Governor Robert Bradford of Massachusetts set down these attributes for a successful politician: "To live long in politics, you

must possess the hide of a rhinoceros, the memory of an elephant, the persistence of a beaver, the native friendliness of a mongrel pup. You need the heart of a lion and the stomach of an ostrich. And it helps to have the humor and ubiquity of the crow. But all of these combined are not enough, unless when it comes to matters of principle, you also have the stubbornness of an army mule." What You must possess the Hide of a rhinoceros They are 11.7-16 feet long and 52-78 inches tall at the shoulder. Weights range from 5,060-7920 pounds. They are almost twice as large as the black rhino. They differ from the black rhino not only in the shape of the upper lip but also in having a more sloping forehead, a shoulder hump and less conspicuous skin folds. Their head is massive. They have no hair on the body except for ear fringes and tail bristles. The front horn averages 29 inches in length but may grow up to almost 5 feet. Female and sub adult individuals are rarely solitary. A single calf is born after a 16-month gestation and weighs 110 pounds. It nurses for an over a year. A rhino’s skin is .5-.75 inches thick. Different species display different fold patterns. The skin of white and black rhinos looks crinkly and leathery, but feels soft. The skin of a rhino can be compared to the strength of a steel belted car tire. Memory of an elephant INTELLIGENCE The elephant is a most fascinating animal with the largest brain of all land mammals. Captive elephants have been known to stuff the bells around their neck with mud in order to silence them before going out to steal bananas. In the wild, they give many other signs of high intelligence. For example, the matriarch will lead the family unit back to a water hole she may have not visited for 20 years. They may use a branch to scratch themselves. Much of their behavior is learned. It was estimated that a female would have to know the contact calls of at least 14 family units or, 100 adult females, which would be the mean family group number. Female elephants thus appear to have unusually extensive networks of vocal recognition that are comparable to, or better than, human memory and social recognition of friends. Females communicate on infrasonic frequencies of 15 – 35 Hz. The lower frequency calls, used for contact communication, have a mean peak of 21 Hz and last for 4 – 5 seconds. These calls are used to stay in contact when they are visually separated. Persistence of a beaver It would be hard to describe a beaver as intelligent. "Plodding" and "dogged" spring more quickly to mind. Beavers have a single-minded determination to do what beavers do, and they figure out ways to get it done. There is some ingenuity, but mostly it's persistence. A beaver has to chew. Their four front gnawing teeth constantly grow, and they must wear them down by chewing. The outer part of the gnawing tooth is a hard, bright orange enamel, while the inner part is softer and wears away quicker, giving the tooth a chisel-shape. Lower teeth work against the uppers, a self-sharpening feature. An adult beaver can weigh from 40 to 60 pounds, largest

of North American rodents. Missouri claims one of the largest beavers ever caught, an animal of nearly 100 pounds caught in 1960, but a Wisconsin trapper caught one in 1921 that weighed 110 pounds. The native friendliness of a mongrel pup “Mutt” puppies possess a friendlessness that is ever forgiving and always playful. Heart of a lion– the lion, even when attacked will not give up, will not shut down he will continue to fight as long as there is a fight in him. The stomach of an ostrich Ostrich, like all ratites, are flightless, although they do possess wings. The ostrich has a large breast plate that covers the thoracic area and protects the heart and liver. There is no keel and thus, no location for the attachment of flight muscles. The heart, lungs and liver are in the thoracic cavity. The ostrich does not have a gall bladder or crop but instead has a glandular stomach called a proventricculus. This stomach empties into a muscular stomach called the ventriculus. The ventriculus contains grit, rocks and other material that helps break down food and allows it to pass into the small intestine. Because the intestine of the ostrich is abnormally long, the amount of time necessary for food to pass thorough it is also long (36 hours). As in most birds, ostrich posses a cloaca which is a common site for excretion by the urinary tract and the digestive tract Humor and ubiquity of the crow able to be in many places seemly at the same time. Stubbornness of an army mule There is no more useful or willing animal than the Mule. And perhaps there is no other animal so much abused, or so little cared for. Popular opinion of his nature has not been favorable; and he has had to plod and work through life against the prejudices of the ignorant. Still, he has been the great friend of man, in war and in peace serving him well and faithfully. If he could tell man what he most needed it would be kind treatment. We all know how much can be done to improve the condition and advance the comfort of this animal; and he is a true friend of humanity who does what he can for his benefit. My object in writing this book was to do what I could toward working out a much needed reform in the breeding, care, and treatment of these animals. Let me ask that what I have said in regard to the value of kind treatment be carefully read and followed. I have had thirty years' experience in the use of this animal, and during that time have made his nature a study. The result of that study is, that humanity as well as economy will be best served by kindness.