakes (Fig: 5'-8).. The flame tubes ,are mounted

- .

to a circular rim-like arrangement ofthe turbine nozzles where the ,flow

expands and accelerates.

A, special solu' ion, of the can-annular-type burner was developed by Pra t 1& Whitney which featured six fuel injection nozzles mounted in circular clusters within, eaca flame tube" The design resembles a miniature an nular comb -:.I'U-" stor an "', 'd:' eight were used ~n the J-T4'- enaine

' -. . Ui, , , .... . L1! . . . . _" """" ," . ...I., "'-' .. """ ..IIL. .' '..' . . 1Il.J.,it'-'"' " ..

In, its time" the can-annular-type burner represented economical use of available space and provided good mechanical stability of the overall construction.

Fig s .. a Can-annular-

b t'

I type com usnon

chamber (G!eneral Electric ,J'1'9)

Fig 5-110 Cutaway throuph burner with six fue~ nozzles (Pratt & 'Wh'i'~ney JT4)




Tu_ blne

The primary task of the turbine in an aero ... engine is to drive the compressor. Additionally the turbine must drive the accessories .. In the case iof a turboprop engine the primary task of the turbine is to drive the propellers, and in the case ofa shaft engine to drive _ he 'rotor b ades of a helicopter,

The .' remeodous turbine power which may attain 'values of more than 510.~OO() hp, is accomplished 'by extract ing part, or practically all, of the energy contained in, the hot gas. .A single turbine 'blade alone IDBly contribute as much as 2,50' .11p - 1110re than many arge car engines are capable of producing,

The progress made in turbine engine technology becomes more apparent if one considers that the energy conversion is accomplished in 'the limited volume of a turbine, and at extremely high. temperature loadings, The advance to large engines producing more tha1120' tons of thrust became possible only after new materials and improved cooling methods became available.

Basically turbine operation is n,OI different from that of a, compressor, Whilst a, compressor ,is adding energy to the airflow passing through 'it by converting mechanical energy into pressure energy, a turbine conversely absorbs energy fW:'"OID the gas flow to convert it into meehan-

ical shaft power' lor torque. -

In aero engines, the axial-type turbine is exclusively used because of the higher mass flow rate it, makes possible. A radial-type turbine is, in, fact, a so possible, bu t is not a practical alternative, Design of 'he axial flow turbine can be single- or multi-stage. A turbine stage comprises

two, 'main clements consisting of: ,~

a) a set of stationary nozzle guide vanes followed downstream 'by

'b) 3, set of rotating blades .. (In, a compressor this sequence is reversed, C/'Cll3[,pteIr ,4,.)

The stator is formed as a ring of stationary' radial vanes inside the turbine c~sing:,: the' vanes being of aerofoil section 'with their leading edges facing the flow corning from, the combustion section, In tile

Turbine 137

Fig 6 .. 1 Assembly of a higlh-performance turbine (General Electric J7'9)

narrowing flow path between adjacent blades, the hot gas ms aeceleratec to high velocity, Because 10 f this nozzle effect the stationary vanes are termed nozzle guide vanes, and their complete arrangement constitutes the turbine nozzle .. The rotating wheel that follows the turbine 'nozzle downstream is the actual turbine (Fi:g 6-,1).

Factors affecting the number of turbine stages are:

the number of compressor spools

the amount of energy that must 'be extracted. from the hot gas - the rotational velocity (rpm)

the maximum permissible turbine diameter

H" h ...., '1 f- d . ~ 1 .

, I~ . ',." 'j ,'I ',' - I '.:' I -" I - . lr ti I .'/'.~ I _,: .. -', -::! ,"~. . " - ,._ ", .. ", . -. "_"", :.",. ",." ,', 'I,' - '_--.' . -. " - .. ,- . I' [I '.- _

, igr compression ratios typrca o mo .. ern, engines require mutti

stage tu ~'bine8"

Th . . b k d how it i '1" d ~ ·b·

. e question 111ay r ,e as "e'_ ,',OW It JlS tnat a gas expan ·,S m a turbme

" .. d . -.,' '~I . . .......• ' ". . ', Tl!-.. .'. _ 'm:' ,' .. b ···l· .. ·d . d" '.. :: I" th ..

ani ... compresses In, a compressor ~ ne answer ues 111 .' ,a' e '_ esign .. n .' e

,Jet Enqines

Chapter on compressors we saw that the flow cross-section between adjacent blades is designed to increase in, the d ownstre am, direction, and we call this a diffuser. The effect of a diffuser is to decelerate the flow and convert its kinetic: energy into pressure energy,

In a turbine the condition is reversed, Because the flow cross-section between adjacent blades narrows in, the downstream direction, a nozzle effect exists which causes the flow' to accelerate and, make it ready to' perfo . r rn work

':: ... : It .. :: I 'f.-t~··< .. ) .. '.

As the gas expands, its pressure and temperature decrease while velocity rapidly increases .. A turbine stage is classified according to th'e' amount of energy' converted ill tile stator and the rotor sections, respectively. ,A distinction is made 'between:

the constant-pressure turbine, the impulse turbine,

and a mixture of both,

Aero-engines fea ture the mixed turbine type. Before considering these, let us first attend '110 the function of the nozzle guide vanes.

6'~ 1 ~ 1 Turbine nozzie

In order to, perform, work the hot gas discharged from the combustion chamber must be suitably processed. This ]s the task of nozzle guide

d t 'I! " ., ~ f' ,. F· - h

vanes, an, ' Elley nave two! prmeipar unctions 'irst, they must convert

part of the energy of the hot gas into kinetic energy itl order to make the flow fast enough when it impinges on the rotor blades, Second, the nozzle guide vanes must 'change the direction of the gas flow in a manner such that the circumferential forces engendered in the blades are maximized for the production of shaft power.

The required acceleration is accomplished by narrowing the passage between adjacent blades (nozzle effect). As velocity increases, static pressure and temperature decrease, The degree of this energy conversion depends on, 'the relationship of nozzle inlet to exit area which is a direc _ function of the type of turbine blades used,

In, high-performancejet engines the nozzle guide vanes a fie: designed to obtain, 'critical' pressure at nozzle exit, i.e. an inlet-to-exit area ratio is selec _,ed which provides speed of S'Oll11d, gas velocity at the nozzle exit,

As, 11,0 work is done by the hot gas in the nozzle guide vane section (beca USH!' they are sta tionary), tIle ,ga~s tota~ eIrH!:f,gy will flemaill:1 oon,stall ~

if-,' flo"lw"" I o's'l['i OS" "'JI1're n'-,pijg]piir,t~ed' It· ,;;~ ·o·n'~II"y·' t,~"'rii'i'i1!i ,(;'I 'at~ '0' 'f"'P"~I~t o'-··f't·itL.,'e e--n'e'-'r-:'g'y 111-'~at

" , ;.' , , , ; ,~~,,,,,,,,, ,",)!! .'. .......V!l;;.? " ','.. JlLJ'1 . .IIl.- I Ill"'" Ii) . _ '!id '.'" I, ';g;l,,1 _ I" ,_ ,u, c_ ,I, I , ,_: \./ 111.,JiJl"

IDS changillg :fromn the potential to tIle kinetic, i.e., ,h,e;a_ all,d, p!ressu,re en,er,gy ,~lrle oo'nverted. intlo gas 'velt]city' energy.

Il11,po:rtant to the d,lesi,gn of ' I o;zzle guide vanes is a, careful. seMectio11, ,of tlle inI'e'[ 'croiss-:sectiOl1l,. If tlH! area ~s 'too small,~ a,er'odyn,ammc ,drag 'will


rise causing an increase of back pressure at the compressor discharge. This will bring the compressor operating line closer to the surge line, which can cause problems during engine acceleration Conversely, if [he nozzle guide vanes, feature a large inlet cross-section, engine acceleration characteristics will improve, but a higher specific fuel consumption \\riU, be incurred, The final decision will be a compromise

f h ,..,

. . . . I I -:. -;-. '!II'.' - - -, il -'I-·.ofi '.

o t ese en te I, ra,

6 '1' 2· .... C-o·· .. -n· .. sten t-ore esure t'urb';n--"e"

,II 11.···- 1· .... :>._·_.· .. }I!a l_: y·,'!._>!._·,I.:.: . ..:·I~jP ,.'·Jl.,f I ...

,A characteristic of the impulse or constant-pressure turbine, and the: nozzle gui de vanes 'it uses, is, that gas expansion occurs only in the nozzle guide vane section of the stage because it is here that gas, potential energy' is converted to' kinetic energy,

The gas when exiting from the nozzle guide 'vanes at. high velocity" will impinge on the roi o'r blades. The consequent wheel rotation is accomplished through momentum exchange from, turning th,e gas flow path by the rotor blades, at constant pressure, Ensuring that pressure remains constant is. achieved by keeping the flow path cross-section constant between adjacent rotor blades,

The impulse turbine is essentially the same as the well-known 'water wheel. Its principle of operation will 'be explained by using a turbine cascade formed by supposedly unwrapping the rotor wheel onto a p an.e~

The gas flow enters the nozzle ,gujid,e vanes at absolute velocity C{h and exits at much higher absolute velocity C1" 'fun, a direction imposed by the geometry of the vanes (Fi,g 6-2a)~ Due to wheel rotation at constant circumferential velocity 'U i- each rotating blade 'views' the gHLS as approachin g: from ,3. different direction and at a different (relative) veloci ty w 1.'.' All three velocity vectors (c u, w) may be combined to form a velocity triangle at rotor wheel entry, As the gas passes through tile rotor flow path, it changes direction, but the value of the relative velocity remains constant (W2 := w.), Because circumferential velocity 'U2 at the rotor exit, due to wheel geometry, is the same 3.8 at rotor entry (u, :::, 'U2), the velocity triangle at rotor wheel exit is completely resolved.

