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Transformers and PerUnit Systems
(Máy Biến Áp và Hệ Đơn Vị Tương Đối)
A primary function of the transformer is to convert electrical energy at one voltage level
to voltages at another level. The transformation may be to increase voltages or to
decrease voltages, depending on the application. Transformers are essential parts of most
power systems since they are utilised to interconnect different parts of transmission and
distribution power grids that operate at different voltage levels. Transformers also are
found in almost all power supplies for small power electronic equipment such as TV sets,
laptops, chargers … A key application of power transformers is to reduce the current
before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through conductors. Most
conductors have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the
square of the current through them. By transforming electrical power to a highvoltage,
and therefore lowcurrent form for transmission and back again afterwards, transformers
enable the economic transmission of power over long distances. Consequently,
transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry, permitting generation to be
located remotely from points of demand. All but a fraction of the world's electrical
power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. In
this chapter, we will deal with some simplified models of transformers without discussing
the electromagnetic elements in details.
3.1 The Ideal Transformer
For analysis of transformers, it is convenient to start by using the ideal transformer
relations. Suppose we consider two coupled coils on a steel core of high magnetic
permeability, a simplified model for this transformer can be shown in Figure 3.1.
i
2
i
1
N
1
: N
2
v
1
_
+
_
+
v
2
Figure 3.1 Ideal Transformer
If the flux varies sinusoidally, there will be a sinusoidal voltage generated in each turn of
each coil according to Faraday. This quantity is called voltperturn and occupies an
important role in transformer design. If windings 1 and 2 have N
1
and N
2
turns,
respectively, then:
2
2
1
1
N
v
N
v
= (3.1)
One of the ideal transformer relations is that there can be no energy absorbed, stored or
lost in the device. Whatever complex power enters one winding must leave the other.
Therefore, we have
*
2 2
*
1 1
i v i v = (3.2)
and
1
2
2
1
N
N
i
i
= (3.3)
The transformer also tends to transform impedances. In Figure 3.3, some impedance is
connected to one side of the ideal transformer. We can find an equivalent impedance
'
Z
viewed from the other side of the transformer.
Z
I
2
I
1
N
1
: N
2
V
1
_
+
Figure 3.2 Impedance Coupling
Noting that
2 2 1
2
1
2
ZI V and I
N
N
I = =
The ratio between input voltage and current is:
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
'
1
ZI
N
N
V
N
N
I Z V


.

\

= = =
We may derive the expression of the equivalent impedance viewed from the primary side
of the transformer:
Z
N
N
Z
2
2
1 '


.

\

= (3.4)
From the ideal transformer relations we see that the voltamperes into one winding of a
twowinding transformer must equal the voltamperes out of the second winding. The
voltampere rating of a two winding transformer is then given as the voltampere rating of
either winding since the two are equal. In large power transformers the nameplate gives a
voltamperes (or kVA or MVA) rating for the device as well as the voltage ratings of the
two windings. The current ratings then follow from these data since S = VI. Small
transformers, for example, those used in electronic power supplies, are often rated by
giving the voltage and current ratings of each winding, from which the voltampere rating
would follow if desired.
No mention was made of power in the above statements. In a practical transformer the
relative phase angle of voltage and current has almost no effect on the voltage and current
capabilities of the windings, and hence the magnitude of S is the important factor and
how S is divided into P and Q is immaterial to the rating.
3.2 ThreePhase Transformer
A threephase transformer is conceptually the same as three single phase transformers.
There are a number of ways of winding them, and a number of ways of interconnecting
them. On either side of a transformer connection (i.e. the high voltage and low voltage
sides), it is possible to connect transformers windings either line to neutral (wye), or line
to line (delta). Thus we will allow four connecting combinations: wyewye, deltadelta,
wyedelta, deltawye.
Ignoring all the imperfections, connection of transformers in either wyewye or delta
delta is reasonably easy to understand. On the other hand, the interconnections of a wye
delta or deltawye transformer are a little more complex. Figure 3.3 shows a deltawye
connection, in what might be called “wiring diagram” form. A more schematic (and
more common) form of the same picture is shown in Figure 3.4.
A
a
A
b Y
a
Y
b
Y
c
A
c
Figure 3.3 DeltaWye Transformer Connection
Assume that N
A
and N
Y
are numbers of turns. If the three individual transformers are
considered to be ideal, the following voltage and current constraints exist:
( )
A A
A
÷ =
b a
Y
aY
v v
N
N
v
( )
A A
A
÷ =
c b
Y
bY
v v
N
N
v
( )
A A
A
÷ =
a c
Y
cY
v v
N
N
v (3.5)
( )
cY aY
Y
a
i i
N
N
i ÷ =
A
A
( )
aY bY
Y
b
i i
N
N
i ÷ =
A
A
( )
bY cY
Y
c
i i
N
N
i ÷ =
A
A
where each of the voltages are lineneutral and the currents are in the lines at the
transformer terminals.
Now, consider what happens if a AY transformer is connected to a balanced threephase
voltage source, so that:
( )


.

