Study Guide for Exam 5

True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. Ependymal cells engulf and destroy microbes and cellular debris in inflamed or degenerating brain

tissue.
2. Most injuries to the brain and spinal cord cause permanent damage. 3. The sensory fibers from the skin generally conduct impulses up to about 130 meters per second. 4. A neurotransmitter can be excitatory or inhibitory, not both. 5. A neurotransmitter can be either excitatory or inhibitory depending on the postsynaptic receptor. 6. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine always has an excitatory effect. 7. Enkephalins and endorphins are subclasses of amines that are pain relievers. 8. Seizures, headaches, or neurological deficits may be indicative of astrocytoma. 9. Multiple neurofibromatosis starts as small nodules in the Schwann cells of nerve fibers and can

spread throughout the body.
____ 10. Once repolarization has occurred, an impulse can now be conducted. ____ 11. Glutamate is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. ____ 12. When ³central´ and ³peripheral´ are used as directional terms in the nervous system, a nerve fiber

may be called peripheral if it extends from the cell body toward the central nervous system.
____ 13. Oligodendrocytes are found only around dendrites of neurons of the central nervous system. ____ 14. Gray fibers probably do not have nodes of Ranvier. ____ 15. An electrical synapse occurs when a strong action potential is able to arc across a small synaptic

cleft.
____ 16. The neuron is able to maintain an internal negative charge by pumping out sodium (

) and

pumping in chlorine (

).

____ 17. Besides providing protection, the cerebrospinal fluid can influence the respiratory center. ____ 18. The spinal cord completely fills the spinal cavity in the vertebrae. ____ 19. Funiculi consist of tracts divided into smaller bundles called nerve fibers. ____ 20. Peripheral sensory neuron cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal nerves. ____ 21. The primary motor area, located in the precentral gyrus, is thought to activate individual muscles in

the hands and feet.
____ 22. Formation of the cerebrospinal fluid occurs mainly in the choroid plexus. ____ 23. The lateral ventricles are located within the cerebellum.

____ 24. sympathetic and efferent nervous systems. The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to the 5 lumbar vertebra. Schwann cells. the sodium channels are inactivated. d. The ³tree of life´ (arbor vitae) is found in the cerebellum. a resting potential exists. ____ 32. The dorsal root ganglion consists of cell bodies of unipolar sensory neurons. The myelin sheath is formed by: a. d. and the pia mater attaches the brain tissue. ____ 27. c. The first event to occur when an adequate stimulus is applied to a neuron is: a. sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. ____ 25. ____ 28. d. Which is not true of the myelin sheath? a. the potassium channels open. macroneurium. c. The outside of the plasma membrane is negatively charged. It is associated with white fibers in the brain. peripheral and afferent nervous systems. ____ 36. the membrane potential moves immediately to 30 mV. . The plasma membrane is impermeable to and ions. c. ____ 26. endoneurium. ions move extracellularly. The dura mater is the periosteum of the cranial bones. some of the sodium channels at the point of stimulation open. b. ____ 34. It covers cell bodies in the brain and spinal cord. Fascicles are held together by a connective tissue layer called the: a. neuron cell bodies. The autonomic nervous system consists of the: a. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 37. Nissl bodies. brain waves are consistent in various parts of the brain. d. d. The pyramids are two bulges of white matter on the ventral surface of the pons. ____ 33. The charges become equal on the outside and inside of the plasma membrane. and the inside is positively charged. ____ 35. perineurium. the action potential cannot be initiated. b. nodes of Ranvier. d. ____ 29. b. c. ____ 31. parasympathetic and somatic nervous systems. epineurium. Each white column in the spinal cord consists of large numbers of cell bodies divided into smaller th bundles called tracts. c. ____ 30. b. During a relative refractory period: a. Which is true of an action potential? a. c. It is important for nerve impulse conduction. In one individual. b. b. It is destroyed in multiple sclerosis. b.