Note that absolute velocity C:" (and hence kinetic energy~!) is lower than at rotor 'wheel entry, due to the work transmitted froni the gas to,

the rotor blades",

The character of the impulse turbine 'is illustrated by its. ,ga~ characteristies across a turb,in,e' stage (F,ig; ,(i-2a, left)" i\S a result of the g',as. eX,p,an,din,g in the n,ozzle gu,id,e 'v',ane.s" :p,:ressufle ,~nld, tenlplerature w~lI Idecrease 'w'hile; v"elocity in,crea8es~ Th,e ,drop in ab'solute velo'city c :in tb,e . ~otor secti"Q,n of th,le stage :res'u]ts directly' fr,oln, tl1,e energy tr,ansm,itted :Fro,m ,ga.s to 'b,mad,es~ 'Whm1e static p'f'f'SSJUre r,email1.S co'nstant~ te'm,per,ature rises d,'ue to, frictio,n,~

140 Jet Elngiinss

® .-




(". p

;I :Stator

_/ (Tum-bi ne no,zzf,e,)

I t

(D -- - ~.~~. ~ ~ ·-T-·-~ - .. ---.--.-.---~. -

Statiie ~m peratlufl8 t

S "

, tatm€: IPlress'U re III

Ab II rEi m- it:;

. ",,' I' I '., ,". •.•. • -, ::,

.,so U . ve 0(;, ,.'1 e

Clr'DSS-'Slec~iiO!ili delC reas ililg:: .A.C10el elt,ar'Ili n~g

''1,Il'"10,. .... ..... ,jI'io .. II, ""' ~''''''1''''' 'II;;lI!i'

Entry ''U\e~o~~t, tir~angWe

00 ~ ~~~~------~~~


i"Oli"i t'!io,~ .''''!O .•• ;,:t' I!i.oU I'I,;;;II'!,¢!I,~ J

--'~-.;II.....------~ ~ ' - , _

If I

® .; ---.---- ,"-·--'-,.--'7---------- .,.._.....L.=I~....IIoz-----~~~~ ,




- I

A"p / l


® _.- --,_._-_. ,--,.:_~. - ~--~(-

® +,-~~~-~~~

I Ip


I~ ,~, o

-,-@--=~--~ ~--~=~-=--~ (I)


c~os;s .. sect~OIi1I

. {::


Fig '6-,2: Turbine staae

a) constant-pressure turbi ne

b) reaction turbine

6,1",3' Beectkm turbine

The characteristic of the reaction turbine is that expansion of the gas takes place not only in the nozzle guide V,ClJjJJ.e section, but also through the rot3Lt_il1g' blades of the rotor wheel, When passing the nozzle guide vanes, the hot gas. is accelerated while temperature and pressure decrease; muchlike _h:e impulse turbine 'btl" riO a lesser degree .. " ig 6;.2b),. Since rotor blades also feature narrowing cross-sec. ions ofthe flow path 'be' ween adjacent blades .. a nozzle effect exists which causes the flow to accelerate further Analogous to the ,,~.iftID·n,g force of a wing, an aero-

Turbine 141

dynamic force is generated on the rotor 'blades which rotates the wheel,

This, however, is not the 011ly plower source that rotates a reaction turbine, A certain amount of momentum action exists" generated, when the accelerated gas impinges on the 'rotor blades, A benefit of the reaction turbine is better efficiency than the impulse turbine, whereas the impulse turbine makes possible the high .. er power output that permits fewer stages.

Turbine efficiency n; is usually defined as the ratio of actual turbine power :HT related tOI a theoretically possible maximum 'power without losses:

- 'b ' .. , -c· :, . ffi' ,'. .,,:: '! - actual s'pecific turbine 'po'w'e <;OH T ,

Turbine e ierency .. :nt=·d r "fi b' H

. ~'~' J.' e,a speCl me tur .. ·.IIllle power 'T..i~

S '11]1 bscripts: T for turbine

is for isentropic ::: no moss

Values of turbine efficiency are between 10.,78 and 0,.92",

Lo sse s ar 'e' 11 n:·IC.·· "-UI rre -d be C"· . a" u S,P' o ·,.rl': a I n u m' . b - e ",'IIf-'" 0·.·· .f·· . "Ca>IC'i. ·,t·. 10 'res' such '~IS·.' t" U' rn in ,,' g." . .'

L")i . ri_. t..-LIJ. .. ,iI,j I,.. . " I, . • . ... ,. .' _" ~. ~_. ~~ .. ~ .'.. 11, . _ 1,.. . . . . ji.. U .IlL "_

(If the flow. friction, leakage between rotating and non-rotating components, tip, clearance"

To convey s.ome idea of the magnitude of turbine power Iet ItS consider an example, From velocity triangles of a stage, specific turbine powe '_;0 (i.e. power referenced '1'01 unit mass flow rate 1 kg/s) can 'be obtained. This is done by applying Euler's turbine theorem (which may be '1J[1'C'e-'d, also £"0' "r' ~, c '0·" m ipresso ir):

'_" _.'. !&::If" _" .. ' I(JUU!I ... lI. ,.... !~, ' .. "" . "". _," . I "_,' u ill

Specific turbine power:

II circumferential velocity of rotating blade

c~u" 'C.2u circumferential componerr of absolute velocity at rotor entry (1.) and exit (2)

Usable turbine shaft power is obtained 'by multiplying specificturbine power by mass flow rate:

. ~ H

......... = m - .

use ' . T

Example: calculate the performance ofa turbine slagle of the following characteristics ::'

rotational velocity n = 12 000 rpm mean radius r, =:. 0,.5 m

circumferential component lof absolute velocity at rotating wheel en try e, 11 :==. 43 OrnJ s

- now discharging from rotor in axial direction, i.e .. 0.01 circumferential corn. ionent of absolute velocity

. -

- mass flow rate rh = 50 kg/s

.ssuming the flow discharges axially from the rotor (C2u. = 0) usable turbine shaft power is given by th.le simple relation:

.:. use = 'm Ul CEo.

Circumferential velocity is the product of radius and angular veloci y m = n 'n/30

O 5· . x 'x]2 OOll

U I r I t1J::: ... . :It 30" ... I.JI = 628.3 mI s

Usable turbine shaf 'power Nlllse then becom s . 'Me ~ 50 x ,628.3 :X' ,430 kW'= 1.3,508 kW

TID account for dime" sion k'W';

k ]lk'W' W··· J "2

kW ::: [~ r: ~ 1000'" I: 1.m 1 ~~g]

Using the relation "I kW = 1..,34 .11p yields 1 34 'h

iI '3' 50·8 k W· . ..! .!. P 18' ]00 h

I··· use == 11 '. "':: .... :.: .. :: X I :kW' ._ ...• , I ...... ·.P

6,. 1 .. 4 'Turbine blade design

Of paramoun impor .t.1111rOe to turbine blade Ides ~ gn is the load distributiOIJ. along the blade length .. , Blade design generally aims at producing a velocity .. ector at turbine whee] exit of the same magnitude arid direc ... tion everywhere along the blade. A. non-uniform velocity profile win. cause a non-uniform radiai pressure distribution with attendant losses due to flow dis tur ban ce i

Circumferential velocity .is obviously less at the foot of the 'blade than at the tip .. If expansion of the gas were to be restricted to the nozzle guide v ane section of the turbine alone, causing the tt rbine .. heel to act las a constant-pressure turbine Ol~ impulse turbine as described pre viously, the relative' : elocity of the gas would be less act the blade tip than at the foot I( this may be easily verified by drawing schematic 'velocity triangles), Due to 3> reduced impinging action in the tip area, blad ' performance would b.· much reduced there.

For this reason, and to avoid such chara teristics, turbine blades are usually designed to be of the constant-pres .. ure type in the foot area, changing gradually '.01 the reaction-type towards 'the tip ( ~. "":g 6-3)~ The added be:nefit 10. "such design is a higher press. re in tl1 ; blade tip region

Turbine 1.43

B~ade t~p

~l __ ~_~"!!!!!!!!'~~~'

'-, ..





S1t8ltic· pressu Fe p

F'ig 6· .. 3 Pressure distribut~on along blade

which 'will counterac centrifugal forces from flotation, by' forcing the flow towards the blade toot.

Optimum turbine performance can 'be maintained OIBl~.y at or near'

design rota .. ional speed, · IS turbine characteristics change mat kedly

"tb ~

wm 11·. rotation ..

The turbine is. designed ',01 provide axially-directed :flow at . urbine

discharge, owever, a small amount of swirl whic .. is unusable for the generation of thrust wi 1 always 'be present and will ~~nstitute.' a ~I~'SS,~ Combatting s ir] is 'usually done by streamlined guide · .. anes beh.l~nd the turbine. which a lso act as supporting struts for the .ear .. urbine

b ..• aring.

The turbine rotor is one of the engine components subjected to 'the highest duty withi .. til turbojet engine. Extreme loads resu t not only from rotation, but also from operating at high temperatures, Of the utmost imports mce to turbine improvement is development both of

Fig 6,.4 1 a stre amlined supportinq struts shaped to remove swir~ing of

f ow (Rolls-Royce Tyne)

turbine materials capable of withstanding higher mechanical and thermal loads, and, in complement, the impro -ement of cooling methods, As materials arle exploi ed, up to t11::OO, maximum tolerab e degree, critical engine parameters such as turbine inlet temperatu e (TfT) and rotatior al speed have to be closely monitored,

W'e will new look at turbii e hardware by analyzing the construction of the General E ectric J79 er gine that 'was once used to plower the F'-4 and F -I 104 com bat aircraft of the sixties. Many design features of the 179 are still found in. tne most modern engines of 1. o day ...

The rotor of I he J7'9 com'. rrises the rotor disks. blades, and. frot t and rear stub shafts which transmit turbine loads (Fi.g 6-5)~

The' conical shaft 'is desi gned to transmit mechanical shaft power tOI the compressor by a, splined end that mates with t lie rear compressor sh .: a. t. A specia connecti - g bolt locks the components toge her, At its rear end the conical shaft is a flange mounted to . he first turbine disk 'by' a numbe r of bolts, All three turbine disks are 'bolted, together through spacers which also serve to transmit shaft power,

Tu rbine disks usually featu ~e a tapering 'wall thick tess 'with .. hickness gradually I;.' ecreasing as . he ' adius mcreases) . 0 minimize the


_,__ Tu rbiine! .shaft

R.lololI' blades

Rear st,UD


Hoillow' shaft

Elngag. "'gl ·teeth Oli 1,0011

Lackiingl notches,


Filig 6-5 Assembly of turbine rotor (G'en-eral Electric J79)

[fig 6'&6 Bolt:irlgl toqether conical turbine shan with

ront disc. Everv DNO blades form a unit. As a measure against heat, blades have long stern (General Elec:Hic 'CIF6,)

accumulating centrifugal forces generated when .otating a' high speed,

Disks typically have a centre I . ole" and. all. outer rim that carries the

blades; 'these arle inserted in slots machined into the rim" The blades are held inplace lby clamps designed to combat vibration and, to prevent air leakage, T11e tong shaft of the blades serve's to separate the blade root from the hot gas. A. sophisticated cooling mechanism provides temperature control between disks,

The increase- n operating temperatures to values beyond tile melting point of the blade material (1300°C) which has become normal with modern engines, 'was possibl e 01 nl y' after progress had, been made in, r;:"O' " h ~ ·tl icated ... '1' . I I ,,' . ,th ··d· E'·· ··iff,· .... 'II .. r·. ....1 . bv a c.:ibn if' ,L:fl. P IS. JlC(~,. .' C,O 0 In,g lTI.e" 01 S. - X I[;e.·fll . .at..l COO JL~ng ailllOln.ely a JlLJ ': . 10 ill

cooling air, proved inadequate; additional coo ing had to 'be provided from the interior of the component, For non-rotating components such as. nozzle guide vanes, temperature control methods were relatively s.traig·htforw·ard" as. was demonstrated by the General ,I .lectric C'F6 high. bypass-ra tio engine (Fi.:g 6-"7).

In. order to protect first stage nozzle guide valles from damage caused by extreme temperatures, the vanes are coated to increase t reir resis ance 'tOI material COl rosion, Vanes are individually cast an .. d then welded together ill pairs. 'This method ensures thai. flow leakage is mini-

,"-:=-""""'I!II,i"""flr,'- IRas,r'ins'er1

.'." " ." CaD j:ng ,ail!' holes L ." 0 ':

,~ . (

116tlh stage ........ ~~ aiir ~n

Fig 6 .. ,7 Coolinp ol turbine nozzles (first stags higlh-pre.ssur-e turbine nozzle,

General E ectrjc CF6) .

F~g 6".8 Cooling air s.upply of rotor blades (hiqh-nressure turbine rotor, General Electric. CF6)

mized, Also replacing vanes during maintenance is made easier and is m,ore economical through reduction of · .. ime required.

The first stage high pressurei ozzle is air cooled by convection,

impingement and film cooling, ..