\

=


.

\

=
=

.

\

+
A

.

\

÷
A
A
3
2
3
2
Re
Re
Re
t
e
t
e
e
t j
c
t j
b
t j
a
e V v
e V v
e V v
Where: Re denotes the real part; V is the lineneutral (phase) voltage amplitude, an
underline beneath the variable means it is a vector. Then the complex amplitudes on the
wye side are:
6 3
2
3 1
t t
j
Y
j
Y
aY
e V
N
N
e
N
N
V
A
÷
A
=


.

\

÷ =
2 3
2
3
2
3
t t t
j
Y
j j
Y
bY
e V
N
N
e e
N
N
V
÷
A
÷
A
=


.

\

÷ =
6
5
3
2
3 1
t t
j
Y
j
Y
cY
e V
N
N
e
N
N
V
A A
=


.

\

÷ =
Two observations should be made here:
 The ratio of voltages (that is, the ration of either lineline or lineneutral) is
different from the turns ratio by a factor of 3
 All wye side voltages are shifted in phase by 30
o
with respect to the delta side
voltage.
It can be proved that impedances transform across transformers by the square of the
voltage ratio, no matter what connection is used.
As an example of some of the things said above, suppose that we read from the
nameplate of a large threephase transformer at a hydroelectric generating station the
following rating data: 40 MVA, 115/24 kV. These data now tell us other things by using
the ideal transformer relations, for example:
79 . 4 24 / 115 /
2 1
= = N N
since the voltage ratio and the turns ratio are the same under rating standards of large
transformers. Also the rated current of the high voltage winding, which we call I
1
is given
by
current rated amperes 82 . 200
10 115 3 / 10 40
3 6
1
=
× × × = I
and
3 6
2
10 24 3 / 10 40 × × × = I
= 962.25 amperes rated current for the low voltage winding
It will be noted that this latter figure for I could also have been obtained by using the
ideal transformer relation I
1
/I
2
= N
1
/N
2
if more convenient.
3.3 An Actual Transformer
The ideal transformer relations give very good answers to many transformer problems,
as in the examples preceding this section. For some problems, however, we must take
account of the departures from perfection to get an adequate answer to a transformer
problem. The first imperfection we will discuss is that of the core. The core is not
infinitely permeable, it does require ampere turns to establish the flux, and in addition,
there are internal energy losses in the core when the flux varies with time.
Figure 3.4 shows the hysteresis properties of a transformer core. Each time the magnetic
field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. For a
given core material, the hysteresis loss is proportional to the frequency, and is a function
of the peak flux density (B
m
) to which it is subjected.
Figure 3.4 (a) Hysteresis Loops of Steel; (b) The Normal Magnetization Curve
Transformer losses arising from the magnetic circuit, are sometimes called iron loss.
These losses are independent of the load current, and may furthermore be expressed as
"noload" loss. Iron losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the
core, and tend to be proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given
frequency.
The hysteresis loss occurs as an inherent property of the magnetic material. The internal
structure of a ferromagnetic material is organized into domains and these domains are
reoriented as the magnetic flux density, B vector, goes through a cyclic change in
magnitude or direction. An internal energy loss appears as a result. The energy loss may
be minimized by suitable alloying and heat treatment of the metal. The treatment
processes may also affect the mechanical properties, however, so compromises must be
made.
If the frequency of the applied voltage were reduced but the range of B in the core
maintained (by applying lower voltage), a similar loop would be observed but with
smaller area than that originally observed. The reason for the larger area with higher
frequency is the effect of eddy currents in the steel. The steel is a conductor and, as the
flux in the steel varies, voltages are induced within the closed contours in the material.
Currents flow as a result of the voltage and an I
2
R loss occurs known as eddy current
