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INTEGRATED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT MANUAL IN LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN CITIES
(Based on the original edition: Manual Gerenciamento Integrado de Resíduos Sólidos, 2001)
1st EDITION – 2008
MINISTRY FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND TERRITORY – ITALY General Director Corrado Clini Director, Division I, Environment and Development Research Department Paolo Soprano Consultant, Division I, Environment and Development Research Department Pierluigi Manzione INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE, IDRC – Canada Senior Program Specialist Walter Ubal Giordano Research Officer Alicia Iglesias Program Assistant Clara Saavedra Webmaster María Noel Estrada BRAZILIAN INSTITUTE OF MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION – IBAM General Director Mara Biasi Ferrari Pinto Director, National School of Urban Services – ENSUR Tereza Cristina Baratta Director, Urban Development and the Environment – DUMA Ana Lucia Nadalutti La Rovere PUBLICATION Technical coordination Karin Segala Technical content – Update and Adaptation Gilson Leite Mansur José Henrique Penido Monteiro Chapter 2 – Collaboration Victor Zular Zveibil Silvia Martarello Astolpho Technical Revision Andrea Pitanguy de Romani Karin Segala Translation from Spanish to English Liliana Battipede and David Reed Design and Layout Roberto Tostes / Doble Clic Editoras Publishing Coordination and Revision, English version Víctor L. Bacchetta and Laura Pallares
Manual on municipal solid waste integrated management in Latin American and Caribbean cities / José Henrique Penido Monteiro …[et al]; updated and adapted by Gilson Leite Mansur and José Henrique Penido Monteiro; technical coordination by Karin Segala; translation by Liliana Battipede and David Reed. – Montevideo: IDRC, 2008. 264p.; 21 X 29.7cm Adapted from: Manual gerenciamento integrado de resíduos sólidos, 2001. 1. Solid waste. I. Monteiro, José Henrique Penido. II. Mansur, Gilson Leite. III. Segala, Karin (coord.). IV. International Development Research Centre (IDRC).
PRESENTATION PREFACE 1 The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services in Latin America and the Caribbean 1.3 Solid waste sector trends Integrated Solid Waste Management Institutional models and payment for services 3.1 Concept 3.2 Forms of administration 3.3 Payment for services 3.3.1 Guidelines for the calculation of a waste collection rate Legislation 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 and Environmental Licenses Introduction Legislation Environmental Licenses Regulations applicable to solid waste 6 12 14 15 15 22 28 32 33 34 39 42 44 45 45 47 48 50 51 51 51 52 59 59 62 63 63 65 66 70 74 75 75 76 78 80 82 83 84 87
Solid waste: origin, definition and characteristics 5.1 Definition of rubbish and solid waste 5.2 Solid waste classification 5.2.1 Potential environmental contamination risks 5.2.2 Nature and origin 5.3 Characteristics of solid waste 5.3.1 Physical characteristics 5.3.2 Chemical characteristics 5.3.3 Biological characteristics 5.4 Influence of solid waste characteristics on urban cleaning system planning 5.5 Factors that influence solid waste characteristics 5.6 Processes for determining principal physical characteristics Solid waste quantity projections Solid waste preparation and storage 7.1 Concept 7.2 The importance of appropriate preparation and storage 7.3 Characteristics of pre-collection storage containers 7.4 Domestic waste pre-collection preparation and storage 7.5 Pre-collection storage of street waste 7.6 Pre-collection storage of waste in low demographic density and low-income areas 7.7 Pre-collection storage of waste produced by large generators 7.8 Special domestic waste pre-collection storage 7.9 Special origin waste pre-collection storage
Solid waste collection and transport 8.1 Domestic waste collection and transport 8.1.1 Concept 8.1.2 Collection regularity 8.1.3 Collection frequency 8.1.4 Collection times 8.1.5 Restructuring domestic collection routes 8.1.6 Collection vehicles 8.1.7 Tools and implements used by collectors 8.2 Public solid waste collection and transport 8.2.1 Concept 8.2.2 Collection of waste gathered by sweeping 8.2.3 Collection of waste from weeding and vegetation cutting 8.2.4 Tree pruning waste collection 8.2.5 Collection of rubble and other construction waste 8.2.6 Special collections 8.2.7 Vehicles and equipment used for collection 8.3 Waste collection in tourist cities 8.4 Solid waste collection in informal settlements 8.5 Collection of medical waste 8.5.1 Acknowledgement of the problem 8.5.2 Segregation 8.5.3 Separate collection of common, infectious and special waste 8.5.4 Vehicles for collection and transport 8.5.5 Aspects of collection planning Solid waste transfer 9.1 Concept 9.2 Types of transfer station 9.2.1 Direct transfer station 9.2.2 Station with storage facilities 9.2.3 Alternative transfer systems 9.3 Vehicles and machines for transfer stations Street cleaning 10.1 The importance of street cleanliness 10.2 Waste found in the street 10.3 Street cleaning services 10.3.1 Sweeping services 10.3.2 Weeding and scraping services 10.3.3 Cutting services 10.3.4 Drain cleaning services 10.3.5 Market cleaning services 10.3.6 Manual and mechanical waste removal services 10.3.7 Beach cleaning services 10.4 How to reduce street waste 10.5 Street cleaning in tourist cities Recovery of recyclable materials 11.1 Concept 11.2 Selective collection programs 11.2.1 Selective door to door collection 11.2.2 Voluntary Drop-off Centres (VDC) 11.2.3 Segregator organizations
90 91 91 91 92 93 94 100 105 106 106 106 107 108 109 109 110 113 114 115 115 116 117 117 119 120 121 122 122 122 124 124 126 127 128 129 130 136 138 143 145 146 147 150 152 154 155 156 157 159 161
Solid waste treatment 12.1 Concept 12.2 Domestic solid waste treatment 12.2.1 Recycling 12.2.2 Composting 12.2.3 Choosing a treatment option 12.3 Treatment of special domestic waste 12.3.1 Construction rubble 12.3.2 Tyres 12.3.3 Batteries and fluorescent tubes 12.4 Treatment of waste from special sources 12.4.1 Industrial solid waste 12.4.2 Radioactive waste 12.4.3 Port and airport waste 12.4.4 Medical waste Solid waste final disposal 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Impacts of inappropriate solid waste disposal 13.3 Sanitary landfill 13.3.1 Sanitary landfill site selection 13.3.2 Environmental licenses 13.3.3 Master plan 13.3.4 Landfill installation 13.3.5 Sanitary landfill operation 13.3.6 Equipment 13.4 Controlled landfills 13.5 Environmental recuperation of refuse dumps 13.6 The situation of segregators 13.7 Special domestic waste disposal 13.7.1 Construction rubble disposal 13.7.2 Disposal of batteries 13.7.3 Disposal of fluorescent tubes 13.7.4 Disposal of tyres 13.8 Disposal of waste from special sources 13.8.1 Industrial waste disposal 13.8.2 Radioactive waste disposal 13.8.3 Port and airport waste disposal 13.8.4 Medical waste disposal 13.9 Sanitary landfills and carbon credits: Opportunities to help resolve environmental problems 13.9.1 Greenhouse effect: causes and consequences 13.9.2 The “logic” of carbon credits 13.9.3 Circumstances in which biogas from a sanitary landfill can be utilized 13.9.4 Requirements for the implementation of GHG emission reduction projects in solid waste landfills 13.9.5 General considerations
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BIBLIOGRAPHY GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS GLOSSARY
These peak activities. pertain to the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by the Ministry for Environment and Territory of Italy and IDRC. or within each of them. As stated in chapter 28 of Agenda 21. urban waste management. 6 . together with some others carried out during the year. all of which are processes geared to ensuring local sustainable development. The resulting projects (specifically in Latin America and the Caribbean) will be expressly devoted to establishing new partnerships (within the broad category of the “type II initiatives” launched in Johannesburg) in areas of interest common to private and public sectors. social and environmental infrastructure.PRESENTATION The role of local authorities for a better environmental policy The training course on integrated urban solid waste management in municipalities of Latin America and the Caribbean. oversee planning processes. operate and maintain economic. the role that municipalities can play in the sustainability process is of great importance: the local dimension should be considered as the most significant for experimenting with new environmental strategies and best practices and demonstrating their effectiveness on a broader dimension. represented a significant step in the fruitful collaboration between the Ministry for the Environment and Territory of Italy and the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC) through the Environmental Management Secretariat (EMS). which gathered experts. but also their intention to initiate actions at all levels with the participation of developed and developing countries. professionals and heads of public institutions in order to quantify the process towards sustainability in the urban solid waste management sector and to assess the situation through an exchange of information and an evaluation of best practices in each field. and assist in implementing national and sub-national environmental policies. international institutions. The MoU established a partnership between the two institutions and implies not only that both parties are committed to achieving the agreed objectives. mobilizing and responding to the public in the promotion of sustainable development. This agreement focuses attention on some specific areas related to local environmental policy. administrators. local authorities construct. NGOs and the private sector. the promotion of clean technologies and industrial processes and the use of renewable energy sources. such as sustainable water and sanitation management. and to supporting local authorities in developing voluntary processes at the local level. In this regard. which came into force in 2005 and is aimed at achieving common objectives related to environmental protection and integrating them with social and economic development. they play a vital role in educating. establish local environmental policies and regulations. As the level of governance is closest to the people. held in December 2005 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). This collaboration had previously resulted in significant benefits through the organization of a high level meeting held in Sao Paulo (Brazil).
awareness raising campaigns and influencing the market towards the attainment of an environmentally sound waste cycle.Indeed. urban development. including the adoption of specific action plans. especially because continued population growth and the expansion of economic activities stimulate higher consumption of resources and a greater waste generation. enforce laws and regulations and promote initiatives suitable for local conditions. The traditional framework of policies is not designed to consider interrelationships between the policies of different sectors. the development of clean technologies – by replacing refuse dumps with final waste disposal centres – can be included among the advantages of responsible and sustainable local government policy-making. In these circumstances major improvements in efficiency are needed. waste and water management. Paolo Soprano Ministry for the Environment and Territory – Italy 7 . it rather aims to focus on each policy in an isolated manner: thus. a change in the policy framework itself is required today. in addition to the improvement of specific policies. local authorities can play a more effective role in developing the capacity to deliver feasible sustainable development outcomes. transport. the promotion of renewable energy sources and the improvement of people’s quality of life by preventing pollution in urban areas. have significant impacts on how cities grow. Waste management issues are at the centre of environmental concerns in many urban areas. The real challenge is to transform waste into reusable resources: measures should be initiated to stimulate private investment in this field and to create opportunities to include municipalities as potential beneficiaries of the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism for curbing greenhouse gas emissions. Policies such as housing. so as to enable the decoupling of environmental degradation from population growth and economic development. In more general terms. and to diminish environmental pressures to sustainable levels. local governments can play an important supervisory role. This is particularly true for the urban waste management sector. An effective environmental management of industrial (hazardous) and urban waste can also serve as a significant mechanism for the creation of new job opportunities. For these reasons.
en Río de Janeiro (Brasil). que entró en vigor en el año 2005 y apunta al logro de objetivos compartidos relativos a la protección del medio ambiente y a hacer que los mismos fueran compatibles con el desarrollo social y económico. promoción de tecnologías y procesos industriales limpios y uso de fuentes de energía renovable. las autoridadeslocales construyen. Este Acuerdo fija su atención en algunas áreas específicas vinculadas a las políticas ambientales locales. y para evaluar la situación a través del intercambio de información y evaluación de las mejores prácticas en cada área. gestión sustentable del agua y saneamiento. 8 . donde expertos. siendo todos ellos procesos acometidos para asegurar un desarrollo local sustentable. instituciones internacionales. como por ejemplo en los casos de gestión de residuos sólidos urbanos. Tal como se establece en el capítulo 28 de la Agenda 21. o dentro de cada uno de ellos. que establece una asociación entre las dos instituciones. sino que también desean poner en marcha acciones a todo nivel con la participación de países desarrollados y en desarrollo. administradores. profesionales y autoridades de instituciones públicas se reunieron para cuantificar el proceso en pro de la sustentabilidad en la gestión integrada de residuos sólidos urbanos. Anteriormente esta colaboración ya había logrado un importante resultado a través de la organización de una reunión de alto nivel que tuvo lugar en San Pablo (Brasil).PRESENTACIÓN El papel de las autoridades locales para una mejor política ambiental El curso de capacitación sobre gestión integrada de residuos sólidos urbanos a nivel de Municipios de América Latina y el Caribe. realizado en diciembre de 2005. El Memorando de Entendimiento. Los proyectos resultantes (en especial en América Latina y el Caribe) estarán expresamente dedicados al establecimiento de nuevas asociaciones (en la categoría más amplia de “iniciativas tipo II” que fueran lanzadas en Johannesburgo) en las áreas de interés entre los sectores público y privado. a través del Secretariado de Manejo del Medio Ambiente (EMS-SEMA). ha sido uno de los pasos más importantes en la fructífera colaboración entre el Ministerio de Ambiente y Territorio – Italia y el Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo (IDRC) de Canadá. y para apoyar a las autoridades locales en el desarrollo de procesos voluntarios a nivel local. el papel que podrían desempeñar los municipios en función del proceso de sustentabilidad es de gran importancia: la dimensión local debería ser considerada como la más significativa en la experiencia de nuevas estrategias ambientales y mejores prácticas. En este sentido. organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG) y el sector privado. mostrando su efectividad en una dimensión más amplia. implica no sólo que ambas partes están comprometidas con el logro de objetivos acordados. Estas actividades destacadas – combinadas con otras que se desarrollaron en el transcurso del año – corresponden al Memorando de Entendimiento firmado conjuntamente por el Ministerio de Ambiente y Territorio – Italia y el IDRC.
El marco tradicional de las políticas no ha sido diseñado para tener en cuenta la interrelación entre las políticas sectoriales. Por todas estas razones. las autoridades locales pueden desempeñar un papel más eficaz en el desarrollo de la capacidad para producir resultados más efectivos en cuanto al desarrollo sustentable. en la más amplia difusión de la adopción de fuentes de energía renovable y para mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas. los gobiernos locales pueden desempeñar un papel importante en la supervisión. movilización y respuesta al público para promover el desarrollo sustentable. Paolo Soprano Ministerio de Ambiente y Territorio – Italia 9 . para abatir las emisiones de gases con efecto invernadero. Esto resulta particularmente cierto en el caso del sector de gestión de desechos urbanos. el desarrollo de tecnologías limpias – sustituyendo vertederos por centros para la disposición final de los residuos – podría incluirse entre las ventajas que se derivarían al contar con políticas responsables y sustentables en los gobiernos locales. En tales circunstancias. además de la mejora de algunas políticas específicas. Políticas públicas como la de vivienda. evitando la contaminación en zonas urbanas. sensibilización. social y ambiental. se requiere una considerable mejora en la eficiencia para permitir la separación de la degradación ambiental del incremento de la población y el desarrollo económico. De hecho. supervisan los procesos de planificación. En términos más generales. más bien intenta focalizar cada política de manera aislada: es por eso que hoy se requiere un cambio en el propio encuadre de las políticas públicas. y para reducir las presiones ambientales a niveles sustentables. gestión de desechos y agua. y colaboran en la implementación de políticas ambientales nacionales y sub-nacionales. A medida que el nivel de gobernabilidad se acerca más a los pueblos. desarrollo urbano. asegurando el cumplimiento de la legislación y las reglamentaciones y promoviendo acciones adecuadas a las condiciones locales. transporte.operan y mantienen la infraestructura económica. producen un importante impacto en la forma en que las ciudades crecen. La gestión ambiental efectiva del desecho industrial (peligroso) y urbano también podría ser un mecanismo importante en la creación de nuevas oportunidades de empleo. implantan las políticas y reglamentaciones ambientales locales. incluyendo la adopción de planes de acción específicos. y liderando al mercado en la dirección correcta para el logro de un ciclo de manejo de desechos que resulte ambientalmente saludable. las autoridades locales desempeñan un papel crucial en la educación. en especial porque el constante crecimiento poblacional y la expansión de las actividades económicas estimulan un mayor consumo de recursos y un incremento en la generación de desechos. El verdadero desafío está en transformar los residuos en recursos reutilizables: deberían preverse medidas para estimular la inversión privada en este campo y generar oportunidades para incluir a los municipios como beneficiarios potenciales del Protocolo de Kyoto sobre Mecanismos de Desarrollo Limpio. Los problemas en torno al manejo de residuos constituyen la principal preocupación ambiental en muchas zonas urbanas.
e sostenere gli enti locali nello sviluppare dei processi volontari a livello locale. stabiliscono le politiche e le regolamentazioni in materia ambientale a livello locale e partecipano all’implementazione delle politiche nazionali e sub-nazionali in ambito ambientale. con le ONG e con il settore privato. Tale collaborazione aveva già ottenuto un risultato importante attraverso l’organizzazione di un incontro ad alto livello tenutosi a San Paolo del Brasile. Il memorandum di intenti. e che ha come scopo l’ottenimento degli obiettivi comuni per la tutela ambientale e la sua compatibilità con lo sviluppo economico e sociale. costruiscono. la promozione di tecnologie e processi industriali puliti e l’utilizzo di risorse energetiche rinnovabili. dove un gruppo di esperti. Queste attività di spicco – combinate ad altre attività svoltesi durante l’anno – sono contenute nel memorandum di intenti siglato fra il Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio – Italia e l’IDRC. ha rappresentato un significativo passo in avanti a favore della fruttuosa collaborazione fra il Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio – Italia ed il Centro Internazionale di Ricerca per lo Sviluppo Canadese (IDRC) attraverso il proprio Segretariato per la Gestione Ambientale (EMS). tenutosi a dicembre 2005. a Rio de Janeiro del Brasile. Poiché inoltre essi rappresentano il li- 10 .PRESENTAZIONI Il ruolo degli enti locali per una politica ambientale migliore Il corso di formazione sui sistemi integrati di gestione dei rifiuti solidi urbani nei comuni dell’America Latina e dei Caraibi. I progetti che ne verranno (in particolare in America Latina ed i Caraibi). prevede non solo l’impegno di entrambe le istituzioni al raggiungimento degli obiettivi concordati. la gestione sostenibile dell’acqua e dei servizi igienici. di amministratori. A questo riguardo. entrato in vigore nel 2005. operano e mantengono le infrastrutture economiche. saranno espressamente volti a stabilire una nuova partnership (nella categoria più ampia delle “iniziative di tipo II” lanciata a Johannesburg) nei settori di interesse fra il settore privato e quello pubblico. Come affermato nel capitolo 28 dell’Agenda 21 “gli enti locali. dimostrando la loro efficacia su scala più ampia. ma anche l’attuazione di attività ad ogni livello con la partecipazione dei paesi industrializzati e quelli in via di sviluppo. o con ciascuno di loro. che stabilisce una partnership tra le due istituzioni. Tale accordo si concentra su settori specifici collegati alla politica ambientale locale come ad esempio: la gestione dei residui urbani. tutti finalizzati a garantire lo sviluppo sostenibile locale. di professionisti e di dirigenti di istituzioni pubbliche si sono riuniti per quantificare il processo verso la sostenibilità del settore della gestione dei rifiuti solidi urbani e per valutare la situazione grazie ad uno scambio di informazioni ed ad un esame delle migliori pratiche di ogni settore. sociali ed ambientali. con le organizzazioni internazionali. supervisionano i processi di pianificazione. il ruolo che i comuni possono ricoprire verso il processo di sostenibilità è di estrema importanza: la dimensione locale va considerata come la più significativa per sperimentare nuove strategie ambientali e migliori pratiche.
per diffondere l’adozione di risorse energetiche rinnovabili e per migliorare la qualità di vita della gente grazie alla prevenzione dell’inquinamento nelle zone urbane. Lo schema tradizionale delle politiche non è atto a considerare l’interdisciplinarità fra le politiche di settore. Le politiche sugli alloggi. pertanto. sulla gestione dei rifiuti e dell’acqua hanno un impatto notevole sulla crescita delle città. In queste circostanze è necessario un miglioramento dell’efficienza al fine di scollegare il degrado ambientale dalla crescita della popolazione e dallo sviluppo economico ed al fine di ridurre la pressione ambientale a livelli sostenibili. lo sviluppo di tecnologie pulite – che sostituiscano l’interramento con degli impianti per lo smaltimento finale dei rifiuti – può essere inserito fra i vantaggi delle politiche responsabili e sostenibili dei governi locali. Paolo Soprano Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio – Italia 11 . gli enti locali giocano un ruolo vitale rispetto all’educazione. Le questioni relative alla gestione dei rifiuti sono al centro dell’attenzione ambientale in molte zone urbane in quanto. sui trasporti. Una gestione dei rifiuti urbani ed industriali (pericolosi) potrebbe essere anche un meccanismo importante per la creazione di nuovi posti di lavoro. includendo l’adozione di piani d’azione specifici. al contrario si concentra su ogni politica in modo isolato ed è. Ciò è particolarmente vero per il settore della gestione dei rifiuti. alla mobilizzazione ed alla responsabilizzazione del pubblico nella promozione dello sviluppo sostenibile. l’aumento della consapevolezza e la conduzione del mercato verso la direzione giusta per l’ottenimento di un ciclo integrato dei rifiuti. adesso necessario modificare lo schema di per sé. sullo sviluppo urbano. Effettivamente gli enti locali possono giocare un ruolo più efficace nello sviluppare la capacità di trasmettere risultati validi per lo sviluppo sostenibile. i governi locali possono giocare un ruolo importante di regia. garantendo l’applicazione delle leggi e delle norme e promuovendo delle attività adatte alla condizioni locali. La vera sfida è trasformare i residui in risorse riutilizzabili: vanno presi dei provvedimenti per incoraggiare gli investimenti privati in questo settore e per creare le opportunità affinché i comuni vengano inclusi come potenziali destinatari del Meccanismo di Sviluppo Pulito del Protocollo di Kyoto per la riduzione delle emissioni di gas ad effetto serra. si stimola un maggior consumo delle risorse ed una maggiore produzione di rifiuti.vello di governo più vicino ai cittadini. Per queste ragioni. In termini più generali. a causa della continua crescita demografica e dell’espansione delle attività economiche. oltre naturalmente a migliorare le singole politiche.
the Manual provides guidelines that serve as a reference for decision-makers in the formulation of public policies and corresponding legislation. For a long time these issues have been relegated to the background but diverse governmental and civil society sectors are now mobilizing to address the problem due to several areas being affected: disease transmission and therefore public health. and pressures deriving from tourist activities. environmentally appropriate treatment and final disposal practices. as well as institutional. Changing this state of affairs involves not only a mobilization of resources and improvements in technical knowledge of the appropriate processes and technologies for each reality. It deals with subjects that are fundamental to the understanding and improvement of urban cleaning systems and services and covers technical and administrative issues. 12 . economic. Deep behavioural change is necessary in order to reverse traditional policies and practices and establish strategies that incorporate the following elements: ! ! ! ! ! the reduction of consumption. This Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Integrated Management is aimed at contributing to an improvement in the technical capacities of the public sector. water course and aquifer contamination in the environmental field. NGOs and civil society to deal with aspects of integrated solid waste management in a sustainable way. promoting the social and economic inclusion of segregators. social and legal aspects. questions relating to the preparation. but principally the creation of instruments that incorporate and structure integrated management models as a fundamental strategy to achieve a healthy city. Acknowledging that the main responsibility for providing urban cleaning services falls on the municipal level of government. political. social concerns relating to segregators. wastage and waste generation by citizens. the potential generation of work and incomes related to waste. the universalization of urban cleaning services. storage and final disposal of waste. agencies. including clean development mechanisms. the withdrawal of children from rubbish dumps.PREFACE There is a notably growing demand for solutions to urban cleaning issues both in global bodies and at the level of civil society and local communities. in particular children living on rubbish dumps. Another aspect of urban cleaning that has more recently come to the fore is the issue of the final disposal of solid waste in relation to Clean Development Mechanisms. companies. In several situations negative impacts relating to solid waste are fundamentally associated with inappropriate management.
It is essential that municipal teams in charge of the planning and operation of services are properly equipped to prepare and implement programs. held in December 2005 with representatives from several Latin American and Caribbean countries. National School of Urban Services – IBAM 13 . plans and initiatives geared to improving urban cleaning systems. You are therefore invited to consider and use the solutions offered by this Manual. Tereza Cristina Baratta Director. Within this perspective the Manual’s objective is to be a useful tool in integrated administration training for all those who work with solid waste and to be sufficiently flexible so that from all the information provided on different forms of “know how” that which is most useful for application to the particular conditions of each city can be chosen. As part of their work methodology a preliminary version was examined by participants in the first IBAM training course. including institutional adaptations that are necessary for the administration of services and the allocation of available resources in a responsible way. using appropriate technologies and methods and respecting the particular economic social and cultural circumstances of the local population. It is intended for use as a basic didactic instrument that can orientate future workshops. and was subsequently revised and completed.The Manual has been prepared by professionals with long-term experience in this sector who also serve as teachers in the courses offered by IBAM.
1 The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean 14 .
1.ops-oms. as well as NGOs involved in solid waste management in countries in the Region. an evaluation made during a certain period has only a relative value as the quality of services can change very quickly. which covered the entire region. and taking into consideration the significant role performed by urban sanitation services to reduce health risk factors and environmental impacts.1 Introduction In the municipal solid waste management sector. a periodical analysis of the state of solid waste management services in several cities of a country can indicate the general trend. an interruption in the payment of bills by the municipality can paralyze services. updated in the form of “Report on the Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services in Latin America and the Caribbean". coordinated the Report on the Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services with the direct participation of public institutions and private agencies. As it is the best document produced up to now on this subject. However.2 Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services in Latin America and the Caribbean 1 The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in support of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) governments. was carried out by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2005. which is significant for answering the question: is waste management improving in Latin American cities? In practically all Latin American countries urban cleaning services are the responsibility of municipalities and often a well functioning system in a particular city does not necessarily reflect the trend in the country as a whole but rather the mayor’s determination to solve the problem.htm). 2005. if a study includes a wider range of cities. provincial and national governments in each country.bvsde. a better evaluation can be made of trends both in service quality and the types of approach to the issue employed by municipal. The most recent update of the Report on the Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services in Latin America and the Caribbean. through outsourcing or concession contracts.paho. 15 . IADB and PAHO. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean 1. its executive summary is transcribed here. A well administrated landfill can became a rubbish dump in a few days if a tractor stops functioning due to some defect that the municipality is not able to quickly repair because of slow bureaucratic processes involved in buying spare parts or contracting a maintenance service. Even if the system is in the hands of a private company. (www.org/bvsars/fulltext/informeng/informeng. Based on Diagnosis of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Latin America and the Caribbean.org and http://www.1. However. 1997. The Solid Waste Evaluation constitutes a first regional effort in which 36 LAC countries participated within a common evaluation strategy. The collection of information for 1.
The information was complemented with an analytical report for the country executed by each country. The life styles. as well as service providers and the community in general. which is critical in many countries. among which Agenda 21 stands out – agreed upon in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro during the United Nations International Conference on the Environment and Development – comprehensive solid waste management still represents one of the most important challenges that national and municipal governments face. The information was obtained through a series of forms that collected basic demographic. the materials used in industrial production and the introduction of Figure 1 – Disordered settlement and informal market close to a rubbish dump 16 . the high levels of consumption. mainly to the final disposal of waste with the purpose of looking for solutions or alternatives at a national and local level to improve the current situation and be able to accomplish waste management that is truly efficient. Within this context. as can be seen by the alarming environmental deterioration and the sanitary problems related to unsafe solid waste management and the scarce attention given to this area. Even though it is true that moderate progress has been made as a result of national and international initiatives. The Solid Waste Evaluation proposal emerges from the need to have a frame of reference that makes the solid waste sector visible in LAC to identify their needs and possibilities within the comprehensive management concept guided towards improving the communities’ quality of life. education and socioeconomic data from the country and specific indicators related to urban sanitation services referred to the year 2001. the purpose of the Regional Evaluation is to generate and expand the knowledge of the current situation.the Evaluation took place in the countries between 2002 and 2003 through a national coordinating group of representatives from national and local entities involved in solid waste. health.
although with great differences within the countries. streets. the impact to the environment being considerable since the disposal of these wastes is usually deficient. the economic and social impoverishment present in these settlements. tend to increase the volumes of solid waste. The intensive migration of indigent populations from rural areas to medium and large cities has created outlying poverty belts. the LAC population reached 518 million of which 406 million (78. Practically all of them. transportation.000 tons of waste are indiscriminately deposited in the environment. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean persistent materials in daily human activities. mainly when they are dumped together with municipal waste. more noticeable in medium and small populations. institutions and organizations that are involved in this area. takes many families. as well as in final disposal sites. in the streets. The situation worsens with the lack of adequate hospital and hazardous waste management. The Solid Waste Evaluation confirmed the information gaps that exist in the solid waste area in the countries of the Region. It is presumed that the remainder. which makes it evident that there is a serious environmental and health problem due to the proliferation of open air “dumps. manage insufficient information. regulation and institutional development of the municipalities as sanitation service providers. with a noticeable fluctuation in countries 17 . As a consequence. mainly women and children. treatment and final disposal. as well as the due training of human resources and the capitalization of financial resources are not proposed. Approximately half of the waste generated in LAC is produced by medium and small centers. which is not collected. around 230. is burned or dumped without any control in vacant lots. The Solid Waste Evaluation shows that average regional generation of residential solid waste per capita reaches 0.1. Adequate sanitary final waste disposal coverage (landfill) for the LAC Region is 23%. highways and waterways contaminating the environment and endangering the population’s health. 21% in medium size urban centers and 23% in small urban centers.000 tons collected daily in the Region. In addition. Waste collection coverage in the Region varies from 11%-100% with a regional average of 81%. which tend to have more difficulty in waste management. representing serious problems for its collection.” This means that of the 299. of which 56% is generated in large urban centers. of which the majority lack public service infrastructure and have completely spread out in a disorderly manner without any urban planning. where they are more evident.790 kg/inhab/day. The Solid Waste Evaluation estimates that by the year 2001. a common practice in several countries in the Region. but also in institutions at a national level in charge of defining policies and assigning resources. necessary strategies or components that will allow for the guidance. to find in garbage. their only means for survival. These gaps are seen not only at a local level. at best in dumps with an uncertain control. in which only 69% of the population has collection service.3%) is urban and generates around 369. Just a few of the LAC countries have comprehensive plans or programs to respond to the sector’s demands.000 tons of municipal solid waste daily.
in countries where tourism is an important economic factor.250 kg/inhab/day. with an average of US$29 per ton for collected. Ecuador. as well as hazardous waste.650 kg/inhab/day with a regional average of 0. even when several countries are developing specific laws and regulations for municipal. 18 . outsourcing and the granting of concessions.500 kg/inhab/day. municipalities maintain responsibility for services. and consequently. which does not allow for the demands of an adequate solid waste management. Likewise. At national levels. With regards to municipal waste. and therefore. collection and urban sanitation in main streets. transfer.with a low Human Development Index (HDI). which makes it difficult to implement follow-up mechanisms. At a local level. mainly regarding sanitary final disposal. The costs for urban sanitation services in the Region fluctuate between US$15 and US$105 per ton. as is the case in Bolivia. specifically the smaller ones.100 kg/inhab/day while the small and poor settlements in Latin America generate an average of less than 0. the per capita generation reaches 2. This produces an overlapping effect and inconsistencies.910 kg/inhab/day. Mexico and Peru. There are cases in which the per capita generation does not exceed 0. large cities are the largest generators of municipal waste per capita with close to 1. not only in providing urban cleaning services but also in investment in solid waste sector development. control and sanctions. Therefore. adequately disposed of and treated waste. health and environmental ministries have been evolving to replace the governing of the sector and the regulation of services to a certain point.370 kg/inhab/ day to 2. lack management and financial capability. the per capita generation varies between 0. demand a more efficient management of urban sanitation services. The LAC countries are in different stages of development in the solid waste sector. The private sector has been becoming ever more prominent. yet. With regard to the legal aspects applicable to the sector. they are scattered in several legal bodies. treatment and final disposal. The breakdown of these costs corresponds to sweeping. Even though there is an abundance of environmental laws. Municipalities. the effectiveness of current legal tools are minimized. Several deficiencies are observed in guiding the sector. among others.400 kg/inhab/day. but with differing operational modalities: direct public sector administration. great gaps can be observed in the judicial development and in different instruments for their compliance. in its planning and programming at medium and long term. These facts show that economic growth and the level of consumption have a great influence in solid waste generation.