Vanes are cooled by' compressor discharge air 'which flows through a series ofleading edge holes and gill holes located close tOI I he leadingedge '0111 each side. "'ir flowing from these holes forms a I'~ :~Il~. of cooling air Diver the length of tile vane" Internally, 'the 'vane IS ,d, vided into two cavities, Cooling air flowing into the aft cavity is discharged

through trailing-edge s. ots, . .. ''0 .• '

Supplying rotor blades with co'o'lillg. ~ilir'~s l~uc.h~ more ,d:~:fflcu~t (Fig: 6-;8)~ I· the case of General Electric's C.F6 engine, cooling air initially flows through the conical forward turbine shaft tl~ eo,oill~ the inside of the. rotor 3Ll1d both disks before passing between the paired dovetails and OlE' to the blades (Fi:g 6-9),

A problem associated with the cooling of high,-te~pe'r.ature e~,gin'e' part'>, may arise from small dir particles contained ill the gas, If such particles block a cooling air passage or an exit slot, local over-temperature may lead to catastrop iie turbine failu re within seconds. In. the case of the ICF6.~ rotor blade cooling air before entering the rotating high-pressure turbine shaft, takes two 18~,-'d,e,gree. ttlr~s" then ente.rs a swirl separate which whirls cooling air 10 '11e direction of rotation thereby causing contaminant particles to b ~~trifuge!d, 0 . '!side,. ~e cooling air then. passes . hrough a number of dirt traps which ut ize centrifugal orce to' collect and di .. perse any particles bef ore. they can. reach the blades,

ICapl ~- ~


,~ , I

I, r


" r

B_ad-e ____ ~h'a- ~

Gl" ~

IDoveta ill ",." ,-' ,setr-a,t'i,on

A illr' in llel: he lies,


IM~atijng surface

IF'i'g 6 ... 9 Turbine blade cooling detailed (s ~age 2 high-pr,es:sure turbine, General Electric CFr6)

The handling of a high-pressure gas stream and preventing losses in the gas path required the development lor special seals to .minimize fl01W' eakage between the rotating and fixed parts of the turbine, ,A further aggravation in, the sealing task \-'V,2 s the thermal expansion of components.

Fig 6 .. 110 Hotatinq grooves make up moving part 0

labyri nth seal (hig hpressure turbine rotor, General

E rectri c C FIB)

Turbi'ne '1149

Slat~o mI,ary

Perlm issib~e ~ ~ b :> leakage, 'flo,w 3 ,~

H~gh pressu!rle

low pressure


IFii 6-111 Labyrirnh seat . unction i ng

The solution to these problems were labyrinth seals which are composed of stationary and rotating members, The rotating member

- " . f'" (th ~ b 0, h) ill" id d b

is characterized by' a number 0, grooves (the Iabynnthj divtder ::y

ridges with sharp knife-edged crests. The stationary member incorporates a rub material that allows the rotating knife-edges to cut into the stator thus providing the required seal. The principle of operation, is that a controlled stream lof leakage air is allowed to 'pass through the seal drive 1 by 3, differential pressure between seal ends. At each knifeedge peak the flow is forced to separate thereby losing: part of its kinetic energy and pressure. The separated flow is tempotarily trapped in a groove before entering the next cell of the labyrinth where the process of separation and disturbance is repeated (Fi,g 6-11,'. 'By this method of deliberat ely disturbing the 'leakage flo " effe~~wve sealing is provided at the Clost of a small amount of gas f10~1. Labyrinth sealing is 'widely used 01 protect engine bearings from losing lubrica ing o,ml.

Labyrinth seal technology is also used a,t the blade tips of low pressure turbines, The tips of such turbine blades carry a shroud that effectively prevents flow leakage as it rota, es 'with the blade. The added mass rat the blade tip, necessarily calls for low r rotational speed. Because cooling would be. difficult, application of this method is restricted t'OI slower running low-pressure turbines where temperat\ res ,ar,e' mo -Ie modest (Fig 6-1..2) ~ Sharp edges at the top of the shrouds orm a ci cular knife which rub: into the soft honeycomb layer mated tOI the urbine casing (F,ig (i .... 1.3J. The oper .tional princi ile ofthis torm is. identical tOr that of a labyri m h sea designed to minimize lea .age,

150 Jet Eng]in-s's

ala' do I[! - eh - - -d 'c' [~-~p snreue

.', Labyrinth sea

.• _

..--::~.......- ..... '. R:ea Ii :SIIJl.II b !adil arft


..•. - Siulm p pre,ssurizing ,ai Ii pl9Jssages




]Press !!.Ire' bra ~anee slId .. ' / . ,

Fro:nt ,shaft

Rear' stub ,shaft:

[f,ig 6-112 IL.0·w .. pressure turbine to dlrilv9 Ian [and low-pressure compressor (Gene'ra~ Ellectric C,IF6),.

Honeycomb seal


A:eiU' . lange

--. ::::;,

In suil 8IIio iii

Stage 1] :&~'iiil""II~ gj~~~_....-...... nDzzt'9 cOlver &egmen'l:

,4,;') &Y


-0 holl dllng]



-_ ... ---,..

Fig 6 .. 13 Stator and caslna ot low-pressure turbine (Genera~ EIBGtric. CF6)

The principal requirements of'ajet engine are high thrust at light weight (i.e. high thrust-to-weight ratio) and '10\\-' fuel consumption, This is achievable only by' increasing turbine inlet temperatures which over the ·yea.rs were raised at a rate of lu to 15 degrees per year ~ from SOIDoe in 1947 to over 1.3010°'C today,

This progress resulted from improved tu rbi 11 Ie' materials but above all from advanced cooling methods. ,I 0 illust rate the effect of turbine inlet temperature Ion engine performance specific fuel cons. nnp: '0-" is usually given as a function of specific thrust (Fig 6-14)~ The graphs shown derive from theoretical cycle analysis their general message being that 'by rai ing turbine inlet temper','. ture more thrust per unit mass flow rate will 'be generated ... , When designing a jet engine the -lefore, [a high turbine inlet temperature is mandatory or a ligh -weight engine with a small CT10SS section that makes possible low nacelle aerodyuarnic drag. The curves also demonstrate that fuel consu rip ion

• ,i h .' . b .' "1 Tl" r- ~

Increases WI - 'ncr,easlulg . ur 'I IDle ]11 et temperature, _ 1JS I:_' ect lS

. 52 .Jet E:ng~nles


~ ..

.Hj.:!; . ·15,


0.8 -If1~-~-_~FMi--=-r-.._......~~~,,20 B,PR. = 6 24


H = to ·m

.25- ·.30

~. = 1200k

SPIA. = 5 rrl.!t .. ~ o..B

HI =: 111 km

IBIPR ~ '10 M_;:;: O-B H = t t km

C Ii'uising ftl'" gh~:


BP'R = S ~'-O

H ;;;; ij km

'2'4·· ."

t; = 1200lK

Static rea. sa

G2 ,_----~~==~r=~~------_,--~~==-~~~----------~




Sp eCilfic th rust TIm


- kgls]

F'ig 6 .. '14 Fan performance- influence of turbine inlet temperature 'l4il cornpressor pressure ratio fie. bypass-ratio BPR!

particularly noticeable fOF engines of lower bypass-ratio, blot not so ~llcb for the high bypass ... ratio engines fo nd in moden transport .aircraft. Because of this characteristic, aircraft equipped 'with low bypass-ratio engines (i,e. fighters) were once recomme ided to restrict high temperature operation '110 only short durations 10" 'heir flight; such as take-off,

Temperature has different effects on turbine componen: s. The greatest thermal loads have to be S,_ .stained by high pressure turbine 'blades whil?h may eventually fail because 0" thermal fatigue oxidation and CO' 'IT' . 0'" sio n

[_ .. ~ I I •• _ ..•• _ .. 1:. 1.:I~.I!.[:'" -', II!

_ Thermaifaugue is the term given to the process, caused 'by cyclic changes 10' operating ter ipera ture whereby blade material may' 'be caused to fail.At I ach engine star t temperature suddenly rises, causing


Turbine 153

a temperature gradient 10 bui d l P rapidly between external and, internal portions of a. blade .. As a result over some length of time, I iny cracks may originate from leading and trailing-edges of the blade which expose damaged areas to 'metal oxidation, In cases of extreme thermal stress, a blade may even, suffer permanent deformation,

011e solution tal this situation could be the development of new materials bet tcr able "to sustain high ternperatu e8~ ..•.•. ' ucr more

promising, however, are advanced cooling methods, even when retaining the material ofthe b aoes, It should be remembered that the object of cooling is to keep material temperature within the operating envelope even when the gas temperature is raised,

Is is worthwhile having a brie ""look at jet engine materials and their proper ires. Turbine rotor blades because of their high thermal and mechanical loads, 'OlUSt exhibit high creep strength, Creep is that tendency of a material tal undergo permanent deformation when subjected to extreme thermal and mechanical stress, finally ending ia catastrophic failure, Metal properties are determined b,y testing, with standardized specimen subjected tlo well-defined Ioadings of temperature and physical stress, The goal of such testing is tOI determine the

( .. )·1 d b'· ~ hi · 1 b } .. , d h '. 'w mtLXmmUID. ,I roar corns matron '\NT ucn can .!e app ie .. tal tl e material

'without causing measurable creep.

Choice.' of'the 'right' material is not easy" Metal properties mt st meet technical req uirements, but cost of mall ufacture is also impor ant. Ideally, a rotor blade ShO'UIDld, 'be capable 10' withstanding maximum permissible physical Ioads without prema ure failure from thermal fatigue or oxidation. Alloy's. must 'therefore be designed primarily with regard to mechanical stress, A typical rotor blade alloy is NIMON-TC 115 by the British manufacturer Henry Wiggin with the following composition; nickel (Ni, 57.,310/0) cobalt (C'Q" 15.0°/[1 , chromium (Cr. ~ 5 '.oryo)" aluminium (Alli, 5.,0%). titanium rt. 4.010/0.' molybde num (Mo

3.50/0), carbon (C, Or . .16(Yo), zirconium (Zr, 0.04,0/0) boron (B IO.,O~4O/o). In the US, alloys used jn turbines bear trademarks such as ' .. di ne 700, B1900 Inconel'Zl J, Waspalloy, Rene'Sf),

Basically metals used for turbine rotor blades are nickel-based alloys which make possible opera ing times " f 50,0001 11IOl1IS,.

Blades are usually manufactured by casting or forging. Metal alloys

capab e of withstanding very high tempera ures usually exhibit high resistance to forging, ' urbines are therefore, mainly cast. ,A widelyused method its vacuum casting whereby even the smallest gaseous inclusions 'in, the blade ar .. avoided Sue - defects would, otherwise cause 'he material to become britt e and p'~OI11e to cracks. Because casting affords great precision, blades Ill· led lot be finished.

he simple blade as cast does not 'possess the material p roperties finally required. The.' necessary strength is provided on y af er heat

treatment where blades are held. at a temperature of' 1 OOOCC for a . ouple ofhours. During this time, the molecular matrix ,of the metal is. re-arranged into a form 'which yields the desired properties .. 111. order to prevent the material from oxid: tion during heat treatment, the process is carried lout in. al1ine·rt-·gas atmosphere ..