loss. The loss is reduced by building the core from sheets of steel called laminations and
by increasing the resistivity of the material by alloying.
Since the core flux is proportional to the applied voltage, the iron loss can be represented
by a resistance R
c
(or a conductance G
c
=1/R
c
) in parallel with the ideal transformer. A
core with finite permeability requires a magnetizing current I
M
to maintain the mutual
flux in the core. The magnetizing current is in phase with the flux; saturation effects
cause the relationship between the two to be nonlinear, but for simplicity this effect
tends to be ignored in most circuit equivalents. With a sinusoidal supply, the core flux
lags the induced EMF by 90° and this effect can be modeled as a magnetising reactance
X
c
( or a susceptance B
c
=1/X
c
) in parallel with the core loss component. R
c
and X
c
are
sometimes together termed the magnetising branch of the model. If the secondary
winding is made opencircuit, the current I
0
taken by the magnetising branch represents
the transformer's noload current. Figure 3.5 shows the use of a fictitious circuit added to
the ideal transformer to account for exciting current.
I
ex
G
c B
c
Figure 3.5 Transformer Equivalent Circuit Accounted For Exciting Current
The equivalent circuit of Figure 3.5 is an approximation, but it is valid for most purposes.
The advantages of using a linear model far outweigh the slight error introduced by a
linear model. In any case the exciting current of a modern transformer of any size at all
is only a very small percentage of the full load current, so if there is a slight error in the
linear representation, it amounts to very little in terms of the total current passed by the
transformer. The model to use for a certain study is of course a matter of experience and
engineering judgment. For heavy load or short circuit studies the exciting current branch
is normally omitted entirely. For light load or no load the exciting current branch may be
included. For studies involving the wave form distortion of the exciting current the linear
model is completely inadequate.
Evaluation of G
c
and B
c
of Figure 3.5 involves an approximation to best model the actual
transformer in some sense of a most useful model. The usual method of evaluating the
parameters is to choose G
c
and B
c
so that the exciting current has the same rms value as
the actual exciting current and the power loss in G
c
is the same as the actual core loss.
For example, suppose that a certain transformer is tested by applying rated voltage to a
10.5kV winding with no load on the other winding, and it is observed that a current of
10 amperes flows and a power of 10000 watts is drawn. We solve for G
c
and B
c
as
follows: P G E
c
=
2
; ( )
2
10500 10000
c
G = ; siemen 10 7 . 90
6 ÷
× =
c
G ; I EY
ex c
= ;
c
Y 10500 10 = ; siemen 10 38 . 952
6 ÷
× =
c
Y ; Y G B
c c c
2 2 2
= + ;
siemen 10 05 . 948
6 2 2 ÷
× = ÷ =
c c c
G Y B .
In addition to the core loss and the requirement for exciting current, there are other ways
in which an actual transformer differs from the ideal transformer model. For one thing,
some of the applied voltage is absorbed in IR drop in the winding resistance. We can
modify the ideal transformer model to account for winding resistance by adding two
series resistors R
1
and R
2
in either side of the windings. Now, each winding has a
resistance which, while not zero, is kept low in order to minimize copper losses and
increase efficiency.
Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage dropped without contributing to
the mutual coupling, and thus can be modeled as selfinductances X
l1
and X
l2
in series
with the perfectlycoupled region. These series reactances (leakage reactance equivalent)
play a significant factor in transformer performance.
N
2
N
1
X
l1
I
ex
G
c B
c
R
1
X
l2
R
2
Figure 3.6 The Equivalent Circuit of An Actual Transformer
The secondary impedance R
2
and X
l2
are frequently moved (or "referred") to the primary
side after multiplying the components by the impedance scaling factor
2
2
1
) (
N
N
2
2
2
1
R
N
N