c. b. b. c. ____ 47. according to direction of information flow. The spinal cord does not completely fill the spinal cavity. Diameter d. Almost 100 times faster d. ____ 43. c. b. None of the above ____ 41. b. ipsilateral neuron. Interneurons reside: a. Oligodendrocytes c. d. ____ 39. ____ 44. a. Microglia b. by control of effectors. All of the above The other term for cell body is: a. changes in the length or duration of the action potential. ____ 48. Which of the following is not true? a. the frequency of nerve impulses. Both B and C In a three-neuron reflex arc. in the peripheral nervous system only. telodendria. d. The fastest nerve fibers in the body can conduct an impulse that is how much faster than the slowest fibers in the body? a. interneuron. reflex activity only. both reflex activity and sensation related to that pathway. ____ 45. Astrocytes d. b. d. . c. Nissl body. Ependymal cells Which of the following is not a factor in the velocity of nerve impulse conduction? a. Amino acids b. Which of the following is not one of the main chemical classes of neurotransmitters? a. d. Almost 500 times faster The nervous system can be divided: a. an increase in the number of opening sodium channels. perikaryon. the action potential can be initiated with a strong stimulus. d. c. d. Almost 300 times faster b. sensory perception related to that pathway. d. efferent neuron. If the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal nerve were destroyed. ____ 38. Schwann cells have a similar function in the peripheral nervous system as these cells have in the ____ 42. willed movement related to the pathway. c. changes in the magnitude of the action potential. ____ 46. axon hillock. Triglycerides c. Whether it is myelinated or not b. the cell membrane is impermeable to and . Amines d. Neuropeptides ____ 40. Almost 50 times faster c. in the CNS only. a person would lose: a. coding for the strength of a stimulus is accomplished through: a. Length c.c. in the CNS and peripheral nervous system. the afferent neurons synapse with the: a. central nervous system. contralateral neuron. according to its structure. Within the nervous system. b. related to that pathway.

skeletal muscle. cerebral hemispheres. ____ 57. central sulcus. The cauda equine d. thalamus d. longitudinal fissure. sensory receptors. 20% c. basal ganglia. b. arachnoid membrane. d. c. symmetrical halves.b. the reticular activating system. Frontal b. b. cerebellum b. None of the above A way to distinguish between the anterior and posterior part of the spinal cord is: a. the dura mater is thickest on the posterior side. a. c. The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to the first lumbar vertebra. All of the above are part of the spinal cord. Broca¶s area. Both A and B are correct. arbor vitae. All of the above are involved in language function. the insula. ____ 53. Several ³vital centers´ are located in the: a. The corpus callosum connects the: a. ____ 51. ____ 56. that amount would be what percent of the cerebrospinal fluid? a. d. c. 5% b. pia mater. d. medulla. d. The part of the cerebrum integral to articulating words is: a. cerebrum. Temporal d. hippocampus. c. b. c. d. mammillary body. . 10% d. ____ 50. The conus medullaris c. b. Axons from the gray horns of the spinal cord terminate in: a. The spinal cord has anterior and posterior grooves that almost divide the cord into ____ 49. The central section of the cerebellum is called the: a. d. the anterior fissure is deeper and wider than the posterior fissure. the cerebral cortex. ____ 55. central sulcus. ____ 59. If a person received a lumbar puncture that removed 15 ml of cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal cord. Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is not involved in the language function? a. dura mater. One bundle of nerve fibers (nerve roots) projects from each side of the spinal cord. ____ 58. pons c. ____ 54. c. c. b. the limbic system. vermis. d. Occipital c. ____ 52. the posterior fissure is deeper and wider than the anterior fissure. b. The gray commissure b. hypothalamus The layer of the meninges that adheres to the outer surface of the brain is the: a. 25% Which of the following structures is not part of the spinal cord? a. cerebellum. c. b. Impulses from the ____ play a part in arousing or alerting the cerebrum.