_ One of the limitations of nickel-based alloys is that they are generad l.Jl susceptible to oxidation. In this respect alloys 'with a. high cobalt content are more (aV'[D' irable, but their tensile strength is lower,

. A powerfu method of combatting material oxida ionis 'by a protec'live [c~.ating·_ made by spraying the blade with a. mixture containing Pi nlver ,zed aluminium or chromium .. , and then heating it to a. temperature of 9IOO°C. 0'11 the blade surface a. laye -[ of nickel/aluminium alloy forms with a thickness of [only a few' housandths [of a mill . netre, sufficient to protect the blade from oxidation and. corrosion. Such coatings !o~ the ot~r h . and are very' brittle and may succumb to en eking when hit 'by solid, particles contained. in the gas stream ... Another problem is that the protective coating may diffuse deeper into the blade a I. sers iroe' temperatures above 1050°,C, causing the protective effect to diminish .. During engin e' overhaul, the coati ng of the b 1 ades will usually 'be renewed.

Modern. trends [aim at replacing metallic materials 'by siliconc.a.rb[~des whicl may permit turbine mlet '[ emperatures as hig as '1650iDC their added advantage being lower weight and. less cost. -

7 Exhaust nozzle

During expansion of t' e gas in. a tui bine, energy contained it I the gas is extracted. and converted 'in to mechani cal energy, in. the form of shaft plower. The amoum of energy absorbed bl}! the turbine is only as much as required for driving the compressor and accessories such as the fuel pump oil pump, electric generator. In engines used, for jet propulsion a large proportion of gas. energ .",' IDS sti ill a vailable . 0 be converted :" "7 to engine' thrust. In. a turboshaft engine the maximum amount of gas

r - bi 'L • b .' b

energy IS extracted I"'Y tile turbine, wnereas 1.0 a tur:t)lJro,lJI,el1,glne about

910" - - nt .. t '. ·t' .d &" . d -_ .. , '.- he nro ---.111- .' rd ",' -, "!J(:1O' ries .. per cell IS ex,raCt e! lILor . .rlvm.n .. g . e propelUer ani ,acces~[ ~ _ .. '-

leaving the remaining 110 pier cent for conversion into thrust.

The task of the exhaust nozzle is tal convert gas potential energy into kinetic energy (i.e, gas velocity) necessary' for the generation of thrust, TIns .is accomplished solely by the geometrical s cape of the 110 < zl e, which is basically a tube of . arying c .oss-section.

Not every nozzle type performs in the same manner. Depending on the type of aircraft, [and design t ight speed different types of nozzles are employed, In particular, a distinction is. made between convergent and convergent-divergen t nozzles,

7,.1 Convergent nozzle

I t can be show n b!y simple calculus, that tl e cross-seeti on of a. duct must decrease in the streamwise direction if a subsonic fluid flow is to be accelerated (relevant textbooks of physics), If the duct ends, at the smal est cross-sec ron, a convergerr nozzle results ..

o explain the characteristics of a convergent nozzle" et us assume

that ,or . stream of hot gas discharging from the turbine enters the n.o,zzl~

at a constant total pressure P17~ (= ::. ote that to al preSSUT[C .is comprised ofstatic pressure p plus dynamic pre sure' q ~ :y; pVl,.) Because ambient pressu ~e Po is lower than static pressure P1 at the nozzle entry, the flow win accelerate t.o exit velocityV (I ig 7'-la)~ Let U'-I furl her I'" ssume static pressure prj' [at nozzle discharge to be. exactly equivalent to ambient (PI =. Pn), so that the gas completely expands,

'.: unbient pressure is not a constan but decreases with altitude. If the aircraft .. flies, at high altitude, ower ambient pi essurc will cause exhaust velocity V to ,.' - ere ase accordi rg y~ This process cannot go D[IDl in- efinitely however, There is a. limit when the jret discharges at sonic

<? ,I /'

- Po ~

/ I \.,

- ... '

I - i

I~ ~

II', ~1'

t6 ~:7'

Cf; I ~






Fig 7,-1 Flow ~n a. co nve rgleni: n ozz Ie

a) subcrit~cai operation

b) supercrilicallop,era.tion

veloci ty '. Static press ure ,at nozzle d i seharge is hen said to, be critical. If ambient pressure continues to decrease (because the aircraft flies ,a,t

]. ish ." altitude) th ' ·,:···· .. rd .. ti .. ··, "" u ".' '. · .. ··'1"" dischar . will "~,'.' ;ri'j"~'" ".

.ug I er a 1. u e . .en con, .ml ions a 1_ t1.0ZZ e I uscnat ge WIJl remain un-

altered, When nozzle mass f),IOW rate is a i s maximum, the nozzle is

", "I'"di ·t·· , be II:: ch oke d ~ :' " ," . ,. a.: fl' ''''. , ::, i" ." t b ,'.,".,,. ".~., - d .. ": ,', '. ,', ."' .. '

sate I o oe c ioxec ,. LEt mass .,.O·W cannot lie mcreasec any more.

When a jet is discharging frOID. _h.e nozz e at a higher static pressure than ambient pressure, its expansion is incomplete or under-expanded. As a result pressure will rapid my' equalize causing the jet to expand in (an undesira ble) radial direction, with particl e inertia now causing pressure in the middle of thejet to fan below ambient. Underpressure will then tri,gg,er contraction of the jet such that a zone of over-

.. ... ...... '. - ed d 'b f d' ... (. 7 l' b) '( hi

._ . .". ','. I . '.- ", '11' ',. ,I ' .. ' ". " I I ," .. " .' '. '. . ... ," ;" " ", .... .' ' '., '0 "',". .' ," ',", ,'" .: t" . : I I" • I .-.' ,-:-... I .'

expansion IS succeeae .oy a Z'O.IDl.te. 0 un ier-expansion "I,g '-'~ ... ~ =D t . s

case, jet efficiency with regard to! t11IUSt is low ..

A convergent nozzle of fixed geometry is used for aircraft flying at

Fi'gl 7'-,2 Common nozzle of' fan flow and core engline (Pratt & Wh'itney ,J:T8DI powerinq B,08din'g 7,27)

subsonic (or low supersonic) velocities. The most frequent application is with high-subsonic commercial and mili ary transports,

Because these aircraft exclusively employ turbofan engines, the choice of mixing the hot and. cold gas- stream may determiue the design of the con vergent nozzle. At times. when bypass-ratios of engines were low (up tOI about 1~,5 'was typical for engine technology of the sixties) the gas was expanded in a, common nozzle. This was the case, for example, with Pratt '& Whitney's IT8DI engine that was built in. large quantities t.OI plower the Boeing 727 and early 737 jets,

-Ratber than ducting both gas streams coaxially, Rolls-Royce designed a nozzle with an internal mixer that forces the cold bypass flowthrough a number of oval slots. and S.Oi causes both streams to 111i.X" Engines of 'higher bypass-ratio frequently feature separate exhaust nozzles for the cool fan. flow and the hot core flow,

T'L .. .., :iI1. d· " .. ,.:,_ . , .,,.. de elon .. ed nrimaril " '.', th ,,"·t,;;,· b ~'t ,n.i,lese nozzlIle . l.ieS],gns. were ·.·_eve o'pe,._ p'1"lmall.y In . ,.e SJlXlues" · .. ·u_

their principles are alive in 'the most modern engines. of today. The choice of design is driven by nozzle weight, nacelle aerodynamic drag, nozzle efficiency, and noise, A, rear cone protruding from some nozzle designs is aimed a.t allowing external expansion ofthe (otherwise under-expanded) jet to' generate additional thrust forces on t re cone,

FiiQI 7-3 M~xing! O'f fan f~OiW' with core engine flo~1 (Ro~Is.Royce Spay')

Fi'g 7-~1 Separate nozzles for an low and core enqine

'Iow (RaJ,1 s-Royoe/ Snecrna M45··.·H

. . ,

aircraft VFW614)


'7" '2.""

.. '


Con.' _ ergent nozzles are used primarily for subsonic flight speeds, but may be employed also at low supersonic Mach numbers, up t,O · -'~ ach _- .5,. For higher exhaust velocities a different nozzle shape is. '1 equired .. The geometric characteristic '0 this. nozzle is a decreasing cross-

"' 111 .," f d '( t, Iik '111 )

secnonal area In 1tS .orwarc part · .. mucn uce a convergent nozziei

followed by a cross-sectional increase in. its rearward portion (the divergent section). Such nozzles were employed in. steam engines ill the: las' century ,(1 ad 'bear the name oftheir Swedis inventor, Laval (Fig 7-5)~



~ I

I .. =-----'~ =-----"~ .~........,.. r-"I- ==-~""""___............J>

1- -> +=- ~


C Fh)w 'yel~ociit,

a S,peea of' SOl lind

Fiig 7-5, C om pari so n of conve rg e nt nozz I e 1'0 r sub so n i c j€,t with conve g,entldlivergent (Laval) nozzle for supersonic jet

In its converge t forward) section flow in. a, Laval-type nozzle behaves as previously described, i.e, continuous acce eration i'n the duct up to sonic velocity which is reached in the nozzle 1 moat (where the cross-section is smallest) '" .' n the diverge ,- section, pressure is allowec . o decrease below its critical va ue, with fluid velocity co' : tin-

"'~II '. 11

Ding to accelerate to supersonic vames.

Th'e decisii .,,' parameter is the area ratio of nozzle exit area A, t[OI nozzle throat area A*" Speci fie selection of the area ratio allows ally' pressure ratio tOI 'be achieved u ig ',""6).,,

In practice, a fixed-geometry supersonic 'nozzle .is bad Y' suited for aircraft applications because the exhaust area cannot be match .. ed to

,r::;\ '.:I

IP ~ PI2=P~l

r t ~

_ I~

~" -l... __ .- _",.b, IC:I!

P· " I' r·t

I 't


. A~ .. ~



t~ •• ,

A ,A-






r V Crlrtical pressu re ratio

~II p ;/p;:z = 0. ,;528


.. "

n "





ji ij I m

!IlJI1 .. 2~ :2

~I II" II' I I

1 I~'g 0,,1 0,7 016 I@.5

lE:dt M'aclh No

IF'ilg 1-6 Idea! gas flow nozzle

th .. dO' " t"" bi d ~ ,.

e arymg ,COIl mons 10,'1 ambient pressure ano engine power settings.

Furtherm ore such nozzles WOUI d 'b'· e long an d hi e avv For this reason

._ " . '~'.'- ', .. ,.., ",~ " . . -. ',_ - ._ ' -, . - ,_' .. . : ! - ",.' .,f.1 - • . I ", !. '.. I'

engines using thrus I augmentation feature variable ge 0 mle try' nozzles 0" c sometimes complica led construction but of short lengt . '.

Of the many types possible, there are 'main y' two types [of variable-

11 h hi .', d id d m'; " he e/

geometry nozzle t I at na e iour« wtdespreac application t e ejector

nozzle and the iris nozzle.