.

\

2
2
2
1
l
X
N
N


.

\

N
2
N
1
X
l1
I
ex
G
c B
c
R
1
Figure 3.7 Alternative Equivalent Circuit for the Transformer
The net series resistance and reactance are known simply as the impedance of the
transformer. This is an item of data that is available from the manufacturer of the
transformer. We designate the net resistance and reactance by the symbols R
eq
and X
eq
in
the figure where:
( ) R R N N R
eq
= +
1 1 2
2
2
/
and
( ) X X N N X
eq l l
= +
1 1 2
2
2
/
Open and shortcircuit tests:
The parameters of the equivalent circuits of Figure 3.8 may be determined by the
designer from the physical dimensions and material properties of the transformer. On the
other hand, an actual transformer may be tested electrically to determine these values.
For the test, we apply rated voltage to the left side of the transformer of Figure 3.8(a)
with the right side opencircuited. Since the output current is zero, the current through
R
eq
and X
eq
is zero from properties of an ideal transformer. We thus "see" only the shunt
branch and determine G
c
and B
c
from the instrument readings.
To determine the series impedances R
eq
and X
eq
, we shortcircuit one side, and it is
convenient to use the model of Figure 3.8(b) in this case. In order to limit the shortcircuit
current, this test must be conducted at reduced voltage. With a short circuit on N
2
, the
voltage is zero on this winding and also is zero across N
1
according to the properties of an
ideal transformer. As a result we can ignore the shunt exciting current branch and we
"see" only R
eq
and X
eq
.
X
eq
I
ex
G
c B
c
R
eq
(a)
X
eq
I
ex
G
c B
c
R
eq
(b)
Figure 3.8 Simple Equivalent Circuit for the Transformer
3.4 Introduction to PerUnit Systems
Perunit systems are nothing more than normalizations of voltage, current, impedance
power, reactive power, and apparent power (voltampere). These normalizations of
system parameters provide simplifications in many network calculations. As we will
discover, the transmission system and several portions of the distribution system are
operated at voltages in the kV range. This results in large amounts of power being
transmitted in the range of kilowatts to megawatts, and kilovoltamperes to
megavoltamperes. As a result, in analysis, it is useful to scale, or normalize quantities
with large physical values. This is commonly done in power system analysis and is
referred to as the perunit system. This helps in understanding how certain types of
system behave. The numerical perunit value of any quantity is its ratio to the chosen
base quantity of the same dimensions. Thus a perunit quantity is a normalized quantity
with respect to a chosen base value.
Normalization of Voltage and Current:
The basis for the perunit system of notation is the expression of voltage and current as
fractions of base levels. Thus the first step in setting up a perunit normalization is to
select base voltage and current.
Consider the simple situation in Figure 3.9. For this network the complex amplitudes of
voltage and current are: IZ V = (an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector).
We start by defining two base quantities, V
base
for voltage and I
base
for current. In many
cases, these will be chosen to be nominal or rated values. For generating plants, for
example, it is common to use the rated voltage and rated current of the generator as base
qualities. In other situations, such as system stability studies, it is common to use a
standard, system wide base system.
_
+
v
1
i
1
_
+
V
Z
Figure 3.9 Example
The perunit voltage and current are then simply:
base base
I
I
i
V
V
v = = ,
With IZ V = , we have
iz
V
I Z
I
I
V
IZ
v
base
base
base base
= = =
Where the perunit impedance is:
base base
base
Z
Z
V
I
Z z = =
This leads to a definition for a base impedance for the system:
base
base
base
I
V
Z =
And there is also a base power, which for a single phase system is:
base base base
I V P =
where V
base
and I
base
are expressed in RMS (Root Mean Square). It is interesting to note
that, as long as normalization is carried out in a consistent way, there is no ambiguity in
perunit notation. That is, peak quantities normalized to peak base will be the same, in
perunit, as RMS quantities normalized to RMS bases. This advantage is even more
striking in polyphase systems.
Three Phase Systems:
In power system calculations the nominal voltage of lines and equipment is almost
always known, so the voltage is a convenient base value to choose. The apparent power
(voltampere  S) is usually chosen as a second base. In equipment this quantity is
usually known and makes a convenient base. The choice of these two base quantities will
automatically fix the base of current, impedance, and admittance. In a system study, the
voltampere base can be selected to be any convenient value such as 100 MVA, 1000
MVA, etc.
The same voltampere base is used in all parts of the system. One base voltage in a
certain part of the system is selected arbitrarily. All other base voltages must be related
to the arbitrarily selected one by the turns ratio of the connecting transformers.
For singlephase systems or threephase systems where the term current refers to line
current, where the term voltage refers to line to neutral voltage, and where the term volt
amperes refers to voltamperes per phase, the following formulae relate the various
quantities:
) (
) (
N L base
base
base
V
S
I
÷
=
o
( ) ( )
) (
2
) (
) (
2
) ( ) (
o base
N L base
N L base base
N L base
base
N L base
base
S
V
V I
V
I
V
Z
÷
÷
÷ ÷
= = =
In performing perphase analysis, the bases for the quantities in the circuit representation
are voltamperes perphase or kilovoltamperes per phase, and volts or kilovolts from
line to neutral. System specification is usually given in terms of total threephase volt
amperes or kilovoltamperes or megavoltamperes and linetoline volts or kilovolts.
This may result in some confusion regarding the relation between the perunit value of
linetoline voltage and the perunit value of phase voltage (line to neutral voltage). In a