This general rate is not exclusively assigned to the urban sanitation service.9% is for inorganic recycling and 0. The direct and indirect environmental and social costs that represent the production.3% to organic waste recycling.5 per user. which reflects a deficit of close to half the real cost of those services. Informal recycling is widely promoted in Latin America and its magnitude is difficult to identify due to the fact that the activities are subtle. urban sanitation services are strongly subsidized by the central government. potable water and basic wastewater. The formal segregation and recovery of recyclable materials is not carried out on a large scale in LAC. The inadequate management of solid waste has serious consequences in the environment and the health of the population. real estate taxes and others. In the majority of Latin American countries.2% of the materials are recovered from garbage. mainly made up of food and garden waste. The majority do not have the minimum prevention and occupational safety measures. the Evaluation showed that only 2.1. through a consolidated fund formed by different environmental taxes. Investments in the sector are minimal compared to other public services such as electricity. Although the direct casualty has not been determined. coupled by the lack of initiatives to integrate this form of subemployment into the solid waste sector. handling and inadequate disposal of waste to the community are growing and are significant. The environmental impacts are mainly revealed in the contamination of surface and underground waters for public supply and the obstruction of drainage canals due to the uncontrolled dumping of solid wastes in bodies of water. among which there is a significant number of women and children. lastly. mainly those who are in contact with wastes. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean The cost breakdown indicates that the highest cost corresponds to sweeping and waste collection and transportation. who work under unsanitary and subhuman conditions. a value that does not cover the cost for urban sanitation services. and concentrate in acquiring equipment and. financial support for this service is received through the collection of a municipal rate. representing between 60% and 70% of the total cost. but it is part of other services such as public lighting. several diseases are related to wastes when the conditions conducive to the development of several disease agents are present. 19 . The monthly average rates for residential waste in LAC reaches US$2. In the English speaking Caribbean countries. On average. in infrastructure works for final disposal. of which 1. Informal segregation has increased in countries that have gone through a rapid and deep economic crisis as a result of the increase in poverty and unemployment. The situation is more critical for individuals working and living from the recovery of materials from waste. This is the case of the personnel who work in this sector.
by food. the participation of small companies and private micro companies in solid waste collection has been increasing more and more. mainly because this means a more economic alternative for the municipalities and/or sanitation municipal companies. the transmission of pathogen microorganisms through water. Such participation is key to put into practice activities that take into consideration the principle of the three “R’s. the incineration of waste without adequate control equipment. The community has a limited participation in solid waste management in LAC. These are in addition to aesthetic and nuisance impacts due to noise and bad odours. the use of very low cost technologies that use animal. reuse and recycling. Community participation occurs mainly when there is support from NGOs and a strong educational component. as well as vectors that transmit diseases. This is complemented with a great variety of courses. workshops and seminars focused on solid waste management. the breeding of bovine and porcine livestock with contaminated organic waste. and at the same time is supported by a strong national political base that guides the solid waste sector.” reduction. The contribution in research and technological development from institutes and universities for the solid waste area is scarce. The advantages of these companies resides in the intensive use of labour force.Environmental degradation caused by a refuse dump In several countries in LAC. Figure 2 .Other important impacts that affect human health are the emission of air contaminants due to open air burning. Technological and research development in relation to solid waste is reduced in the majority of LAC countries. 20 . human or mechanic (tricycles) traction and the promotion of greater community participation to facilitate the material collection and separation operation at the generation source. The training of human resources in the solid waste area is usually carried out in some universities in the Region as part of the courses related to sanitation engineering and environmental sciences.
allowing more efficient approaches and alternatives for their development. local government. financial self-sustainability and the participation of the private sector and the community. Figure 3 . promoting healthy life styles. in which the lack of information is more significant.1. health-promoting schools and other health promotion strategies are basic to coordinate initiatives with the capacity to maximize participative management that includes the community. especially those which have scarce managerial capability and limited resources. The management aspects of the sector. personal capacity building through education and empowerment. 21 . NGOs and the private sector with the purpose of establishing healthy policies.Correct landfill operation resulting from public administration commitment The solid waste sectoral analysis will continue being a key instrument in this aspect by providing a comprehensive vision of the sector. Taking into consideration that solid waste management is a local activity. therefore. institutional and functional organization. to achieve the proposed national and municipal goals. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean Initiatives such as primary environmental care. healthy municipalities and communities. should be carefully evaluated in each of the countries to determine the appropriate steps. create healthy environments. within the real possibilities of the countries. especially in school and Ecoclub environments on solid waste management topics. national and provincial governments should provide more support to municipalities. regulations and operation of solid waste management services. These initiatives offer great potential for establishing long lasting activities and allowing the use of shared experiences through community networks and alliances with different institutions that share a common interest.
3 Solid waste sector trends The above summary of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean. which demands a more professional management by the municipal administration. 2.Likewise. international cooperation has a broad field of action. makes it possible to identify general sector trends. Public awareness of the importance of urban cleaning services and municipal solid waste management In almost all LAC countries there has been an increase in community awareness of the need for improved solid waste management. The principal causes of this increase are: ! the growing occurrence of environmental problems that affect people’s daily life and the dissemination of information about them through the media. ! the perceived relationship between solid waste management and the wellbeing and health of citizens. and technical cooperation to guide their efforts towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 2 open new opportunities to promote and coordinate national and international activities to improve solid waste management in the Region. Municipalities with a population of over 200. ! the increasing cost of services. especially in institutional capacity building and in the identification and support of sectoral investments. The commitment and will of the governments and financial organizations.org/millenniumgoals. based on Solid Waste Evaluation together with other studies and experiences in this field.un. ! the widespread exposure in the media of problems in developed countries caused by defective handling of hazardous industrial waste or its inappropriate final disposal and the resultant damaging effects on the health of the population. 22 . 1. especially where universal coverage is sought in the urban zones of a municipality.000 have more financial resources and capabilities to deal with the difficulties involved in maintaining sustainable solid waste management. Circumstantial differences in service provision between small municipalities and large or medium-sized cities A gradual improvement in solid waste management can be found in large cities. not only in collection services but more so in final disposal. For more information consult http://www. The issues dealt with below can present variations between one country and another and between one city and another depending on the greater or lesser degree of both commitment by mayors and community participation.
etc. In order for legislation and norms to translate into an improved solid waste management service a formal commitment by the mayor to their application is necessary. 23 . but these initiatives are sometimes hindered by political and economic interests that delay their implementation.1. Only when pressured by society and environmental control bodies do municipal administrations eventually become more aware of the problem and begin to allocate more resources to the sector. urban cleaning services are limited to collection. thus improving coverage and service quality. for example. cooperatives. it is not the only requirement for the achievement of good quality solid waste management. If the mayor does not consider it to be a priority sector. the category into which most Latin American population centres fall (in Brazil. 80% of municipalities have less than 30. for the most part regular.000 inhabitants). The legal framework Some large municipalities are establishing norms for solid waste management through municipal regulations or mayoral decrees and some countries are endeavouring to develop a national solid waste policy. those responsible for municipal services have to pay more attention to the waste issue and are less able to ignore the problem. Although the legal framework is important. It is evident that with easier access to information and its dissemination through the internet. NGOs. but smaller ones often only have one person running these services and for essential material resources depend on departments with other functions. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean In small urban centres. service coverage will not be universal and service quality will not be satisfactory. in zones where inhabitants can influence public policy (commercial and high income residential zones) and final disposal takes place in one or more open air dumps without any sanitary or environmental control. to obtain resources through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from their industrial or urban activities. Carbon credits and the clean development mechanism The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows developing countries. a classification into which all Latin American countries fall. Larger municipalities generally have a department of urban cleaning. budget resources will not be allocated to it. The importance of political will Sound solid waste management in Latin American cities depends to a large extent on the mayor’s commitment to this issue. The training of municipal personnel in the preparation of tender specifications and contracts is a critical element for an efficient initiation and operation of contractual relationships with private counterparts.
Many mayors regard the timing of the arrival of carbon credits as opportune for providing financial support for municipal endeavours to improve solid waste management services. that has determined that composting does not merely reduce but avoids the emission of greenhouse gases as organic matter in aerobic decomposition only gives off carbonic gas and water and not methane. This is so because there is an already existing methodology. and in addition prolongs the latter’s useful life. Difficulties involved in the establishment of new landfills PAHO’s diagnosis confirms that one of the weak points of solid waste management systems in Latin American cities is final waste disposal. offers the great advantage of reducing the generation of leachate instead of producing biogas in landfills. where people are already accustomed to refuse disposal. or to begin one from scratch in another place. The latter option has presented such serious problems that the construction of several new landfills has had to be suspended in response to the reaction of the local community. tested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). and is now reappearing in developing countries. The resources obtained from the sale of Emission Reduction Certificates (ERC) will not guarantee the operation of urban cleaning services. but with the dissemination of information on how this mechanism functions. which can be operated manually in small towns or be mechanized where large amounts of waste have to be processed. municipal administrations will know how to maximize its economic advantages to fulfil municipal needs. Composting Composting is a procedure that is increasingly applied in developed countries due to the prohibition of organic matter dumping in landfills. not to mention the difficulties involved in obtaining environmental licenses for new sites. This system. A complementary advantage of a composting system is that it can contribute to the viability of establishing and operating a medium or large size plant by generating income through the sale of Emission Reduction Certificates. 24 . refuse dumps are beginning to be closed or converted. As mayors become increasingly aware of the seriousness of this problem. Municipal administrations or contracted companies offer compensation to local residents but this is not always accepted. In many cases these problems result in municipalities continuing to operate rubbish dumps and abandoning the establishment of new installations for the final disposal of waste collected in the city. In such cases the municipality must decide whether to establish a landfill in the same place. Nevertheless it must be remembered that such benefits from the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism are in effect only up to 2012. which is the harmful gas that would be generated in a landfill if the organic matter was deposited there.
with bags of domestic waste being opened. other independent segregators compete in the streets with the formal system. The last hope is recyclable waste that can be found amongst the refuse. Even where the recycling system is institutionalized with the participation of segregator organizations. This is a long process and satisfactory results will depend on the provision of numerous examples until residents become convinced that it is possible. the segregation of materials is often done in a disorderly way. This situation will continue while unemployment remains one of the principal scourges of Latin American countries. materials that can be commercialized separated and the waste that the segregator is not interested in is left scattered on the street. This resistance on the part of segregators is due to the danger of them losing their only source of income. and therefore reduces the costs of collection. as well as extending the useful life of landfills. On the one hand this activity has positive aspects: waste can be a source of income for these people who do not have any other way of surviving and their work removes a significant amount of material from the urban cleaning circuit. especially the larger ones. Informal segregators and formal selective collection systems Due to the growing unemployment that is found in almost all Latin American cities. the street segregators have already taken it. 25 . which produces serious problems and much more work for the sweeping services. more and more people resort to the streets in search of some means of survival. while the public authority is not able to create hundreds of jobs overnight or provide programs that generate income to replace that gained from segregation activity in landfills and the streets. This phenomenon is happening in almost all large and medium-sized cities in Latin America and the prognosis is that it will increase. In many South American cities segregators working in rubbish dumps or landfills react forcefully when the municipality attempts to implement the closure of the site and begins a new landfill where their activity will not be allowed. In addition municipalities that are implementing formal selective collection systems are facing difficulties in that before the truck passes to collect the recyclable waste. transfer and final disposal. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean Communities have also reacted negatively to the establishment of new transfer stations on the grounds that in general landfills and other urban cleaning installations are poorly managed. On the other hand.1. It is necessary to convince local residents that a well managed landfill can exist relatively close to houses.
a municipality’s income from rates or specific tariffs is nowhere near enough to cover the costs of urban cleaning services. way of disposing of their rubbish. This is due not 26 . a state of affairs that is detrimental to other municipal services. most large and medium-sized cities outsource collection. The resources needed for the maintenance of sound and sustainable urban cleaning operations have to be allocated from the municipal budget and this represents the biggest challenge faced by administrators. Money raised together with national governmental or multilateral bodies for investment in equipment such as collection trucks or in the construction of installations such as landfills. Economic sustainability of the sector In general.Contract types Municipal administrations face two big challenges in relation to solid waste management in Latin American cities: to provide a universal service and to improve its quality. but success is dependent on the mayor’s level of commitment and political will to prioritize the issue. In general this has proved to be a satisfactory solution. usually does not solve this problem. This constitutes one of the main impediments to good quality service management as municipal administrations have to allocate monies from their budgets for urban cleaning services without a corresponding income from rate or tariff collection. As municipal budgets are finite. provided that the specifications are reasonable and the tender process respects the limits required by law and administrative probity. The incidence of payment arrears is high and there is not much that can be done to reduce it as an interruption of collection services would only reduce the cleanliness of the city as households that do not receive this service would find another. The municipality for its part takes on the monthly payment of bills for services rendered and the coordination and supervision of such services. no doubt inappropriate. transfer and final disposal operations thus transferring to the private sector the burden of investment and operational costs. As a result. especially for the establishment and operation of large sanitary landfills that require significant investment and therefore a longer period to see a return on it. The trends of change Many municipalities are training their technical personnel and seeking resources from provincial or national bodies with a view to improving service quality. In recent times some large cities have contracted services with long term concessions. mayors are beginning to look for more effective and less expensive service provision models and are increasingly contracting work.
As a result. with the help. 27 . There is now an unprecedented level of attention and debate on municipal solid waste management and a seemingly inexorable search by municipalities for models that are sustainable from both a socioeconomic and environmental perspective.1. municipal administrations are signing agreements that establish periods within which service provision has to reach specified levels of quality and coverage. of provincial and national governments. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean only to the increased awareness of both mayors and the general public about the significance of this issue. even if sporadic. but also to the improved performance of environmental control bodies and national ministries that oversee municipalities’ compliance with their legal obligations.
2 Integrated solid waste management 28 .
in order to establish a shared concept in which all win and positive socio-environmental outcomes are produced. recovery and recycling processes and technologies. The concept of integrated solid waste management considers the entire cycle including production. Traditional practices. address the problems of solid waste in a partial way. Typical situations are: ! high technology industrial processes aimed at competitive insertion in global markets side by side with obsolete industrial processes that produce significant environmental damage. transported and disposed of in landfills – which as a consequence will occupy smaller areas or will have a longer useful life – contributes to the economic and environmental sustainability of systems. treatment plants and final disposal. It is important to emphasize the significant differences between traditional and integrated approaches to this subject: in the latter waste is always regarded as a raw material for the production of new products through reuse. as a result of which they are now called the 29 . The optimization of these circuits reduces to a minimum the amount of waste for final disposal. Waste therefore has a commercial value that can be added to the production chain thus creating new work opportunities and generating income for various sectors of society. Integrated solid waste management Latin American and Caribbean cities present great regional and local imbalances. to the maximization of its reuse through the implementation of more appropriate collection systems for each situation and the employment of treatment. ! the availability of waste processing technologies together with a lack of the financial and human resources necessary to maintain them and the presence of large groups of segregators in streets and rubbish dumps. frameworks and practices in regard to solid waste management. discarding and final disposal. This is the approach recommended by Agenda 21: the transformation of the production and consumption matrix on the basis of the 3R’s – reduce. ! consumption pockets having a pattern associated with high levels of refuse production equivalent to that of developed countries together with large sectors of the population who do not have access to consumer goods. In practice this concept ranges from the minimization of waste generation in the production process. In this way only waste with no utility is left for final disposal. It is of fundamental importance to also take into consideration the generation of waste. recycling or recovery. The reduction of waste to be collected.2. reuse and recycle – to which has now been added a new R for recover. recyclers and managers. consumption. consumers. dealing only with the management of the system. including packaging. the sustainability of systems and the role of citizens as generators. generally insulated. which call for the establishment of new concepts.
social.” (Agenda 21. particularly environmental sanitation. However it is possible for a group of municipalities to develop them and share some solutions especially for the final disposal of waste. amongst which are: ! citizens themselves.4R’s. “Environmentally sound waste management must go beyond the mere safe disposal or recovery of generated waste and seek to address the root cause of the problem by attempting to change unsustainable patterns of production and consumption. private and community stakeholders in the conception and planning of processes and solutions. including water provision. Usually it is recommended that these plans are developed at a municipal or local level. This implies the application of the integrated life cycle management concept. juridical. sewerage systems. responsible for the separation and differentiated pre-collection storage of recyclable materials and other domestic waste. rainwater drainage and vector control. chapter 21) Putting these criteria and the concept of integrated solid waste management into practice in Latin American and Caribbean cities requires the development of local participation processes. 30 . not only provided by the municipality but also by other agents participating in the management. Participation processes allow the different stakeholders to identify opportunities that can lead to solutions for the problems presented by solid waste. and in the implementation of an urban cleaning system. or in the case of smaller countries. ! ! the integration of all elements of the solid waste cycle in the 4R’s processes. Some elements are essential for the development of integrated solid waste management (ISWM) processes: ! the participation of all public. even national level. ISWMPs must be complemented by national and regional policies on this issue. through the development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan (ISWMP). On whatever scale they are made. machines. provincial. the integration of technical. This model has been used as a tool to solve problems arising from the increasing amounts of solid waste generated by the industrial society. institutional and political aspects in order to guarantee system sustainability. which presents a unique opportunity to reconcile development with environmental protection. Integrated management depends on the functioning of specific sub-systems that involve installations. ! the articulation of proposed solid waste systems with overall urban planning and other urban systems. Plans can also be formulated at a regional. labour and technology. environmental.
thus generating income and jobs.2. environmental and political-institutional dimensions and system sustainability. integrated solid waste management prioritizes the social. the determination of the appropriate technology for each situation. ! health institutions with an internal management of infectious waste that either sterilizes it or appropriately separates it by type for differentiated collection. Environmental – the development of clean technology for application to solid waste. the formulation of specific policies for solid waste management. agreements and cooperation accords. a rational use of natural resources taking into account waste minimization. Integrated solid waste management ! ! large generators. the recovery of operational costs through differentiated charge mechanisms according to generator profile and payment capacity. the implementation of juridical instruments and ISWMPs. Technical-operational – the establishment of a specific department and the appointment of responsible personnel. Political-institutional – the integration of public authorities and other stakeholders and institutions with a clear delimitation of responsibilities. institutions and contracted companies. In addition to the technical and financial aspects of conventional urban cleaning systems and final disposal systems. valued and associated in the solid waste production chain. segregators organized in cooperatives. responsible for their own waste. irrespective of the socioeconomic level and ethnic origin of the population. 31 . environmental information dissemination and education as instruments for the transformation of personal and collective production and consumption patterns. and by means of contracts. including the possibility of consortium solutions. specific approaches must be promoted in each related field: Social – community participation and quality control. In order to guarantee sustainability from a multi-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary perspective. ! the municipality. plays the principal role in the integrated management of the entire system. the provision of sufficient capacity in machines and labour to provide universal coverage in public urban cleaning services. Economic-financial – an analysis of system costs and the possibility of minimizing them in order to make systems economically viable. that through its agents. and the social inclusion of segregators who have to be organized. reusable material recovery. and appropriate treatment and final disposal. responsible for separating recyclable materials discarded by citizens and selling them to the relevant companies. the definition of training programs.
3 Institutional models and payment for services 32 .
It is important that citizens know that they are the ones who are paying for the system through taxes.3. contribute to the solution of socioeconomic problems related with the issue. which has to be technically and socially just. has the capacity to: ! foster the economical sustentability of operations. ! ! ! The municipal solid waste management model not only has to allow for the participation of the community but also specifically facilitate it in order to generate public awareness of the different activities involved in the system and its implementation costs. and defines infractions and their respective fines. Institutional models and payment for services 3. Policy instrumentation will be structured through the approval of urban cleaning regulations whereby the city legitimizes the adopted management model and social obligations. This priority must be considered in the definition of municipal fiscal policy. Such regulations must clearly reflect the objectives of the public authority and raise public awareness in regard to appropriate urban solid waste management and environmental problems. cleaner streets. and public institutions active in the city and having significant environmental responsibilities. protect the environment. Such participation would directly result in a reduction of solid waste generation. the appropriate preparation and storage of waste for collection and consequently a cheaper operation. 33 . rates or tariffs. In summary. community participation is a key element in the sustainability of the system while the municipality is responsible for establishing an integrated management that necessarily includes awareness raising programs for citizens who will then perceive that the political will to prioritize municipal solid waste management exists. Policy making is based on the participation of social leaders. and in the subsequent budget allocation to the system that should include provision for environmental education and the development of programs that generate income opportunities and employment. and induce an acknowledgment by citizens of their role as consumers and therefore as generators of solid waste.1 Concept A city’s urban cleaning system should be institutionalized on the basis of an integrated management model that. private companies. to the maximum degree possible. protect inhabitants’ quality of life.
directly or through delegates with the objective of effectively satisfying collective needs. sanitary and environmental problems. It also facilitates greater management autonomy. Public services are all material activities assigned by law to the State for it to exercise. This model is generally used in smaller cities that do not have a volume of service provision that is attractive to the private sector. low degree of training. directly or indirectly. political interference and frequent crises in the service. 34 . This model is more flexible than direct municipal administration and is more compatible with the dynamic of daily urban cleaning tasks.3. Except where they have been resolved in particular cases. is that it is essential for the community and therefore its provision represents an obligation for the public authority and its management is subject to the legal principles specifically related with the efficient provision of service to the community. What characterizes a public service. under a partially or totally public regime. inevitable bureaucracy. A public service is an activity undertaken by a public body with a view to satisfying a public interest need. and distinguishes it from other economic activities. responsible for organizing and providing essential local services and is therefore responsible for urban cleaning services. Autonomous authority This modality involves the creation of a public company specifically for the administration of urban cleaning. the creation of a specialized labour force and better conditions for budgetary planning. The negative results of this group of difficulties are: a dissatisfied public. and indeterminate service costs. Urban cleaning systems can be administered in different ways: Direct municipal management In this case the provision of urban cleaning services is the responsibility of a municipal department or body.2 Forms of administration In general the municipality is. the chronic problems inherent to this model are: insufficient budget.
In addition. Integrated Solid Waste Management Workshop organized by IDRC in Sao Paulo. supervision and the charging of tariffs for services provided. organization and equipping of a new specialized structure in the municipality. they have the necessary flexibility to adopt appropriate alternatives for the provision of some components of the service. if well planned at every stage – from specifications in the bidding phase to the overseeing of operations – can make a large contribution to the municipal administration’s ability to improve the quality of services provided to the public. final disposal and the recovery of energy from waste by generating biogas and in some cases selling carbon credits 3. from contracting well structured companies.000. to contracting micro-companies or independent workers who undertake waste collection with carts pulled by animals or the manual operation of small-sized landfills. In these cases the companies have several responsibilities including planning. Outsourcing In this model a private sector company is contracted to undertake an activity. 35 . Institutional models and payment for services Positive examples of urban cleaning administration by municipal public companies can be found in some cities in Ecuador.3. for example. and can even outsource operations and collect payments directly from users/beneficiaries of the service. 2005. In many LAC cities outsourcing is employed for urban cleaning services with sweeping and/or collection often undertaken by small civil society organizations. Outsourcing is based on the concept of public administration undertaking the functions of planning. implements and coordinates the service. treatment. All these cases of delegating state functions to civil society authenticate outsourcing as an efficient practice. Concessions In this modality the concession holder plans. specialized in certain types of operation such as landfill management. It should be emphasized that service outsourcing can be employed on different scales. Colombia and Costa Rica with populations of no more than 500. Brazil. workers cooperatives or small companies through contracts established by municipalities. Some functions are undertaken by NGOs. including sweeping. organizes. This model is only appropriate for large cities as it requires the creation. with a predefined mechanism of payment based on the specific services to be provided and technical-administrative convenience. especially in regard to the speed of response to operational requirements (for example the purchase of spare parts for collector vehicles). 3. coordination and overseeing while the private company is responsible for operations. Outsourcing.
or any combination of them. program or project are combined in a consortium to facilitate its implementation. formulation of tender specifications and contracts. Any of these alternatives. at their own expense. Free market This model can be applied for example to large-scale solid waste generators when municipal regulations have defined the maximum quantities permitted for collection by the common domestic collection system and have established that large-scale generators have an obligation to contract. This type of modality has proved ineffective for collection services. In the case of public services that are delegated to third-parties through concessions. However. and the overseeing and control of service provision. concession contracts are long term to allow for a return on investments in the system through tariffs charged to users. In general. calculating costs and overseeing services. which implies a need for technical and administrative training in order to undertake the activities pertaining to the process. significant difficulties lie in the limited guarantees that concession holders receive in regard to the collection of payment for their services and the problems that municipalities have in preparing tender specifications. Consortium A consortium results from an agreement between municipalities with the objective of achieving established common goals. 36 . including technical decisions. the issuing authority keeps the ownership of the service and the right to oversee it. although it functions less well when applied in small cities. authorized companies for the collection of excess waste.This management model is adopted in special situations where the public authority does not have the necessary technological or budgetary resources to implement interventions or finance the significant investments that are indispensable in dealing with problems related to municipal solid waste management in general or a particular aspect of it. It can also be applied to the collection of construction rubble and other civil construction waste in order to alleviate the burden on the public system. has to be selected on the basis of both low cost and environmentally sound technique and with a view to establishing a self-sustainable system that is resistant to changes of administration. All of each municipality’s human and financial resources available for a certain initiative. definition of reference framework. but has been widely employed with relative successs in landfill management.
autonomy in the application and reallocation of budgetary resources. An association of municipalities for common measures and projects. IT systems and quality control. leaving the generator responsible for contracting a collection company at their own expense. especially in solid waste final disposal. demographic and economic characteristics as well as the socio-cultural particularities of its inhabitants must be considered in defining the form of administration. management and supervision. responsiveness to operational emergencies. investment capacity for technological development.3. Autonomous authority Outsourcing Concession Free market Consortium A city’s urban. In such cases management is usually undertaken by a municipal body or department that shares resources with other sectors of public administration. autonomy and flexibility in planning and decision-making. Employed when the public authority lacks sufficient resources to finance the necessary investment in the system. Urban cleaning administration by a public company specifically created for that purpose. 37 . responsiveness to changing economic circumstances. ! ! ! ! responsiveness to social and political demands. As has already been said. Institutional models and payment for services Table 1 Forms of urban cleaning service administration Administration Direct municipal management Description Urban cleaning activities run by a municipal department or body. investment capacity for human resources and the generation of income and employment. responsiveness to growth in demand for services. direct administration of the entire urban cleaning system is common in small cities. The contracting of a private company to undertake certain activities. Applied in the cases of large-scale generators where regulations define maximum limits for municipal collection. while at the same time taking into account the following factors: ! ! ! ! ! cost of service administration.
changing economic circumstances and operational emergencies. liberating the municipality of the need to invest resources in the purchase of machines and equipment. The existence of such agencies exclusively devoted to urban cleaning demonstrates the commitment of the municipality to keeping the city clean and caring for the urban environment. Ecuador. and define the technical terms of contracts. In such a model there can be problems when unforeseen eventualities arise. the municipality only undertakes the administration of contracts and the monitoring of service quality and therefore the municipal administrative nucleus can be small. management and administrative services. and Pereira. Colombia. They can also outsource operational. 38 . and by the Public Cleaning Companies of Cuenca. Whatever model is adopted. in the context of medium-sized cities in the Andean region. All of them are autonomous urban cleaning companies and are therefore able to define their own budget allocations. strategies and the logistics of their operations.This type of administration that shares resources with other bodies of the municipality usually has a relatively low cost in comparison with a body or institution exclusively devoted to urban cleaning management. activities should always be regulated by the public authority. These companies can develop or subsidize research and technologies related to urban cleaning in general as well as specific areas of it. such as ones relating to social and political demands. However. establish human resource policy and most importantly. in the context of large Brazilian cities. A model that is worth highlighting is the one employed by the Rio de Janeiro City Urban Cleaning Company (COMLURB). as the predetermined form of remuneration established in the contract may not cover them. It is therefore advisable that the municipality establishes contract devices or alternative plans to deal with such eventualities. determine plans. For their part. the companies charge the municipality enough to cover both operational costs and capital expenditure. In determining the form of urban cleaning services administration in tourist cities seasonal fluctuations in demand for services has to be particularly taken into consideration. the other factors listed above are difficult to achieve and the service tends to have a lower priority than other services sharing the same resources and having a greater potential for political visibility. In cases where refuse collection and street cleaning services are outsourced by contracting specialized companies.