Ejector .n.HZ·Z'. e

In' d e·' S··1 gn th , e e'· J"e' ctor 01'0·' ·1"7£· e fe ":'ltl UI reo s a,' 1j("'!·O· rn verge 'nl*p~~'TII"~'m' 'f.J'r:y. "~, noz zle w: 'b' ich

,I "',' [I, I. i1'. ,', '_,' "~ .,',..IL . ,_.L..J .. '.- JIIJ· c;l .... ' . m [L~ 'V':'" ',. "IL .. ,-,f. W·· 't. ~ 1;1 ... 1"1.,,

. ,

"' losed .' 11 " hi' b . '!II, 7' 7) Th h . xh fl"

is enciosec concentrica " witt 'ID a tu .. I· l:·ig·'-'._' ,e not ex iaust ow'

front} the engine a ttains sonic vie ocity at . he nozzle exi t (M~ .~ ]) the highest . i ach number possible with a COil}'. ergent nozzle, Because ofits high pressure. th '. jet 'will expand radially after exiting from 'the primary

, ~ ., h b (M .~. D ~ b "'

DIOZZ e . 0' supersomc rv . ac. Il.um -er·, . ;':'1 >, .Il '.' ' •. llr~.v'len .. 'y sucnon .rom

Exhaust nozzle 1,61


. .

r; >

'. _.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _ . .aoII ..... _, ... ~.:_.: .'. :Seeond!ary' lnolZZle . Prllmalry Inozzl,i8

Fig 7-7 Variable-geom,etry nozzle and ftxed ejector

. . Ac:tua~jlng rting ,2 Connec~or

S C,asin~r

4- Nozzle seg ment 5 HaUer

61 Secon clary nozzle



Firg! 7'-8 Ejec or nozzle (General E act ic J85 turboje )

the primary gas-stream, a secondary flow is induced, the main task of

. rhich :is to smooth the primi ry jet and. thereby allow it to continuously acce erate to supersonic velocity i Wii hout a- secondary flow, the primary jet would rapidly expa td to ambient pressure by 'burs' ing, In this case losses would be high and thrust low. Secondary flow, while damping the primary jet is itself accelerated to sonic velocity at the nozzle exit (M 1'[ = I),

The divergent section, ofthe ejector nozzle is practically formed, by a

} .. , 'h W • ides a sl . ~Id'· h

gaseous stream W' me 1[' at the same tune provtc es a S ueiumg to t .e

nozzle outer casing thus effectively preventing the hot gas from contacting the nozzle body,

The ejector nozzle exists in a number of 'ariants .. In. its simplest version it constitutes a fixed ejector of slightlj divergent cross-section w -, ich encloses a variable-geometry primary nozzle .. Such a nozzle was mounted to tile augmentor tube of the General Elec .. ric .185 engine (Fig 7,-8).

Variation of exit cross-section is accomplished by translating the nozzle axially with hydraulic actuators. Rollers of the ejector nozzle run in tracks. of the primary nozzle segments, When the fixed-geometry

]1 ,. fullv retractedv nri 1 ~ ...

nozzre IS"U ry retracted primary nozzre exi t cross-section IS a

minimum, Conversely 'when the 'ixed-geometry nozzle is fully extended, primary nozzle exit area W8 a maximum ..

The benefi s of this design are lightweight construction and trouble-

free onerati Th .' 111 h .. t";' h ].

, ree operation, ,~e operational c aracterrstics 0 t ms nozzle ,~. re

essentially those rof a convergent nozzle with. limited supersonic perI 'ormance and acceptable aerodynamic drag at subsonic speeds, Because it is nota high-performance nozzle, its application is . restricted to relatively simple combat aircraft,

A. much more efficient nozzle, albeit Or .' more complicated construetion, is the variable flap ejector nozzle .' F"'.g 7 ~8) I' .. he convergent section of the nozzle comprises a number [of overlapping segments, wl .ile the divergent section is formed 'by a secondary flow which is ducted around the core engine and exits. throug a variable-geometry nozzle. As both, parts [of th.e nozzle are of ariable-geometry design area ratio may 'be idea' my adjusted to. varying flight conditions although at the expense of a more complicated and heavi er construction. Ofdisadvantage is the large amount of secondary ai" required which results ir high aerody-

.. d nanuc .' rag,

Even more sophisticated is the blow-in door ejector'llorzzle which utilizes 'tertiary" air sucked in from outside, near the fuselage aft end. ('.g 7~12' .. , A high supersonic flight speed .. , the blow-in doors are closed because [01' the higher interio ~ P . essure: tile secondary '1flOZZ~e' exit is in the fully open posi ion, If flight speed .. s decreased to low supersonic velocities (a .ound Mach 1 ... 2) pressure in the nozzle is, decreased automr tically causing a gradual reduc t~IOI 0'. exit cross-section, T11is process

Fig 7[,-9 Nozzle closed (' op) and open (bo tom), achieved by translatinq [Edector r'ing ('Northrop F=5 combat aircraft)

1164 Jot Enqines

S'leeIP' de.vi.alli on of ext:e II"rfllJ~ nO!W Causinig lo,w pressure -----i_ With dir;agl component ~ \--


Secolfildlalry...-= . .e~!!~~.~~_,.~ ..... ~ .s:» ~. ~~*lJl ,airfllow'





..... _ .

Fig 7'-'11 Adjustable seco ndary nozzle (General Electric J79)


.~ r=:-:

Einlgine now


........ ~ ... ~T··--~

~- ,:"'-- 'Oi;,\.-.:-:=-:-;~~: .'?If:·: .. " , ....

.' ",.

',' ,.': .. ..'" '. ,.',' '7' '.' ~ .

N'ozzle' posU~ G'D d ur ing ta,k,e~off ,ani' _ subsonjlC f i~g,h

Fi,g '7 .. ,12 Ejector nozzle 'with tertiary inlet doors

F~lg 7~ 13 E~ector nozzle wj'th tertiary inlle' doors

configu . ation ·s maintained througl rout the s ubsonic flight regime and co' "r lane ing

Jl ". .:1 .' ". ':._: '.

S!l]IC .,:", - g-in considerab e amounts 01'. tertiary air requires flow d.UClS

to be aerodynamically ofhigh quality I 0 k eep losses 'low ~ Because of its favourable characteristics boi h as subsonic and supersonic flight Mach :0, mbei ..... the e ector nozz e 'has found widespread application with supersonic aircraft, ~O~ example F-,] 1, Viggen, C oncorde, Tu-144, and SR.~ 71..


NA'ii'~I'e-' pili -9"-' d' 'I '~, ~Ioe

Iris nozzle

Although of greater mechanical complexity, the' iris nozzle excels by superb aerodynamic cleanliness. Axial 't .anslation of the nozzle segments is accomplished through roes actuated by hydraulic jacks ..

he construction permits ally required nozz e exit cross ... section. i 0' "be at- ained (Fig '7'-14).,

Fig "1'~15 Iris nozzle cootnoutee to superb performance af cornoet aircraft. (test flight of Grumman F~ 14'1 Iris nozzle at smallest exhaust area)

Exhaust nozzle 167

Variable-geometry nozzles designed for supersonic flight speed genera ly incu r high aerodynamic drag at su bsonic velocit ~ es which must be overcome by additional thrust, High drag levels result from

.' h '~ fl b ~ 1)... h ~II·' ~ .. '"

turning t : e external : " O'W' at ruptly wU.en. t '. e 11'O',ZZme ·~s at its nlllllmmUDl

cross-section. Zones of low pressure resulting from bending of the flow act against tile direction of aircraft motion (Fig '7,·,1.7)., The fa .. vourable shape of t . e iris nozzle allows the flow to pass sn oothly along: tile

1 ~ h ~ 1"" 1- '. k fft ..

nozzle contou - wtt . onry rttle risk 01 "_,OW separation.

The iris nozzle resulted from large-scale research by NAS,A 311d. US " ircraft manufacturers, It is considered to be one of the most efficient nozzle shapes, and enjoys widespread application tiD supersonic mili-

,t", --. - ,w ",.-.. aft -'h c' '-' '15' F 16 H-I IB': .' id 14

. Iry an-era 1- su,e- ,as '-'.'.,'. - [.:-.. s=. .', an·_ ~ - ~,'- '.

As most airera t land, at speeds . n the order of 30 kt (2501 kmJh) IO'D,g runway distances are required for the ground r011l down to taxying speeds. Apar fromhigh landing speed, aircraft weight and the limited capacity of mechanical wheel 'brakes compound the slowing down problem,

'I '. b k '. d b "'b111 b 1 . h b ..... ,1J"

ncreasmg oraxe capacity COIU .oe p'OSS)i. ley enla ~.glng the oraxes,

but this would cause added aircraft weight and space, Also, on a 'wet runway braking action will be impaired anyway, regardless [of brake ,c'a~"'p"'a': Ci, aty .. :

., ",' . -.' .,

, --

It appeared logical, therefore, to use the energy' in the propulsion system to S).0\\7 the ai rcraft down, T e result is the th .ust reve ser which freq uently is an integral part of the exhaust system,

The thrust reverser functions by obstructing the' exhaust by blocker doors wbich can be turned into the flow, Th se divert the jle. radially outwards and with. a markedly forward velocity component, Turning the exhaust flow to a forward direction results in a forv ard I hrust component which acts as a brake (Fig 7-1.6).,

. In practice the design of a particu ar thrust reo erser depends on tJI e engine with which it is used. In ,amm cases the e.'- gine will be ofturbofan type,

Ifa common nozzle is used both for fan, and core streams the thrust reverser will capture all of the flow ( i,~.g 7 .... 1.7* When not il1 use" the reverser's, in ernal surfacesmust align. with, the duct in order not to distu rb the flow, The harmonious ir tegration 0 . the reverser into the overall nozzle design is therefore. [of great importance,

" tbe case of high bypass-ratio engines with separate exhi I.US •. S for core r nd fan jets, '_ wo separate reversers may be emp oyed as "I a .. ', , demons rated 'by the' General Electric C, 6 engine in the DC- 0


N orma,~ pos~tion

Fan flow


............ ';t.,





~ .-



Fiiig 1 ... 1'7' Thrust reverser operation of: turbofan with common exhaust nozzle I( Pratt & Wh itn ey TlF331 alrcratt lockheed C-141 Starl ifte r)

I )

I j

-._-- __

Flgi 7, ... '18 Th rust reve rser for core en 9 i ne flow of a h fg h bypass-ratio eng ine (Gener al E lectri c C FIB)

transport aircraft (Fi,g 7 .... 18).. In their retracted position, core reverser cascades are covered b"y a shroud that aligns with the duct. Reverser action is achieved by sliding the shroud backward and then swinging cascades into the jet flow by means of a spindle drive, TID1,e cascade material is heat resistant Inconel 71.8,; that of '[11,e shroud lightweight

'. .


Reversing a, fan jet is accomplished by cascades arranged as single elements around the engine circumference. In their retracted position they' ,are' shrouded on bo .. h sides wn. order not to disturb tile interior and. exterior flows (Fi:g 7~19).. A]1. components must fi tightly to prevent flow leakage in their stowed position which would otherwise cause aerodynamic drag. The shroud, together with the rear nacelle, forms the (convergent) nozzle for '. <he fan jet, When extended into the reverse position, the cascade shroud will first slide backwards before' the ~,6 individual blocker doors swing illto the fan nozzle duct and direct the fan flow through the fixed cascades, T11e shape of the grid. turns the flow to exit in a forward direction so' providing reverse thrust, TIle process of acti : ating reverse 'I hrust takes 2 seconds, which is a good

17:· ,0 •• ···· Jet Eng'iiln·· ·9· 'S··

.' I.. _.!i .!I.: .~~" I.: <.)

fiig 7'~2'1 On icy runways: Vigglen!'s thrust reve rse r !p r'OV'8S useful. Three impin~~iing plates are hydraulicallv opera ed, Actuators must be cooled" 'with a;ir ex it hO'I es 'V lsi b le

Cowll of: caire engliin·e



~ .

~ ... : .... : .

,Fi'g 7, ... 19 Thrust reverser for fan flow· of a high bypass-ratio enqine, After trans~ating cowl backwards, How gluidillg cascades for' reverse operation are exposed (Gi'e!neral Electric ICF61 aircraft McDonnell Douqlas DC-1 0)

1 .' h h"" '" .~ d O· 1 "I 't d 1 ..