perphase circuit, the voltage required for the solution is the line to neutral voltage even
though a linetoline voltage may be specified as a base. The base value of the line to
neutral voltage is the base value of the lineto line voltage divided by 3 . Since this is
also the relation between linetoline and line to neutral voltages of a balanced three
phase system, the perunit value of a line to neutral voltage on the line to neutral voltage
base is equal to the perunit value of the linetoline voltage at the same point on the line
to line voltage base if the system is balanced. Similarly, the threephase voltamperes is
three times the voltamperes perphase, and the base value of the threephase volt
amperes is three times the base value of the perphase voltamperes. Therefore, the per
unit value of the threephase voltamperes on the threephase voltampere base is
identical to the perunit value of the voltamperes perphase on the voltampere per
phase base.
In a threephase system, normally, a given value of base voltage is a linetoline voltage,
and a given value of base kilovoltamperes or base megavoltamperes is the total three
phase base.
The values of base impedance and base current can be computed from base values of
voltage and voltamperes as shown earlier in the section. If the base values of volt
amperes and voltage are specified as the voltamperes for the total three phases and
voltage from linetoline in a balanced threephase system respectively, we have
) (
) 3 (
3
L L base
base
base
V
S
I
÷
=
o
( ) ( )
) 3 (
2
) (
) (
2
) ( ) (
3
3
o base
L L base
N L base base
L L base
base
L L base
base
S
V
V I
V
I
V
Z
÷
÷
÷ ÷
= = =
Networks With Transformers:
One of the most important advantages of the use of perunit systems arises in the analysis
of networks with transformers. Properly applied, a perunit normalization will cause
nearly all ideal transformers to disappear from the perunit network, thus greatly
simplifying analysis.
+
_
V
2
I
2
I
1
1
: N
V
1
_
+
Figure 3.10 An Ideal Transformer
To show how this comes about, consider the ideal transformer as shown in Figure 3.10.
The ideal transformer imposes the constraints that:
1 2 1 2
1
, I
N
I V N V = =
Note that an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector. Normalized to base
quantities on the two sides of the transformer, the perunit voltage and current are:
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
,
,
base base
base base
I
I
i
V
V
v
I
I
i
V
V
v
= =
= =
Note that if the base quantities are related to each other as if they had been processed by
the transformer:
1 2 1 2
1
, I
N
I NV V
base base base
= =
then
2 1
v v = and
2 1
i i = , as if the ideal transformer were not there.
Transforming From One Base To Another:
In most instances, the perunit impedance of a component is specified on the rated
component base which is different from the base selected for the part of the system in
which the component is located. When performing calculations, all impedances in any
one part of the system must be expressed on the same impedance base. As a result, it is
necessary to have a means of converting perunit impedances from one base to another.
The process of changing this perunit value of impedance to perunit on a new base can
be done as follows:
Note that impedance in Ohms (ordinary units) is given by:
.
_ _ new base new old base old
Z z Z z Z Here, replace
base
base
base
S
V
Z
2
, we can write:
new base
new base
new
old base
old base
old
S
V
z
S
V
z
_
2
_
_
2
_
This yields a convenient rule for converting from the old base to the new one:
old
new base
old base
old base
new base
new
z
V
V
S
S
z
2
_
2
_
_
_
In other word: ) ( ) (
2
old
new
new
old
old new
baseVA
baseVA
baseV
baseV
Z Unit Per Z Unit Per
Small transformers. The voltampere rating of a two winding transformer is then given as the voltampere rating of either winding since the two are equal.4) From the ideal transformer relations we see that the voltamperes into one winding of a twowinding transformer must equal the voltamperes out of the second winding. some impedance is connected to one side of the ideal transformer. we have * v1i1* v 2 i2 (3. The current ratings then follow from these data since S = VI. I1 N1 : N2 + I2 V1 _ Z Figure 3. are often rated by . stored or lost in the device.3) i2 N 1 The transformer also tends to transform impedances. We can find an equivalent impedance Z ' viewed from the other side of the transformer. for example. In Figure 3.2 Impedance Coupling Noting that N1 I 1 and V2 ZI 2 N2 The ratio between input voltage and current is: I2 N N V1 Z I 1 1 V2 1 ZI 1 N N2 2 We may derive the expression of the equivalent impedance viewed from the primary side of the transformer: ' 2 N Z 1 N 2 ' Z 2 (3.1) One of the ideal transformer relations is that there can be no energy absorbed. those used in electronic power supplies. Whatever complex power enters one winding must leave the other.3.2) and i1 N 2 (3. In large power transformers the nameplate gives a voltamperes (or kVA or MVA) rating for the device as well as the voltage ratings of the two windings. Therefore.v1 v 2 N1 N 2 (3.
5) N .3 shows a deltawye connection. Ignoring all the imperfections. and a number of ways of interconnecting them. On either side of a transformer connection (i. the high voltage and low voltage sides).4.2 ThreePhase Transformer A threephase transformer is conceptually the same as three single phase transformers. it is possible to connect transformers windings either line to neutral (wye). c Yc b Yb a Ya Figure 3. In a practical transformer the relative phase angle of voltage and current has almost no effect on the voltage and current capabilities of the windings. No mention was made of power in the above statements. A more schematic (and more common) form of the same picture is shown in Figure 3. On the other hand.e. from which the voltampere rating would follow if desired. 3. If the three individual transformers are considered to be ideal. connection of transformers in either wyewye or deltadelta is reasonably easy to understand. in what might be called “wiring diagram” form. or line to line (delta). There are a number of ways of winding them. deltadelta.3 DeltaWye Transformer Connection Assume that N and NY are numbers of turns.giving the voltage and current ratings of each winding. the interconnections of a wyedelta or deltawye transformer are a little more complex. Figure 3. Thus we will allow four connecting combinations: wyewye. and hence the magnitude of S is the important factor and how S is divided into P and Q is immaterial to the rating. the following voltage and current constraints exist: N vaY Y va vb N N vbY Y vb vc N N vcY Y vc va (3. deltawye. wyedelta.