In regard to the collection of payments for service provision. direct or autonomous. Urban cleaning systems are financed by almost all of the population but not in a direct way. usually called “Waste Collection Rate (WCR)”. The term “rate” on the other hand. ensured collection of charges for urban cleaning. In cases of concession. Similarly. the Municipality can charge residents a specific rate. Certain specific services where usage can be measured and users are clearly identifiable can be priced and therefore be charged for exclusively through a tariff. refers to a tax on the availability of a public service provided by the public authority.3. for example. the company responsible for providing such services may also be responsible for collecting payments for them. which must be well defined and specifically calculated. whether the taxpayer uses it or not. This chapter therefore concentrates on a basic outline of the subject. 3. and whatever the administration modality. In the case of domestic waste collection. which in some cases may need to be adapted to the particularities of each country’s legislation. The value of the rate must reflect divisibility amongst tax-payers in accordance with potential usage by each one. 39 . a municipality cannot charge residents of a street for the sweeping and cleaning services of that street in particular as it is an indivisible service. that is to say that the tariff is proportional to the amount and quality of the service used. It is therefore necessary that municipal policy ensures a sufficiently large budget allocation to cover the cost of the system and essential investment in it. The term “tariff” refers to the price charged for a public service provided in an optional form. street cleaning and final disposal. Financial resources raised by the waste collection rate cannot be allocated exclusively to the system due to municipal tax regulations. 3 Payment for services The singularities of tax legislation in each Latin American and Caribbean country makes it difficult to compile a complete generalized summary of the issue of payment for urban cleaning services. an urban cleaning system can simply be divided into three components: domestic waste collection. Institutional models and payment for services In all cases. the municipality has to harmoniously combine two elements: ! ! just and sufficient payment for services.
This is being applied to particular geographical areas and follows the “pay as you throw” principle. In some countries only a reform of the tax system would provide municipalities with the necessary instruments to reimburse them in a socially just way for the urban cleaning services that they provide to citizens. if this is necessary. 40 . There are no guarantees that they will be used in the urban cleaning sector. However this measure does not have much punitive value as it represents only a long term threat to the non-payer in the form of the eventual confiscation of his or her property. where payment levels are related to the volume of waste generated. It should also be noted that the updating or correction of the rate depends on authorization by the municipal council. There have been attempts to relate the determination of this rate to the consumption of drinking water or electricity. and even though it is a legally dubious measure. of rates or tariffs. There is no consensus about the most appropriate basis on which a municipal rate for financing urban cleaning services should be calculated. because rubbish put in the street by the non-payer has to be collected anyway for public health reasons. until the situation balances itself with an improvement in the quality of services provided. i. in some cases an authority may resort to inscribing the property of the nonpayer in the municipal register of public debt. it has to be taken into account that financial resources raised by cleaning and solid waste management rates become part of the Municipal Treasury. or delayed payment. the quality of services deteriorates and a vicious circle is established. as electricity or drinking water provision can be. If it is not possible to adequately finance the system. etc.In some Latin American cities there is an incipient trend towards payment through tariffs. There are few legal remedies for the problem of non payment. or to the frontage width of the plot. The municipal solid waste management will be defective due to insufficient resources and the population may not accept the payment of rates because it is not receiving good quality service. The municipality then has to choose one of the following options: ! to face for a certain period the political cost involved in increasing taxes. Waste collection is not a service that can be suspended when bills are not paid. It is therefore necessary to reverse the tendency to attribute a low priority to urban cleaning services that results in them receiving fewer resources than are necessary. this being dependent on the political will of the administration or public budget control mechanisms. especially so in view of the socioeconomic conditions of most Latin American and Caribbean populations. Once these issues are resolved.e. which in general is not inclined to increase the tax burden imposed on citizens. In the absence of other available strategies.
municipalities almost invariably need to resort to sources of finance that do not always offer appropriate terms and involve prerequisites that are not easy to adapt to. both for the purchase of equipment and the installation of treatment and final disposal units. supervision and support services. research. 41 . treatment and final disposal services. Payment for urban cleaning systems is calculated by applying the following basic equation: Payments = Expenses Expenses = Municipal Treasury resources + amount collected from WCR + amount collected from tariffs and various other incomes Payments should cover the costs of the system which include expenditure on labour. Institutional models and payment for services ! to subsidize the cost of the service during an initial period until service quality reaches an adequate level. at which point the subsidy can be gradually reduced as its value is gradually incorporated in the rate specifically charged to finance the service. as has already been mentioned. replacement of vehicles and other equipment. with their own resources (labour and machinery). transport. backup. A feasible solution for municipalities that do not have resources for investment is. undertake collection. when an industry is producing a certain product the cost of an appropriate final disposal of waste generated in the production process should be reflected in the sale price of that product. The investment needed for these units is very high and the acquisition of licenses from environmental control bodies involves a long and complicated process. outsourcing through contracts with private companies that. In such cases a concession can also be an appropriate alternative especially when the necessary investment is higher and requires a more prolonged period to allow for a return on it. However. a sustainable balance must be established between generators and the private operators of centres for treatment and final disposal. capital expenditure.3. street cleaning. In this case. It is worth digressing to mention industrial waste management. maintenance. technological development and administration. In regard to investment. Here a tariff is determined as the means by which the concession company makes a return on its investment.
e. will have to be sustained by resources from the Municipal Treasury. taking into consideration factors such as social stratum (with a view to socially just pricing) and operational characteristics. It should be noted that an efficient way of reducing urban cleaning costs is to motivate the population to decrease the amount of waste generated and implement specific programs for the segregation of recyclable waste at source and its selective collection. The establishment of reliable administration and supervision mechanisms for all services relating to urban cleaning is essential in order to correctly ascertain the real costs involved in service provision and therefore the appropriate base for calculating the amount of finance needed to operate the system in an efficient and sustainable way. hotels. It should be emphasized that all operations not financed by adequate tariffs and an efficient tax collection system. that can be measured) such as special collections. Municipal Treasury resources plus the money from tariffs should be equivalent to the budget for expenditure and capital costs for all the operations involved in the cleaning of a city. medical waste collection and the removal of construction rubble or discarded items. The charging of a realistic and socially just rate that citizens can afford and that effectively covers the cost of services and applies the “he who can pays more” principle implies political measures that are dependant on the will and determination of the mayor. in which case the budget must allow for a specific allocation to the urban cleaning sector. etc. can be charged by collecting companies authorized by the municipality.Irrespective of the management model adopted.1 Guidelines for the calculation of a waste collection rate For the system to be economically sustainable. The payment for waste collection services to large generators (restaurants. 3. the basic unit of the waste collection rate (WCR) should be the quotient of the total budget for domestic solid waste collection services and the number of households in the city. or create waste recycling subsidies. 42 .) as well as for other services to which a tariff can be applied (i.3. The basic WCR value can be adapted to the particularities of individual neighbourhoods in the city. otherwise the Municipality would have to reallocate resources designated for other areas. supermarkets.
as well as costs relating to administration. education and technological development that are linked to collection. etc. so that those who generate more rubbish pay more. market. etc. so that higher income sectors subsidize services provided to the less well off. This approach involves a greater community commitment to segregating waste at source (home. residential. Institutional models and payment for services Social stratum is determined on the basis of the average purchasing power of the inhabitants of different zones of the city. capital expenditure. monitoring systems. The promotion of this model is important but depends on a wide motivational and educational campaign in the community. produces an economic benefit for the population as a whole. The establishment of a charging mechanism based on the amount of rubbish generated. type of road surface.3. treatment and final disposal. Operational characteristics reflect the amount of labour and materials used in the collection process depending on property usage (commercial. The budget also has to cover the costs of transfer. shop. transport. etc. topographic conditions. In recent years a more conservationist vision is increasingly influential in the determination of pricing polices for urban cleaning. handling and particularly recycling. In general a distributive criterion is applied. location.) in order to facilitate collection. 43 .). demographic density. management.
4 Legislation and environmental licenses 44 .
In Latin American and Caribbean countries there is wide ranging legislation in the form of laws. classifying and recycling materials.4. cooperating with cleaning by reducing the amount of waste. This approach could be called the principle of service reliability and citizen cooperation for integrated solid waste management. reusing. The community participates in this management in two ways: ! ! contributing to the financing of services and monitoring them.1 Introduction Integrated municipal urban cleaning system management is based on the fundamental conceptual premise of community participation and a systematic political exercise involving all institutions linked to the pertinent spheres of government. Citizens can be encouraged to reduce the amount of waste that they produce in order to diminish the costs of the operation. ! the third is the legal structure that regulates general environmental issues on a national basis and in particular deals with licenses for the implementation of activities that represent a risk to public health or the environment. and defines administrative processes and punitive measures. A combination of citizen cooperation and measures to increase the reliability of urban cleaning services constitutes a powerful pairing that can solve the principal problems relating to urban cleaning systems. Legislation and environmental licenses 4. and by not throwing rubbish in the streets. rulings and regulations that manifest an increasing concern 45 . orientates. Measures geared to guaranteeing good quality operations and a well structured program of environmental education need legal instruments that support them. ordinances. regulates and determines procedures and the obligations of tax-payers and urban cleaning agents. appropriately preparing and storing waste for collection. of a political and economic order. ! the second. decrees. segregating. establishes the legal forms for institutionalizing the administration of a system and the methods of payment and charging for services. 4. establishes operational codes.2 Legislation The legislation required to set up an urban cleaning system falls into three general categories: ! the first. Community cooperation should be considered as the principal agent for transforming the efficiency of services and consequently generating beneficial operational and budgetary results.
the implementation of environmental impact assessment processes.for environmental protection. Specifically. For example. Article 225 of the Federal Constitution imposes on public authorities (Union. sub-sections VI and VII. Furthermore. and introduce other public authority instruments aimed at protecting the environment. the Brazilian Federal Constitution determines that a municipality constitutes a political entity. under its organic law. Municipalities can legislate. either directly or through agreements. establish and collect municipal taxes and choose their mayors and councillors. municipalities are also responsible for the protection of the environment. including the making of agreements to improve environmental management. the states and the municipalities. works or activities that actually or potentially produce environmental degradation. the design of environmental protection projects. Environment Conservation Fund and Municipal Environment Department). the charging of rates and tariffs and associations with other bodies that can contribute or cooperate. and the requiring where necessary of environmental impact studies or environmental recuperation guarantees prior to the granting of a license. municipal urban cleaning regulations should serve as the spine of the city’s urban cleaning system by establishing the essential principles that govern the conduct of both municipal authority and citizens. the analysis of projects. under their organic law municipalities must decide on the best alternative for the institutionalization of the urban cleaning system. State and Municipal) and the community a duty to defend and preserve the environment for present and future generations thus establishing that a municipality has an obligation of environmental protection. In most Latin American and Caribbean countries. Article 30 sub-section I allows them to legislate for local matters in the public interest and therefore to implement municipal environmental policy. 46 . In regard to urban cleaning initiatives mostly emanate from municipal councils under their organic law and through local legal instruments. Taking into account the urban scale (determined by the number of inhabitants) and the city’s socioeconomic and cultural circumstances. a municipality can. regulate the granting of licenses by the relevant municipal body for the exploitation of water and mineral resources. provide services. and sub-section VIII grants them exclusive authority to legislate on land planning and land usage in their territory. Sub-section II of the same article. combating contamination and preserving forests. The environmental management system will include amongst its functions. when the governing plan for a city is formulated. which establish that the Brazilian Federation comprises the Union. fauna and flora. The municipality can therefore pass environmental protection legislation and enforce it. as prescribed by the 1st and 18th articles. authorizes them to supplement federal and state legislation where appropriate. irrespective of their institutional status in the country. the form of management. in the section on environmental policy an environmental management system can be established through which environmental policy is implemented (Municipal Council for the Environment. As established by article 23.
3 Environmental licenses It is necessary to establish a system for the granting of environmental licenses that defines responsibilities. Paraguay. In Brazil. such as the installation of a sanitary landfill. instalment. establishes that the public authority. as for example in Colombia. Legislation and environmental licenses In recent times an innovative vision. 47 . Another legal instrument. enlargement and operation of establishments or the undertaking of activities that use environmental resources and are considered as actually or potentially contaminating or degrading to the environment. known as ecosystem management. must grant the respective licenses before the establishment of an installation and its operation can begin.4. 4. has come to the fore in environmental assessment: the incorporation of the river basin concept in the definition of the area of influence or impact of a project. a federal law establishes National Environmental Policy mechanisms. including the granting of licenses and the revision of “actually” or “potentially” contaminating activities. With a view to facilitating the granting of licences for new sanitary landfills and refuse dump recuperation in small and medium-sized municipalities. in exercise of its regulatory function. especially in the event of natural disasters and particularly so in the case of flooding. Under the legislation of many Latin American countries it is the Environment Ministry that is responsible for issuing licenses. The same law requires that the construction. establishes criteria for environmental impact assessments and identifies activities that require a prior environmental impact study. Peru and Brazil. This concept is particularly significant in the case of defective management of solid waste dumps located near the higher courses of rivers that form part of a water basin used for water supplies to cities downstream. which requires legal instruments to cover the extrapolation of municipal responsibilities. SISNAMA. echoing the text of the National Environmental Policy law. are dependent on the prior granting of a license by the competent provincial body integrated in the National Environmental System. Waste disposal in water courses represents an environmental risk that renders populations vulnerable. In many cases the renewal of a license is necessary to authorize the recommencement of an operation. specific legislation can be passed that simplifies the processes involved in obtaining environmental licenses and adapts them to the economic capacity of the Municipal Treasury. without prejudice to other required licenses. Chile.
or the generation of waste. etc. tyres. ! establish the definition and classification of solid waste from healthcare institutions. ! define appropriate treatment and final disposal for medical waste. including their collection. ! create security zones around airports that restrict the establishment within them of operations that attract birds. ! define the responsibilities of and criteria for environmental impact assessments and identify activities that require an environmental impact study. treatment and final disposal. until the relevant environmental body takes responsibility for it. used oils. ! regulate environmentally sound initial disposal and management of used batteries. truck and bus batteries. airports. ! establish criteria for the granting of licences for industrial activities and for the specific controls that existent waste. ! regulate the final disposal of discarded car. Finally. ! determine a colour code system for different types of waste that must be used for container identification and in educational campaigns on waste segregation. contaminated.4. ! establish criteria for the definition of requirements to obtain licences for works involving sanitary issues. so that each type of waste can be appropriately handled and disposed of. ! the definition of the minimum conditions required in the planning.4 Regulations applicable to solid waste In other Latin American and Caribbean countries there are legal instruments applicable to solid waste management that: ! prohibit the entrance into the country of waste material for final disposal or incineration. recycling. should be subject to. regulate all related aspects and establish criteria for determining which jurisdictions issue them. ! establish a system for the granting of environmental licenses. reuse. there are aspects of solid waste management that can be subject to technical regulations. ports. uncategorized or abandoned material that is deemed to be a potential source of environmental risk. railway stations and bus terminals and the minimum procedures for its management. ! determine appropriate procedures for the handling of damaged. such as: ! the classification of solid waste by its potential risk to the environment and public health. establishment and operation of non-hazardous waste landfills in order to appropriately protect 48 .
! the definition of criteria for the presentation of projects to establish municipal solid waste controlled landfills. 49 . Legislation and environmental licenses superficial and underground water resources. ! the definition of criteria for the presentation of projects to establish municipal solid waste sanitary landfills. its operators and neighbouring residents.4. ! the definition of criteria for the planning. establishment and operation of hazardous waste landfills.
5 Solid waste: origin. definition and characteristics 50 .
reactive. 5. as what is of no use for the person who discards it. undesirable or disposable by the generators and that may be solid or semi-solid” (substances or products with a humidity content of less than 85%). The more usual classifications take into account the waste’s potential risk for environmental contamination or its nature and origin.2. things that are useless. CLASS II NON-INERT SOLID WASTE Combustible. 51 . worn out and without any value. some regulatory entities define rubbish as: “the leftovers from human activity that are considered useless.2 Solid waste classification Solid waste can be classified in different ways. inert waste. In this manual solid waste and refuse comprises all solid or semisolid unwanted material that must be collected because the person that discards it considers it to be of no use and gets rid of it by putting it in any receptacle intended for that purpose. The concept of the reuse of waste therefore prompts a reconsideration of the traditional concept of solid waste. can be transformed into raw material for a new product or process.1 Potential environmental contamination risks Solid waste can be classified as: CLASS I HAZARDOUS SOLID WASTE Solid waste that is intrinsically inflammable. or produces adverse environmental impacts when inappropriately handled or disposed of.1 Definition of rubbish and solid waste The general public tends to think that “rubbish is everything that is not wanted any more and is discarded. The authors of studies on solid waste tend to use the terms “refuse” and “solid waste” without distinction. biodegradable or soluble waste that can represent health or environmental risks but does not fall within Class I. hazardous waste. definition and characteristics 5. corrosive. Solid waste: origin. Only material that is not reusable by anybody can be truly considered to be rubbish. toxic or pathogenic and therefore represents a risk to public health in the form of increased mortality or morbidity.” Technically. or Class III. It should be emphasized however. 5.5. that in regard to rubbish the term “of no use” is relative.
airport.2 Nature and origin Origin is the principal element in categorizing solid waste. solid waste can be grouped in five categories: ! ! ! ! Residential or domestic waste Commercial waste Street waste Special domestic waste: ! ! ! ! rubble batteries fluorescent tubes tyres ! Special origin waste: ! ! ! ! ! industrial waste radioactive waste port.CLASS III INERT SOLID WASTE Waste with intrinsic characteristics that do not represent a risk to health or the environment and that when sampled in a representative way in accordance with the relevant norms and subjected to static or dynamic contact with distillate or deionized water at room temperature (dissolution tests). 5. does not have any of its dissolved components in concentrations higher than those in drinking water patterns. turbidity and taste. COMMERCIAL WASTE Waste generated by commercial establishments. condominiums and other types of residential building. railway station and bus terminal waste agricultural waste medical waste RESIDENTIAL OR DOMESTIC WASTE Waste generated by daily activities in houses. colour. the characteristics of which depend on the particular activities pursued by such establishments. apartments. According to this criterion. except in regard to aspect. 52 .2.
small generators of construction rubble are individuals or companies that generate up to 1. In general. The parameters could be: Small commercial waste generators are establishments that generate up to 120 litres of waste per day. This practice reduces by between 10% and 20% the cost of domestic waste collection by the municipality. Large commercial waste generators are establishments that generate more than 120 litres of waste per day. STREET WASTE Waste that is found in the streets produced by nature. paper. packaging and food remains. soil and sand. In an urban cleaning system the definition of the sub-groups “small” and “large” generators is important because a tariff can be applied to the collection of waste produced by large generators. Similarly. together with waste from street cleaning. branches. 53 .000 kg or 50 bags of 30 litres per day. Solid waste: origin. definition and characteristics In urban cleaning terms. and waste discarded by people in a disorganized and improper way. such as rubble. “domestic waste” is made up of “residential waste” and “smallscale commercial waste” which. dust. Municipal urban cleaning regulations can precisely define these two sub-groups.5. the quantity of waste that defines the limit between small and large solid waste generators should correspond to the average amount of solid waste generated daily by a household with five residents. such as leaves. thus producing an additional source of income that contributes to the economic viability of the system. Clearly these sub-categories cannot be adopted without also establishing a minimum interval between any two collections of rubble from the same generator and/or cumulative limits (by volume or weight) for that generator over a certain period. Commercial waste and construction rubble can both be divided into two sub-categories: “small generator” and “large generator”. represents the majority of solid waste produced in cities. and large rubble generators are those that generate a greater volume each day. articles considered to be of no more use. Alternatively it is important to identify large generators so that the waste generated by them can be collected and transported by a private company authorized by the municipality.
batteries. 63. in Brazil. fluorescent tubes and tyres. cardboard. only comes under this category due to the large amounts in which it is generated and the importance that its recovery and recycling is acquiring globally. ceramics and soil. also known as civil construction waste. It is important to emphasize that construction rubble. In many countries commonly used construction techniques for new buildings involve a waste of materials.000 inhabitants.0 7. glass.0 29. the corresponding figure is approximately 300kg per m². While in developed countries the average waste produced in the construction of new buildings is less than 100kg per m². plastic. metal. SPECIAL DOMESTIC WASTE This category consists of construction rubble. Rubble The civil construction industry uses more natural resources and generates more waste than any other.0 100. wood.0 54 . for example. Such material represents 50% of the total weight of municipal solid waste that is collected in cities of the region with more than 500.0 1.Street waste is directly related with the aesthetic appearance of a city and special attention should therefore be paid to planning street cleaning services in tourist cities. Civil construction waste is a mixture of inert materials such as concrete. Table 2 Average composition of construction rubble in Brazil Components Percentage (%) Mortar Concrete and concrete blocks Others Organic waste Total Source: USP – University of Sao Paulo. mortar.
delirium. vomiting. mercury. diarrhoea) kidney malfunction pulmonary problems poisoning (when ingested) pneumonitis (when inhaled) cancer Cd (cadmium)* ! ! ! ! * Even in small amounts 55 . delirium. salivation. cadmium (Cd). mercury (Hg). silver and nickel have a negative impact on the environment and particularly on human health. lack of appetite. pulmonary problems peripheral neuritis (paralysis) encephalopathy (somnolence. collapse. lead. definition and characteristics Batteries The basic principle of a battery is the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy using metals. The substances in batteries that contain these metals are corrosive. Substances that contain cadmium. lithium (Li). spasm and rigidity) kidney malfunction anaemia. button cell) and sizes and contain one or more of the following metals: lead (Pb). kidney and digestive tract lesions insomnia. Other metals found in batteries such as zinc. They can have different shapes (cylindrical. convulsions brain and neurological lesions that produce psychological problems ! Hg (mercury) ! ! ! ! ! ! digestive problems (nausea. headaches. silver (Ag). rectangular. Table 3 Contaminant potential of chemical elements used in batteries Element Effects on human health abdominal pains (colic. reactive and toxic. diarrhoea (with blood in the faeces) abdominal pains (especially epigastria. metallic taste in the mouth) congestion. vomiting. Solid waste: origin. zinc (Zn). and are classified as “Class I .5. manganese (Mn) and their compounds. pharynx and oesophagus ulceration. see table 3. convulsions and coma) ! ! Pb (lead)* ! ! ! ! ! gingivitis. nickel (Ni). indigestion dermatitis and arterial hypertension stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth mucosa). manias. manganese and lithium can also cause environmental problems.Hazardous Waste”.
both the common cylindrical tubes and the compact fluorescent bulbs. When mercury is released into the environment and enters bodies of water “bioaccumulation” takes place. Consequently they are classified as Class I hazardous waste because mercury is a toxic substance that attacks the human nervous system and when inhaled or ingested can provoke an enormous variety of physiological problems.Table 3 (cont. Fluorescent tubes Fluorescent tubes. burned or buried in sanitary landfills. contain mercury steam and release mercury when they are broken.) Element Effects on human health digestive disturbances and mouth impregnation argyria (chronic intoxication producing bluish skin colour) death ! Ag (silver) ! ! ! inhalation – causes damage even with immediate attention ingestion – minimal residual damage without treatment Li (lithium) ! ! neurological system malfunctions neurological disturbances stammering and insomnia Mn (manganese) ! ! ! ! pulmonary disturbances can produce residual damage without immediate treatment contact with eyes – causes serious lesion even with immediate attention Zn (zinc) ! ! cancer dermatitis general intoxication Ni (nickel) ! ! Batteries made with non-toxic substances are now available on the market and these can be disposed of without significant problems together with domestic refuse. 56 . a progressive increase in mercury concentrations in the tissue of for example fish. When pregnant women eat such fish mercury is transferred to the foetus. which is particularly sensitive to its toxicity. An accumulation of mercury can also occur in the tissues of other wild species such as aquatic birds and animals. which then become less healthy or even dangerous to consume.
preparation. If incinerated. Waste from ports. storage and final disposal of radioactive waste is undertaken by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN. For all the above reasons. the disposal of tyres has become a serious environmental problem that still does not have a truly effective solution. tyres accumulate rainwater and serve as a breeding place for mosquitoes thus fostering their proliferation. storage and final disposal are the responsibility of national public bodies and are subject to very rigorous controls. airplanes. 57 . they will cause hollows in the mass of waste and increase landfill instability. the rubber generates huge amounts of particles and toxic gases requiring a very efficient and expensive gas treatment system. meat and plants. airports and terminals results from consumption by passengers in transit and its hazardous nature lies in the risk of transmission of diseases already eradicated from a country when the incoming transports come from an area where such diseases are endemic. such as animals. the handling. airport. Due to its specific nature and dangerous characteristics its handling. The main types of special origin waste are: Industrial waste Waste generated by industrial activity.5. SPECIAL ORIGIN WASTE Waste that due to its particular characteristics requires special handling. Port. Radioactive waste Waste that emits radiation in excess of limits stipulated by environmental law. Class II (non-inert) or Class III (inert). Solid waste: origin. Transmission can also take place through potentially contaminated loads. trains and buses. Consequently it is necessary to examine each case individually in order to categorize it as Class I (hazardous). definition and characteristics Tyres The inappropriate disposal of tyres generates many environmental problems. storage. for example. transport and final disposal. In Brazil. If they are disposed of in conventional landfills. Its composition varies greatly according to the type of product that is being made. in Portuguese). railway station and bus terminal waste This category comprises waste generated in terminals as well as in boats. If left in the open air.
5 A. foetuses. including remains of food.808 of the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards.Agricultural waste This category mostly comprises the remains of containers and packaging impregnated with dangerous pesticides and chemical fertilizers used in agriculture.positive blood.4 A. Secretions and other organic liquids from patients. vaccine that is unusable or past its use-by date. inoculae.3 Surgical.Tissue. blood and pathological and other organic liquids resulting from surgery and autopexudates sies. thrown into bodies of water or is burnt in remote rural establishments thus generating toxic gases. ABNT) is presented as an example in table 4. a mix of micro organisms and an inoculated culture medium coming from clinical or research laboratories. A. serum. organs.6 Patient care 58 . Table 4 Classification of medical waste Type Name Characteristics Class A – Infectious waste Cultures. exposed to pathogenic micro-organisms or are carriers of infectious diseases. as well as waste contaminated by them. and waste contaminated by the above materials. The classification of medical waste according to Brazilian standards (NBR 12. A. pipettes. anatomical. it is often mixed with common waste and disposed of in municipal dumps or even worse. Sharp and puncturing Contaminated animals Needles. HIV. as well as waste that has been in contact with them. scalpel blades and glass. ampoules. filters used to prevent inhalation of gases in areas contaminated by infectious agents and any refuse contaminated by the above materials. plasma and other derivatives.1 Biological A. anatomical parts. Skeletons or parts of animals that have been inoculated. Due to a lack of controls and low fines for inappropriate handling of this type of waste. The handling of this type of waste should therefore follow the same practices and use the same containers and process as those used for the handling of Class I industrial waste. Blood and blood derivatives past their use-by date. blood used for analysis.2 Blood and blood derivatives A. Medical waste This category consists of all the waste generated by healthcare institutions.
5.00 4. inflammable. probably due to the large amount of semiprepared food available in the market.00 22.80 5.3.3 Class C – Common waste C Common waste Waste that does not fall into classes A or B and that. due to its similarity with domestic waste. B.80 The Netherlands 50. geographical and climatic factors that distinguish one community from another and even one city from another.20 8.20 10. corrosive. explosive. gravimetric composition.00 3.2 B. Table 5 shows the variation in waste composition in some particular countries from which it can be deduced that the percentage of organic matter tends to diminish in more developed or industrialized countries. Medicine that is past its use-by date. humidity content and compressibility.1 Physical characteristics Solid waste can be categorized according to the following physical characteristics: per capita generation. interdicted or of no further use.00 25.50 41.40 3. chemical and biological characteristics. cultural. Solid waste: origin.30 14. originating in clinical analysis laboratories.1 Radioactive waste Pharmaceutical waste Hazardous chemical waste Radioactive material or material contaminated with radionuclide.00 Waste can be analyzed according to its physical.5.70 6.3 Characteristics of solid waste Solid waste characteristics can vary according to the social.00 3.70 6.80 18. economic. apparent specific weight.) Type Name Characteristics Class B – Special waste B.00 Germany 61. Table 5 Gravimetric composition of waste in some countries (%) Component Organic matter Glass Metal Plastic Paper Brazil 65.50 USA 35. 59 . does not present any additional risk to public health. 5. reactive genotoxic or mutagenic waste.60 8. definition and characteristics Table 4 (cont. contaminated. nuclear medicine services and radiotherapy. Toxic.50 6.