. • T .. , ... , . ., .. 1-·· 'I·' ..' ,.'. ·····1 .' .. , ." ,.. ..... ... , i, ..

va ue given the mac nnery mvorvec .. n the otner nanu a onger trme

would be unacceptable for the task required ..

'Generally, thrust reversers are employed only with. subsonic transport aircraft for reducing their landing run. Supersonic combat aircraf employ braking chutes for the same purpose, or simply rely 0·1 wheel braking. The major reason that precludes thrust reversers being used on combat aircraft are weight and the space needed for "the construetion .. , 011C exception to this rule 'is the Swedish Viggen, a veteran combat aircraft of the early seventies, but a good examp e of integrating a thrust reverser with an ejector nozzle.

In. the retracted position, three thrust reverser plates are integrated into, and form part of, Ute ejector nozzle wall, The thrus reve rser is activated by undercarriage compression ... Activation is by hydraulic jacks which have I 0' be cooled, because' they operate close to the 110t

exhaus ri ii[pa· 'i[! it" t" re'~1 ." ~ .-

!l;..iA ,."', .Ii.,] _ ,e- 10' iij, . 1it1l11l '.

F:ig 7'..,2:0 I n ·tt her r retracted posi tion, "impiingIng plates are flush with nozzle (SAAB V'i9gen)

, ,



IRiing t' retracted

. m extendedl



......... ~-~

-.~ .... ~ ...

. 1



Fi!g 7-,22 Us~ng the ejsctor nozzle for reverse thrust (Viggen)

EX.h,8USt nozz.e 1173

The function of th,e ejector nozzle slot is twofold:

at take-off and during S:UbSOll~C flight, tertiary' air ills ill geste d. through the slot to provide thrust augmentation (Fi .. g 7-.2.2 top)

after touch-down all of the jet flow exhausts through the slot (Fig 7,-,22:, bottom); the rounding of the fuselage contour also assists the reversedjet remaining attached to' the fuselage (Coanda effect)

ni 8l1perSOI1:1ic flight with reheat on, the ejector nozzle slot .is closed, by a ring-shaped cover sheet that extends from the fuse age to slide over the slot (Fig 7'-2.2, centre)

Ad d~fii,ona'il Iii" I .

Iintake' 'fllow' '\

.;Ji!Ii'" --~

,./ /

,/ /

/ I






\ "

! ....

~ - ~ 101ft d ~ ..... '

\ ,Add ifbg.ru~IJ I r I ':_ ec:rea.SIIIll gl .

, ' ._


- II

'~-- ... \~

."'!IiiII =1" ~

I '

F~g '7-,2:3 Effect of reversed let on 'Vi',ggen aircrsft at high and ~ow aircraft ground velocity

An .. aircraft is inherently not well suited to reverse thrust operation.

If a deci sion is, made 1o.r a reverser, possible unfavourable effects have to b e consid ered In' th P c .as . 0" f th e' Viggen ai rcraft fo ""r ex am' iple : h e

.0 ... '.' v'II_ '-'= ¥ ' ... ,. I '. 111;;..0 .. se .. ' _, . .!.'. "L_,~, ' ",wI, !t... ;" ,_I,' .• ~ ,._:_~,,", I, ~" ,'.

reversed jet, apart from its braking action, causes a zone of low' pressure on tile wing upper side immediately after touch-down, plus a marked ground vortex. Both phenomena cause a nose-down pitching moment which tends tiD lift the aircraft's tail (Fig 7 ... 23, top )," As a result, action of the wheel brakes is impaired through an effectively reduced aircraf weight and, additionally, the aircraft shows a tendency tOI leave track, Although the effect lasts only fO'f a couple ofseconds until speed has dropped to an uncritical value, the pilot has to be prepared for the occurrence. Thereafter, the resulting aerodynamic force of the reversed

jet on the airframe is moving forward, with the tail-down pitching moment low enough to; be easily' dealt with by the pilot (Fig 7'-23,y bottom), The hazard of ingesting the reversed hot jet through the main intake may be relieved by opening the primary nozzle so that the reversed jet ejects at a steeper angle,

Smart use of reverse . hrust will allow the aircraft even to f'loU. backward 1)-'0' f acilita te park 'ing o m limit ed ground CliP'iJI,.f"',Q (" as in 'p' iarkinz a car' ')'1

..•.. " .. _ ll,'.'., .11, .1Il.,. 'LA ',,'.£!Il. :.ill.1 "" I. ,W,lII,,1 .. ,IIl~ .. __ ,'.' '!'~':'''_ di,!~~V!l;,.; .. ,_J.Ji.l, ,",_ ., il. ,1'6 .•. ' _,I",

The different types of thrust reverser shown raises the question as ' .. 01 the essential requirements for thrust reverser design, ,A well-designed reverser should be capable of' reducing the aircraft" s landing fllD by at least 301 per cent, This requires 510 tOI 70 'per cent of max take-off thrust to be available for reverse. Forces resulting from reverse thrust must

b t '. d b tl t· .- '"" ." f," heth ·lL..

oe su s amee II_Y tne reverser cons .rucuon, irrespectrve 0 'W" et ier tne

reversed jet is hot or cold. Reverser structural weight must be low, When not ill use, the nozzle 'must not disturb the main flow; when in use, the reversed jet must not 'be allowed to enter the air' intake.

it . - to : . th - iC""" above t,iIl- e' engin e's

11. some cases 1,. IS necessary 10 increase '. JLlrU~Iu. aoove tn "'_,= ,I, '.~' s

normal thrust level, The reasons are as follows:

When taking-off from reduced-length runways, or 0'0 a hot day, a safe lift-off speed must be achievable, For combat aircraft, addition .. al thrust must be provided fCH,~ manoeuvring flight,

Higher thrust can readily b,e provided by more powerful engines.

However, for combat aircraft in. particular, heavier weight and shortperiod operation preclude installation of such engines, In. practice, thrust augmentation is accomplished by applying reheat which has become a characteristic feature of an supersonic aircraft. 111 civil aviation lVlater injection was, used. 'U'PI to the seventies t.OI increase take-off thrust, until the advent of high bypass-ratio turbofan engines, 'with

. h . ". 1·" . m... ._, '. t '" '., . " . " ", . ",,', d d tb -r ,:' ' • t h ',., Id b '" ~1. . t .

t,:· emf ,amp e. tUJ. us 1 eSrerves, ren.'.. ere .. _ . Ie fllC· . 0 .'. 0', S,O w,e _ e.,

R a: c· h", 19· .. ·· a',: ,if.

". . .. -1:. IL

A very effective and widely-used method of increasing thrust is by reheat 10'(' afterburning which. enables thrust to 'be raised by 5101 per cent. When the afterburner is. lit, its flame in. thejet exhaust becomes visible

Fiiig 8~,1 Heheat can increase thrust 'by.50 percent and more (IMG!Donn~111 Douglas F-4 combat aircratt powered bytwo General Electric ,J'?'9 turbojets

[FI'g 81""2 Basically! thrust auqmentatlon is, accomplished by a tube-like cornbustion chamber mounted aft. of the oJrlig~nal engine {Ge·nera! Electric J7'9)

and the noise gro s to '"'. alues 'ar beyond the already high noi se level of the dry engine,

With. the exception of the Concorde supersonic airliner, reheat is employed only by military supersonic aircraft. For combat aircraf reheat is of great importance nlDt only, fair example, to accelerate the aircraft quickly in the interdiction/strike role, but tOI escape safely from the combat arena if this is the 'better choice, A' iother reason tal equip (supersonic) aircraft with reheat is to reduce the take-off run,

Higher supersonic flight speeds became 'possible only with. reheat, Wh ill l: ,at first appli ed only to military aircraft, early attempts proved success,' ll.'~ also in the civil market, as shown by the Concorde and the thel~ So", iet .. , ll- 14'!, '. which is 110 longer flying), Noise regulations will probabl 'bar reheat front any future civil applications,

The technology of reheat makes use of the fact that the hot gas, after passing the turbine still contains sufficient quantities of oxygen to allowa second combustion given an appropriate injection offuel again, (It will oe recalled that 0111~ part of the air discbarged by' 'the ~Jo,mpr~s.sor is used for combustion .. , the greater proportion being used for ,·c.-·:o·: 0]1"'0' purp '0' s es )'

,111 .. , . _ ".' .. ., ,lILJI,~ .'. ,.,1: .. .: l. . ", r ••

By reheating th,lej~·· exhaust the flow attains a. higher level of energy a,rail~,blle for ex,pan~,i.o:n, in, . he exhaust nozzle. The I, esult is a higher exit velocity a. prerequisite ror achieving more thrust (as indicated by the moment ".' th, .... " ... f: ,eh , rter 2")'

ill'. ' .... J1 lUll .. e01rem, I~.' _ . apl 'er .. '

In .. principle, th afterburner is a tube-like structure attached to the gas" generator immedi tely behind the turbine, The forward part is I esigne . as a diffuser I i .. e. cross-section increasing) which lowers flow Machnumber from O~5 '.0 0.,2 to prevent the flame from being carried away by a. flow that is too fas ,I

Particularly notewor hy is tl e simple construction of the afterburner assembly which is comprised of only four major components F:'",Q' 18-3)1 ~

. ,~. '''. ~

Ttuust a: "ulg' m e- n" ta tion

. . '. .. :. :' . ~. " '.' I


Ilnl[; rea! e· of fllD'W to croes-seenon bJI reduce Mac'o number

V,ar'l[ajb,~e-geo'me'try exha.1LII st noezle

F,ilg 8-3 Typ i cal of atte rb u rne rs is a rre latrve I'Y str a i 9 htforward assern b Iy (schematic ol Volvo RIMI8 turbojet far the Viggen combat. aircraft)

flame tube

fuel injection system

flame holder asse m biy variable-geometry exl aust nozzle

One component, the Ie·. raust nozzle in its various types, has already been dealt with in the previous section. When afte rbu rning is not in operation the nozzle is configured to :its sma est. exit cross-section .. Should the exhaust nozzle accidentally open to full cross-section. pressure would immediately drop causing i hrust 01 collapse,

The central part. ofthe afterburner assembly is the afterburner duct where combustion takes place, Tille duct contains a number ,of . ieatresistant liners which are linked to the out er casing' tr rough tracks. and a. self-locking mechanism (F'i:g 8-4)., Because of the heat, multiple slots areprovided through which cooling air from the ,OO\V path between the casing and the flame tube is arranged to flow into the flame .' ube. " ·'s a precau ion against oxidation, the flame tube is ceramica y' I. oated .. At the downstream end of the flame tube' ""'. the' variable-geometry nozzle ..

or the pu rpose of adjusting nozzl e position, hydraulic ac uators are nounted on th,e' outer cas I ng,

A fuel injection system I separate from that ofthe engine" i.s employed to supply and distribute the reheat ' ue ,. Fuel is distributed through, I . anifolds to . pray bars \ r. hich extend radially' i l'.~. ard the fuel being sprayed in '01 the gas stream through a number of holes a .ranged [,0

id '. ~ ·

provideintense rmxmg.