NY iaY icY N N ib Y ibY iaY N N ic Y icY ibY N where each of the voltages are lineneutral and the currents are in the lines at the transformer terminals. for example: . consider what happens if a Y transformer is connected to a balanced threephase voltage source. no matter what connection is used. These data now tell us other things by using the ideal transformer relations. an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector. It can be proved that impedances transform across transformers by the square of the voltage ratio. Then the complex amplitudes on the wye side are: j N 3 Y Ve 6 V aY N 2 2 j NY j 3 NY j 2 3 e V bY Ve e 3 N N 2 5 j NY j 3 N e 1 3 Y V e 6 V cY N N 2 j NY 1 e 3 N Two observations should be made here: The ratio of voltages (that is. suppose that we read from the nameplate of a large threephase transformer at a hydroelectric generating station the following rating data: 40 MVA. the ration of either lineline or lineneutral) is different from the turns ratio by a factor of 3 All wye side voltages are shifted in phase by 30o with respect to the delta side voltage. so that: va ReV e jt j t 2 vb ReV e 3 j t 23 V e vc Re Where: Re denotes the real part. As an example of some of the things said above. V is the lineneutral (phase) voltage amplitude. 115/24 kV. ia Now.
Figure 3.3 An Actual Transformer The ideal transformer relations give very good answers to many transformer problems.N 1 / N 2 115 / 24 4. it does require ampere turns to establish the flux. and in addition. The first imperfection we will discuss is that of the core. 3. Also the rated current of the high voltage winding.25 amperes rated current for the low voltage winding It will be noted that this latter figure for I could also have been obtained by using the ideal transformer relation I1/I2 = N1/N2 if more convenient. (b) The Normal Magnetization Curve Transformer losses arising from the magnetic circuit. and is a function of the peak flux density (Bm) to which it is subjected. as in the examples preceding this section. which we call I1 is given by I 1 40 10 6 / 3 115 10 3 200.4 shows the hysteresis properties of a transformer core. we must take account of the departures from perfection to get an adequate answer to a transformer problem. The core is not infinitely permeable.82 amperes rated current and I 2 40 10 6 / 3 24 10 3 = 962. and may furthermore be expressed as . For some problems. are sometimes called iron loss. Figure 3.79 since the voltage ratio and the turns ratio are the same under rating standards of large transformers. These losses are independent of the load current. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. For a given core material.4 (a) Hysteresis Loops of Steel. however. there are internal energy losses in the core when the flux varies with time. Each time the magnetic field is reversed. the hysteresis loss is proportional to the frequency.
Iron losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the core. Currents flow as a result of the voltage and an I2R loss occurs known as eddy current loss. however. An internal energy loss appears as a result. The hysteresis loss occurs as an inherent property of the magnetic material. The magnetizing current is in phase with the flux. saturation effects cause the relationship between the two to be nonlinear. but for simplicity this effect tends to be ignored in most circuit equivalents. The internal structure of a ferromagnetic material is organized into domains and these domains are reoriented as the magnetic flux density. Iex Gc Bc Figure 3. The treatment processes may also affect the mechanical properties. so compromises must be made. The energy loss may be minimized by suitable alloying and heat treatment of the metal. The reason for the larger area with higher frequency is the effect of eddy currents in the steel. voltages are induced within the closed contours in the material. a similar loop would be observed but with smaller area than that originally observed. The loss is reduced by building the core from sheets of steel called laminations and by increasing the resistivity of the material by alloying."noload" loss. A core with finite permeability requires a magnetizing current IM to maintain the mutual flux in the core. Rc and Xc are sometimes together termed the magnetising branch of the model. With a sinusoidal supply.5 shows the use of a fictitious circuit added to the ideal transformer to account for exciting current. B vector. If the frequency of the applied voltage were reduced but the range of B in the core maintained (by applying lower voltage). If the secondary winding is made opencircuit. as the flux in the steel varies. the iron loss can be represented by a resistance Rc (or a conductance Gc=1/Rc) in parallel with the ideal transformer. Since the core flux is proportional to the applied voltage. the current I0 taken by the magnetising branch represents the transformer's noload current. the core flux lags the induced EMF by 90° and this effect can be modeled as a magnetising reactance Xc ( or a susceptance Bc=1/Xc) in parallel with the core loss component. The steel is a conductor and.5 Transformer Equivalent Circuit Accounted For Exciting Current . and tend to be proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given frequency. Figure 3. goes through a cyclic change in magnitude or direction.