80 from 0. Figure 4 .000.50 a 0.000 from 30. these parameters should be considered with certain reservations as particular local conditions may produce distortions in individual cases.000 a 5. the ideal is to carry out field research and.000.Variation in per capita solid waste generation in relation to population size 60 . figure 4 shows the correlation between the per capita generation of solid waste and the population of cities.50 from 0. per capita generation can be estimated through table 6. In the absence of precise data.00 Like table 6.000 over 5. based on statistical data.80 a 1.PER CAPITA GENERATION The relation between the amount of solid waste produced in a given region per day and the number of inhabitants in that region. Although representative of averages determined by several studies.00 over 1. However. determine the daily waste generation per inhabitant in relation to the population’s socioeconomic profile.000 from 500.000 Generation per capita (kg/inhab/day) 0.000 a 500. Tabla 6 Frequently used categories for determining per capita solid waste generation Size of the city Small Medium-sized Large Megalopolis Urban population (inhabitants) Up to 30.
is not ideal in a precise economic study for recycling or selective collection as. it is necessary to carefully evaluate the specific situation before adopting these values as variations exist in peoples customs and practices across the different regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. although useful for determining the dimensions of a composting plant or other urban cleaning system installations. 61 . Table 7 Most common components in gravimetric composition Organic matter Paper Cardboard Rigid plastic Malleable plastic PET Ferrous metals Non-ferrous metals Aluminium Transparent glass Coloured glass Wood Rubber Leather Cloths Bones Ceramics Fine aggregate The decision about which components to include in a gravimetric composition study is made on the basis of the type of study to be carried out and must involve great care to avoid distortions. The most commonly used categories in the determination of the gravimetric composition of municipal solid waste can be found in table 7. metal. as are the markets for ferrous and non-ferrous metals. This type of simplified category list. the following general specific weight values can be used: 230 kg/m³ for domestic waste. many technicians tend to simplify the categories. glass. Solid waste: origin. definition and characteristics GRAVIMETRIC COMPOSITION Gravimetric composition indicates the percentage of the total weight of an analyzed waste sample that each component represents. However. the market for rigid plastics is very different from the market for malleable plastic. APPARENT SPECIFIC WEIGHT The apparent specific weight is the weight of loose waste in relation to the volume that it freely occupies without any form of compacting and is expressed in kg/m³. It is fundamental for determining the dimensions of necessary equipment and installations. If precise data is not available. plastic. 180 kg/m³ for medical waste and 1300 kg/m³ for construction rubble. for example. organic matter and “other”. However.5. for example considering only paper/cardboard.
total mineral residue. carbon. This phenomenon. nitrogen. soluble mineral residue and fats contained in solid waste. This parameter can vary by between 40% and 60 % depending on the season and amounts of rainfall.2 Chemical characteristics CALORIFIC VALUE This chemical characteristic indicates the potential heat generating capacity of a material when incinerated. 5. The average calorific value of domestic solid waste is approximately 3. phosphorus. on average the volume of waste can be reduced to between a third (1/3) and a quarter (1/4) of its original volume. 62 . calcium. Subjected to a pressure of 4kg/cm².3. must be heeded when operating a landfill. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The chemical composition indicates the amount of ashes. POTENTIAL OF HYDROGEN (pH) The potential of hydrogen indicates the acidity or alkalinity of waste which is generally found to be between 5 and 7. potassium. measured as a percentage of its weight. COMPRESSIBILITY Compressibility is the degree of compacting that is possible. When the compacting pressure is withdrawn the mass of solid waste tends to expand but it does not return to its original volume. the reduction of volume that can be achieved in a mass of solid waste when it is compacted. called expansion. organic matter. that is.000 kcal/kg.HUMIDITY CONTENT The humidity content is the amount of water contained by solid waste.
3.3 Biological characteristics Solid waste biological characteristics are determined by the microbial and pathogenic agent populations and. Knowledge of the biological characteristics of solid waste has been extensively utilized to develop odour inhibitors and substances used to delay or accelerate the decomposition of organic matter. In general for domestic waste that ratio is around 35/1. It is important for determining vehicle and machine capacity requirements. Table 8 Influence of waste characteristics on urban cleaning Characteristics Importance This data is fundamental for estimating the amount of Per capita generation waste to be collected and disposed of.5. tariffs charged for collection and the necessary capacity of all the units that comprise the urban cleaning system.4 Influence of solid waste characteristics on urban cleaning system planning Table 8 illustrates the influence of solid waste characteristics on urban cleaning system planning and on the design of certain units that form part of the system. together with the chemical characteristics. which are generally applied inside collection vehicles to avoid or minimize problems caused to people along the routes of the vehicles. inform the selection of appropriate treatment and final disposal methods. 63 . 5. final disposal and degraded site recuperation processes are being developed based on the biological characteristics of waste. definition and characteristics CARBON/NITROGEN RATIO (C/N) The Carbon/Nitrogen ratio indicates the degree of decomposition of solid waste organic matter in treatment and final disposal processes. Solid waste: origin. 5. Similarly.
Contributes to the determination of the most appropriate form of treatment for collected waste. An important indicator in the solid waste decomposition process in treatment and final disposal units. Directly influences the decomposition rate of matter in the composting process.) Characteristics Importance Indicates the potential for the commercialization of recy- Gravimetric composition clable components. Fundamental to correctly quantifying the required capacity of the collection fleet. mobile and fixed containers and other collecting equipment.Table 8 (cont. etc. Fundamental for the identification of odour inhibitors and substances to accelerate or delay the decomposition of organic matter in solid waste. Important for determining the potential risk posed by solid pH Chemical composition waste to human health and the environment. Directly influences the calculation of percolate production and the required capacity of the percolate collection system. thereby indi- Apparent specific weight Humidity content rectly influencing the determination of required incinerator and composting plant capacity. Directly influences the calorific value and apparent specific weight of solid waste. Very important for determining the required capacity of Compressibility collection vehicles. 64 . Influences the determination of the required capacity of Calorific value installations for all thermo treatment processes (incineration. transfer stations with waste compaction facilities and fixed compaction containers. Fundamental to the evaluation of composting process evolution and determining the quality of the compost produced. the use of organic matter to produce compost and the application of other processes to the solid waste.). machines and metal containers and boxes. Important in determining the sanitary risk posed by solid C/N ratio Biological characteristics waste. pyrolysis. Indicates the degree of corrosiveness of collected waste and is used to establish the type of protection against corrosion that it is necessary to apply to vehicles.
Bank holidays and school holidays have an influence on the quantity of solid waste generated in tourist cities.5 Factors that influence solid waste characteristics Clearly during rainy periods the humidity content in solid waste increases and during the celebrations around the end of the year. Table 9 Principal factors that influence solid waste characteristics Factor Climatic/seasonal Rain Autumn Summer ! ! ! Effect increase in humidity content increase in leaf content increase in drinks container content (cans. Solid waste: origin. glass and rigid plastic bottles) Demographic Urban population size ! the larger the urban population the greater the per capita solid waste generation 65 . definition and characteristics 5. glass and rigid plastic bottles) Special periods Christmas / New Year ! ! increase in packaging content (paper/ cardboard. malleable plastic and metal) increase in organic matter content School holidays ! ! population decrease in non-tourist areas population increase in tourist areas Other festivals ! increase in drinks container content (cans. Consequently it is necessary to take into account seasonal factors that can influence particularly the physical characteristics of solid waste in order to avoid wrong conclusions in determining the overall characteristics of waste. the percentage of aluminium (beer and cold drinks cans) in the waste increases. and throughout the summer. Table 9 shows the principal factors that have a strong influence on solid waste characteristics.5.
6 Processes for determining principal physical characteristics Amongst the various types of solid waste characteristics the physical ones are the most important to identify for proficient urban cleaning services management. The practical procedures presented below are employed to determine municipal solid waste specific weight. the higher the proportion of recyclable material and the lower the proportion of organic matter Purchasing power (monthly) ! greater consumption of luxury goods immediately after payday (end and beginning of month) Purchasing power (weekly) Technological development ! greater consumption of luxury goods at weekends ! reduction in apparent specific weight of waste due to the introduction of increasingly lighter products Commercial promotions ! increase in the amount of packaging 5. humidity content and per capita generation.) Factor Socioeconomic Purchasing power ! Effect the higher the purchasing power of the population. Not all municipalities can afford to set up laboratories to determine the chemical or biological characteristics of solid waste. or have the financial resources to contract private laboratories. ! 66 . a 150 kg capacity weighing machine. The physical characteristics however can be easily determined through processes undertaken in the field and only require: 200 litre metal containers.Table 9 (cont. the samples must be taken from different collection sectors to obtain results that are as realistic as possible. SAMPLE PREPARATION collect initial samples with a volume of 2 to 3m³ from un-compacted solid waste (loose refuse). an oven and tools and implements commonly used in urban cleaning. gravimetric composition.
APPARENT SPECIFIC WEIGHT DETERMINATION ! weigh each of the filled 200 litre containers and determine the net weight of the waste subtracting the weight of the container. ! ! separate the waste according to the defined list of components. crates and other materials used to package the waste. fill a two litre container with the broken up material and close the container as hermetically as possible. ! after filling the containers. using shovels and hoes to rip plastic bags and break cardboard boxes. divide the total weight of the sample by the weight of each component and calculate the percentage of each component in relation to the whole in order to determine the gravimetric composition. ! divide the pile of homogenized waste into four equal parts and select two of them (always opposite quarters. rain. 67 . determine the apparent specific weight (expressed in kg/m³) by dividing the total net weight of the waste in the five containers (in kg) by the total volume of the 5 containers. ! repeat the previous procedure until the volume of each of the quarters is just over 1m³: ! separate one quarter at random and use it to completely fill five previously weighed 200 litre metal containers. i. classify as “other” all material found that does not fall into any of the categories on the predefined list of components. 1m³. wind or high temperature). definition and characteristics ! deposit the initial samples on a sheet of canvas extended on flat land and mix them until obtaining one homogeneous pile. ! ! weigh each component separately. spread the contents of one of the containers on a canvas sheet extended on flat land. not adjacent ones). break up the rest of the selected quarter with machetes in a place that is protected from the elements (sun. Mix these two parts homogenizing the content (the remaining two quarters should be sent for final disposal in the landfill). GRAVIMETRIC COMPOSITION DETERMINATION ! ! define the list of components to identify depending on the objectives. Solid waste: origin.e.5. ! ! add up the net weights.
! ! estimate the percentage of the population served by the collection service. ! ! calculate the per capita generation rate by dividing the total weight of waste (in kg) by the number of inhabitants served and then dividing this result by seven to obtain the daily rate. weigh the dry material repeatedly until the weight remains constant. using the specific weight value determined by applying the technique described in a previous section. ! ! ! CALCULATION OF PER CAPITA GENERATION The per capita generation of solid waste can be determined by means of field studies on households pre-selected on the basis of appropriate statistical data so that they are representative of the overall socioeconomic profile of the population. 68 . due to collection patterns. ! measure the volume of waste taken to the landfill during one working week.HUMIDITY CONTENT DETERMINATION ! weigh the two litre sample. subtract the dry material weight from the humid sample weight thus determining the percentage of humidity. The following is a simplified calculation methodology for use in cities without a weighbridge to weigh solid waste on arrival at the final disposal site. or by means of procedures undertaken at the final disposal site that produce relevant data. convert the total volume (in m³) of waste that has arrived at the landfill into total weight (in kg). based on the above percentage and the total number of inhabitants in the city calculate the number of inhabitants served by the collection service. put the sample in an oven at 105ºC for 24 hours or at 75º C for 48 hours. these are atypical days for the purposes of determining waste generation. The following observations are significant: ! sample collection and the measurement of waste being taken to a landfill must never be undertaken on a Sunday or Monday as.
Solid waste: origin. unless a determination of seasonal influence on the city’s waste generation is required. definition and characteristics ! in tourist cities samples should never be taken during school holidays or bank holidays. ! 69 . ! never measure humidity content on a rainy day. where possible measurements should always be taken between the 10th and the 20th of a month to avoid distortions nearer the end of a month.5.
6 Solid waste quantity projections 70 .
000 51.426 75. Therefore. A careful analysis should be made of up to date demographic data in order to make reliable population projections (see table 10) and calculate solid waste production over time.642 85.636 56.211 71.195 Year 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Urban population (inhabitants) 69.338 65.493 63.275 57.963 59.305 It is known that the greater the economic development of a city (in general related to population size). the larger the per capita solid waste generation.629 77.500 53. Let us suppose that a projection is required for an urban cleaning system in a nontourist city with a current urban population of 50.000 that is growing at an annual rate of 3% and where the per capita waste generation has been measured as 530g/ inhab/day.045 54.287 73. With a projection horizon of 20 years population values would be as in table 10: Table 10 Demographic projection Year Current 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Urban population (inhabitants) 50. Solid waste quantity projections For an accurate solid waste generation projection.121 87.235 82. The following example shows procedures to be followed. especially in tourist cities where tourists can sometimes generate more solid waste than permanent residents. It is important to have data on seasonal fluctuations in population numbers and to take this into account when making projections for solid waste generation in tourist cities.238 67.702 61.675 90. in 71 . it is necessary to have demographic data on the resident and seasonal populations.898 80.6.
54 0.2 34.54 0.54 0.636 56.275 57.1 45.53 0.8 30.500 53.675 90.2 36.7 72 .963 59.238 67.642 85.287 73.8 48.55 0.2 35.55 0.55 0.53 0.3 28.493 63.7 31.55 0.54 0./day) 0.54 0.53 0.54 0.5 39.6 33.702 61.5 46.211 71.426 75.338 65.045 54.such a case the evolution of the per capita production would be estimated as in table 11: Table 11 Evolution of per capita solid waste generation Period Year 1 to 7 Year 8 to 14 Year 15 to 21 Per capita (g/inhab/day) 530 540 550 Thus the projected amount of solid waste produced daily over 20 years is as in table 12: Table 12 Projected amount of solid waste generation Year Current 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Demographic projection (inhabitants) 50.5 27.54 0.3 37.235 82.4 38.195 69.121 87.53 0.000 51.7 41.305 Per capita (g/inhab.2 49.53 0.898 80.55 0.629 77.53 0.6 42.55 Amount of waste (t) 26.55 0.8 44.0 29.53 0.1 29.
it is common to consider a five year projection horizon for planning waste collection and the cleaning of streets and other public spaces. especially in mediumsized and large cities in Latin America and the Caribbean. For projections relating to solid waste treatment and final disposal a 15 year term is more common. At the end of the five years an assessment of the situation is made and if necessary planning is updated. A five year horizon is used because changes in a city’s urbanization are significant over a period of time greater than that.6. Solid waste quantity projections When an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan is formulated. 73 .
7 Solid waste preparation and storage 74 .
Figure 5 – Open air solid waste accumulation point Incorrectly prepared and stored solid waste attracts animals.2 The importance of appropriate preparation and storage The quality of solid waste collection and transportation operations depends on an appropriate preparation and storage of waste and its presence in the place.1 Concept Pre-collection solid waste preparation and storage should be done in an appropriately sanitary way taking into account the type and quantity of waste 7. mice. damage to the environment and a risk to public health. reducing waste heterogeneity (in the case of selective collection). In addition such domestic waste attracts rats. flies. on the day and at the time established by the urban cleaning body responsible for collection. Solid waste preparation and storage 7. which results in waste being scattered over a large area. Citizens participation in this operation is therefore of great importance. such as dogs. avoiding vector proliferation. minimizing visual and odour impacts. that roam freely in the streets and frequently tear rubbish bags and knock down containers to access the remains of food. In many cities open air domestic waste accumulation points appear spontaneously causing scattered refuse in the streets.7. cockroaches and other disease vectors that feed and breed in the refuse. facilitating collection. horses and pigs. 75 . In urban zones of low quality dwellings and low demographic density there are generally more animals. Appropriate preparation and storage is important for: ! ! ! ! ! avoiding accidents.
type of building. This is a way of using discarded tyres but the containers are heavy and not very practical. In Latin American and Caribbean cities diverse containers are used for putting out and storing domestic waste for collection: ! ! ! ! ! metal or plastic bins. 7. An example can be found in cities in the north and northeast of Brazil. stationary or on wheels.To limit damage caused by the activities of such animals it is recommended that: ! the municipality implements regular operations to remove animals that are free in the streets.3 Characteristics of pre-collection storage containers The choice of container type should be based on: ! ! ! ! ! refuse characteristics. ! the relevant public body takes action to contain the proliferation of rats and mice. used oil and fuel drums. large metal or plastic containers. wood or cardboard boxes. quantity of refuse generated. where alternative containers are skilfully made with old tyres. frequency of collection. sometimes cut in half. inhabitants of such zones are instructed to put refuse out in the street at a time as close as possible to the collection time. with special anchoring devices that enhance their stability. supermarket type or specifically for refuse. price of container. Receptacles for domestic waste pre-collection storage should have the following characteristics: ! a maximum loaded weight of 30 kg if the collection is manual. Larger containers should be standardized so that they can be handled by mechanical devices incorporated in the collector vehicles in order to reduce manual labour. 76 . ! a more appropriate type of container is provided for the solid waste. There are also creative initiatives for storing this type of waste. plastic bags. however they are acceptable in the context of the socioeconomic conditions that prevail for most inhabitants there. ! ! refuse collection is more frequent and regular in such zones.
non-returnable (so collection is more efficient) and allow for silent collection. polythene bags do not contaminate the atmosphere when appropriately incinerated. easy to empty without leaving waste at the bottom. Solid waste preparation and storage ! devices that facilitate its movement between its place in the building and the place of collection. especially in connection with waste incineration processes. they are light. but as the use of sanitary landfills is a practically definitive waste disposal method. Rigid and semi-rigid receptacles (plastic and metal bins. ! economical and affordable for the general public. there are not many objections to their use.7. ! ! From a planning perspective another characteristic has to be taken into account: whether the receptacles are returnable or non-returnable. In Latin American and Caribbean cities where the income level of most inhabitants is low. the use of supermarket plastic bags (used for transporting purchased products to the home) can be acceptable for the pre-collection storage of domestic waste as they do not involve any extra cost. ! ! their price is affordable and they can be standardized. after collection there will be no receptacles left on the street and residents will not need to clean receptacles. it can be concluded that plastic bags are the most convenient receptacles for storing domestic waste prior to manual collection because: ! they are easy to close by tying. In the latter case collection will be more efficient. ! safe in that injury is not caused to users or collectors by sharp edged or pointed waste. Flexible packaging (plastic bags) should be closable. For these reasons. 77 . not producing excessive noise when handled. ! closable in order to avoid waste spillage or exposure. However. Another issue is that most plastic bags are non-biodegradable. From an environmental perspective there are usually reservations about the use of plastic bags for domestic waste storage. including when separately packaged. an important factor particularly for nocturnal collections. containers) should have lids and be stable enough that they are not easily knocked over.
that they wear appropriate protection gloves. For multi-family housings (apartment blocks) and office blocks standardized wheelie bins with lids are more appropriate as they allow for semi-automatic collection. Figure 6 – Standardized wheelie bins 7. 240 and 360 litre capacity on the market. Plastic bags with a capacity of more than 100 litres are not safe as collectors tend to hold them against their bodies while carrying them to the truck and pieces of glass and other sharp objects in the waste can injure them. it being fundamental for example. These containers are easy to handle as they have wheels. 78 . relatively silent.In regard to the safe handling of plastic bags containing waste. which is more efficient and safer.4 Domestic waste pre-collection preparation and storage The most appropriate containers for pre-collection domestic waste storage are plastic bags. and economical due to their durability (especially if not exposed permanently to sunlight) and have a pleasing appearance. are light. wheelie bins and metal containers. appropriate procedures to reduce the risk of injury to collectors must always be observed. There are wheelie bins of 120.
30. Solid waste preparation and storage Plastic bags Waste can be stored in non-returnable plastic bags to be collected by collection vehicles. Plastic wheelie bins These are containers made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with a capacity of 120.7. a lid and wheels. a tape to close the top. but can also be used for certain public waste (for example when they are used to store the waste from street sweeping). Domestic waste produced by large generators – the collection and transport of which should be undertaken if possible by private companies authorized by the municipality – can be stored in containers similar to the one in figure 7. Figure 8 – Metal container 79 . a capacity of 20. 240 or 360 litres (two wheeled bins) and 760 or 1. generally have four small wheels and can be emptied by means of tipping devices installed in compaction trucks. with a capacity that ranges between 750 and 1. They are used for the storage and transport of domestic waste. Figure 7 – Plastic wheelie bin Metal containers These receptacles. Such plastic bags should have the following characteristics: ! ! ! ! resistance so that they do not break when handled.100 litres (four wheeled containers). They are made of partly recycled material plus additives to protect them from the action of ultraviolet rays.500 litres. different only in their colour from those for residential waste. 50 or 100 litres. a colour standardized by the relevant body In general these characteristics are regulated by technical standards. comprising a body.
squares. Currently plastic rubbish bins are increasingly used as they are lighter. 80 . a lid and a metal tray to stub out cigarettes before throwing them into the bin. public gardens. maintenance and replacement of these metal bins were an obstacle to them being more widely used. due to an ever intensifying use of portable electrical and electronic gadgets. In this context the use of plastic rubbish bins with a 50 litre capacity. streets. in order to maintain the city in a hygienic and clean condition. They are made of partly recycled material plus additives to protect them from the action of ultraviolet rays. For many years this type of container was metallic and was of a shape and colour determined by municipal administrations. easier to install and cheaper. avenues and other public spaces that people pass through. a growing environmental awareness in society is resulting in the separation of used batteries that. These containers should be installed in parks. are becoming increasingly numerous. For example.Figure 9 – Mechanized metal container tipping 7. This type of bin can be used for other purposes. more durable. The high costs of the production.5 Pre-collection storage of street waste Rubbish bins There are several types of container that can be installed in the street for passers-by to deposit rubbish. Such rubbish bins have a capacity of 50 litres and consist of a body in which rubbish is deposited. a standardized colour and a special hole in the front part of the lid represents a good option for storing discarded batteries.
7. This system is also known as “brooks” or “dumpster”. Figure 12 . This type of container is interchangeable and the vehicle that collects a full container brings an empty one to replace it. However metal containers are different.– Dumpster carrier truck with multifunction crane transporting stationary container 81 . Metal containers used for public waste pre-collection storage are stationary receptacles generally with a volumetric capacity of 5 or 7 m³ that can be emptied by compactor trucks (depending on the nature of the waste) or by dumpster carrier trucks equipped with a multifunctional crane to load and unload the containers. plastic containers for public waste are exactly like those used for storing residential waste. Wheelie bins /stationary containers As with plastic bags. can be bigger. Construction rubble requires the use of thicker plastic bags with less volumetric capacity due to the higher specific weight of the material to be stored. Solid waste preparation and storage Figure 10 – Rubbish bin Figure 11 – Battery bin Plastic bags Plastic bags similar to those used for residential waste can be used for the pre-collection storage of public waste. particularly that collected by sweeping. The difference is that bags for public waste.
For all the above reasons. If it is not possible to provide plastic containers. Such problems result from a series of factors. which results in the above mentioned environmental and sanitary problems. Consequently as waste is produced it is taken out of the houses and put on the street. one of which is the design of the containers that in general do not have a lid. waste becomes scattered around it. operational and economic capacities of the municipality. Their use depends on the amount of waste generated by a community and the technical. However experience demonstrates that this type of container does not produce satisfactory results as. amongst other problems. animals forage in it. one alternative is to provide brooks type dumpsters. and are handled by special vehicles. Figure 13 – Brooks dumpster outside a low income community settlement Compaction containers represent a more appropriate solution than brooks dumpsters for pre-collection storage of domestic solid waste in such special areas.6 Pre-collection storage of waste in low demographic density and low-income areas In informal settlement dwellings and low-income housing estate households there is usually little space for storing waste. users tend to ignore it. when this type of storage is adopted containers must be changed at appropriately frequent and rigorously observed intervals in order to maintain the cleanliness of the area. awareness raising campaigns should be instigated in the community and an efficient supervision system should be set up. there can be fires due to acts of vandalism and a bad odour is produced. They are stationary closed metal containers with an incorporated waste compaction device. 82 .7. In such circumstances standardized plastic containers (with wheels and lid) can be located at previously determined points with as frequent collections as possible. and when they do have one.
contracts are established with residents associations in low income communities whereby they undertake the operation of domestic waste collection and cleaning services for internal streets. In some cities.7 Pre-collection storage of waste produced by large generators Where a specific regulation specifies that commercial and industrial establishments generating more than 120 litres of solid waste per day are categorized as “large generators”. blue containers for large generators and orange containers for normal collections). Solid waste preparation and storage Figure 14 – Compaction container system It is advisable to establish a team of workers to operate a system for maintaining clean and hygienic conditions in the most problematic poor communities. 7. The limit of 120 litres was established to correspond with the capacity of the smallest plastic container with lid and wheels that is available on the market. For collections from large generators and public establishments. provides technical support and supervises the quality of the operation. One of the conditions of this type of contract is that local labour is employed so that local jobs are generated and the community’s awareness of these issues increases as it becomes directly responsible for the cleaning of the settlement. Rio de Janeiro for example. in general two main types of large container with a capacity of more than 360 litres are used: 83 .7. containers for the pre-collection storage of such waste should be standardized. The associations hire their own employees and are responsible for the management of the work. Satisfactory results from this type of program have led to its implementation in almost all of Rio de Janeiro’s informal settlements. It is practical for containers used by large generators to be different in colour and size from those used for normal collections in order to facilitate supervision (for example. The body responsible for urban cleaning pays for the services undertaken.
! stationary containers without wheels. The very large containers (20 to 30 m³) are moved by roll-on/roll-off truck equipment either with steel cables pulled by a winch or by hydraulic cylinders. 1. In addition construction rubble uses a lot of space in sanitary landfills. Within the concept of sustainable development established by Agenda 21. Containers of up to 5m³ are emptied into collection trucks by means of steel cables powered by hydraulic devices. and therefore the size of containers needed to store it. space that could be used to deposit non-recyclable types of waste. Figure 15 – Double dumpster carrier truck with interchangeable containers Figure 16 Roll-on /roll-off truck 7. construction rubble is normally stored in stationary metal containers of 4 or 5m³. Interchangeable containers are moved by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional cranes or by roll-on /roll-off type trucks. that are interchangeable or are emptied into collection trucks. These metal containers have a capacity of 3 to 30 m³. a significant problem is caused for the circulation of passers-by and vehicles as well as for parking vehicles. Due to the large volumes of rubble.8 Special domestic waste pre-collection storage Construction rubble Due to its high apparent specific weight.! metal or plastic (high density polyethylene) containers on wheels that are taken to collection vehicles and mechanically emptied into them. The biggest challenges presented by construction rubble are: 84 .150 or 1. in which cases they are informally referred to as “compactainers”.500 litres. similar to those used for storing public waste. the reduction of waste and the reuse of it and its by-products are fundamental to the new approaches that society must adopt. and can be equipped with electric devices for compaction. generally metal. In general these containers have a capacity of 760.
collection.7. responsibility for the storage. Storage containers should be located in places with good ventilation and protection from the elements. ! to reuse generated rubble in the productive cycle thus reducing the consumption of energy and natural resources. 85 . importers. Such legislation should reflect the “polluter pays” principle. Containers with stored batteries must be sealed to avoid the release of hydrogen. which is explosive in contact with the air. and their treatment and final disposal. Legislation should also establish a timeframe within which producers and importers of batteries must implement reuse. stored and handled. Batteries Partially discharged batteries must be stored in such a way that their electrodes do not come into contact with the electrodes of other batteries or with metal objects such as the internal sides of a metal drum. The large numbers and variety of devices that use batteries. Any legal measures implemented for the regulation of such a system must set a specific timeframe for these stakeholders to establish operational mechanisms for the collection. transport and final disposal of batteries should be taken on by producers. Partially discharged nickel-cadmium batteries must be individually pre-wrapped in plastic bags. and must be kept on platforms or pallets in order to keep them dry. together with their small size and the general public’s lack of knowledge about the dangers that they pose. transport and storage of discarded batteries. Solid waste preparation and storage ! to reduce the amount of rubble generated thus reducing the use of limited space available for disposal. Fluorescent tubes Fluorescent tubes also require specific legislation to regulate the way in which they are discarded. Due to their toxicity and the difficulties involved in stopping them being discarded in domestic refuse. treatment and final disposal systems. commercial outlets and technical assistance networks. recycling. have resulted in them often ending up together with the general domestic waste in sanitary landfills where they contaminate the environment.
producers and importers of tyres should be obliged to collect and dispose of discarded tyres in an environmentally sound way. Tyres Due to problems associated with the inappropriate disposal of tyres. accompanied by the following information: ! ! ! source (name and address of company or institution). Tyre storage should respect the following guidelines: ! tyres should not be accumulated but should be sent for disposal at the time that they are discarded. if possible plastic ones. number of tubes sent.Procedures for handling fluorescent tubes that contain mercury must respect the following requirements: ! intact tubes should be stored in boxes. One of the principal problems with the storage of tyres for collection or recycling is that they accumulate water when left out in the open and thus facilitate the proliferation of disease vectors. the pieces of glass must be removed and the area must be washed. this should be done in covered areas protected from the elements. in a reserved area to avoid them being broken. 86 . a record of these invoices must be kept for at least three years. ! they should never be burned. ! ! ! ! if a tube breaks. ! all boxes should be labelled. ! if it is necessary to keep them. date dispatched. ! broken tubes should be stored in sealed containers and labelled in the following way: “Broken fluorescent tubes containing mercury”. tubes should not be broken or physically modified. and following the example of the system for dealing with batteries. Discarded tyres have been used as fuel in furnaces for the production of cement and also to produce asphalt. once a sufficient number of tubes has been accumulated they should be sent for recycling. details of the transport company and the recycling company.
9 Special origin waste pre-collection storage Industrial waste Industrial waste is usually stored in: ! 200 litre metal drums for non-corrosive solid waste. ! ! ! standardized plastic containers of 120. It is therefore necessary to establish permanent sanitary vigilance and handle waste in a particularly hygienic manner.7. 87 . i. etc.600 litres for waste that allows for the use of returnable containers. 200 or 300 litre plastic drums for corrosive solid waste or semi-solid waste in general.). bags. storage and management. Radioactive waste The handling and storing of radioactive waste must comply with the stipulations of the national body responsible for the control and supervision of this type of waste. However in cases of quarantine alert. ! containers must be radiation proof (lead. In normal conditions. Solid waste preparation and storage 7. 240.e. which include the following requirements: ! personnel handling this type of waste must use the obligatory minimum individual protection equipment. ! medium-sized cardboard boxes of up to 50 litre capacity for waste to be incinerated. concrete. Medical waste The handling of medical waste (see table 4) must follow specific regulations that stipulate procedures for waste segregation at source. flexible containers. 1. with a large storage capacity almost always of more than 1m³. usually of woven polypropylene. Port and airport waste From a sanitary perspective ports and airports are places where not only people and goods disembark but also diseases. handling and storage of waste follows the same procedures and uses the same receptacles as those for domestic waste. special methods must be applied to the handling of personal waste and goods coming from countries with epidemics. 360. 750. or other situations of risk identified by the body responsible for sanitary vigilance.100 and 1.
Infectious waste must in general be put in well identified strong impermeable plastic bags at the moment of its generation. They should be strong.) must be separately discarded at source in rigid containers with hermetic lids and a clear identification of the type of waste that they contain. Special waste should be stored in receptacles that guarantee its physical integrity. non-recyclable cream – infectious or special waste (except radioactive waste) ! ! Figure 17 – Plastic bags for medical waste 88 . rigid plastic containers with hermetic lids and a clear identification of the type of waste that they contain. the rate of hospitalization due to such infections diminished by 80%. after the introduction of clear infectious waste segregation procedures.The principal procedure is the segregation at source of infectious and common waste. Plastic bags should comply with established colour code specifications. Puncturing and sharp waste (needles. Pre-collection storage of common waste follows the same procedures as for domestic waste. Infectious waste represents between 10 and 15 % of all waste but carries a high contamination risk while common waste does not require any special treatment. glass. etc. recyclable opaque colours – common waste. An example that illustrates this is the case of municipal hospitals in Rio de Janeiro where. In Brazil the criteria are the following: ! transparent – common waste. A lack of care when handling infectious waste is the principal cause of infections in hospitals.