One item not expressly mentioned in. the' list '01'. majo ~ components

but alwas s : 'isible on cutaways ,0'1 photos, 1:1. 'eds some explanation namely' the rear cone. Sha Jed as an elliptic axisymmetric bod' the rear

[Rear' cone



Flame ',older )

Reheal plipe

Exha,u.srl: nozz~e

fig 8t-'4 Afterburner assembly (General Electric JI]"9)

'T:hrust auqmentatlon 11'79

Fi 9 IB .. 5 Up st r earn view of afterburner of J79 turbo]s 1 with secondary nozzle in

fa f'leg fOU n d and p rirnary nozzle tnslde, both ully open

Fig] 8 ... 6 Fue~ injection system of General Electric J79 turbojet

Fig 8 .. 7 Fla.meholder mounted to rear cone; V-shaped cross-section of ttameholder nings to assure everss flow for 'flame stabilizing

cone serves many purposes, First, the gas flow from the turbine is a ey indrical shape which nust be gradually fitted to, occupy the ful] cross section of the afterbu rner flame tube ,: Ience, the task of' the rear cone is essentiallj of a fluid dynamic nature.

Secondly the rear cone acts as a supporti g structure to the spray 'bars (w hich are not [o.f a mechanically rugged construction),

Finally, tbe rear cone carries the flame holder, an., essential part in the a' erburner architecture. Becat se of the high i emperature in w hi ch

I'"t opera tes the rea I' CO·' In ' , 'I"'Ct ....... eramically co ated

. ,,_',. ·'l,,~ _,,' ..... ' ',.' ",li.i! ~ '.'. ,." ,C;I,. , . '. , V.,~

The Ilameholder is located dot nstream of the fuel iniection nozzles. Usually 1 .. is .. iade up of three concentric rings [of V -shaped crosssection. ' 'ven though the velocity of the gas stream has. been reduced 'by the diffuser-like entry section of tl e afterburner tube, flame propagation speed is still less than flow velocity; so the name would 'be car rjled away, It is the task of the V -section flameholder rings to generate eddies a d local re erse flo"ws where the flame can stably est" (Fig :8-5 The effectiveness [of afterburnir g is increased b using a coneentr c gr .. ' 'OiU' of flameho der ring' 's In ord er to prevent the b urner

'_ -. -' "[' • J 1 ,', . I ... ,' l' " , '_ ,Jill _,.... '. I, " '.., , " jJ.~ ... , . ~ . 1,,_.

b 11 ki he ri d

ii' ." '-'1' ,- (' ':." IT . :. _ '_, i " !" ., .' '. . '" _ . " "

ttl e rrom C oxmg _ ie 11] gs are staggeree ,,"'

Thrust auqrnentation 1811


Ai r' iln I eta

[ 198-8 Torch iig:niter (General EII€'ctJic J79)

The afterburner control mechanism is complex, comprising a SIP'" arate fuel system .' ,itll fuel pump, uel filter, and fuel control, pilus an ignition system, Igniting the afte .bumer is automatic once the pilot selects afterburner position at the throttle,

Despite the high temperature of the gas, ignition of th:e fuel/air mixture is usually ,11[0,'[ automatic of i tself, Willingness of the gas t!o ignite depends to some exten on flight altitude and ~ac~.numbe", T:o ensu Ie ignition under ,(j n. conditions an mdependent rgnr Ion source m

provided, '. ~ .,' ~

gni ion methods may differ, Early ell gme s 'ut~Jmze,d ' '~It, 8.'1I1,Ot

igni ion', by injecting' additional fuel into the comblustml~n chamber and 'behind, the turbine allowing the flame of the combustion chamber tiD penetrate through the turbine into the a· ~~r~u'rn.[e~r I ube. As 'tllr~'i~e b ades operate at their upper temperature limit this method, could be

used only for short periods, ... ~ _" r

A frequently used method tlO light he afterburner IS b,y a, t.or~,h ~:gnller

which is permanently burning whenever the a, Ierhurner IS In use

W -II ,.., ct·

arer Ilnjle':~/.liOn

Thrust auqmontation

182 .Jet E,ng~nes

(Fi:g ,8-18)~ By this method the afterburner is kept in permanent readi . ness to ignite, independent of altitude and. of Mach number,

The 'use of an afterburner cannot 'be viewed as economically advantageous, The increase in specific fuel consumption far outweighs the' gain in thrust. Fluid dynamic losses are imposed by the flameholder and the fuel injection tubes, and also by skin, friction, Even .if the flow were frictionless, a 10,s8 in total pressure would be incurred due t,o heating,

Nevertheless afterburning is considered. to 'be the only practicable method ofachieving high, and 'very high .. flight Mach numbers, Newer developments aim, at keeping the flame tube extremely short.

A H·=Om

~iiiiiiiiiiiiiIi____'_"""""""''''''''''''''''~ __ ''''''''''''··''-''..J e ..",.-- ....... ~."".. ~,

9000 .+! ~~~~~--=IiIf:=--_"""';;~~~-----'~~~____'"

:z 80010 ~~--~~~~~~~-~~~~~==i ,m '1l



'g '7'.500 ,~--~~~~:====-~:-==--~~~~-ill







1000 -db- ~--~~-~,,_,.,...-==-~~-~~-~=ill

This is. a method which was widely used in civil avia tion tLP to the seven, ... ties, but is now history, We will briefly look at the 'underlying: principle,

According to the theorem of momentum, thrust depends not only on the increase of airstream velocity but also, on mass flow rate (Chapter 2)~ As mass 'flow rate is. 'linked tlO air' density (mass --: density »: volume), a. variation of properties. of the air 'will cause thrust tOI be increased .,

According to the equation of state for an ideal gas:

-,~ 'p

p ~ Rt'

55,00 .,+- ............... .........,....-----,r----'iiiiiiiiiiiiiii+----"""!11'""""~-,--~-_""",~-"'""11

-310 -2,0 _'WO



,Ambile !iii I, te,mperll,tJUI~e,,, delgl~ C

111O! ao 310 40 50
.. with p density, t static temperature, p static pressure, R gas constarr density win, increase with pressure, but decrease 'with temperature", This explains why thrust is less at airports located high (low pressure), for example :in South America, or on hot days even at airports at sea level, Engine manufacturers take these effects into account 'mn their manuals

b ,. ~ h h ~ · functi

y giving tnrust characteristics as a i unction of ambient tempera: ure

(Fi,K 8 ... 9)" Graphs in general show loss of thrust with increase of temperature, ~IO'" ex .. ample, the Pratt & Whitney JT3'D-5 engine that, powered Boeing 7017 and Mcfzonnell Douglas DIC-8 transports, generates 90710 kgf (20,~OOO lb) of thrust at SH!'a level and '] s,oe temperature

(po ~ ... .. A···· )... but . . ~ .. 85··· 5· '0'1 ·k·· rf ('~I '0 ·8'·' '5·'0·· lb}: ·3· 0··· "C '. . . h

plomn_ .'~ ,"ll oruy .,', ..... g. \.JlO",_ r ,I., a. .11.. temperature Ion the

same airport, a deficit of 6 per cent in otherwise identical conditions .. As a result, either the take ... off run will have t,o, 'be increased, or the payload of the aircraft lowered, to accommodate the unfavourable temperature or altitude effects.

Now for the 'water injection method to increase thrust:

The temperature of the engine airflow can 'hle lowered by injecting water upstream of the compressor, As. the water vaporizes, tempera-

Fi 9 ,8.91 Statl c thrust characte ri sti cs - effect of wate r i njl8 ction (Pratt & Wh ~tn ey JT'3 D-S, typ i ea.1 'I: ow' byp ass- ratio tu r boff an usee for trans po rt ai rc ra ft of the sixties)

.' ~I d m d ~ h ., h ., 11 d '. 'n!

ture ·W1Jll •. rop causing density, renee mass, to increase, which directly

provides additional thrus •• · due to increased mass, flow rate,

'Witll. the advent. of high bypass-ratio engines, and their large amounts of take-off thrust" water injection 'was superseded 'by techno es logical progress. But illt constituted an interesting episode in. the quest for higher thrust.

IF'us I dral n Fi~tter

M,8stelr actuator Mai n ,engiine control Fue~ pump

Quick ~t1tach/detach Lube, pump

M al,gnetic eh ip deiE etor

Engine systems


J .' •



,M e lectri c system

,A, cooling and, sealing air system, A display system.

In, addition, 10' her systems may also be installed depending on the

type of engine and aircraft, such as:

A thrust reverser system A fire protection system A. de-icing system,

Systems pertaining particu a .. ty to supersonic aircraft are; - An afterburner fuel system

,A. nozzle area control system

An air-ill take' control system".

Accessories and engine systems. are indispensable devices to make the engine function properly, They' are usually mounted at the perimeter of the engine and occupy the space between engine casing and, nacelle (Fig 9~1)~

'W'e know from. a car engine that it can only perform properly ifthe fuel pump delivers sufficient fuel, the carburettor is properly adjusted, and, the ignition provides sparks at correct times, A, turbine engine functions in much the same manner, with the added requirement for high component reliability in order to ensure flight safety,

A system is defined as. an, integrated entity made 'u,p of diverse parts that fr notion together to perform a required task. , 'ora turbine engine the following major systems are essen' ial:

A fuel system

A ~u brication system - A starter system

9··,,'."'11 IC'-u-Ie:,:'ll system

II r .... s=» I

It is the task of the fuel system to supply the engine with the required amo-unt of fuel, suitably processed for orderly combustion, for 3J_lY operating condition such as starting-up, acceleration, cruising flight at altitude, rap rid climb to altitude etc,

-.J.'i' I,

In general, the fuel system, comprises at fuel supply system, a fuel

control system and relevant. 'valves and piping. ,A, distinction is made

b ,t "' .. ' the ~ ~~-, '0 . - ilied ~ , td th .. ' , ' lied ','" ',', ,"-,' ,- ts of,

e ween e OtYj,tl111£;=''sUPP, te an:' e engme-suppue component, '.'

the fuel system. The airframe-supplied parts consists of fuel tanks, fuel PU,111.P'S, and devices to indicate and, command engine operation such as instrumentation and control levers (Fig: 9 ... 2)~ The engine-supplied part of the rtU!:~, control system consists of fuel pumps, the fuel control

b d- , '.

':,' , ',':' ", "'I " "I:'.., '-' .. '," ",' I"" '.''',

system, I mrners an piping,

Fuel is con ... eyed" from tanks to the engine by suitable pumps (fuel boost pumps) which are electrically ... driven to provide a low-pressure fuel flow for the engine-supplied fuel system, Fuel pressure is in the range of 1. to' 2~5 bar (14 to! 35 psi}. On r s way to the engine the fuel is filtered ... ~ uel flow is measured by a, fuel flowmeter, its reading being indicated on the cockpit instrument panel.

After fuel is pumped into the engine-supplied fuel system, pressure will be markedly inc ~Ie'asled,. High, pressure of the fuel is necessary to achieve adequate fuel spray quality from the spray nozzles in the combustion chamber. Pressure is increased in two steps:

A low-pressure fuel pUD11p raises fuel pressure up to 7 bar (100 psi),

flg 9-11 Ace sss 0 des {G e n e ra II E~ e ct ~'i c C F6,)

Pfi€'~s.ur8 I switr;h

Corjktp.ij~ '~llowmeter gl91uge

'E '

nqme systems


186 .Jot Enqinos


Plres:slllul:zlfillg :aJlld dlu llIm,p 'v,a.lv.e

If'uel ~nllet

PUlm'p driive


ulL ..