Gyri d. 70. Cerebrum Matching Match the neurotransmitters listed with their chemical classification. 68. 78. Neuropeptides ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 61. Longitudinal fissure e. Fissure b. Central sulcus c. Midbrain c. Sulci g. The corpora quadrigemina is a landmark of this part of the central nervous system. 75. 74. 73. a. 72. Amines d. Cerebellum d. 64.____ 60. 76. Parietooccipital sulcus ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 71. Lateral fissure f. serotonin endorphins glutamate epinephrine acetylcholine substance P histamine glycine dopamine cholecystokinin Match the landmarks of the brain with their description or location. 63. 79. Acetylcholine c. Amino acids b. 62. 77. 69. a. 66. 80. 65. frontal lobe lies in front of this groove groove that separates the occipital lobe and parietal lobe general term for a convolution or raised area on the cortex the deepest groove in the cerebrum the island of Reil lies deep in this fissure general term for a shallow groove in the cortex parietal lobe lies behind this groove divides the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres general term for a deep groove in the cortex the deep groove above the temporal lobe . 67. Hypothalamus b. a.

ANS: TOP: 15. ANS: TOP: 21. ANS: TOP: 2. ANS: REF: 12. ANS: REF: 14. ANS: REF: 9. ANS: REF: 10. ANS: TOP: 6. ANS: REF: 17. ANS: REF: 3. ANS: REF: 4. ANS: REF: 7. ANS: REF: F PTS: 1 DIF: Synthesis REF: Page 443 Repair of Nerve Fibers T PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 443 TOP: Repair of Nerve Fibers F PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 449 TOP: Conduction of the Action Potential F PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: Page 456 | Page 457 Classification of Neurotransmitters T PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: Page 456 Classification of Neurotransmitters F PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 456 TOP: Acetylcholine F PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: Page 461 Neuropeptides T PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 463 TOP: Mechanisms of Disease T PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 464 TOP: Mechanisms of Disease T PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 448 TOP: Action Potential T PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 459 TOP: Amino Acids F PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 432 TOP: Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems F PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 434 TOP: Glia T PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: Page 434 Glia F PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 450 | Page 451 TOP: Types of Synapses F PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 445 | Page 446 TOP: Resting Membrane Potential T PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 475 TOP: Cerebrospinal Fluid F PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 478 TOP: Structure of the Spinal Cord F PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 478 | Page 479 TOP: Structure of the Spinal Cord T PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: Page 478 | Page 479 Structure of the Spinal Cord T PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 495 TOP: Motor Functions of the Cortex . ANS: TOP: 5. ANS: REF: 20. ANS: REF: 11. ANS: REF: 13. ANS: REF: 16. ANS: TOP: 8. ANS: REF: 18.Study Guide for Exam 5 Answer Section TRUE/FALSE 1. ANS: REF: 19.

ANS: REF: 38. ANS: B PTS: Page 433 TOP: C PTS: Page 434 TOP: C PTS: Nerves and Tracts B PTS: Page 443 TOP: D PTS: Page 447 | Page 448 D PTS: Action Potential D PTS: Page 449 TOP: C PTS: Page 449 TOP: A PTS: Page 456 | Page 457 B PTS: Page 440 TOP: A PTS: Glia A PTS: Page 439 TOP: A PTS: Page 442 TOP: C PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 1 DIF: Memorization Glia 1 DIF: Synthesis REF: Page 443 1 DIF: Nerves and Tracts 1 DIF: TOP: 1 DIF: Memorization Memorization Action Potential Synthesis REF: Page 447 | Page 448 1 DIF: Memorization Refractory Period 1 DIF: Memorization Refractory Period 1 DIF: Memorization TOP: Classification of Neurotransmitters 1 DIF: Memorization Functional Classification 1 DIF: Application REF: Page 434 1 Neurons 1 Reflex Arc 1 DIF: Memorization DIF: Memorization DIF: Memorization . ANS: REF: 29. ANS: REF: 41. ANS: REF: 26. ANS: REF: 35. ANS: TOP: 37. ANS: REF: 27. ANS: REF: 33. ANS: REF: 40. ANS: REF: 30. ANS: REF: 44. ANS: REF: 24. ANS: REF: 28. ANS: REF: 23. ANS: TOP: 34. ANS: REF: T PTS: Page 475 TOP: F PTS: Page 475 TOP: T PTS: Page 472 TOP: F PTS: Page 478 TOP: T PTS: Page 478 TOP: F PTS: Page 479 TOP: F PTS: Page 494 (Box 13-9) F PTS: Page 483 TOP: T PTS: Page 485 TOP: 1 DIF: Memorization Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid 1 DIF: Memorization Cerebrospinal Fluid 1 DIF: Memorization Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord 1 DIF: Memorization Structure of the Spinal Cord 1 DIF: Memorization Structure of the Spinal Cord 1 DIF: Memorization Structure of the Spinal Cord 1 DIF: Memorization TOP: The Electroencephalogram (EEG) 1 DIF: Memorization Structure of the Brainstem 1 DIF: Memorization Structure of the Cerebellum MULTIPLE CHOICE 31.22. ANS: REF: 32. ANS: REF: 25. ANS: REF: 39. ANS: TOP: 42. ANS: REF: 36. ANS: REF: 43.