7. Solid waste preparation and storage
Subsequently the plastic bags must be placed in containers that can be easily moved to a temporary storage facility. These containers must be white for infectious waste and any other colour for common waste.
Figure 18 – Infectious waste containers
Temporary storage facilities must have tiled floors and walls and rounded corners to facilitate the washing of floors and walls.
Figure 19 – Temporary storage facility for infectious waste containers
Personnel handling infectious waste (except radioactive and hazardous chemical waste, which are not the responsibility of urban cleaning systems) should use the following individual protection equipment (IPE):
! ! ! ! !
plastic apron; plastic gloves; PVC boots (for floor and wall washing) or closed shoes; goggles; mask.
Solid waste collection and transport
8. Solid waste collection and transport
Domestic waste collection and transport Concept
Collection is the removal of waste stored by the generator for dispatch by appropriate transport to a transfer station, treatment unit or final disposal site. The collection and transportation of domestic waste generated in households and small-sized public, commercial or service establishments is generally undertaken by the municipal body responsible for urban cleaning. Municipalities may provide these services through their own resources, concessions to companies, outsourcing to companies, or mixed systems such as rented vehicles and municipal labour. It is recommended that solid waste from large generators (establishments that produce more than 120 litres of waste a day) is collected by private companies, registered and authorized by the municipality, without any cost to the public system.
Hotels and restaurants are examples of large solid waste generators in tourist cities.
Common domestic waste collection can be defined as the collection of refuse produced in residential, public and commercial buildings, provided that the latter do not represent large generators.
Domestic waste collection services to each building should be regular, always on the same days of the week and at the same times. When services are regular, citizens will become accustomed to taking waste containers or bags out to the pavement in front of their building a short time before the collection vehicle passes. Consequently domestic waste is not left exposed in the street for more time than is necessary, thus avoiding the presence of unsightly waste in the street and its scattering by animals or people.
In tourist cities special attention should be paid to the amount of time that waste remains in the street, due to the importance of aesthetics, unpleasant odour emissions and the danger of attracting disease vectors and animals.
Regular collection is therefore one of the principal requirements for a good quality service.
In cities that have the means to weigh collected waste, the regularity of collections can be mathematically verified by comparing the weight of waste over two or three consecutive weeks. The weight of waste collected on the same day of each week (for example the weight of the waste collected on a Monday compared with that of the waste collected the following Monday) should not vary by more than 10%. Similarly, the distance travelled by collection vehicles should be more or less constant on the same day of different weeks as the itinerary of each particular day of the week is always the same (with the same number of journeys to the waste destination point). Collection irregularities are clearly indicated by accumulations of waste in the streets and by the amounts of complaints received. The ideal for a domestic solid waste collection system is therefore to establish fixed collection times and inform the entire community of them through individual communications to the responsible person in each building and even the posting of notices in the streets. The community will come to trust the reliability of the collection service and will then cooperate by not discarding waste in inappropriate places, by storing waste for collection in appropriate receptacles and by putting it out in the appropriate place on the day and at the time stipulated, all of which will contribute to increased environmental hygiene and public health, and the cleanliness and improved appearance of the street.
For climatic reasons, in most Latin American and Caribbean cities the interval between domestic waste generation and its final disposal should be of no more than one week in order to avoid bad odours and the proliferation of flies, rodents and other animals attracted by the waste.
This situation is exacerbated in cities that use transfer stations (see chapter 9) as waste is stored there for one or two days before being transported to the landfill where it is finally covered with earth at the end of the day it arrives. If domestic waste collection frequency is three times a week, the waste produced for example on a Saturday may not be collected until the following Tuesday (three days later). If it is then stored in the transfer station for two days and one more day is required for its burial in the landfill, the total number of days between generation and final disposal can be as many as six. Consequently, the minimum collection frequency recommended for warm weather countries is three times a week.
Twice weekly collections, which are very common in suburban areas of Latin American and Caribbean cities, should therefore be avoided. Budgetary restrictions represent one of the main obstacles that municipal administrations face in their attempts to provide sufficiently frequent services. The capacity of households to store solid waste also has to be taken into consideration. In informal settlements and other low income communities, houses do not have the
8. Solid waste collection and transport
capacity (due to limited space) to store waste for more than one day. The same problem is faced in city centres where commercial and service provision establishments not only have insufficient storage space but also produce a considerable amount of waste. In all such cases daily waste collection is preferable.
To significantly reduce costs and optimize the use of collection vehicle fleets, if possible, collection should always be done in two shifts. To obtain maximum performance the ideal usage of the collection fleet would be:
Monday, Wednesday and Friday Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday
¼ of the routes ¼ of the routes
¼ of the routes ¼ of the routes
If for example, 24 collection routes are established, with a collection frequency of three times a week, the number of collection vehicles required would be 24÷4= 6 (with an additional reserve representing at least 10% of the operational fleet, in this example one extra vehicle).
It is recommended that the day is divided into two 12 hours periods with one eight hour working shift in each period. The first shift for example, could begin at 07.00 hrs and the second at 19.00 hrs, so that there would be an interval for maintenance and repair services between the two shifts. In many Latin American and Caribbean cities the ideal of two waste collection shifts per day is not possible due to the type of urbanization that exists in some neighbourhoods where, for example, access streets are precarious and street lighting is scarce, which can make a nocturnal collection shift impossible. The issue of urban violence should also be considered here.
In streets and public areas where sweeping services are not frequent the cleanliness of the collection operation is very important, that is, it is necessary to collect the refuse put out for collection without leaving any refuse scattered in the street.
Whenever possible, sweeping should be done after a collection to remove any refuse that may have been left scattered in the area.
The determination of collection times should also take into account the parking of private vehicles in streets. particularly in large urban centres. During night time collections all necessary measures should be taken to reduce noise. The collection team should be instructed not to raise their voices. to respond to an ever more demanding general public. In tourist cities collections should avoid the hours of peak tourist activity in relevant locations. A team is the group of workers assigned to a collection vehicle to perform solid waste collection activities. 8. The team leader’s stop/start commands should be given through a switch at the back of the truck connected to a light in the drivers cab. changes in the characteristics of neighbourhoods and an irregular collection service. 94 . electric ones perhaps.5 Restructuring domestic collection routes Some of the factors that indicate a need for the restructuring of collection routes are: increases or decreases in the population. In purely residential neighbourhoods it is preferable that collection takes place during the day but avoiding the times when there is more traffic on the principal roads. Several elements should be taken into account. such as: Collection teams In Latin American and Caribbean cities teams have from two to five members per truck.1. In the case of a collection truck with compaction facility the motor should not be revved up to accelerate the cycle of compaction but should at all times have its automatic acceleration device functioning. reflecting the tendency for higher productivity with private labour. so that the physical effort required of the different teams is equivalent.In central and commercial zones collection should take place at night when the circulation of people and vehicles has diminished. Equilibrium between routes The tasks assigned to each collection team have to represent the same amount of work. The truck’s engine should always be well tuned and its silencer in good condition. Municipal teams tend to have more members than those of private companies that provide collection services. In the future more modern and silent vehicles may be needed.
a certain technical rigour should be applied to the determination of this rate as it can vary between 0. The physical notion involved is that of “work”: work = force x distance The restructuring method described here is one of the more simple ones and consists of the division of the area to be restructured into “sub-areas” with a similar demographic density and waste concentration (measured in kg/m). Verification of the amount of domestic waste generated It is important to verify the amount of solid waste that is generated in households. ideally a more precise technical evaluation of this parameter should be made. In both cases. 95 . table 6 – Frequently used categories for determining per capita solid waste generation). Data collection must include statistical data from high.35kg and 1. depending on the socioeconomic stratum of the inhabitants.00kg per person per day in different areas of the city. as this data is essential for an effective restructuring of regular waste collection routes. As has already been mentioned. Collection route starting points Routes should be laid out in such a way that teams begin at the point farthest from the destination of the waste so that as they work they are diminishing the remaining distance to be covered. medium and low income neighbourhoods.50 and 0. the amount of calories consumed can be approximately the same. daily per capita waste generation can be calculated. Solid waste collection and transport In zones with high concentrations of waste collectors carry a lot of weight but walk relatively short distances. whereas in zones with low concentrations of waste they carry less weight but walk further. It should also be taken into account that different workers have different physical constitutions and teams should be balanced in this respect. public establishments and commercial premises. given the great variations between the different zones of a city. Each of these sub-areas can then represent the same amount of work and working time. Although it is possible to calculate the per capita domestic waste generation rate through the simplified method explained in chapter 5. Using data projection based on the latest available census.8. The location of the fleet garage is another factor to be heeded in planning. Such variations could distort the dimensions of collection routes which would then require considerable adjustment during the implementation phase of a new collection program. In most small and medium-sized Latin American and Caribbean cities the average per capita generation is between 0.80 kg/inhab/day (see chapter 5.
Lack of a weighbridge to weigh waste If there is no weighbridge to weigh truck loads of solid waste at its destination. the restructuring of collection routes can be more complex and involve other variables that the planner has to take into account. repeating this process for each trip in each shift. recording times. is used.70kg and the population is 200. called cubing. a simplified approximate method. and is repeatedly filled and emptied until all collected waste has passed through it. an alternative should be sought such as gaining access to the weighbridge of a company or public body.000 inhabitants x 0. The calculation of per capita waste generation can be done at the same time as studies to determine solid waste characteristics. ! writing down on a map the number of receptacles per street block. after which problematic details can be adjusted.70kg/inhab/day = 140. ! on pronounced slopes collections should be made beginning at the top and working downwards to save the energy of the team and the fuel of the truck. following the itinerary of the route. Should this prove impossible. This method consists of: ! doing the cubing per block on the days of the week with more waste production.Where for example the daily per capita solid waste generation is 0. so that necessary adjustments can be made.000kg/day This data is essential for calculating the required number of vehicles in the domestic waste collection fleet. To calculate the amount of waste by cubing a standard receptacle of known capacity. see example in figure 20. can be used to restructure collection routes on the basis of the volume of collected waste. per vehicle can be determined.000. 96 . ! progressively adding up the number of receptacles per street block. in general Mondays and Tuesdays. for example 100 litres. the weight of waste generated daily for collection will be: 200. The number of times that the receptacle is emptied into the collection truck is counted to determine how many times it is filled during a collection from one street block. In this way the total number of receptacles per trip and the number of trips per shift. In practice. ! test the new routes in practice. until the truck is full. When the restructuring plans are ready the new routes can be used for two weeks.
Example A street block is each one of the sides of a block in the city. the avoidance of left turns in two-way streets and duplicated or unproductive stretches. Collection route layouts Collection routes should be laid out in such a way that unproductive stretches are minimized. Collection route layouts tend to be arrived at through the “heuristic” method. taking into account the direction of traffic.8. Solid waste collection and transport Figure 20 .Heuristic method collection route layout 97 . See figure 21 for an example of a rational collection route (heuristic method) Figure 21 . Routes should be designed through successive experimentation with a view to finding the optimum one that at the same time responds to conditions such as the direction of one-way streets. that is those along which there is no waste to collect. pronounced slopes and ease of access and manoeuvre for the vehicles.
828 1.15 1.040 13.65 9. covered in two shifts three times a week by two compaction vehicles. The data for the current program can be seen in table 13.72 8.01 8. II and III.900 Average time of work hrs* (3) 8.17 1.667 1.08 1.96 1.325 4.500 18.13 Kg/Worker (2)/(4) 4.120 18.300 17.660 15.915 Kg/m** (2)/(1) 1.300 19.525 4.20 7.75 8.20 0.Collection route restructuring method This method consists of: ! ! ! ! dividing the city in sub-areas. for example.93 - Workers per team (4) 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 - Rates Kg/hr (2)/(3) 2.875 4.19 1.400 15. the new weight of waste for collection per shift.550 4.870 15.169 1.99 9.900 4.100 3.180 14.000 1.250 13.36 10.600 18.600 16. the concentration of waste in each area.851 2. Let us suppose that in sub-area II there are currently eight collection routes.012 1.977 2. A city where the collection routes need to be restructured has to be divided into subareas of similar demographic density. analyzing the collected data.275 - 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Averages Totals * hours calculated in decimals ** kg/m = waste concentration 98 .839 1.100 17.575 4. surveying and systematizing the characteristics of each route.78 8.200 17.141 - Weight of waste Kg (2) 16. Sub-area II I – Commercial sub-area Sub-area I II – Predominantly residential sub-area III – Hills sub-area Sub-area III Figure 22 Table 13 Current routes – Mondays and Tuesdays Routes Length of route m (1) 14.12 1.400 14.18 1.350 3.100 153. sub-areas I.410 15. restructuring routes based on: ! ! ! the elimination (or minimization) of overtime.
390kg/route. If the objective is to finish the collection in eight hours and thus avoid overtime.816kg W04 = 2. W = kg/h x Ts Where Ts is the duration of the work shift (8hours in this case).390kg/future route Future routes should be marked on the map taking into account the concentration of waste in each area (expressed in kg/m).744kg = 31. Thursdays and Saturdays.977 x 8 = 15. it will be necessary to initiate: 31.8. the length of each route is multiplied by the waste concentration until obtaining an approximate weight of 15.839 x 8 = 14.744kg Average weight 15.096kg W07 = 1. To achieve this.156kg As the average collection weight for new routes would be approximately 15.156kg ÷ 15.712kg W03 = 1. the average weight per route will be: 153.828 x 8 = 14.900kg – 112.343kg/ route.624kg Total weight 112.343kg = 2.000 x 8 = 16. one on Mondays.808kg W06 = 2. it can be seen that the time used to complete the routes is too much and therefore requires overtime (based on the supposition that the collection is done regularly).012 x 8 = 16. the weight to be collected per working shift can be calculated assuming no change in the productivity of collectors.343kg As the weight that can be collected in an eight hour work shift is 15.000kg W02 = 1.336kg W08 = 1.667 x 8 = 13.169 x 8 = 17. Wednesdays and Fridays and the other on Tuesdays.352kg W05 = 1.851 x 8 = 14. As in future the area will be covered by 10 routes.343kg. uncollected waste would amount to: 153. Solid waste collection and transport With a normal work shift of 8 hours. Therefore: W01 = 2. applying the formula: LxC=W Where: L = length of route (m) C = waste concentration (kg/m) W = average weight of future routes (kg) 99 .900kg ÷ 10 routes = 15. in practice two routes more.03 new routes That is.
a loading compartment capacity of at least 1. A good domestic waste collection vehicle should have the following characteristics: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! that it does not spill waste or leachate on the street. When it is raining the weight of waste increases by 20%.1. adequate carrying capacity to minimize the number of journeys to the waste destination while at the same time being appropriate for the characteristics of the operational area. good manoeuvrability and potency for steep inclines. The number of vehicles will be: number of routes ÷ 4 = 2. the average weight of the future routes will be approximately 15. 8. Fluctuations in the number of tourists also have to be taken into account as they cause increases or decreases in waste production. 100 . fast unloading of waste at its destination. three vehicles can be used during the first shift and two during the second. lifting devices to empty different types of containers. rear loading (preferably). that is 3m³ are reduced by compaction to 1m³. adequate space for transporting the team. For example.In the example.6 Collection vehicles There are two types of specialized vehicle in general use for domestic waste collection and transport: ! ! compactors – rear loader or side loader.695kg.390kg ÷ 2 = 7. Particularly in smaller cities with limited budgetary resources conventional open dump trucks are frequently used as well as other equipment described later.5 So.20m from the floor. a waist high loading height of no more than 1. The type and capacity of the vehicles depend on the number of journeys that are necessary to the final disposal site. without compaction – with the box closed by sliding doors.390kg. even load distribution on the truck’s chassis. if on Mondays and Tuesdays two journeys are necessary. a compaction rate of at least 3:1. the average load per journey would be 15.5m³. the possibility of emptying at least two receptacles at the same time.
etc. topography. In such cases the most cost efficient type of vehicle and equipment should be selected. In addition adequate space should always be available on the truck for the collection team. 101 .8. However. The vehicle that is chosen should be the one with more of the above listed characteristics while taking into account the particular conditions of the service provision area (the condition of the streets. Therefore. Solid waste collection and transport Figure 23 . Every time the vehicle stops the team is exposed to the risk of injury through other vehicles colliding with the rear of the collection truck. Some vehicles and equipment in general use for domestic waste collection are described below.). In compactor vehicles it is essential to always take precautions with the compaction mechanism. the most recommendable technical solution is to use compactor collection vehicles wherever possible. manoeuvring conditions.Containers being emptied into a compaction truck Solid waste collection operations involve dangers for the collection personnel. sometimes this is not an option for operational or economic reasons. due to the characteristics of a particular urban area. The risk of being run over is high and efficient preventative measures must always be taken.
12. 12. This truck represents a low cost option in terms of both purchase and maintenance but has quite a low productivity. public and commercial waste collection. unpaved and potholed surfaces. which is more than two metres high. 15 or 19m³ corresponding to a truck TGWs of 9. It requires great physical effort from the collection team who have to lift the waste up to the edge of the box. This type of vehicle is used for domestic. much higher than the compactor collector loading compartment height of approximately one metre. It can also be used in areas with pronounced inclines. especially in zones where there are high concentrations of solid waste from large generators or a high demographic density. Unloading is by hydraulic box tipping. They may have hydraulic devices for the automatic and independent unloading of standardized containers.Closed box truck Compactor collection trucks Solid waste compactor collection trucks. Total gross weight (TGW) = chassis weight + box weight + load weight.Closed box collection trucks A solid waste collection vehicle without compaction. appropriate for working in small communities with a low demographic density. The box volume can vary from 4 to 12m³ corresponding to a truck total gross weight (TGW) of from 7 to 12 tons. 10. 16 and 23 tons respectively. 14. are made of steel and have a capacity of 6. Its use can be limited by unfavourable road conditions such as irregular layouts. Figure 24 . or roads unsuitable for heavy vehicles. which are usually rear loaders but can be side loaders. 102 .
Side loader compactor collection truck – 6m³ Figure 26 .Rear loader compactor collection truck – 10 to 15m³ Figure 27 . Solid waste collection and transport Figure 25 .Rear loader compactor collection truck – 19m³ Dumpster carrier trucks for 5m³ stationary containers Domestic waste collection systems that employ 5m³ stationary containers replaced by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane are appropriate for zones with low quality houses or difficult access. Containers are located at strategic points close to 103 .8.
that transport only one 5m³ stationary container at a time. In big cities this system is slowly replacing the system of open stationary containers transported by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane because. the volume of which can vary from 4 to 12 m³ in trucks that correspondingly vary from 7 to 12 tons TGW. There are two types of dumpster carrier truck with differing operational capacity: ! ! single . As with closed box collection trucks. compaction containers offer aesthetic. sanitary and economic advantages. while those with greater capacity are transported by roll-on / roll-off trucks. The 7m³ capacity stationary compactors can be transported by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane. 104 .Compactor container Traditional dump truck type collection vehicles These open box vehicles without a compaction device and not specifically designed for domestic solid waste collection are frequently used in small communities with a low demographic density and in areas of rough topography where it is difficult to manoeuvre bigger compactor trucks. Stationary compactor (compaction container) collection trucks For the collection of large volumes of domestic waste special stationary metal containers incorporating a compaction device can be used. being more hermetic and having a greater waste storage capacity. unloading is by tipping the box. These containers are called stationary compactors.the communities they serve but with easy access for the dumpster carrier trucks that replace loaded containers with empty ones. double . Figure 28 .that can transport two 5m³ stationary containers at the same time. in general have capacity for 7 to 20m³ of loose waste and are transported on special vehicles.
Dump truck with crane moving a special “Molok” container 8.7 Tools and implements used by collectors It is important that collection teams collect domestic waste without leaving any of it scattered around. For this purpose medium-sized sweeper brooms and shovels should be used. canvas or plastic sheeting can be used but in practice the efficiency of this is questionable as it significantly reduces the productivity of the collection team. and is therefore appropriate for small cities where. due to its operational. The main disadvantage for domestic waste collection is that the box is open and it is therefore difficult to keep the load inside it (particularly lighter waste) and avoid it being scattered by the wind along the route. It can be used for various different activities. not only waste collection. Amongst them is the “Molok” system that can be considered as an option in special situations. 105 .8. aesthetic and sanitary advantages when compared with other more conventional systems. Figure 29 . etc. plastic bags. In order to minimize this problem.1. Solid waste collection and transport This type of vehicle is attractive for small municipalities due to its operational flexibility. including in informal settlements. Another advantage is its low purchase and maintenance costs. However it is necessary to carry out a viability study before implementing this system as it requires significant initial investment for purchasing the containers. Special solid waste storage systems serviced by dump trucks equipped with a hydraulic crane are now available on the market. Figure 29 shows this system in operation. Productivity is also negatively affected by the loading height of the box and this too should be considered. a specialized vehicle would be unused for significant periods of time. due to the low level of waste production.
2 Collection of waste gathered by sweeping Waste collected by street sweeping can be transported by the sweepers while performing the service. wheelbarrow and wheelie bin 106 . 8. 8. wheelbarrows may be used. the type of waste generated and the form of storage. vehicles and equipment to be used in collection depend on the specific nature of each individual cleaning operation. waste packed in plastic bags. Differences in specific weight and other physical characteristics of waste demand different solutions for loading (manual or mechanical) and transport to a transfer station or final disposal unit. Figure 30 . on pronounced inclines.2. waste stored in wheelie bins or dumpsters. These days the latter are increasingly being used. pruning and special waste collection (for example waste and mud deposited in the street by flooding).A medium sized sweeper broom has a wooden base with 22 holes into which natural fibres or recycled plastic bristles are fixed. There are three basic categories that determine the collection method for public waste: ! ! ! loose waste accumulated on the ground.1 Concept Public solid waste collection includes the collection and transport of waste gathered as a result of routine and emergency street cleaning activities.2 Public solid waste collection and transport 8. wheelie bins or. weeding. The method.2. for which purpose hand carts made of steel tubing with a metal container (sweeper cart). such as sweeping.Sweeper cart.
8. Solid waste collection and transport
In all cases it is recommendable that waste, which mostly comprises light material that can be easily scattered by the wind, is stored in plastic bags for collection. They can then be collected by compactor trucks (rear loaders or side loaders), which are especially appropriate in large cities due to the high productivity of this type of vehicle and the large volume of waste to be collected. The collection of this type of waste at the same time as domestic solid waste represents an important device for rationalizing collection and transport costs. Vehicles without compaction devices can also be used: closed box trucks, traditional dump trucks or dumpster carrier trucks that can handle stationary containers. Because sweeping is undertaken in the more urbanized zones of the city it is important to carefully plan the collection of this type of waste so that it remains on the street for the minimum possible time, bearing in mind that a slower collection process could adversely affect the municipal administration’s image of efficiency. As sweeping has to be done in each zone as a programmed routine on pre-established days and at specified times, it is completely feasible to integrate it with collection. To determine the quantity of waste collected by street sweeping, it is necessary to do a field survey in order to identify the average generation per sweeping route and, on that basis, calculate the production of each sector. The generation of waste collected by sweeping is influenced by various factors such as the predominant usage of the street or public space, the level of environmental education of passers by, the type and state of the surfacing on the street and pavement, as well as the characteristics of any trees. Depending on the type of trees, the generation of street waste can increase considerably due to seasonal factors, that is, the falling of leaves and fruit onto pavements and streets.
Collection of waste from weeding and vegetation cutting
Weeding and vegetation cutting activities generate vegetation waste that usually accumulates in piles along the section of a street where the work has taken place. From there it is carried by hand to the box of the collection truck (generally a conventional dump truck). An operational alternative that is sometimes adopted is to locate an open stationary container near to the area where the work is taking place so that waste can be deposited in it as the work advances. Such containers are subsequently removed by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane.
When the dimensions of collection and transport services are being determined the low specific weight of this type of waste should be taken into account as it results in the load capacity of the collection truck being under used. The integration of this waste’s collection with the collection of soil and sands that have accumulated on the streets is an option for utilizing the truck’s full load capacity.
The identification of nearby locations appropriate for the disposal of this waste, eroded areas for example, can also reduce the cost of transport, but appropriate sanitary and environmental care should always be taken in disposing of it. The necessary dimensions of the collection fleet are assessed by experienced operators during a pre-operational visit to the site on which weeding and land clearing services will be undertaken.
Tree pruning waste collection
Tree pruning is often linked with the municipal urban cleaning sector. Due to the nature of this activity it usually requires the support of a truck to transport tools, implements and labour. It is therefore often natural that the same truck is used to collect the waste generated as work progresses. This type of waste includes loose leaves, small branches and thick trunks, and its physical characteristics mean that when it is loaded into the box of the truck many spaces are left unoccupied. Due to this low specific weight, the collection and transport operation is relatively expensive and involves low productivity. As with the disposal of weeding and land clearing waste, disposal sites that are near to the generation site can be sought for pruning waste. The load can be prepared for collection at the generation site using standard pruning tools (machetes, saws and chain saws) to make the material more homogeneous and to prepare part of the waste for reuse (the thicker trunks, for example). Recently new technological alternatives have been incorporated in pruning operations to address the low productivity and high cost of collection and transport in cities that produce large amounts of such waste. A branch grinder can be an important component of an economical and environmentally sound operational solution to this problem. This is a robust and compact machine, available in towable models, that can reduce by up to ten times the volume of a pruning waste load. Another advantage of this system is that the ground waste is easy to dispose of in appropriate nearby locations as the final product has a low granulometry and can be used as coverage for natural soil, minimizing erosion risks and incorporating organic matter. Pruning operations tend to use a fixed box truck with a special elevation platform to raise the worker for the cutting of higher tree branches.
8. Solid waste collection and transport
Collection of rubble and other construction waste
This type of service can be provided directly by the public administration or by authorized private companies. In the latter case previous authorization is needed so that the identity of service providers is known and their activities can be overseen on an ongoing basis in order to prevent the clandestine disposal of waste in inappropriate places. Basically there are two types of situation that require rubble collection services:
where rubble has been clandestinely disposed of in the street, on wastelands or on the banks of bodies of water;
where generators of this type of waste request or contract services.
In the first case it is clearly the responsibility of the public administration to collect construction rubble that has been indiscriminately disposed of in the city, a responsibility that requires the urban cleaning body to maintain the necessary infrastructure for this purpose. Where requests for collection are made by generators it is recommended that this service is provided by the municipal urban cleaning system only to small volume generators (there should be a specific municipal regulation on this subject). Where construction works produce larger amounts of rubble the “polluter pays” principle should be applied. Whoever provides the service it should be scheduled, with the cooperation of the generator, for the day and time most appropriate for waste collection taking into account factors such as the traffic flow and parking conditions in the street closest to the place of generation. Service provision should be organized not only to coordinate requests that have been granted and to incorporate field survey data, but also to ensure a rational route that minimizes unproductive journeys and maximizes operational productivity. Construction rubble collection is in general undertaken by conventional dump trucks or 5m³ stationary containers transported by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane.
This type of service is necessary in certain situations, which regrettably are common in Latin American and Caribbean cities, where inappropriate waste accumulation sites or clandestine rubbish dumps arise, generally located on wasteland or unoccupied plots. The expression “rubbish attracts more rubbish” summarizes the underlying causes of this type of accumulation: small volumes of pruning waste for example are left in a particular place, this may then be added to by other people disposing of construction rubble there. Subsequently local residents add plastic bags of residential waste and in a short time there is a large accumulation of waste that causes serious sanitary and environmental impacts.
In general the existence of waste accumulation sites and clandestine refuse dumps results from operational defects in the regular domestic waste collection and street cleaning system together with deficiencies in the supervision of municipal activities. The lack of attention to these issues by those responsible for urban cleaning means that the causes of this serious problem are not addressed but only its consequences, and thus new cases repeatedly arise necessitating more and more special collection services.
Due to the large amount of waste that accumulates on such sites, collection operations may require mechanical loading equipment (mechanical loader), rather than a manual operation, and large vehicles for collection and transport to the final disposal site.
Vehicles and equipment used for collection
Dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane for handling 7 ton containers
A truck (minimum total gross weight 13.5 tons) with a mounted minimum 7 ton capacity hydraulic crane for lifting and transporting open metal containers loaded with solid waste. These trucks can be single carriers to transport one container at a time or double carriers to transport two containers at a time. To be productive they have to operate over short distances between container locations and the unloading site.
Figure 31 - Dumpster carrier truck with multifunctional crane
8. Solid waste collection and transport
Short dump truck
A two axle vehicle for the collection of public waste, construction rubble and earth with a box of 5 to 8m³ capacity with a respective truck TGW of from 12 to 16 tons.
Figure 32 - Short dump truck
Long dump truck
A three axle vehicle for the collection of public waste, construction rubble and earth. The box generally has a 12m³ capacity and the truck a TGW of 23 tons. This truck is usually loaded by a mechanical loader to reduce human effort and increase productivity.
Figure 33 - Long dump truck
Roll-on / roll-off container carrier truck
A collection truck with devices for lifting 10 to 30m³ stationary containers without a compaction device (figure 16). Each vehicle should handle six containers for its productivity to justify its use. These three axle trucks should have a TGW of 23 tons.
It can be used to transport rubble or in support of large earth or mud collection operations. mud and waste.5m³ are normally used.Semi-trailer A semi-trailer dumper with capacity of 25m³ pulled by a 4x2 truck with a 45 ton pulling capacity. Figure 34 . A semi-trailer is a trailer the front part of which has to be supported on a towing vehicle called a semi-trailer truck. Figure 35 . and to load dump trucks. rubble. For street operations machines with a scoop capacity of 1. while for loading semi-trailers it is advisable to use machines with a 3m³ scoop to increase productivity and because of the higher loading level. A canvas or plastic sheet should cover the top of the box to avoid waste being scattered in the road by the wind while the vehicle is moving. dumper boxes and semi-trailers in street cleaning operations and at waste accumulation sites. It is loaded by mechanical loader and is unloaded at the final destination by box tipping.Mechanical loader 112 .Semi-trailer Mechanical loader A wheeled tractor loader used to pile up earth.