II ~ I I I ~


L," I

, ,I

!L@'"IW IPlli'eSSUllfe, 'mu~:eflf

Axial piston fuel pumps,

In the high pressure section of the fuel system" plunger-type fuel pumps acre used .. Such pumps convert the rotary motion of an ,inp·'ut shaft into axial reciprocating motion of pistons (Fi'g 9'-3)~

'Power to operate the pump is provided directly' from the engine,

"h hth b T'h .. , f f 1 - ed deoend

,", " "" " ", " :,' ,,' ' , " " , " '.,' I' I:" I - "'I " -" " , I " , "

t .. lOUg .. ,_, the ,a,ccessory g,eariox. ' , Ie quantity '0.1. ,ue pllmpe"epeo",'s

on, engine rpm and piSt011 stroke, Typical quantities. are in, the range of

40"""0"'" to ,8<' 010'10 Iitres per '}']O':'U1"" (' iIll 0',5"" t' '0", 2" '[I 3':,",01 'g', allons/h ')" ~I'fr :8" m'-- 'a" ximum

" '", "T / ,~"I ' '_ i;,J""",I, ,.I., '- ,.J. ill" ", e- ;; ",,' ' .. W '" , !ill " , iU"I!." Ii! .A,Ii .. ll,_" ,

pressure of ~ 401 bar ('I, ~960 psi) .. The power requirement for driving the pump is 'up to 801 11,p'.,

'., • • m l-ll I" h d bv rotati t"'"

Reciproca tmg motion rs usua J,Y accomplis ted by rotation 0,'1 an

angled cam plate, As the plate rotates" the pistons reciprocate, taking in fuel when moving away from the inlet ports, and expelling it when pushed fo ward by the angled C,alTI plate, The length of stroke varies 'with cam plate inclination which is controlled by a servo piston, biased by springs to give the full stroke positi 011 ofthe phmgers, As this, piston is subjected 110 servo, pressure 0]] the spring side, and pump delivery pressure on the other, variations in the pressure equilibrium cause the servo piston to move" thus altering cam plate inclination and therefore pump stroke,

lEimli1jie~efil'l!::,Y .. Wwtel:e;.'!u!t:·off:

IFilQI 9L,.,,2 Fuel system of turbofan enQline 01 the sixties (Pratt & WhitnB'Y JT3D)

,9~, 1.., 1 Fu"~1 pumps

The supply of fuel from t ie 'wing fuel tanks is accomplished by ]OW~ pressure pumps which are electrically-operated land run at high rotational speed. Such pumps function like ia radial compressor and

work .. '?'(:II an u 1··'WI·1(iIr1~1f"'C1·~,o .: In'-' 'p"um-;"p-":'

. ... UIL). ,. .l!.JULlL.lILh'Ii;;;,o,J[ L:IIll ., I, I, . . I ....;to

IiI the engine-supplied fuel system, tW'IO types, of pumps are used to provide high-pressu ~e fuel flow: axial piston fuel pumps for very high pressure, and gear-type fuel pumps for' ow pressure,

Gear' pumps

Gear-on ... gear pumps consist of two gears, usually of equal size" that mesh with each other inside a housing (Fig 94, ),., Rotation of the driving gear rotates the second gear .. F'lH!'] ts conveyed in the space 'between teeth. A safety 'valve allows. excess fuel to return if delivery pressure

d m· '. '. .' '1 d

"" ,"iII"'" co_-, 'I ',: 1"",: ' " " '.1 ,- , ",.-, .. , ,--

excee sa, umung spring oa' _'I

:. ::.'







, ." . .

OVellrpreS;IUl'le v,alv'e


lation, more information to the' fue .. control unit is needed, which may comprise the following list of input parameters:

I Control lever position as input from pilot

2 State variables of intake discharge a ~ rflow, i.e. compressor inlet temperature t., compressor inlet pressure Pit

3 Rotational speed of all rotors

4 Rate of change IO.f rotational speed,

(Note: to prevent the compressor from surging" acceleration of the engine 'must comply with the operatin .. g instructions given by the manufacturer, which. must be independent of power lever movements by the pilot.)

.5 Compressor discharge pressure of the high ... pressure compressor 6 Engine pressure ratio (EPR)" i.e, Pt7lPa

7 Burner pressure

8 Turbine inlet temperature (TIT) ofthe high-pressure turbine, or alternatively: .

. Exhaust gas, temperature (E,GT)

(Note: although blade wear is largely' affected by turbine inlet temperature, it is easier to measure exhaust gas temperature, which is related to TIT, . .)

The classical fue] control units are hydromechanical devices ..

Modern units are "full authority digital electronic control' units (F.AD.EC) 'which incorporate multi ple control tasks.

Engine control requires a primary COII1.trOII parameter to be selected.

In modern high. bypass-ratio engines such ,as the CF6, rotational speed of the high ... pressure compressor (Nz) is the' preferred choice,

Engine control is accomplished 'by' keeping N2 speed constant for a selected 'throttle lever posi tion (i. e ~ high -pres sure rotor), regardle SSt 10 f varying ambient. conditions. Control of the .moW-pres8u.r1e- rotor (comprising fan, low-pressure compressor and .. low-pressure turbine) is through aerodyn . amic coupling to the high-pressure rotor ..

The advantages ofusing the N2 parameter for control are that:

rotational speed can. easily be measured

measurement is independent of aircraft altitude or engine operating condition

accuracy of measuremen t 'is go old.

ro: .ational speed is a good indicator of thrust (which cannot itself be measured in. flight)

Fig 9-4. Gear-type- ·ff·u-e·1 pump

'The advantage of gear pumps is their Iow weight and high delivery rate, Gear pumps are osed in the en .. gine-supplied fuel system,

9~ '1 ~2 Fu·e1.1 controi uait

Engine control is a ,DC 0 mp ished 'by' varying the fuel flow to the injection nozzles T' '0-'-' 0' bta '~n-c increa se d· thrust f' u ""1 pre ss ure ·1·S·' fir st in crea s·'e'·d:

.... , '. L..JL,LiL'l. "'.' .- ~ ~ ~ '-", .. ~r _, . 1lU1i~'l .. " _'. , ,····L.' .'" ~"'" ,~l !.Ji1 . .IIL .V.w.,I~, .1 · '

so, that JI10re fuel can be injected The resul till g' increase in gas temper-

ature wil] also increase the gas velocity through. the turbine section. The ensuing increase in tu 'bine speed \A~iU. increase the engine mass flow rate and .. hence the thrust,

The interrelation offuel injected and thrust generated is complicated by atmospheric conditions, in particular variations in temperature and pressure -e- Both result in variations of density 'which directly affects thrust.

It is the task of the fuel control unit to provide the engine with fuel ill. a form suitable for combustion, in all atmospheric conditions, so that a preselected thrust level call 'be maintained ..

This is different from a, car engine where the driver directly controls engine power with the throttle pedal. In a turbine engine, the pilot indirectly commands engine thrust 'by at. throttle lever position which acts as a signal to 'the fuel control unit ... : ue control then . calculates the required fuel flow, taking into account various critical parameters, and adjusting finer flow to the engine in a way such that neither overheating nor engine stall will occur, In order to 'be able tlO accomplish tills ca cu ...

Low bypass-ratio engines (and early pure jet engines) use engine (total) pressure ratio plt9/Pt2 (usually abbreviated EPR) as. the primary

controlparameter, This parameter is also a reliable indicator of thrust, 'W iieh may be tho ught ofas the product ofpressure and cross-sectio ial area, The major disadvantage of using the EPR parameter is that pressures cannot be measured as exactly as rotational speed ..

- .... though 'basically applicable to high bypass-ratio engines, the ' 'PR method would in. fact 'be -_, ore complex there, because the thrust both. of thee: fan. and the core engine streams wo u .d have to be calculated separately ..

The operational experience of : he airlines led tlO' the formulation of requirements for a " odern control system .. Additionally tOI providing engine control such an advanced control unit should incorporate a central computer capable of the following tasks:

.1 tal perform power control modes, ,at east fOT' critical cases such as take-off, maximum climb, maximum cruise;

2 to harmonize engine thrust on multi-engine ai .craft SIO that individualengine thrust should not deviate more than +'101.,20/0' from a preselected average, independen of flight speed, altitude and aircraft attitude;

3 to a,UIOW either constant engine rotational speed or constani flight speed tOI 'be selected as the prime COl.'" roc parameter at the ,'r seretion of 'the pilot;

4 to 'be of modular const uction to facilitate easy replacement of fau ty components, or ofthe complete unit, in Jess than one hour; 5 ease iof accessibility after opening the engine cowling.

For the control ask itself, the fo lowing requiremerr s were established:

a) engine spooling-up from flight-idle to max take-off thrust in. less thanS seconds, at flight speeds below 27,0 km/h (l4-5 knots), This case is important for go-around or missed approach si nations ..

b) time between max take ... off thrust to max re '. erse in less than. 6 seconds, which is important for abor led '. ake '-0 ff

c) time between flight-idle thrust to max ]fl_ verse thrust in mess than .5 seconds, whic pertains to daily operating practice,

T,'- ese requirements were estab ished in. the seventies tor a future control uni ~ Today with full authority digital engine control (FAD L C) the common practice 011 modern engines, these requirements are met,

,9,. 1,.,3 ~pra:y noznes

Last] II the functional chain 0/'. the fuel system spray nozzles (burners) have the task of processing f-uel ill at way such' hat efficient burning is accompli :~, 'led, A .. prerequisite for achieving a homogeneous fuel/air mixture for burning is vaporization of the ':uem,,:~olllolw'le\d by intense mixing of the fuel vapor with the airstream f om the compressor. The

Engine systems

- '9"1


,Ai I110w' 1101 IP,r'9veml't earee III form'alion over or-fice

Ta ng)enlia~ holes


S'wirili chamlbe:r

length of t he combustion chamber is determined. bly this process.

Basically. vaporiza ion is achieved by passing the fuel into a swirl chamber where . angentially arranged holes ",: ipar swirl tOI 'the fue particles These hen emerg e from the spray nozz e not on Y' in an axial

(: 'f!"" '. '_,'=.' _.',!Il ~ .~~ .. _. •. .• '. '. '". " . . " . . '. . ~ . , . [ " . . ..•. .,

but also in a lateral direction by virtue ,0' centrifugal forces from the swirl, forming a typica spray cone.

This method was first used in Simplex burners of early jet engines (F·g 9~5) .. Operation was satisfactory at high fuel flow ra es and righ preSSID.J1re,. At low fue pressure, and at 'high altitudes, with the engine running ,at low' plower, the shape of the spray leone W,a!S inadcq urate for burning fuel efficiently, The reason was that fuel flow rate increases with the square of fuel pressure .. Therefore optimizing spray nozzles for low pressure fuel flo,"]' would have required an enormous fuel pressure for high fuel flow ra es, which could not be provided by pump

technology in. those early years. ,

A more satisfactory operation is achieved 'with a Duplex burner featuring tWOI separate fuel feeds and separate coaxial nozzle' exits (Fig 91-6)~ At low fuel pressure fuel is ejected only from the smaller primary nozzle, which provides good vaporization through a better match of' low fuel pressure an.d, size of ori fice. As fuel pressure is increased, a 'P' I eSSU.f1e operated va 'fie P .. ogressively admits fue] to the main fuel supply U.11.e" resul ting in a second spray cone which tho m issues from the main nozzle,

9'~ 1.4 Jet eln,ginlB tuels .

Unlike a high-performance piston engi ie i ha I will not ope - ate prop-

erly if s rviced with . ow-oct: IDe fuel, a gas urbine engineis ~'uch m.?'rre toleran of fuel quality .. 'uels must however, cor fo ~"-, to stnet reqt rrements to give optini LIn, engine operating' performance,

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