We can modify the ideal transformer model to account for winding resistance by adding two series resistors R1 and R2 in either side of the windings.7 10 6 siemen . R1 Xl1 Iex Gc Bc N1 N2 Xl2 R2 . For one thing. Evaluation of Gc and Bc of Figure 3. In any case the exciting current of a modern transformer of any size at all is only a very small percentage of the full load current. Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage dropped without contributing to the mutual coupling. but it is valid for most purposes. For example. In addition to the core loss and the requirement for exciting current. is kept low in order to minimize copper losses and increase efficiency. and thus can be modeled as selfinductances Xl1 and Xl2 in series with the perfectlycoupled region. P Gc E 2 . so if there is a slight error in the linear representation.5 is an approximation. while not zero. Bc Yc2 Gc2 948. some of the applied voltage is absorbed in IR drop in the winding resistance. Now. The usual method of evaluating the parameters is to choose Gc and Bc so that the exciting current has the same rms value as the actual exciting current and the power loss in Gc is the same as the actual core loss. These series reactances (leakage reactance equivalent) play a significant factor in transformer performance. 10000 Gc 10500 . The advantages of using a linear model far outweigh the slight error introduced by a linear model. For studies involving the wave form distortion of the exciting current the linear model is completely inadequate. Yc2 Gc2 Bc2 . For heavy load or short circuit studies the exciting current branch is normally omitted entirely.5kV winding with no load on the other winding. Yc 952. The model to use for a certain study is of course a matter of experience and engineering judgment.05 10 6 siemen . and it is observed that a current of 10 amperes flows and a power of 10000 watts is drawn. For light load or no load the exciting current branch may be included. suppose that a certain transformer is tested by applying rated voltage to a 10. there are other ways in which an actual transformer differs from the ideal transformer model.38 10 6 siemen . We solve for Gc and Bc as 2 follows: Iex EYc . 10 10500Yc . each winding has a resistance which. Gc 90.5 involves an approximation to best model the actual transformer in some sense of a most useful model.The equivalent circuit of Figure 3. it amounts to very little in terms of the total current passed by the transformer.
8 may be determined by the designer from the physical dimensions and material properties of the transformer. This is an item of data that is available from the manufacturer of the transformer.8(a) with the right side opencircuited. an actual transformer may be tested electrically to determine these values. As a result we can ignore the shunt exciting current branch and we "see" only Req and Xeq. Since the output current is zero. this test must be conducted at reduced voltage. the current through Req and Xeq is zero from properties of an ideal transformer. On the other hand.Figure 3. we apply rated voltage to the left side of the transformer of Figure 3. To determine the series impedances Req and Xeq. and it is convenient to use the model of Figure 3. In order to limit the shortcircuit current.7 Alternative Equivalent Circuit for the Transformer The net series resistance and reactance are known simply as the impedance of the transformer. We designate the net resistance and reactance by the symbols Req and Xeq in the figure where: 2 Req R1 N1 / N2 R2 and Xeq Xl1 N1 / N2 Xl 2 2 Open and shortcircuit tests: The parameters of the equivalent circuits of Figure 3. . For the test. We thus "see" only the shunt branch and determine Gc and Bc from the instrument readings. the voltage is zero on this winding and also is zero across N1 according to the properties of an ideal transformer.8(b) in this case. With a short circuit on N2.6 The Equivalent Circuit of An Actual Transformer The secondary impedance R2 and Xl2 are frequently moved (or "referred") to the primary N side after multiplying the components by the impedance scaling factor ( 1 ) 2 N2 N1 N Xl2 2 2 R1 Xl1 N1 N 2 R2 2 N1 N2 Iex Gc Bc Figure 3. we shortcircuit one side.
Normalization of Voltage and Current: The basis for the perunit system of notation is the expression of voltage and current as fractions of base levels. and apparent power (voltampere). the transmission system and several portions of the distribution system are operated at voltages in the kV range. . impedance power. The numerical perunit value of any quantity is its ratio to the chosen base quantity of the same dimensions. These normalizations of system parameters provide simplifications in many network calculations.Xeq Iex Gc Bc Req (a) Req Xeq Iex Gc Bc (b) Figure 3. in analysis. As we will discover. This helps in understanding how certain types of system behave. Thus the first step in setting up a perunit normalization is to select base voltage and current.4 Introduction to PerUnit Systems Perunit systems are nothing more than normalizations of voltage. or normalize quantities with large physical values. As a result.8 Simple Equivalent Circuit for the Transformer 3. and kilovoltamperes to megavoltamperes. Thus a perunit quantity is a normalized quantity with respect to a chosen base value. This is commonly done in power system analysis and is referred to as the perunit system. current. reactive power. This results in large amounts of power being transmitted in the range of kilowatts to megawatts. it is useful to scale.