3 Waste collection in tourist cities The amount of waste to be collected varies according to tourist season related population fluctuations as well as the usual all year round fluctuations. the utilization of the reserve fleet in operations. which impedes the movement of collection vehicles and increases the time taken to cover collection routes. within the limits imposed by employment legislation. even though it may be attractive for economic reasons. A reduction in the frequency of collections should never be considered. collection routes that cover streets bordering the sea should be revised and restructured in order to adapt them to seasonal requirements. not only in regard to the increased amount of waste but also the frequency and times of collection. 113 . Beaches In coastal cities where tourists tend to concentrate around the beaches. The basic measures to take are: ! the introduction of overtime for collection workers. which are detrimental to the city’s sanitary and environmental condition and discourage tourists. Waste collection schedules should therefore be set for times when traffic is less heavy. Other important factors to take into account are: Traffic In tourist cities the traffic is usually congested during holiday periods. It is important to note that these measures should be taken in sequence in order to limit the increase in collection costs to a minimum. as the longer the interval between collections the greater the danger of waste accumulation sites appearing in the streets. As the usual fluctuations (weekly and monthly) have little effect on the size of the fleet that is needed.8. this section will deal with the necessary procedures for maintaining the quality of domestic waste collection in tourist cities during the season of population influx. ! ! ! an increase in the number of collection shifts. Whenever possible the contracting of extra vehicles should be planned in advance to avoid overpricing. Solid waste collection and transport 8. the contracting of extra vehicles from private companies or individuals.
These factors have to be taken into account in planning alternative waste collection systems in these communities with a view to improving a situation that presents serious risks to public health and the environment.8. Figure 36 .Micro tractor Figure 37 .5m³ capacity trailers with metal or wooden boxes are feasible alternatives. One solution to the problem of access through narrow internal streets. Mini-tractors or agricultural tractors with 4x2 or 4x4 drive towing 2.4 Solid waste collection in informal settlements There are informal settlements in many Latin American and Caribbean cities due to the poor socioeconomic conditions experienced by a significant sector of the population in the region.Micro tractor and dump trailer 114 . have good manoeuvrability and the capacity to deal with steep slopes. (4x4) – two axle vehicle with four wheel drive. A lack of basic urban infrastructure in these communities causes significant obstacles for the provision of domestic waste collection services: ! ! ! difficult access for conventional collection trucks. the tendency of inhabitants to discard waste immediately after generation as there is minimal space inside the houses. is the use of special vehicles that are narrow. often with a pronounced incline. inadequate or nonexistent preparation and pre-collection storage of waste. (4x2) – two axle vehicle with rear wheel drive.
roofs and furniture free of dust. daily collection being the best option. for example. It is normally recommended that stationary containers are used for this temporary storage and they are then either transported by special collection vehicles (dumpster carrier trucks) or emptied into large compactor trucks. 115 . the municipality contracts the community centre. In several cities the contracting of community collectors has produced good results. the collected waste is transported to a temporary storage place where it is kept for subsequent transport to a final disposal site. medical centres. 8.8.1 Acknowledgement of the problem Hygienic conditions in health service establishments (hospitals.5 Collection of medical waste 8. veterinary clinics. If appropriately clean conditions and supervision are not maintained there is a risk of people setting fire to the waste. Appropriate internal transport and storage together with subsequent collection and external transport of waste complete the measures aimed at reducing infections.) are fundamental for the prevention of infections. with the waste being carried to some point that is accessible for some type of vehicle. The frequency of collections should be carefully considered and ideally there should be only short intervals between them. etc. It has to be pointed out that in many of these communities it is not even possible to use the mini-tractors for collection due to a lack of passable access. The problem of pre-collection waste storage in these areas can be dealt with by siting containers along the micro tractor collection route. which then selects the people who will work in the collection team (as well as carrying out weeding and channel cleaning tasks. walls. clinics. In these cases. It is worth noting that contracting community collectors involves the principle of community participation as it encourages other residents to participate in the maintenance of the place where they are living as they may feel an obligation to keep public areas clean when it is one of their neighbours who is doing this work. body fluids and any waste from medical activities.5. Regular cleaning with germicide solutions keeps floors. etc. preferably plastic containers with lid and wheels. When installing open containers in informal settlements it is necessary to take the precautions already mentioned in chapter 7 in order to avoid a prejudicial proliferation of insects and animals. In such cases collection should be manual.). Solid waste collection and transport As these vehicles are not appropriate for long journeys.
) should be stored in special receptacles specifically for this purpose. infectious disease isolation rooms. ! non-critical areas: where in theory there is no risk of infection.93 3.97 – 1.5. ! puncturing and sharp waste (needles.80 2. nurses’ rooms.63 3.21 3. ! semi-critical areas: where the risk of contamination is less. 8.85 – 3. 116 .2 Segregation There are regulations that must be followed for the segregation of infectious and common waste in health service establishments: ! at the time of its generation all infectious waste should be put in a receptacle close to the place where it is produced. storerooms. etc. in well closed plastic bags (generally coloured cream). delivery rooms. such as administration rooms. laboratories. laundries. such as the rooms occupied by patients with non-infectious diseases. Table 14 Medical solid waste generation rates Place Chile Venezuela Argentina Peru Paraguay Brazil Rio de Janeiro Average generation kg/bed/day 0.10 1. etc. Table 14 shows waste generation per bed in some countries and in Rio de Janeiro city. ! infectious waste must be stored in accordance with stipulated technical standards. Hospital areas are classified in three categories: ! critical areas: where there is a greater risk of infection such as operating theatres. infectious or special (see table 4).98 Medical waste is classified as common. etc. refectories and kitchen areas etc. glass.65 2.In hospitals medical waste generation rates are related to the number of beds.
Van A light van with the driver and passenger cab independent from the load compartment and a load capacity of 500 kilos. Light vans with hermetic load compartments and a capacity for approximately 2m³ of waste. 8.5. Infectious waste and the rest of the special waste should be stored in cream plastic bags which are put into standardized containers that are mechanically emptied into special vehicles for medical waste collection. The load compartment should be lined with fibre glass in order to avoid the accumulation of infectious waste at the edges and in cracks and to facilitate washing and cleaning.3 Separate collection of common. Current norms recommend that in most cases medical waste is collected daily. The types of vehicle usually recommended for medical waste collection are presented below. as an additional precautionary measure. In some cases it 117 . If there is no separation of infectious and special waste all of the waste should be packaged. collected and disposed of as though it is infectious or special waste. must be hermetic and have liquid capturing devices.4 Vehicles for collection and transport As plastic bags with infectious or non-separated waste can break and release contaminated liquids or air. Solid waste collection and transport ! waste from clinical analysis. 8. are suitable for the collection of puncturing and sharp objects from chemists. collection vehicles should not have compaction systems and. stored. organs and tissues should be separately put in cream plastic bags that are then appropriately closed.8. Depending on their size they should have mechanical devices for both empting the containers and unloading the vehicle. analysis laboratories. even on Sundays. blood transfusion therapy and microbiological research should be sterilized in the place of generation. This waste represents at the most 30% of the total medical waste generated. dental clinics and other similar establishments. Radioactive waste should be dealt with in accordance with each country’s specific regulations issued by the respective governing body.5. ! infectious waste consisting of human body parts. infectious and special waste Infectious and special waste should be separated from common waste before collection. Common waste generated in these establishments should be collected by the normal collection service.
which will then transport it to the final disposal site.may be economical for these vans to unload waste that they have collected in the loading areas of bigger medical waste collection vehicles. Figure 38 . The hydraulic powered system is coupled with the gearbox and is pneumatically operated from inside the cab. The rear door of the load box must close with an efficient seal. The box is made of steel with continuous welded seams to avoid liquid leakage and has a compartment for capturing liquid originating from the load with a device for unloading it in an appropriate place. Figure 39 . without a compaction device.Truck for infectious waste collection 118 .Van for medical waste collection Truck for infectious waste collection A two axle collection truck with a capacity of 6 to 8m³. The unloading of waste is done through the tipping of the load box after the rear door has been fully opened. A tipping system may be incorporated for the emptying of plastic or metal containers with a capacity of up to 700 litres. Amongst the chassis recommended are: VW 8150. MB 914 and Ford Cargo 81.
acknowledge employees’ work. ! based on collected data. ! select van type collection vehicles with leak-proof load compartments and liquid retention trays. prevent contamination. medical centres. To achieve good quality medical waste management it is important to instigate educational processes that prepare people for change. maintain an organized and pleasant work environment. reduce absenteeism. including in measures for their own protection and work safety practices. chemists. intensify safety measures.5. determine the necessary type. of the amount of waste generated in each establishment and the possibilities for treating it at source. size and number of collection vehicles. avoid work accidents. while at the same time establishing appropriate methods for its pre-collection preparation and internal storage. The basic guidelines for rationalizing costs and establishing an appropriate service management policy are the following: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! facilitate treatment. ! train the service operation teams. the frequency of collections and collection routes.5 Aspects of collection planning When planning the collection of this type of waste a determination should be made. 119 . The steps to follow include: ! locate on a map all health establishments: hospitals. out-patient departments. together with the generators and the responsible health authority. emergency services and clinics.8. Solid waste collection and transport 8.
9 Solid waste transfer 120 .
transfer stations are sometimes used even when the distance to the sanitary landfill is shorter.1 Concept At the same time as large and medium-sized cities have experienced intense urban expansion there has been an increase in both environmental pressures and the resistance of residents to accepting the installation close to their homes of facilities related with solid waste final disposal. Waste unloaded in transfer stations is transported to the sanitary landfill by a larger vehicle that involves lower transport cost per unit. ! increased unproductive time that collection teams spend waiting for the return of the truck from unloading at the landfill. ! ! increased transport costs. reduced productivity of collection trucks. Vehicles used for transporting waste from transfer stations to final disposal sites usually have three times more load capacity than collection trucks. which are specialized and therefore expensive vehicles. In addition urban land is too expensive to be used for sanitary landfills.9. In general transfer stations begin to be considered when the distance between the location of large-scale collection activities and the sanitary landfill is greater than 25km. To solve these problems some municipalities are establishing transfer stations. for which large areas are required. This increased distance between collection areas and sanitary landfills creates the following problems: ! delays in completing collection routes thus prolonging the time that waste is exposed on the street. The establishment of a transfer station should be preceded by a feasibility study that evaluates the economic and operational advantages that it could provide to the collection system. Transfer stations are units sited close to areas of large-scale waste generation so that collection trucks can unload there and return rapidly to continue their collection route. In large cities where traffic conditions make travel very slow. Solid waste transfer 9. 121 . Consequently final disposal sites are being established further and further away from centres of large-scale waste generation.
so that a collection truck on the higher level unloads directly into the transfer truck below. A complementary system of trucks is required to transport waste from the unloading site to the sanitary landfill. The simultaneous arrival of vehicles makes it indispensable that the station has an appropriate place for the storage of waste to deal with unloading “peaks”. 9.Modes of transport from transfer stations can be: Train – suitable for long distances or for cities where traffic on roads to the final disposal site is too congested. Amongst the more commonly used models for transfer stations with storage facilities are: 122 .2 9.2.2. This requires a complementary system of trucks to transport waste from the unloading site to the sanitary landfill. recommended for transporting over medium distances and in places where the traffic on roads to the final disposal site is not too congested.2 Station with storage facilities In most cities all collection trucks begin their routes at the same time and so it is probable that the vehicles become full and arrive at the transfer station within the same timeframe. a larger fleet of transfer vehicles is required to avoid collection trucks having to wait too long to unload. Boat – suitable for long distances and an excellent option in cities that have navigable rivers or bays. It has a drop between the unloading platform and the loading area. Truck – the most used system. As there is no space for waste storage in these stations. Ideally waste should be transported in closed containers to avoid scattering. Waste storage also facilitates the operation of the system with fewer vehicles.1 Types of transfer station Direct transfer station This is a commonly used type of transfer station. Figure 40 – Direct transfer station 9.
Figure 42 – Station with storage without compaction 123 . This model is more appropriate for stations that receive a maximum of 1. The traditional model has a storage silo and a drop between loading and unloading platforms. This model facilitates the fast unloading of collection trucks and loading of transfer vehicles.Transfer station with storage and compaction Station with silo storage without compaction Some units have storage silos to receive waste brought by collection trucks. A hydraulic system installed in the silo compacts waste inside the transfer vehicles. The loading of transfer vehicles is done by hydraulic diggers or mechanical loaders. These stations have covered paved floors with closed sides to avoid the exposure of waste to the elements and improve the aesthetics of the establishment.000 tons per day as in larger units it would imply excessive construction costs. Station with floor storage without compaction Another model commonly used is that of floor storage stations. When this equipment is used weight specifications for the transfer trucks must be observed so that loads do not surpass the legal limits. Figure 41 .9. and can be used in small or large stations. Hydraulic digger type machines load waste from the silos into transfer vehicles. Solid waste transfer Station with silo storage and compaction The main objective of these stations is to increase the specific mass of waste in order to reduce transport costs.
can be incorporated on a smaller scale in special situations in small communities where access is not possible for conventional collection vehicles. It is loaded from a transfer ramp or by a mechanical loader or hydraulic digger. 9.3 Alternative transfer systems The transfer station concept. For example. may involve the unloading of collected solid waste in a stationary container (or equivalent receptacle) at a site where larger vehicles do have access and can collect the waste and transport it to its final destination. Semi-trailer tippers A semi-trailer tipper towed by a 4x2 semi-trailer truck with a 45 ton pulling capacity.3 Vehicles and machines for transfer stations To transport waste unloaded in transfer stations large interchangeable tipper containers can be used. The model most commonly used has a capacity of 45m³. Figure 43 – A 45m³ semi-trailer tipper 124 . The models most used in transfer stations are: semi-trailer tippers and semi-trailers with movable floor. manoeuvred by vehicles equipped with cranes to lift them onto and off platforms. or semi-trailers with or without compaction.2. and unloaded by tipping. an alternative collection system using carts pulled by animals to cover streets that are not accessible to collection trucks.9. although originally developed to respond to the needs of large cities.
It is loaded from a transfer ramp or by a mechanical loader or hydraulic digger. towed by a 4x2 semi-trailer truck with a 45 ton pulling capacity. Solid waste transfer Semi-trailer with movable floor A semi-trailer with a capacity of 70m³.A 70m³ semi-trailer with movable floor In all open semi-trailers the load should be covered with plastic sheeting or a net to avoid waste falling in the roads. and unloaded by the alternating movement of the movable floor’s strips. Figure 44 . 125 .9.
10 Street cleaning 126 .
The filthy conditions in Europe during the Middle Ages are well documented. Keeping streets clean is important for the community and the collective interest must be given priority over individual interests in order to respect the wishes of most citizens. They are called disease “vectors”. Flies and rats that proliferate in rubbish can transmit many diseases. to promote road safety by eliminating dust and earth that can cause skidding and dry leaves and grass that can cause fires. As a result of developments in medicine and sanitary engineering during the 19th century. ears. in several cities of the world for many centuries there have been laws and municipal regulations prohibiting the discarding of waste and objects in the streets. ! to avoid rain water drainage systems becoming clogged up. Most animal excrement (except for dog excrement) was eliminated from the streets with the advent of motorized transport that replaced animal driven carts. the rats. The surfacing of streets and the dissemination of hygiene and public health principles in schools also contributed to the reduction of waste in the streets. It was then that effective measures began to be taken for the collection of domestic waste rather than allowing it to be thrown onto streets or wasteland.10. treated and appropriately disposed of is a significant source of disease and can provoke fast spreading epidemics. as are the plagues and epidemics that they produced. Safety ! ! to avoid damage to vehicles from branches and sharp objects. The principal motives for keeping streets clean are: Sanitary ! to prevent diseases caused by vector proliferation in waste accumulations on the street or on wasteland. Street cleaning 10. flies and cockroaches attracted by it and the transmission of diseases through those vectors was also discovered.1 The importance of street cleanliness Up to the mid-19th century there was not only refuse in city streets but also the remains of food and large amounts of animal and human excrement. it was recognized for the first time that human waste not collected. nose and throat. 127 . However. ! to avoid damage to health caused by dust coming into contact with eyes. The relationship between waste dumped in the street.
tree branches and leaves. While it is true that a tourist demands cleanliness of a city. newspapers. weeds and other vegetation. plastic. 10. paper. domestic waste (in general in small amounts. he is a mere visitor. rubber from tyres and residues from brake pads and linings. in the context of tourism it is hard for a visitor to leave with a positive impression when a place is aesthetically ugly due to a lack of cleanliness. Whatever the historical significance. ! ! dog and other animal excrement (also in small amounts). The aesthetic aspect of street cleanliness forms a significant part of arguments for the implementation of policies and measures to improve the image of cities. sand and earth carried by vehicles or coming from wasteland and slopes.2 Waste found in the street Waste commonly found in the streets: ! ! ! ! ! ! material from road surface break-up. it is important that tourist city municipalities implement urban cleaning education campaigns specifically addressed to visitors. 128 . it should also be noted that he himself is in many cases contributing to its dirtiness. In general people take more care of their own houses than of spaces that do not belong to them. Consequently his consideration for the place is less intense than that of residents. principally on wasteland and areas close to informal settlements). particularly so in tourist cities. packaging. a consumer of space. helps to attract new residents and tourists. improves the appearance of a place. In general the tourist does not establish an attachment with the place he is visiting. increases the value of property and stimulates business. In view of these attitudes. particles from atmospheric contamination. landscape beauty or cultural richness of a city.Aesthetic ! a clean city inspires pride in its inhabitants. with a view to maintaining urban aesthetics and therefore contributing to an improvement in the city’s sanitary conditions.
etc. drain cleaning. They can also cover other activities such as beach cleaning. street market cleaning and waste removal. packaging and the remains of food discarded in the street. kerb painting and street washing.A street considered as “clean”. types of waste that produce bad odours. 10. bits of plastic. disinfection. grass and vegetation cutting. More developed cities are giving increasing importance to a combination of cleaning services and street conservation measures (maintaining street surfaces and pavements in good condition.e. the unblocking of drains. pest control.10. with no visible refuse The types of refuse that most offend citizens’ sense of hygiene and cleanliness are papers.3 Street cleaning services Street cleaning services in general include activities such as sweeping. weeding and scraping. have an ugly appearance and attract undesirable animals). with pieces of paper and plastic in the gutters Figure 46 . A gutter with some earth and material from road surface break-up is not perceived as “dirty” by the general public while paper and plastic items are associated with “rubbish” (i.) when defining quality standards for urban cleaning services that are compatible with client-citizens’ ever more demanding criteria. Street cleaning Figure 45 . tree pruning. 129 .A street considered as “dirty”.
due to the transverse curvature of the street. in the direction of the drains. Restructuring manual sweeping routes Review of the existing sweeping plan The organization of existing sweeping routes should be examined.10. quality and standard of cleanliness that each street requires. the length of each one (expressed in metres of pavement and gutter) and the teams assigned to it (sweepers). Service quality As there is no process for determining precisely the degree. It is essential to take these characteristics into account when determining street cleaning methodology.3. those responsible for urban cleaning have to use their own criteria. Figure 47 . Rainwater also carries debris towards the kerb.Cross section of a street In non-surfaced streets dirt and litter behave in a different way and it is necessary to clean the entire width of the street. In the streets themselves there is practically no dirt unless there is almost no traffic. They will determine the methodology and frequency of cleaning and 130 . The gutters are in reality “channels” designed to conduct rainwater.1 Sweeping services Characteristics of city streets In surfaced streets most debris is found in the gutters (at the most 60 cm from the kerb) due to the air displacement produced by passing vehicles that “pushes” dirt towards the kerb. The review of the plan should register the street sections that are swept on each route.
if they are kept clean. it is advisable to evaluate workers’ productivity in the field. if a street needs to be swept every day double the number of workers will be needed than if it is swept every other day. sites that influence public opinion and minimum sweeping frequency for the different areas have been determined. Determination of sweeping frequency The minimum sweeping frequency necessary to maintain the required level of cleanliness in streets has to be determined. habits and culture. and principal thoroughfares. principal streets and avenues. New sweeping plan layout Once the existing plan has been examined and productivity indexes (metres of gutters and pavements swept per worker per shift in each type of street). for example. Reference sites should therefore be established where comparative studies can be made of resource mobilization and the quality of services provide by the responsible body. This index is of fundamental importance for the restructuring of sweeping routes and is usually measured in samples of typical residential. how many metres of gutter and pavement can be swept per worker per shift. This information is significant as. that is. Street cleaning will evaluate the approval or disapproval of the public according to the number and content of complaints and suggestions received. that is. To carry out the tests. 131 . It is possible to gauge public opinion about cleaning services by carrying out opinion surveys. commercial centres and access roads to the city are sites that influence public opinion. which then encourages the public to cooperate in maintaining clean and hygienic conditions in the streets.10. form and consolidate a favourable public opinion on the part of both residents and tourists in regard to the cleanliness of the city. commercial and tourist streets. workers of medium performance are chosen and for a period of approximately fifteen days the distance that each one sweeps in each type of street is measured thus determining the average distance covered per shift. Identification of sites that influence public opinion Citizen participation is indispensable for public cleaning services to maintain an appropriate level of cleanliness. One of the first measures to take in order to improve services is the identification of sites that influence public opinion. Productivity tests As each city has its own characteristics. investigating previous complaints and consulting press files. certain streets that. Tourist areas. These sites should be photographed periodically to facilitate a comparative checking. the new plan can be laid out on a map to a scale appropriate for the relevant area.
Once the new plan is operational.Modern broom (1). (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Figure 48 . key for drains (5). and the reaction of the public should be evaluated through opinion surveys and the registration of complaints. the level of cleanliness achieved should be checked through photos. hoe for cleaning drains (6). brush (3). small broom (4). on the basis of which necessary adjustments can be made. used to collect waste and finish sweeping. shovel (7) and special waste collection pan (8) Figure 49 . sweeper broom (2). tools and clothing The principal tools and implements for manual sweeping are: ! ! ! ! sweeper broom (vegetable fibre or plastic). Implements. Up to three workers can be assigned to each route but it is recommended that only one is assigned to each route in order to clarify responsibilities and facilitate supervision. hoe for cleaning drains and extracting waste from them. key for opening drains. small broom and shovel.Manual sweeping 132 .
manual sweeping is in general more appropriate. t-shirt. For safety reasons the use of reflecting strips on the uniform is recommended. However the monthly cost of renting a large mechanical sweeper in Latin American and Caribbean countries can be equivalent to the wages of at least 18 sweepers and taking into account the importance of job creation for citizens who have received little education. tunnels and bridges represent dangerous situations for manual sweeping. mechanical sweepers without vacuum system. Nevertheless there are exceptions. Types of sweeping In spite of the cost. 133 . where roads with high volumes of fast moving traffic. mechanical sweeping is recommended for some situations. As the average productivity of the manual system is 2km of gutter per worker per shift. clean rainwater drains on the route. empty rubbish bins. high closing shoes and cap. a mechanical sweeper can replace 15 human sweepers. weed the gutters and areas around trees and posts (once every 15 days). Street cleaning Clothing can be the same as for most urban cleaning service workers: trousers. mechanical sweepers with vacuum system. particularly for nocturnal work. sweep the pavement and gutter along the assigned route. In tourist areas and city centres small mechanical sweepers can be used as they have a positive impact on public opinion by demonstrating the efforts made and the resources invested by the municipality in the urban cleaning sector. Sweeper tasks In general each sweeper should: ! ! ! ! ! collect domestic waste discarded in the street (not packaged for collection). The main mechanical sweepers used are mini-sweepers.10. A large mechanical sweeper can sweep an average of 30 km of gutter per shift. In such cases it is advisable to consider the possibility of mechanical sweeping. large mechanical sweepers and mini-vacuums.
MINI-SWEEPER A self-propelled sweeper and vacuum machine with two front brushes and water sprinkler nozzles to avoid raising dust.Mini-sweeper MECHANICAL SWEEPER WITHOUT VACUUM SYSTEM A medium-sized self-propelled sweeper machine. etc.3m³ receptacle. with a 2. Figure 51 . pedestrian ways. These machines are used for the mechanical sweeping of pavements. squares. Figure 50 . These machines are used for the mechanical sweeping of roads with fast moving traffic and represent a good option wherever human sweepers would be in danger of being run over.Mechanical sweeper without vacuum 134 . one central brush and water sprinkler nozzles to avoid raising dust. In general they provoke curiosity and create public awareness of the municipality’s efforts to improve and modernize the urban cleaning system. two frontal brushes. without vacuum.
Figure 52 .10. both driven by hydraulic motors.Large mechanical sweeper MINI-VACUUM Small vacuum machine that sucks debris through a flexible tube manoeuvred by the operator. LARGE MECHANICAL SWEEPER A self-propelled sweeper and vacuum machine with two lateral brushes. pavements and parks. 135 . This machine is used for sweeping tunnels. and water sprinkler nozzles to avoid raising dust. It has lateral and central brushes. thus avoiding having to move the sweeper itself to empty its load in a transfer station. one central brush and water sprinkler nozzles to avoid raising dust. Street cleaning MECHANICAL SWEEPER WITH VACUUM SYSTEM A 14ton TGW sweeper machine with a capacity of 6m³ and a vacuum system driven by an auxiliary engine. This machine is used for cleaning cycle ways. When its waste receptacle is full it can be emptied directly into a dump truck that operates together with it. bridges and large streets with high traffic volumes.
Weeding 136 . In such cases weeding and scraping services are necessary to remove earth from the gutters and re-establish good drainage conditions and the appropriate appearance of the street. Figure 54 . earth can accumulate in gutters and weeds begin to grow.Mini-vacuum 10.2 Weeding and scraping services Where sweeping is not regularly undertaken or rain carries debris onto surfaced streets.Figure 53 .3.
Rakes can be used to complete weeding and brushes to finish the cleaning. involves fewer environmental risks. A scraper is used to deal with mud.Rake Types of weeding Weeding operations can be manual or chemical. the operation uses more time. usually after intense rain in streets close to slopes. Wheelbarrows. 137 . When the earth is very compact hoes or picks are used to scrap it. Street cleaning In general these services are carried out using very sharp 3½ pound hoes and the waste is collected using shovels or four pronged pitchforks. wheelie bins or stationary containers can be used for waste collection operations.10. Figure 55 . the main one being erosion processes due to the inappropriate removal of vegetation. small or big mechanical loaders are used for scraping. ! ! ! machines and tools are easy to obtain and operate. It is important that drains are cleaned at the same time as weeding and scraping operations are undertaken. as they tend to become clogged when gutters are covered with earth and weeds. plastic bags. depending on the amount of material and on the type of access and space for manoeuvring. pick and scraper Figure 56 . is a simple and well known method. The main advantages and disadvantages of each method are listed below: Manual ! ! ! uses unqualified labour. requires large numbers of workers. When there is a large amount of earth.Hoe.
10. Chemical weeding uses herbicides and should always be undertaken in compliance with the producer’s specifications and the relevant legal and environmental restrictions. and when it is adopted regulatory restrictions and requirements should be rigorously observed as should the instructions on the product labels. For the manual cutting of grass a broad scythe is used.Scythe. slicer and broad scythe 138 .3 Cutting services Cutting services are necessary when grass or vegetation is too long and can be carried out manually or mechanically. its use is restricted to specific situations and is always an auxiliary to manual weeding. Manual cutting uses tools such as scythes and slicers that can also be used for cutting tree branches. it involves few environmental risks. facilitates the removal of vegetation.3. It should only be used as an auxiliary and complementary method side by side with manual weeding. ! the use of machines and tools involves diverse operating. Figure 57 . ! ! ! requires qualified labour. represents a risk to the environment when used without fulfilling technical requirements. when done well.Chemical ! ! ! the operation uses less time and requires fewer workers. This decision depends on the characteristics of each particular area and the more common method employed is manual weeding. cleaning and maintenance techniques. which quickly dies. with appropriate techniques and products. Planning of weeding operations The first planning task is to determine the type of weeding: manual or chemical. and exclusively under the guidance of a specialized professional.
The cutters attached to tractors are appropriate for relatively flat land and can cut between 2. Figure 59 . tractor mounted side-arm cutters and cutters towed by an agricultural tractor. The manual cutting of grass and other vegetation with sickles or scythes does not produce good quality results or represent good productivity (only 100m² per worker per day). lateral cutters.Portable cutter (backpack type) 139 .Manual cutting Mechanical cutting employs machines such as portable cutters. Street cleaning Rakes can be used to complete the operation. One of these machines can cut approximately 800m² per day.10.000 and 3. For cutting operations on the borders of roads cutters with articulated arms laterally mounted on agricultural tractors can be used. Portable mechanical cutters that operators carry on their backs and cutters mounted on small. Figure 58 . medium and large tractors are currently available and produce a good quality result with good productivity.000m² per day. Portable cutters are suitable for rough land and places that are difficult for larger cutters to access. tractor cutters.
Long rake and four pronged pitchfork Mechanical equipment for cutting vegetation Commonly used mechanical equipment: portable cutter. mini-tractor grass cutter. The cutting can be done by a blade.Figure 60 . tractor mounted side-arm cutter. Figure 61 . Waste can be put in bags and cut vegetation organized into piles to await collection. towed grass cutter and stationary or towed branch-grinder.Cutter attached to a tractor Cut vegetation and the refuse that inevitably appears should ideally be gathered on the day of the cutting operation using standard or long rakes. Four to ten pronged pitchforks and long rakes should be used for gathering and removal operations. a disc or a nylon string depending on the type of vegetation. Portable cutter An approximately 11 kg cutting machine powered by a petrol engine with the rotation transmitted to the cutting head through a flexible cable. The nylon string is appropriate for light vegetation and grass and where the machine is used as an edge cutter. while the toothed disc and the blade are appropriate for thicker vegetation and 140 . which should not be delayed for more than two days to avoid them catching fire or becoming scattered. chainsaw.
principally after storms and gales. Figure 62 . can throw out objects such as small stones from under the vegetation with the risk of causing injury to people or animals.10.000 hours.Backpack cutter Figure 63 . At the extreme of the arm there is a hydraulically operated rotating axis blade cutter. which rotate at high speed. It is used to cut large lineal extensions such as roadside strips and slopes.Tractor mounted side-arm cutter 141 . Figure 64 . where for example they are likely to fall and cause accidents. The machine’s useful life is short.Chainsaw Chainsaw A tool powered by a two stroke petrol engine. Tractor mounted side-arm cutter A hydraulic arm with wheeled head that is mounted on the rear part of a mediumsized agricultural tractor. It is used to prune and cut trees or large branches. Precautions should be taken to isolate the area surrounding the work site because the blades. Street cleaning bushes such as guinea grass (Panicum maximum). after which maintenance costs are excessively high. approximately 2.