ANS: REF: 56. ANS: REF: 63. ANS: REF: 66. ANS: REF: Page 449 | Page 450 TOP: Conduction of the Action Potential D PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 432 TOP: Organization of the Nervous System B PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 438 TOP: Neurons A PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: Page 478 | Page 479 Structure of the Spinal Cord C PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 478 | Page 479 TOP: Structure of the Spinal Cord D PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 484 (Box 13-6) TOP: Vital Centers B PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: Page 487 Thalamus A PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 472 TOP: Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord A PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 498 TOP: Integrative Functions of the Cortex A PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 499 TOP: Specialization of Central Hemispheres C PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 478 TOP: Spinal Cord C PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 478 TOP: Structure of the Spinal Cord B PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 485 TOP: Structure of the Cerebellum B PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 494 | Page 495 TOP: Integrative Functions of the Cortex B PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: Page 475 Formation and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid C PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 478 TOP: Structure of the Spinal Cord A PTS: 1 DIF: Memorization Page 484 TOP: Midbrain B PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) D PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) C PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) B PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) A PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) D PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) DIF: TOP: DIF: TOP: DIF: TOP: DIF: TOP: DIF: TOP: DIF: TOP: Memorization Neurotransmitters Memorization Neurotransmitters Memorization Neurotransmitters Memorization Neurotransmitters Memorization Neurotransmitters Memorization Neurotransmitters . ANS: REF: MATCHING 61. ANS: REF: 50. ANS: REF: 60. ANS: REF: 49. ANS: REF: 57. ANS: TOP: 48. ANS: REF: 65. ANS: REF: 62. ANS: TOP: 59. ANS: REF: 46. ANS: REF: 58. ANS: REF: 55. ANS: REF: 52. ANS: REF: 53. ANS: REF: 54. ANS: REF: 64.REF: 45. ANS: TOP: 51. ANS: REF: 47.

ANS: REF: 75. ANS: REF: 69. ANS: REF: 73. ANS: REF: 74. ANS: REF: 76. ANS: REF: 80.67. ANS: REF: 79. ANS: REF: 68. ANS: REF: 72. ANS: REF: 77. ANS: REF: 70. ANS: REF: 71. ANS: REF: 78. ANS: REF: B PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) C PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) B PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) D PTS: 1 Page 459 (Table 12-3) F Page 490 D Page 490 G Page 490 A Page 490 B Page 490 C Page 490 F Page 490 A Page 490 E Page 490 B Page 490 PTS: TOP: PTS: TOP: PTS: TOP: PTS: TOP: PTS: TOP: PTS: TOP: PTS: TOP: PTS: TOP: PTS: TOP: PTS: TOP: DIF: TOP: DIF: TOP: DIF: TOP: DIF: TOP: Memorization Neurotransmitters Memorization Neurotransmitters Memorization Neurotransmitters Memorization Neurotransmitters Memorization Memorization Memorization Memorization Memorization Memorization Memorization Memorization Memorization Memorization 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex 1 DIF: Cerebral Cortex .

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