9. In many cases. we have v IZ I Z I base iz Vbase I base Vbase zZ Where the perunit impedance is: I base Z Vbase Z base This leads to a definition for a base impedance for the system: Vbase I base And there is also a base power.Consider the simple situation in Figure 3. as RMS quantities normalized to RMS bases.9 Example The perunit voltage and current are then simply: V I v . For this network the complex amplitudes of voltage and current are: V IZ (an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector). such as system stability studies. This advantage is even more striking in polyphase systems. which for a single phase system is: Pbase Vbase I base Z base where Vbase and Ibase are expressed in RMS (Root Mean Square). We start by defining two base quantities. Three Phase Systems: . i Vbase I base With V IZ . for example. in perunit. In other situations. there is no ambiguity in perunit notation. Vbase for voltage and Ibase for current. For generating plants. It is interesting to note that. as long as normalization is carried out in a consistent way. That is. peak quantities normalized to peak base will be the same. it is common to use the rated voltage and rated current of the generator as base qualities. system wide base system. these will be chosen to be nominal or rated values. i1 + V _ Z + v1 _ Figure 3. it is common to use a standard.
and admittance. normally.In power system calculations the nominal voltage of lines and equipment is almost always known.S) is usually chosen as a second base. where the term voltage refers to line to neutral voltage. the voltage required for the solution is the line to neutral voltage even though a linetoline voltage may be specified as a base. the threephase voltamperes is three times the voltamperes perphase. and the base value of the threephase voltamperes is three times the base value of the perphase voltamperes. In a perphase circuit. Since this is also the relation between linetoline and line to neutral voltages of a balanced threephase system. One base voltage in a certain part of the system is selected arbitrarily. . and where the term voltamperes refers to voltamperes per phase. In a system study. In equipment this quantity is usually known and makes a convenient base. In a threephase system. the voltampere base can be selected to be any convenient value such as 100 MVA. the bases for the quantities in the circuit representation are voltamperes perphase or kilovoltamperes per phase. Therefore. and volts or kilovolts from line to neutral. the perunit value of the threephase voltamperes on the threephase voltampere base is identical to the perunit value of the voltamperes perphase on the voltampere perphase base. and a given value of base kilovoltamperes or base megavoltamperes is the total threephase base. a given value of base voltage is a linetoline voltage. This may result in some confusion regarding the relation between the perunit value of linetoline voltage and the perunit value of phase voltage (line to neutral voltage). The apparent power (voltampere . 1000 MVA. For singlephase systems or threephase systems where the term current refers to line current. so the voltage is a convenient base value to choose. the perunit value of a line to neutral voltage on the line to neutral voltage base is equal to the perunit value of the linetoline voltage at the same point on the lineto line voltage base if the system is balanced. impedance. The same voltampere base is used in all parts of the system. The choice of these two base quantities will automatically fix the base of current. Similarly. All other base voltages must be related to the arbitrarily selected one by the turns ratio of the connecting transformers. etc. The base value of the line to neutral voltage is the base value of the lineto line voltage divided by 3 . System specification is usually given in terms of total threephase voltamperes or kilovoltamperes or megavoltamperes and linetoline volts or kilovolts. the following formulae relate the various quantities: S base ( ) I base Vbase ( L N ) Z base Vbase ( L N ) I base V base ( L N ) 2 I baseVbase ( L N ) V base ( L N ) 2 S base ( ) In performing perphase analysis.
i2 2 Vbase 2 I base 2 Note that if the base quantities are related to each other as if they had been processed by the transformer: 1 Vbase 2 NVbase1 . a perunit normalization will cause nearly all ideal transformers to disappear from the perunit network. consider the ideal transformer as shown in Figure 3. we have I base Z base Vbase ( L L ) S base ( 3 ) V 3Vbase ( L L ) base ( L L ) 2 3I base 3I baseVbase ( L N ) V base ( L L ) 2 S base (3 ) Networks With Transformers: One of the most important advantages of the use of perunit systems arises in the analysis of networks with transformers. I base 2 I 1 N then v 1 v 2 and i 1 i 2 . i 1 1 Vbase1 I base1 v2 V2 I . the perunit voltage and current are: V I v1 1 . . I 2 I 1 N Note that an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector. as if the ideal transformer were not there. If the base values of voltamperes and voltage are specified as the voltamperes for the total three phases and voltage from linetoline in a balanced threephase system respectively. I1 1 :N + I2 + V1 _ V2 _ Figure 3. thus greatly simplifying analysis. Properly applied.The values of base impedance and base current can be computed from base values of voltage and voltamperes as shown earlier in the section. The ideal transformer imposes the constraints that: 1 V 2 NV 1 . Normalized to base quantities on the two sides of the transformer.10.10 An Ideal Transformer To show how this comes about.
it is necessary to have a means of converting perunit impedances from one base to another. replace Z base base .Transforming From One Base To Another: In most instances. all impedances in any one part of the system must be expressed on the same impedance base. When performing calculations. As a result. we can write: S base z old in Ohms by: Z z old Z base _ old V base _ old 2 S base _ old z new V base _ new 2 S base _ new This yields a convenient rule for converting from the old base to the new one: z new S base _ new S base _ old V V base _ old base _ new 2 2 z old In other word: Per Unit Z new Per Unit Z old ( baseVold 2 baseVAnew ) ( ) baseV new baseVAold . the perunit impedance of a component is specified on the rated component base which is different from the base selected for the part of the system in which the component is located. The process of changing this perunit value of impedance to perunit on a new base can be done as follows: Note that impedance (ordinary units) is given 2 V z new Z base _ new . Here.
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