Mini-tractor grass cutter
A compact machine on wheels with a central blade. It is appropriate for cutting large flat and even extensions of grass. This machine does not cut edges but has the advantage of not throwing out stones or other objects while in use.
Figure 65 - Mini-tractor grass cutter
Towed grass cutter
An implement towed by an agricultural tractor. Its cutting width is up to 1.20m and is appropriate for relatively flat land. As with the micro-tractor grass cutter, this implement does not throw out stones or other objects while in use.
Figure 66 - Towed grass cutter
Stationary or towed branch grinder
This machine is powered by a diesel motor. Branches and foliage are fed into the grinder and the ground material passes through a tube to be deposited in a dump truck or container. It is used in areas with many trees and bushes where frequent pruning takes place.
10. Street cleaning
Figure 67 - Branch grinder
An important rule for mechanical vegetation cutting: Work should only be undertaken in a screened off area using protective netting to stop the circulation of people near the area of operations in order to avoid people, vehicles or objects being hit by stones thrown out by machines. Workers should use all the recommended IPE (individual protection equipment).
10.3.4 Drain cleaning services
A well functioning street sweeping system significantly reduces the volume of waste that falls into storm drain inlets or is carried there by rainwater. Consequently the cleaning of drain inlet boxes is usually assigned to the body responsible for urban cleaning. As some sweepers may otherwise sweep debris into the drain inlet boxes, thus slowly clogging them, in general sweepers themselves are responsible for cleaning them. The first step of this operation is to remove the covering grill using a drain key. If the grill is stuck it can be levered out. Where asphalt type material used for repairing the road surface is partially covering the grill it can be removed with a hammer and chisel taking care not to break the grill. The same procedures should be followed when working with any type of rainwater drain. Waste that has accumulated in drain inlet boxes can be removed using worn hoes, which are narrower than new ones, grub hoes or special shell shaped tools. Waste with a low specific weight (leaves and branches) can be put into bags and collected together with sweeping waste. Earth extracted from drains should be collected by dump trucks.
Figure 68 - Clogged drain
Figure 69 - Lever (1), hammer (2), chisel (3) and drain key (4)
Drain inlet boxes can also be cleaned using special machines with suction hoses (VacAll type) or sweepers with vacuum suction equipment.
The cleaning of the rainwater drainage network is done with special machines through points of access to the drainage system.
Figure 70 - Pumping truck
A pumping truck is used in urban and industrial operations for cleaning drain boxes, drain accesses, septic tanks, separated chambers and sewers. Waste is pumped through a four inch diameter hose and the most commonly used models have a capacity of 6, 7 or 8m³ corresponding to a truck TGW of 12, 14 or 16 tons respectively. Mechanical sweepers with suction systems usually have tubes appropriate for drain cleaning.
The cleaning of drain inlet boxes in areas that are susceptible to flooding in the event of heavy rain should be regarded as a priority.
10. Street cleaning
10.3.5 Market cleaning services
In most Latin American and Caribbean countries there are informal public street markets set up particularly for the sale of vegetables, fruit, fish and other types of food. Many people go to them and generate large amounts of waste. It is therefore necessary to plan appropriate cleaning services in order to keep the markets clean from the moment they begin functioning until the stalls are dismantled. Market cleaning is done manually and the size of teams should correspond to the size of the market, i.e. the number of stalls and the number of people visiting it. Independently of the market cleaning services that it provides, the Municipality should take firm measures to ensure that stall operators themselves avoid waste being discarded in the street and install receptacles to store waste by their own stalls. While large markets are functioning workers can be collecting waste produced by stall owners and their customers by circulating with manual collection carts lined with large plastic bags. When full these bags can be kept at a storage point adjacent to the market in a location chosen to incur the minimum possible nuisance to the public and facilitate collection by the collection vehicle. Where possible 240 litre plastic containers with lid and wheels should be used to store waste produced while the market is operating. Special attention should be given to stalls selling fish, chicken and pork products.
Figure 71 - Containers located close to a market
When the market is dismantled a larger team of between four and eight workers sweeps and cleans the area. For this task sweeper brooms are used together with shovels and brushes for collecting the waste. In some cities large wooden squeegees are used as an auxiliary tool. Waste is collected by a compactor truck or a dumpster carrier truck.
Once it has been swept the street should be washed by a street washing truck with a pressure water jet, paying particular attention to areas around fish stalls sites, which, along with the drains, should be washed with disinfectant and deodorant products.
Figure 72 - Sweeper broom (1), brush (2), wooden squeegee (3) and shovel (4) used in market cleaning
10.3.6 Manual and mechanical waste removal services
In many cities with large wasteland areas refuse is often irregularly discarded there. Open wastelands and uncared for public areas, in combination with inadequate urban cleaning systems, generate what are called “waste accumulation sites”. The accumulation often begins with construction rubble being dumped and, as “rubbish attracts rubbish”, this is followed by the addition of pruned vegetation, old tyres, the remains of packaging, and organic waste. Later weeds start to grow and the entire scenario results in blocked drains and serious sanitary and environmental consequences. To deal with this type of problem cleaning services should establish a specific operational methodology as these situations involve not only clearing activities (weeding and vegetation cutting) but also the removal of all types of waste that have accumulated on such sites. This work requires machines and tools appropriate for each type of waste, not only for clearing tasks but also for collection and transport to the final destination, all of which places an additional burden on the system through higher operational costs due to the extra personnel and machines required in these cases. This type of activity is commonly called waste removal and can be manual or mechanical. The removal of unpackaged refuse such as common waste, soil and rubble can be done manually with shovels, lifting it directly into the box of a dump truck or into metal containers that will later be removed by appropriate trucks with cranes. To remove cut vegetation a four pronged fork is used. A three or four pronged pitchfork
Each summer.7 Beach cleaning services Sandy beaches have to be kept clean by the application of various complementary measures. 147 . the required frequency of operations and productivity rates determined by field measurements. The first and most important of these is to reduce the amount of waste that gets onto the beach by installing rubbish bins both on the beach itself and on pavements that border it so that people can deposit waste in them. Street cleaning is used to separate the pile of accumulated waste in order to facilitate its handling and transport.10. Once these basic measures have been adopted.Mechanical loader at work Figure 74 . awareness raising campaigns should be initiated to promote the use of rubbish bins for waste generated on the beach. alternative structures for depositing waste can be used such as setting vertical concrete pipe sections on the beach lined with plastic bags. the planning of services should involve the following principal elements: ! the frequency of beach cleaning operations should be organized with a view to the beach always being as clean as possible and in good condition for use by citizens. ! the timing of operations should be compatible with beach activities so as not to inconvenience users.Three pronged pitchfork 10. Where it is not possible to install purpose made rubbish bins. ! labour requirements are calculated according to the surface area to be maintained. Figure 73 . In cases where there is a large amount of waste and especially where a lot of soil or rubble has to be removed the use of a wheeled front loader (mechanical loader) is recommended.3.
Manual removal of beach waste 148 . Beach cleaning services can involve both manual and mechanical operations. ten pronged pitchfork (3).000m² per hour per worker can be taken as an initial base value. The manual cleaning of the beach surface should ideally be done at the end of every sunny day using wire rakes (usually having 20 to 25 prongs with a 1cm gap between them). The labour productivity rate varies depending on diverse factors such as user behaviour and the availability of rubbish bins.Waste containers Figure 77 . plastic net sieve (2). (1) (2) (5) (3) (4) Figure 75 . An average of 1. concrete pipe section with plastic bag (4) and container (5) Figure 76 . ten pronged pitchforks and plastic net sieves.! service organization can be based on defined sectors or on the entire extension of the relevant beach. as well as plastic bags and containers for carrying the waste to the compaction vehicle or dump truck that accompanies the team as it progresses.Wire rake (1).
four wheel drive agricultural tractors with trailers can be used to accompany the cleaning team as they progress along the beach and transport waste to a truck similarly progressing along the street bordering the beach. Beach cleaning machines towed by four wheel drive mini-tractors with a maximum potency of 60hp are used. On very wide beaches (where there is more than 30 metres of sand between the water and the land). sieved. straws. This type of cleaning collects large and medium-sized waste but leaves ice cream sticks. cigarette ends and food remains.Mechanical beach cleaning 149 . aired and returned to the beach.Transfer of beach waste from a tractor drawn trailer to a truck Figure 79 . Sand is taken from a maximum depth of 20cm. The operation of this machine is entirely mechanical.Manual beach cleaning Mechanical cleaning is appropriate for beaches with large amounts of waste and big extensions of sand.000m² per hour. Figure 80 . Street cleaning Figure 78 .10. In these cases purpose built machines towed by agricultural tractors are used and have a productivity of approximately 10. pass it through a vibratory sieve in order to catch smaller objects and produce a bactericidal effect by exposing lower layers of sand to sunlight. In out of season periods beaches should be cleaned with machines that stir the sand. The type of net used in the sieve varies according to the characteristics of the beach.
at bus stops and in front of bars. gutters and pavements. 10.Rubbish bins 150 . cafes and supermarkets. on corners. Such an operation should be carried out using tractor-bulldozers and mechanical loaders after an environmental study has been undertaken by specialists. ! instalment of rubbish bins in streets with high pedestrian concentrations. Figure 81 .4 How to reduce street waste The amount of solid waste in streets can be reduced through: ! ! smooth surfaces and appropriate inclination for streets.An option that may be considered for very crowded beaches is to replace sand above the tide line with sand from below it that has been washed by the sea and is therefore cleaner.Uneven gutters make cleaning difficult ! planting tree species in combinations that do not result in abundant leaf fallings several times a year. appropriate dimensions and maintenance for rainwater drainage systems. Figure 83 .Smooth pavements and gutters facilitate cleaning Figure 82 .
As can be seen. urban cleaning issues are related to various aspects of public urban works and should be taken into account by the respective municipal bodies when urban improvement projects are being planned.Waste being swept into the street 151 . ! ! public awareness raising campaigns related to the maintenance of cleanliness.10. Commercial establishments should not be allowed to sweep their waste onto the street. Those who persist in doing so should be fined and for this the municipality needs to have a good supervision system. establishment of legal devices that sanction citizens who disobey urban cleaning regulations. Street cleaning ! regular sweeping and waste removal from waste accumulation sites (“rubbish attracts rubbish” while “cleanliness promotes cleanliness”). (Figure 85) Figure 85 – Figure 85 . made up of papers. plastic and packaging.A dirty square The dirty and uncared for appearance of the square is added to by so-called “white waste”. In general it can be observed that in well cared for and well maintained streets passersby are more conscious of cleanliness and discard less rubbish on the ground. Figure 84 .
10. ! restructure existing routes increasing the number of sweeping shifts and contracting extra workers on a temporary basis. the measures that have to be implemented to maintain required levels of street cleanliness are: ! increase the hours of work shifts (overtime) on some sweeping routes in order to respond to the greater seasonal demand for services. An underlying cause of these problems is the temporary population increase and the resultant increase in demand for public services. Figure 86 . There are also cultural and behavioural questions with some tourists who take the view that as it is not their city they are not interested in keeping it clean. These however are the same tourists who will not return to the city if they consider it dirty or not well cared for. Another aspect that creates difficulties for cleaning services is that in general tourists are not acquainted with the operational routine of cleaning in the city and many times they do not do what they should as users to cooperate with the body providing the service. In regard to sweeping.“Molok” type container in use 152 . principally in regard to sweeping and. A good example is the increase in the number of people circulating through the streets and the consequent generation of waste in different quantities and at different times than those in the normal routine of the city.5 Street cleaning in tourist cities As is the case with domestic waste collection. beach cleaning. They discard rubbish indiscriminately and fail to comply with behavioural norms and regulations. taking into account the limits imposed by employment legislation. an influx of tourists to a city causes considerable problems for the street cleaning service. in the case of coastal cities.
such as hotels. Such a campaign can and should be directed to the entire city but may concentrate more on neighbourhoods associated with tourism and along the seashore where applicable. and equip it with all the tools necessary to carry out this service. they do not maintain teams exclusively for beach cleaning services. For an effective provision of this service during the tourist season the most appropriate course of action may be to contract a separate team to undertake the cleaning of the beach and its bordering seafront. The aesthetics of these units and their integration with the landscape should be taken into account. restaurants and entertainment establishments. In the case of coastal tourist cities the problems are more difficult to solve as.10. Extending work shifts and giving seasonal tasks to workers who normally perform other activities is in general neither feasible nor sufficient to solve the problem completely. Street cleaning It is also important to increase the numbers and maintenance of containers and rubbish bins strategically positioned in streets. squares and other public spaces to facilitate appropriate waste disposal. 153 . An ongoing awareness raising campaign can be run throughout the high tourist season with the participation of companies that benefit from tourism. The campaign should encourage people to take better care of the city and guide visitors to cooperate in maintaining hygienic conditions and cleanliness in the streets. difficult to mechanize and relatively labour intensive. which are complex. with few exceptions. One general administrative measure that a municipality can take to reduce problems faced by the urban cleaning sector during the high tourist season is to schedule employees’ holidays for the months of the low season so that during periods when demand for services is at its greatest the entire staff is available.
11 Recovery of recyclable materials 154 .
4 Rs practice: reduce – aimed at diminishing the amount of disposable packaging and containers. recover – principally related to appropriate waste incineration processes that produce energy and consequently conserve fossil fuels. This concern with waste issues is due both to the potential for contamination and the continuous need to find new final disposal sites. through a change in consumption habits. maximize or diversify the use of a given consumer product.1 Concept With the growing prominence of environmental conservation policies citizens are becoming increasingly concerned about solid waste issues. mostly associated with energy generation. Reuse. not only concerns environmentalists but also governments and the general public. the less waste the better. This process requires the segregation of waste at source. fruit of capitalist society’s high consumption model. books and other products. recycle – the transformation of materials into raw material for production processes. Reuse. This concept establishes the principle of waste generation prevention. The reorientation of consumers’ preferences. in transfer stations or at final disposal sites. taking as its departure point reduction. Recover. The increased per capita waste generation. 155 . not to mention the negative impacts caused by an irrational consumption of non-renewable natural resources.11. One of the most important incentives for recycling is the saving of energy and natural resources. Different types of waste can be reused such as bottles. Recovery of recyclable materials 11. Reduce. and therefore of companies’ production. magazines. favouring products that are less damaging to the environment and avoid wastage. That is. putting pressure on producing companies to use the least amount of packaging possible. Recycle. Recycle and Recover). In spite of the integral nature and order of the 4Rs. a reorientation of consumers’ needs and purchasing preferences. newspapers. resulting in what is known as 4Rs practice (Reduce. a positive contribution where reduce and reuse are not applicable. favouring products with more durability and less packaging. On an international level these issues have prompted a debate about the consumption habits of societies and the responsibility of companies. recycling is the one that provokes most public interest principally due to its clear claims to environmental benefits. reuse – the reuse of a material or product without changing its shape or original nature.
In practice. can become instruments for income and employment generation. paper.11. particularly in less developed countries. is the one most applied in Latin American and Caribbean cities. the saving of energy in production processes.2 Selective collection programs A significant role can be played by educational programs that promote 4Rs practice and foster the development of environmental awareness amongst citizens. for the most part related to pre-recycling waste segregation. the prolongation of sanitary landfills’ useful life. These programs. shops and factories) and associated with a program of income and employment generation. A scarcity of resources often hinders the implementation of such programs but some municipalities are endeavouring to promote alternative models adapted to fit their particular economic circumstances. metal and glass) are: ! ! ! ! the saving of non-renewable raw materials. The principal benefits of recycling discarded materials (plastic. Another example is the establishment of partnerships between public authorities and civil organizations. For example. where large parts of the population live in poor socioeconomic conditions projects can be established that involve the “bartering” of recyclable materials for food and an increased level of community participation. However the social and environmental benefits of these programs also have to be considered. a model involving the selective collection of materials at the source of generation (houses. 156 . such as segregator cooperatives. offices. the generation of income and employment. almost always in extremely precarious conditions. in which the latter undertake the collection of materials. The great challenge in implementing selective collection programs is to find a model that is in itself economically sustainable. This aspect has a significant relevance to many Latin American and Caribbean cities where social crises have resulted in large numbers of people turning to refuse segregation as a means of survival through the commercialization of recyclable materials. Traditional models applied in developed countries almost always involve public subsidies and are difficult to apply in developing countries.
157 . segregator organizations. which are then collected by specialized vehicles from each housing unit.2. 11. Figure 87 – Selective collection by compactor truck Figure 88 – Selective collection by truck without compaction The separation of recyclable materials in households can be done in two ways: identifying and separating different types of recyclable material and storing them in separate containers. or putting all recyclable materials in one container.1 Selective door to door collection The most commonly used model for selective collection programs is the segregation by residents of discarded recyclable materials.11. Recovery of recyclable materials Amongst the options available for the segregation of recyclable materials at the source of generation are: ! ! ! selective door to door collection. in a similar way to conventional domestic waste collection. voluntary drop-off centres.
door to door selective collection can be made once a week using open box trucks. ! recyclable materials (dry) – paper. generally equipped with tables. glass and plastic. Once collected. where materials are separated by type in preparation for their commercialization. The principal disadvantages of door to door selective collection are the increased transport costs involved in the need for extra collection trucks and the high unitary cost of collection compared with conventional collection. one for each type of recyclable material.The system in which different types of recyclable materials are separated requires more space for keeping the containers. In most cities where the system is operated. which are stored in a container for this category and are collected by the selective collection service. recyclable materials should be transported to a segregation plant. Figure 89 – Recyclables segregation plant It is important that the public is clearly informed of the correct criteria for the separation of materials for commercialization in order to avoid the expense incurred with transporting and handling non-recyclable waste at the segregation plant. Segregation plants should also have presses so that materials with a lower specific weight (paper and plastic) can be baled to facilitate storage and transport. With the other more commonly used model residents separate domestic waste into two categories: ! organic material (damp) – including the remains of food and non-recyclable materials that are stored in a container for this category and are collected by the normal domestic waste collection service. 158 . The relatively long interval between selective collections is possible because of the inert nature of recyclable materials. which makes it more difficult in apartments or small houses. metal. This model also requires a collection truck with a box divided into compartments to transport materials separately.
Recovery of recyclable materials Both before and after the initiation of selective collection services the public authority should continuously encourage citizen participation through promotional campaigns and environmental education. regulate and foster the process without participating directly in its operation. labour and structure. The responsible public body usually standardizes the program to facilitate organization and community participation. grinders. all of which reduces the costs and work of the municipality. results in significant economic benefits for the urban cleaning system as previously segregated recyclable materials will not need to be collected. to add value to the recyclable material. Selective collection is not profitable when the municipality uses its own vehicles. which will then be used for identifying containers and collection trucks. See the suggestions in table 15. as well as in waste segregation educational campaigns. A selective collection system in which a municipality does not directly participate but establishes alliances with the community for operating it. which are fundamental to maintaining citizen participation levels.2 Voluntary Drop-off Centres (VDC) Containers sited in public places for the public to voluntarily deposit pre-segregated recyclable waste. As an incentive it could invest in warehouses and equipment such as bale-presses. Ideally it should standardize. transported and disposed of in a landfill.11. It can for example define a colour code for the different types of waste. etc. washers.2. 11. Table 15 Colour code for recyclable solid waste Container colour Blue Red Green Yellow Brown Recyclable material Paper and Cardboard Plastic Glass Metal Organic waste Source: CONAMA resolution Nº 275 of 25/4/2001 (Brazil) 159 . Consequently planning for a project has to allow for the necessary resources to run such campaigns.
Figure 90 . The establishment of VDCs in tourist areas should take into account potential communication problems with the labelling of containers.Special containers for a VDC Figure 91 . Some municipalities are establishing partnerships with recycling companies that finance both the installation of containers and the collection of materials deposited in them. To overcome the language problem it is recommended that images are used to indicate the correct storage container for each type of recyclable material. Here too it is important to regularly empty VDC containers in order to avoid irregular waste accumulation on the site.Examples of VDCs 160 .VDCs can be set up in partnership with private companies that can for example finance their installation in return for the use of the site for advertisements.
bale lifters) so that the segregated materials increase in value in the recyclables market. The principal advantages of working with segregator organizations are: ! ! ! ! the generation of income and employment. a reduction in the costs of selective collection programs.3 Segregator organizations The appearance of numerous segregator organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean during recent decades reflects not only the socioeconomic crises that many of these countries have experienced but also segregators’ capacity for articulation and organization. etc. providing basic equipment such as bale-presses.11. ! a reduction in the costs of the city’s urban cleaning system due to the collection of part of the waste by segregators leaving less waste for collection. carts. Assistance should also be provided for the training of organization members to promote greater autonomy. Improvements in this sector’s working conditions depend to a large degree on several institutions having an articulated vision and commitment that leads to the formulation and implementation of effective public policies. Recovery of recyclable materials 11. transportation and final disposal. principally in regard to granting the use of physical space. standardized carts. establish some type of agreement or partnership with segregator cooperatives that then undertake the collection and separation of discarded recyclable materials. held in Brazil in 2003 and 2005. the social inclusion of segregators (who mostly live in the streets) as citizens. It is important that municipalities adopting this model offer institutional support to segregator organizations.2. Segregators from several Latin American countries met to define common strategies at the first and second Latin American Congress of Recyclable Material Segregators. The less 4. providing juridical and administrative assistance for legalization processes and. working conditions for most segregators are still very precarious and many of them continue to work without any support or acknowledgement. In spite of advances. in an effort to include a social dimension in their selective collection programs or pressed by groups of segregators themselves. One of the main factors that fosters the strengthening and success of segregator organizations is the profitable commercialization of recyclable materials. which though still incipient has nevertheless grown significantly 4. as has already been mentioned. 161 . Such savings on costs should benefit segregator organizations in the form of investment in uniforms and infrastructure (warehouses for segregation and storage. the organization of segregators’ work to avoid untidiness in waste collection and the storage of materials in the streets. Many municipalities. presses.
Amongst the measures that should be taken in support of segregator organizations are: ! administrative and accounting support. When a public authority enters into partnership with a segregator organization it is important that it continues to offer institutional support for the provision of basic needs. The following basic conditions should be met: ! good quality material (sorted by type of material.intermediaries that are involved in the process between the segregator organizations and the final consumer (the recycling industry) the higher the sale price will be. These conditions are rarely achieved by small groups but the organization of joint commercialization centres is an option that creates better conditions for direct negotiations with recycling companies. ! implementation of environmental education programs for segregators. with a low impurity content and appropriate packaging or baling). the lack of which would hinder efficient performance. ! ample scale of production and storage: the larger the production and the quantity available to the buyer. Figure 92 – Segregators from a cooperative working in the street 162 . ! ! ! ! implementation of a social assistance program for segregators and their children. the contracting of a professional specialized in management to train the group. the better the selling conditions. ! regular production and delivery to the final consumer. implementation of rehabilitation programs for those with a dependency on chemical substances. provision of uniforms and individual protection equipment. especially when operations are beginning to be established. implementation of literacy courses and training for segregators.
For the eventuality of difficulties related to fluctuations in the buying market. All these initiatives and types of support should be applied with a view to eventual sustainability. it is important that the strengthening of the segregator groups leads in the long term to them gaining more autonomy and independence in their activities. Recovery of recyclable materials Taking into account the lack of experience of those running the organizations.11. it is recommended that the group has a small liquid capital so that segregators’ minimum incomes are guaranteed until better commercialization conditions are re-established. that is. the public authority can. also help with the commercialization of recyclable materials. 163 . during the initial phase.
12 Solid waste treatment 164 .
The most effective treatment is applied by the general public when they take action to reduce the amount of solid waste by avoiding wastage. Solid waste treatment 12. known as waste treatment. of oxygen at a lower temperature than that involved in incineration. separating recyclable material at source and appropriately disposing of waste. Waste degradation is slower and generates fatty acids. These processes. Processes applied to solid waste can be mechanical. Mechanical ! classification – sorting by economic criteria or as a preparatory step for subsequent processing.12. acetic acid. Biological ! aerobic – stabilization and composting processes that principally generate water. ! grinding – reduces the granulometry and volume of waste as well as mixing and homogenizing it. economic and sanitary benefits. 165 . producing high energy liquids and gases and less atmospheric contamination. ! pyrolysis – thermally induced waste degradation in the absence. or limited presence. ! compaction – reduces empty spaces (increases waste density). reusing materials. The objectives of solid waste treatment are to reduce its volume and to lower its contaminating potential by transforming it into inert or biologically stable material. Thermal ! incineration – controlled burning at high temperature in purpose built equipment with environmental control devices. ! anaerobic – important for the production of methane. other acids of low molecular weight and some unpleasantly smelling toxic gases such as sulfhidric acid (H2S). carbon dioxide and heat. thermal or biological. contribute to human and environmental protection.1 Concept Between collection and final disposal municipal solid waste can be subject to processes that produce technical-operational.
depending on the plant’s size and degree of sophistication. glass and metal from domestic solid waste. 166 .12.2 Domestic solid waste treatment 12. their sale to specialized companies and their transformation into material for producing goods that can be sold in the consumer market. Recycling offers the following advantages: ! conservation of natural resources. ! ! ! generation of income and employment.1 Recycling The recycling process comprises: the segregation of materials such as paper. greater public awareness of social and environmental problems. together with the rest of the domestic waste. ! The ideal recycling system begins with the separation of solid waste in homes so that only potentially recyclable materials are sent to segregation plants.2. Recyclable material segregated from mixed solid waste is dirty and contaminated. so its processing is more complicated and expensive. the outcome is much worse than if the waste had been disposed of in a sanitary landfill. The high cost of recyclable material transformation processes has resulted in many recycling companies not following environmental guidelines stipulating the use of clean (but expensive) technologies. Recyclable material contained in general domestic solid waste can be separated in the segregation plant through manual or electromechanical processes that in terms of weight usually yield only 3% to 6%. Such prior separation reduces the amount of contamination affecting materials and in consequence increases the productivity of segregation plants. where it would be subject to more rigorous environmental controls. energy saving. economies in solid waste transport costs and in the occupation of landfills (as the amount of waste to be transported to the landfill is reduced). If the necessary precautions are not taken recyclable material transformation processes can be extremely harmful to the environment. In such a case. plastic.
4%) Sieving Figure 93 . provided there is compost production. can be processed to obtain compost for agricultural use. This subject is dealt with in the next section. and their uses. are in general as expressed in the following flow chart of a hypothetical plant with an intake capacity of 1. The gravimetric values (in weight) of the different types of solid waste after processing in a segregation plant with a composting unit. 167 . Domestic waste collection 189kg/day (12. the rest of the domestic waste. ! existence of a strong and diversified market for recyclable materials so that the commercialization of a wide range of materials is possible. which are: ! small-sized unit (low quantity of waste to be processed) which facilitates maximum efficiency of manual segregation. thus avoiding a mixture of recyclable and non-recyclable waste and reducing the percentage of nonrecoverable waste.6% needs to be transported to the final disposal site. which is fundamentally organic. thus reducing the amount of non-recoverable waste. Solid waste treatment After the segregation of recyclable material that can be used for production.12.6%) Landfill Refuse Grinding of the predominantly organic fraction 60kg/day (humidity loss 4%) Selection table Pre-selection of bulky objects Reception Recyclable materials Compost curing piles Loss of matter heat+CO +water 225kg/day (15%) Recoverable materials Storage of composted ground material Refuse Organic preparation (compost) 456kg/day (30. from the total amount of waste that arrives for processing only 12. This material is inert and therefore not contaminating because the residual organic content has been stabilized with most of the organic matter being transformed into compost. It can be seen that.Flow chart of the process and mass fraction proportions These percentages however are based on the optimum operational performance conditions for a segregation and composting plant. ! reception of domestic waste from differentiated collections.500kg/ day (see figure 93).
Feeding The loading of waste onto the processing line by means of machines such as loaders. or in smaller establishments by means of estimative calculations. overhead cranes. which results in a larger percentage of non recyclable waste at the end of the process. feeding and selection. ! storage of unloaded waste in silos or warehouses of a size compatible with the daily processing capacity. In smaller plants feeding can be manual. Reception Here collection trucks unload domestic solid waste and the following processes are applied in sequence: ! determination of the volume or of the weight using a weighbridge. or hydraulic arm grabs. Selection In this sector the flow of waste on the selection lines is regulated and segregation by type of recyclable material is carried out. as mentioned in chapter 5.In the case of bigger recycling and composting units (in large cities) the level of recyclable material recovery tends to be less and the amount of disposable material for treatment greater. the average production of nonrecoverable waste in recycling and composting plants can be estimated as 25% of the total weight of refuse processed there. Clearly this proportion depends on the composition of the domestic solid waste generated in each city. 168 . In bigger establishments devices can be used to enable trucks to unload solid waste directly onto the processing lines. thus freeing the operation of the processing lines from dependence on the functioning of feeding equipment. The operation of a segregation and composting plant is divided into three stages: reception. which can be affected by local particularities. As in practice optimum conditions rarely exist.
The selection conveyor belt speed should be 10 to 12m/min.12.Manual selection in a small capacity recycling plant 169 . The latter are appropriate for plants with a maximum capacity of 10tons per hour per line. The ones near the beginning of the conveyor belt separate larger objects (paper. Waste is manually pushed along the table by segregators using small planks as recyclable materials are withdrawn. In general simple plants only have selection conveyor belts. the first position on the selection line is occupied by a worker who breaks open bags and scatters their contents across the width of the belt in order to facilitate the work of the other segregators. a concrete table can be used that should be slightly inclined and have raised lateral borders to avoid the fall of waste. etc. Figure 94 . to allow sufficient time for the manual separation of materials by the segregators. instead of a selection belt. while more complete ones use other equipment that itself removes recyclable materials or assists manual segregation. In establishments that have several parallel selection belts they should be installed on a level that is high enough to allow for a level below them where baling presses can operate and there should be enough space available for moving segregated materials. In this type of plant the waste that arrives from collection is unloaded close to the end of the selection table and is transferred to the table by a worker with a pitchfork or another appropriate tool. In general. ballistic separators. cardboard and sheet plastic) so that smaller objects (aluminium cans. Solid waste treatment Equipment used for flow regulation comprises metal conveyor belts and mixer drums. Segregators are stationed along the selection belt next to channels or containers. glass containers.) can be seen and separated by segregators nearer to the end of the line. Examples of auxiliary equipment are: sieves. The distinct selection processes can be set up independently of each other or be interconnected. In plants that process up to 10tons/day. magnetic separators and pneumatic separators.
lead. Street sweeping waste and construction rubble should also not be brought to the segregation plant as they contain materials that can damage the machines. non-ferrous metal (aluminium cans. However in most plants the following materials are segregated: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! paper and cardboard. It is important to note that a segregation plant can only operate if the urban cleaning system of the city includes the selective collection of hazardous waste. antimony. etc. sheet plastic (low density polyethylene). etc. sheet metal.). hard plastic (PVC.).Large capacity recycling plants need to use a high level of mechanization for feeding and the movement of the large volumes of waste along the operational lines.2. HDPE. Figure 95 . PET). transparent glass. coloured glass. entire bottles. It is essential that this type of material does not arrive at the segregation plant in order to avoid endangering workers who handle the waste.2 Composting Composting is the natural biological degradation of organic materials (with carbon in their structure) of animal or vegetable origin through the action of micro organisms. It 170 . such as medical waste. 12. mixed glass.Manual selection in a large capacity recycling plant The type of recyclable material that will be separated in a segregation plant depends above all on demand from the industry. ferrous metal (cans.
In this stage the humidification and mineralization of the organic matter takes place. Stages of composting The aerobic composting process can be divided into two stages. 171 . bio-stabilization. Solid waste treatment is not necessary to add any type of substance. involves a significant increase in the temperature of the organic mass. to the mass of organic domestic waste for composting to take place.12. depending on the presence or absence of oxygen in the process. Temperatures can reach 70ºC. Structurally the micro organisms that degrade the organic matter are approximately 90% water. it takes place at relatively low temperatures. odours are not unpleasant and degradation is quicker. takes another 30 days. the more appropriate treatment for domestic waste. maturing. Composting can be aerobic or anaerobic. dark in colour and high in colloidal particle content that when applied to soil improves its physical characteristics for agriculture. which in natural composting systems takes approximately 60 days. reaching 65ºC and later stabilizing at the ambient temperature towards the end of the cycle. a material rich in hummus and mineral nutrients that can be used in agriculture to improve soil quality and as a fertilizer. Hummus is a completely bio-stabilized homogeneous organic substance. The waste also contains pathogenic micro organisms such as salmonella and streptococcus. The final product of an organic waste aerobic composting process is compost. If humidity and airing are appropriately controlled these micro-organisms proliferate quickly and homogeneously throughout the mass of waste. In aerobic composting. The second stage. emits a strong unpleasant odour and requires more time for the organic matter to stabilize. degradation is caused by micro organisms that live in environments without oxygen. The first stage. In anaerobic composting. therefore the water content has to be controlled during the process. including chemical substance. degradation is caused by micro organisms that only live in environments containing oxygen. Factors that influence composting A sufficient quantity of the micro organisms necessary for degrading organic matter is inherently present in domestic waste. These pathogenic agents are eliminated by the heat generated in the biological process as they do not survive temperatures in excess of 55ºC for more than 24 hours.
When designing the composting area sufficient space has to be planned for between the piles so that trucks. mechanical loaders and special machines for stirring the piles can circulate. These effluents. Simple composting plants Simple plants make compost naturally in the open air. In such plants the waste is fragmented in a hammer-mill and then “piles” are set. which in well managed piles are produced in very small quantities. if particles are too small an excessively compacted mass can result. should be sanitarily treated in stabilization ponds. Compost is aired by stirring the material with mechanical loaders or special machines. However. Figure 96 . on the third day after the formation of the pile.50m to 2m in height.Aerobic composting in a small capacity plant 172 . Once it is biologically stable the material is refined in a sieve and is ready to be used in the preparation of agricultural soils. the greater the surface area that is exposed to oxygen and therefore the shorter the composting process. the quicker the degradation. Composting piles should have a pyramidal or conical shape. every 10 days until completing 60 days). During the aerobic stage the more the matter is exposed to oxygen. the smaller the particles.In aerobic composting the metabolism of the micro organisms needs oxygen. temperature and granulometry influence the availability of oxygen. well compacted and if possible surfaced. A lack of oxygen produces unpleasant odours. The organic matter remains there until its bio-stabilization and is stirred with a predetermined frequency (for example. with enough of a slope (2%) for rainwater and leachates produced in the composting process to run off. In small units it can be stirred manually with pitchforks or other tools. which makes the airing process more difficult. In addition. with bases of up to 3m per side or 2m diameter and be no more than 1. Sufficient space for the storage of compost that is ready for use should also be made available. and from then on. The surface of the area where piles are set in a composting plant should be smooth. Factors such as humidity.
Compost quality In general compost quality is standardized on the basis of parameters established by public institutions in each country with a view to ensuring its effective application in agriculture. for example. These values are presented in table 16 as a reference. A conical form facilitates the running off of rainwater and avoids the pile becoming saturated. phosphorus.0 Margin . Solid waste treatment Figure 97 . It can be used to correct soil acidity and rehabilitate eroded areas. In Brazil. Mineral nutrients can comprise up to 6% of the weight of the compost and include nitrogen.10% 173 .0% < 40% < 18/1 > 6. magnesium and iron.Aerobic composting in a large capacity plant If the height of the piles is more than 2m it is difficult to stir and air the organic mass. whether or not chemical fertilizers are being used. calcium. which are absorbed by plant roots. Hummus makes soil more porous thus facilitating the airing of roots and the retention of water and nutrients. potassium. commercialized compost produced by domestic waste composting plants must comply with minimum values established by the Ministry of Agriculture.10% .10% + 10% 21/1 . the amounts of which determine the quality of the compost. Characteristics of compost The principal characteristic of compost produced by domestic waste composting is the presence of hummus and mineral nutrients. Compost can be used for any type of cultivation. Table 16 Values established in Brazil for commercialized compost Parameter Organic matter Total Nitrogen Humidity C/N relation PH Value > 40% > 1.12.
12. 174 .3 Choosing a treatment option Segregation and/or composting plants are alternatives that municipalities should consider when planning the treatment of domestic solid waste that they collect. before proceeding they should examine the practicalities of the following required conditions: ! ! ! ! existence of a reasonably efficient and regular collection system. Composting plants’ segregation operations must remove these materials as much as is possible from the waste that is received.Compost must be periodically subject to physical and chemical analysis in order to verify its compliance with the minimum quality standards established by the relevant governmental body. existence of selective collection for domestic. However. textiles. supervise the setting up of a plant. it is unlikely that compost produced from domestic waste will contain a concerning level of heavy metals because of the socioeconomic characteristics of most of the population and therefore the type of waste generated. availability of personnel with sufficient technical training to select appropriate technology. especially in small and medium-sized ones. maintain machines and supervise their operation. the higher the initial investment and maintenance costs and the lower the level of employment generation. One of the main concerns of compost users is the presence of heavy metals in sufficient concentrations to be prejudicial for cultivation and/or produce consumers. rubber. Some components of domestic waste such as coloured paper. ceramics and batteries contain heavy metals. public and medical waste. availability of sufficient space to establish a segregation plant and/or composting area. In most Latin American and Caribbean cities. ! ! availability of resources to finance initial investment. When determining which machines to install it should always be taken into account that the more sophisticated and automatic they are. existence of a market for recyclables and compost in the region.2.
management and administration teams). capital expenditure (interest and amortization) and depreciation. savings through reduced sanitary landfill costs resulting from reduced waste volumes. ! indirect ! ! savings through the reduced cost of transport to the sanitary landfill. energy and tariffs of public service concessionaires. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDIES Prior to the establishment of a segregation or composting plant an economic feasibility study should be carried out covering the following points: Investment ! ! ! ! ! environmental licenses. operation and maintenance. the implementation. labour intensive systems are recommended such as manual segregation plants. purchase of machines and tools. A considered economic feasibility study of any proposed project should be undertaken taking into account on the one hand the advantages of installing a plant (reduction of the amount of waste to be transported and buried. operational and maintenance costs. spare parts and machine replacement. Solid waste treatment In Latin American and Caribbean countries. Expenditure ! ! ! ! personnel (non-qualified labour. and on the other. Income ! direct ! sale of compost and recyclable material. 175 . environmental benefits). sale of compost and recyclable material.12. generation of incomes and employment. architectural and engineering planning and works. purchase and legalization of land. technical. where there is high unemployment.
The use of recyclable material results in a saving of energy and resources that would otherwise be used in the transformation of raw materials and this.Environmental ! ! ! energy savings. reduced environmental contamination from waste. Companies that buy recyclables impose three basic conditions: ! ! ! sufficient production scale. Social ! provision of dignified and formal employment for segregators – the participation of segregator organizations in plants should be prioritized whenever possible. regularity of supply. 176 . promotion of public environmental awareness. taken as a whole. good quality material. It is unlikely that the direct income from a segregation and composting plant will cover its expenditures and the project should not be entered into as a profitable undertaking from a strictly commercial perspective. Segregation and composting plants generate income and employment and reduce the amount of waste to be disposed of in sanitary landfills or refuse dumps. ! ! income generation. represents a significant environmental and economic benefit from segregation and composting plants. natural resource savings. it can be seen as being extremely positive when indirect income and the potential for significant environmental and social benefits are considered. although there has been a concomitant increase in quality requirements. However. RECYCLABLE MATERIALS MARKET The market for recyclable material is growing rapidly and offers significant rates of return. together with the transformation of organic matter separated from waste into compost that improves agricultural soils.
1 Construction rubble The most common treatment of construction rubble is its segregation.12. 12. Recycled rubble can be used in the base and sub-base of roads or as gross aggregate in construction works.3 Treatment of special domestic waste 12. aluminium cans and hard plastic. The commercialization of these products. Market prices vary and are directly influenced by the price of raw materials as well as other factors such as the level of demand from recycling companies for a particular recyclable material at certain periods of the year. ! ! the availability on the market of cheaper construction materials. Some segregator cooperatives seek ways of increasing the value of their recyclable material by for example endeavouring to make it as clean as possible and at least segregating and baling the different types of paper and cardboard. The recycling of construction rubble has the following advantages: ! ! ! a reduction in the extraction of raw material.3. Availability of natural aggregate – a scarcity of. In order of importance they are: Demographic density – a high demographic density in the area is essential to ensure a constant supply of rubble to the recycling plant. and so more valuable. the creation of employment for unqualified labour. and 177 . The establishment of recycling plants for this type of material should therefore be fostered and the possibility of charging special tariffs should be considered to ensure their economic viability. Three factors should be analyzed in a pre-establishment evaluation for a rubble recycling plant in a particular location. including the sale price and production flow. are easier to commercialize in the market. They will also endeavour to sell directly to companies. the conservation of non-renewable raw material. However an abundance of. or difficult access to. Solid waste treatment Materials that are appropriately segregated. an improvement in the urban environment due to reduced indiscriminate dumping of construction rubble in the streets. Another fundamental requirement is to have a storage place for the materials in order to rationalize their transport to the customer and be able to offer larger amounts of recyclable material and in consequence obtain better prices. cleaning and grinding for reuse in the construction industry itself. reinforced concrete works of art and pre-moulded elements. depends on the existence of local recycling companies that are interested in them. natural deposits of raw material favours rubble recycling. relatively clean. eliminating intermediary agents.
processing (feasibility. type and quality. Also. demolition and renovation (techniques applied. The location of a recycling plant on the periphery of an urban area is of fundamental importance in order to keep the final cost of the recycled product down. regulations in force).easy access to. distances. ! ! ! In connection with commercialization: ! ! ! natural raw material (quality.Rubble recycling plant . Technical level – it is necessary to use appropriate technologies to avoid environmental degredation. Figure 98 . place of origin. rubble transport). quantity.basic features 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 - Administration Control centre Entry checkpoint Feeder Grinder Conveyor belt Rubble to be recycled Storage Area Reception Area Green Belt Garden 178 . market conditions (type. reserves). price). collection and final disposal possibilities (prices. technical team. the following factors should be studied: In connection with rubble received: ! rubble characteristics (quantity. price. current consumption. recycled material (technical quality. responsible agent. natural deposits does not necessarily exclude the viability of rubble recycling. organization and machines). existing local regulations). standards).
Solid waste treatment Construction rubble recycling can be done in two ways: automatic and semi-automatic. The automatic process employs a robust machine of great potency. able to receive and grind construction rubble without the prior separation of iron rods that therefore remain inside concrete blocks. which is pressed. 179 . The grinder feeder should be equipped with water sprinklers to minimize the emission of dust and a rubber lining to keep noise levels within the limits established by environmental control bodies. If it is not of an appropriate type. baled and commercialized. In the semi-automatic process iron is separated before grinding. Figure 99 . Operational sequence for a semi-automatic plant ! rubble brought in by collection trucks is weighed on the recycling plant’s weighbridge and sent to the reception area. The rest of the material passes through a revolving sieve that segregates it according to granulometric characteristics. the unloading of the vehicle will not be allowed and it will be sent to a sanitary landfill.12. ! in the reception area it is superficially inspected to determine whether the load is compatible with the grinder. After being ground the material passes through a magnetic separator to remove ferrous material. The appropriate procedures and control devices should be adopted to avoid the emission of particles.General view of a rubble recycling plant The plant should receive only inert waste so that there is no possibility of releasing contaminating substances.
if the material is compatible with the machinery the vehicle unloads in the reception area. Manual segregation takes place there, separating out material of no use such as plastic, metal and small amounts of organic matter;
during manual segregation a mechanical loader is used to stir the material and facilitate the work of segregators;
the separated out material is categorized into what can be commercialized (scrap iron) and what is for disposal (the rest of the material), and is put in separate areas for storage and future disposal respectively;
material with larger dimensions than those of the feeding mouth is not accepted, nor concrete blocks with internal iron rods that can damage the mill by breaking the hammers. In some cases reception area workers can break the blocks and separate out the iron;
material in which significant amounts of plastic are incorporated must never be admitted as it can damage the machines;
rubble from small construction works often arrives in bags and is manually unpacked before the feeding and grinding operations;
once material that is of no use has been removed, the rubble is lightly dampened by a sprinkler system in order to minimize the dust generated during grinding. A mechanical loader then places it in the feeder, which regulates its entry into the grinder.
Figure 100 - Rubble recycling plant - feeder and grinder
from the feeder the material passes to the mill where it is ground. From the grinder the material moves along a small conveyor belt equipped with a magnetic separator to separate iron that was not seen during the manual segregation and was introduced into the impact mill;
12. Solid waste treatment
later the material passes to the vibratory sieve that segregates it according to predefined granulometry;
each type of material is transported to its respective storage area on a conventional constant speed conveyor belt.
Conveyor belts are mounted on wheels so that they can be moved sideways in a semicircle in the storage area. This facilitates direct transportation to the storage area in an interrupted operation that avoids the need to move piles of ground material with a mechanical loader.
Figure 101 - Rubble recycling plant - grinder and conveyor belt
The conveyor belt wheels should move on a concrete surface strong enough to support its weight. The sideways movement of the belt is a manual operation carried out by storage area workers each time that the pile of ground rubble reaches the maximum height allowed by the incline of the belt. In the storage area the ground material should always be kept damp to avoid scattering by the wind and dust generation. Vehicles that take ground rubble away are loaded with a mechanical loader similar to the one used in the reception area. Products made with recycled rubble include:
! ! ! ! !
pavement paving slabs; road sub-base and base; breeze blocks for cheaper housing walls and masonry; fine aggregate for surfacing; aggregate for storm drain inlet, kerb and gutter construction.
The costs presented here are based on the establishment and operation of a large automatic rubble recycling plant with a 100 ton/hour production capacity located 10km from the urban perimeter:
cost of the plant (construction work + machines): US$ 1,091,274.33 unit production cost: US$ 10.30/ton
The establishment and operational costs for a semiautomatic plant are as follows: A 120 ton/day capacity plant:
! ! !
investment costs: US$ 45,000.00 construction work: US$ 25,000.00 maintenance/operation: US$ 11.50/ton
A 240 ton/day capacity plant:
! ! !
investment costs: US$ 80,000.00 construction work: US$ 30,000.00 maintenance/operation: US$ 13.60/ton
Problems caused by the inappropriate disposal of tyres in wasteland, watercourses and streets, especially in peripheral urban areas, are a source of growing concern for public authorities due to their significant environmental impacts. Due to climatic conditions and other characteristics particular to Latin American and Caribbean countries, the problem is of equal concern from a public health perspective as inappropriately discarded tyres become a shelter and breeding ground for disease vectors due to the water that accumulates in them. In the United States, where the consumption of tyres is equivalent to one tyre per inhabitant per year (approximately 300 million tyres a year), the most common treatment is burning in thermoelectric plants. However due to difficulties involved in this process it is applied to no more than 5% of used tyres.
In both the 100 million dollar Modesto plant in California, which burns 4.5 million tyres a year generating 15 megawatts and providing energy to 14,000 houses, and the Sterling plant in Connecticut, which burns 10 million tyres a year generating 30 megawatts, operational costs are double those for coal burning plants.
12. Solid waste treatment
The disposal of used tyres in sanitary landfills is inappropriate as there are operational problems involved in burying them and they provoke empty spaces that cause points of instability in the mass of waste. Consequently alternatives have been sought to address this problem but up to now no definitive solution has been found. This problem came to the fore in Brazil in the mid 1990s when the annual tyre production had reached 35 million. At the end of that decade CONAMA introduced a requirement obliging tyre companies to take responsibility for the disposal of waste resulting from their production (used tyres) under the “polluter pays” principle. Burning in cement industry clinker furnaces was the immediate solution that producers turned to. However not all furnaces were adapted to burn tyres and there were some restrictive factors associated with the procedure because of a change in the quality of the cement produced and the emission of gases not in compliance with limits established by environmental bodies. In recent years the ongoing search for new technological processes has seen developments such as one in Brazil that uses organic solvents to separate rubber from the wire and nylon in tyres facilitating its recovery and recycling. However, many of these new developments are not economically viable. In spite of these efforts the problem continues and, as in other situations, it is the urban cleaning system that has to bear the significant expenditure involved in dealing with used tyres habitually discarded in unpopulated peripheral areas as it has an obligation to collect them for sanitary and environmental reasons.
In this context, an initiative that can serve as an example for other urban cleaning bodies in Latin American and Caribbean cities is the COMLURB “ecotyres” experience in Rio de Janeiro. Concerned with the growing number of used tyres discarded in the city, a study was carried out on the route taken by tyres from their moment of purchase in different neighbourhoods of the city to the moment when they are discarded, in general in peripheral zones. The study found this route to be: producers, dealers, recovery agents and tyre workshops. Tyres without any further possibility of use are discarded on wasteland, in drainage channels or are burned. This data led to the following measures: the registering of all locations, both formal and informal, where tyres are repaired; the implementation of the “ecotyres” system 5 in cooperation with the private tyre sector; and the development of an information program on the use of the “ecotyres” system covering dealers, tyre mechanics, bus companies and haulage companies.
A network of locations with the minimum infrastructure necessary for the reception and storage of unusable tyres that, when a predetermined number have accumulated, are then taken away by the private sector to be recycled.
The public authority should introduce specific regulations that consolidate the application of the “polluter pays” principle by establishing the responsibilities of producers and distributors for waste generated when their products are discarded.
12.3.3 Batteries and fluorescent tubes
The number of batteries present in domestic waste continues to increase as the use of electrical and electronic gadgets spreads in modern society and plays an increasing role in people’s daily lives. The incidence of this type of waste in the overall composition of domestic solid waste is clearly dependent on the socioeconomic condition of the population as here the relation between consumption and disposal is direct. In Latin American and Caribbean countries the problem has therefore yet to reach the concerning proportions that it has in the United States, Japan and European countries. However immediate action is necessary to establish control mechanisms for this type of waste as it should receive the same level of treatment as hazardous industrial waste. Fluorescent tubes fall into a similar category and due to their high level of toxicity, together with the difficulties involved in controlling environmental contamination from them, they should be dealt with in the same way as toxic waste.
In the cases of both batteries and fluorescent tubes specific legislation is required to consolidate the “polluter pays” principle. Under such legislation responsibility for the treatment and final disposal of these types of waste would be assigned to producers, with the participation of dealers and distributors in the reception of discarded material and of the general public in separation, appropriate storage and delivery.
Treatment of waste from special sources
12.4.1 Industrial solid waste
It is usual to treat industrial waste with a view to its reuse, or at least to leaving it inert. Due to its diversity however there is no pre-established universally applicable process so research and development for economically viable processes is always needed. This waste should not be the responsibility of the urban cleaning authorities but of the waste generators themselves, the industrial companies that produce it. Such an
However transformation processes require significant investment and offer unpredictable returns as the scope for corresponding charges on the price of the product is limited. Other treatment processes The most common treatment processes are: ! ! neutralization – for waste with acid or alkaline characteristics. 185 .4.12. As has already been explained this type of waste is the responsibility of a specialized national body that operates within international regulations and safety procedures. or waste that they want to purchase. 12. ! incorporation – the adding of waste to a mass of concrete or clay in a proportion that does not damage the environment. drying by mixing – the mixing of waste that has a high humidity content with dry waste or inert material such as sawdust. without any participation by the urban cleaning sector.2 Radioactive waste There are still no economically viable treatment processes for radioactive waste. Atomic stabilization processes for radioactive material have been developed but still cannot be used on an industrial level. or the adding of it to combustible material where gases that are harmful to the environment will not be generated during burning. thus generating savings in the industrial process. Recycling and recovery In general there is a trend towards transforming waste into base material for other processes. ! encapsulating – the lining of waste with a coat of impermeable synthetic resin with a very low leaching level. some states issue free periodical publications in which industrial companies anounce waste that they have for sale or donation. but this risk reduces as technological developments provide more secure and economical ways of using the material. ! thermal destruction – incineration and pyrolysis. To encourage waste recycling and recovery. Solid waste treatment approach requires comprehensive legislation and effective supervision mechanisms to avoid irregular disposal of the waste.
New technical processes have led to the development of several treatments that are already available on the market. collection. autoclave. which has imposed economic restrictions on its use. that is. ! avoid the de-characterization of waste thus ensuring that it is recognizable as medical waste. 186 . Incineration. treatment and final disposal of this waste. In general most waste generated on these sites has similar characteristics to domestic waste and can be collected and sent to the same final disposal units. Recent progress in environmental research led to the discovery of atmospheric contamination risks in the incineration process and resulted in a requirement for very expensive treatments of generated gases. The available commercial processes that meet these fundamental requirements are: incineration. electro-thermal deactivation and chemical treatment. or another equivalent treatment.4. ionizing radiation. microwave.3 Port and airport waste This type of waste is not usually treated in a special way except in the case of waste generated on boats or planes coming from regions where a particular disease is endemic. Irrespective of its technical basis any waste treatment that is adopted should: ! reduce the biological content of waste in accordance with stipulated requirements.4. Until a short time ago the debate on medical waste treatments was between incineration and autoclave treatment as many countries do not allow its disposal in septic tanks at sanitary landfills. pyrolysis.12.4 Medical waste There are many technical processes for the treatment of medical waste. 12. is usually recommended for waste with a high potential risk. In such cases it is important that the work of the urban cleaning team is integrated with that of the professionals responsible for sanitary vigilance so that appropriate sanitary and environmental procedures can be applied to the storage. the elimination of bacillus stearothermophilus in the case of sterilization and of bacillus subtyllis in the case of disinfection. ! comply with regulations established by the government’s environmental control body for effluents and gas emissions. ! process sufficient volumes in relation to the capital and operational costs of the system in order to be economically viable in terms of the local economy.
transforming it into gases. releasing heat and generating ashes as residue. Normally the amount of oxygen used in incineration is 10% to 25% greater than is necessary in the common burning of waste.000ºC. Gases resulting from the secondary combustion are rapidly cooled to avoid the recomposition of their extensive toxic organic chains and are then treated in washers. hydrogen and oxygen atoms all that is required is an efficient system to filter particles expelled together with the combustion gases. In the first chamber solid and liquid waste is burned with a high level of oxygen at a temperature of 800ºC to 1.400°C. gases not only need to remain for more time inside the chamber (approximately two seconds) but also require treatment by sophisticated systems before they can be discharged into the atmosphere. However installation and operational costs are generally high principally because of the need for filters and sophisticated technological devices to reduce or eliminate the contamination of the air with gases produced during the burning of waste. cyclones or electrostatic precipitators. As the waste burning temperature is not high enough to melt and volatilize metals. In the second chamber gases produced by the initial combustion are burned at a temperature of 1. they become mixed with the ashes from where it is possible to separate and recover them for commercialization. Basically an incinerator consists of two combustion chambers. ashes and scoria. Solid waste treatment INCINERATION Incineration is a burning process in the presence of a high level of oxygen. the most common being fixed grate. There are different types of incineration furnace. Correctly carried out waste incineration is also an effective means of reducing the volume of waste and leaving it absolutely inert in a short time. 187 . In the case of toxic waste that contains chlorine. before being discharged into the atmosphere through a chimney. moving grate and rotary kiln. In the case of waste composed exclusively of carbon.12. through which carbon based materials are decomposed. phosphorus or sulphur.200ºC to 1.
Air for combustion in the furnace is provided by two blowers. Ashes and scoria resulting from the burning process fall through the holes of the grate into an ash pit. Air is introduced from above the grate to minimize the trailing of ashes. the first one is for drying and the waste is completely burned in the second and third sections. 188 . Hot ashes and scoria from the burning are continuously deposited in a pit located under the furnace from where they are removed mechanically or by water. The combustion grate is divided into three sections. the air flow is augmented by an extractor located at the base of the chimney. from where they are removed mechanically or by water. one that blows air amongst the waste (air below fire) and the other that introduces air above the waste (air above fire). Chimney Overhead crane Feeding Collection truck Air blower Fixed grate Reception pit Contamination control equipment Combustion chamber Ash outlet Ash outlet Air extractors Figure 102 . To ensure the level of oxygen necessary for the complete combustion of waste and gases.Fixed grate incinerator Moving grate incinerators The grate consists of stepped cast iron sheets connected to a hydraulic system for moving it in a swaying motion that conducts the waste from the access door through to the ash and scoria pit.Fixed grate incinerators In this process waste is deposited on a fixed grate where it is burned.
Gases generated pass to a secondary burning chamber that accommodates burners for liquids and gases. They are cylindrical incinerators with a diameter of approximately four metres and a length of up to four times the diameter. Gases resulting from this burning flow into heat interchangers and washing equipment.Moving grate incinerator Rotary kiln Rotary kilns are useful for the thermal destruction of infectious waste but are more used for burning hazardous industrial waste.Rotary kiln 189 . The entrance is at the higher end. mounted with a slight incline in relation to the horizontal plane. Solid waste treatment Chimney Overhead crane to transport waste Overhead crane to transport ashes Heater Condenser Gas cooler Filter sleeve Gas re-heater Reagent catalytic reactor Steam control valve Use of heat generated by waste Steam turbine Condensation tank Swaying grate Ventilation blower Overhead crane for bulky waste Bulky waste pit Waste pit Furnace Conveyor belt for ashes Fly ash treatment Ash pit Gas washer Ventilation blower Bulky non-combustible waste Magnetic separator Aluminium separator Ferrous material press Rotary sieve Bulky combustible waste Ground combustible material Aluminium press Aluminium storage Slow speed blade grinder Hammer grinder Ferrous material storage Figure 103 .12. so that the waste moves slowly downwards due to the rotation of the cylinder. the opposite end to the burners. Chimney Heat interchanger Washer water oxidation Feeder system Liquid waste burner Rotary kiln Electrostatic filters Gas washer Collection truck Reception pit Post-burning chamber with chimney Air extractor Figure 104 .
Secondary air Cyclone Ash extractor Boiler Air extractor Figure 105 . Pyrolytic furnaces are very much used in the treatment of medical waste. pyrolysis is a thermal destruction process with the difference that it absorbs heat and takes place in the absence of oxygen.200ºC in the secondary chamber. where the calorific value of the waste maintains a certain temperature during the process.000ºC and 1. In this process. 190 . substantial reduction in the volume of waste to be disposed of (almost 95%).Pyrolytic furnace The feeder system can be automatic (continuous) or semi-automatic (by lots) and the auxiliary burners can burn diesel or gas. There are single chamber models where the operating temperature is approximately 1. Its main advantages are: ! ! effective treatment is guaranteed given optimum operational conditions.000ºC and dual chamber models with temperatures of between 600ºC and 800ºC in the primary chamber and between 1.PYROLYSIS Like incineration. carbon based materials de-compose into combustible gases or liquids and carbon. Its main disadvantages are: ! high operational and maintenance costs. Primary air Temperature Gradient Drying Decomposition Gasification .
Medical waste incineration plant with a capacity of 250kg/hour AUTOCLAVE Originally used for the sterilization of surgical equipment. 191 . Figure 106 . high cost of effluent treatment. unless natural gas is used. ! high risk of air contamination from dioxins generated by the inappropriate burning of chloro materials present in PVC bags and disinfectants.12. Solid waste treatment ! maintenance difficulties requiring constant cleaning work in the auxiliary fuel feeder system. ! ! risk of air contamination due to the emission of particulate matter. Basically it consists of a feeder system that conveys the waste into a hermetic chamber where a vacuum is created and steam is then injected (from 105ºC to 150ºC) under certain pressure conditions. It should be noted that neither incineration nor pyrolysis completely solve the medical waste final disposal problem as both the ashes that are produced and the sludge resulting from the treatment of gases require an appropriate final disposal. this process was adapted and developed for waste sterilization.
does not emit gases and effluent is sterile. 192 . continuous treatment is not possible.The waste remains in the chamber for a certain period until it is sterile. into a microwave furnace where there is a device to stir and transport the mass so that all of the material uniformly receives the microwave radiation. MICROWAVE In this process waste is ground.Autoclave Advantages: ! ! ! relatively low operational costs. dampened with steam at 150ºC and is fed. Figure 107 . after which water is discharged from one side and the waste from the other. Disadvantages: ! there is no guarantee that the steam will reach all parts of the mass of waste unless it has been appropriately ground before the sterilization phase. as a continuous process. relatively easy and cheap maintenance. waste is processed in lots. ! ! does not reduce the volume of waste unless it is previously ground.
193 . the volume of waste to be buried is not reduced unless it is ground. ! the used cobalt 60 source (radioactive) requires appropriate disposal. waste in its natural form is exposed to the action of gamma rays. Figure 108 .Microwave IONIZING RADIATION In this process. This process has the following disadvantages in comparison with previously mentioned processes: ! treatment effectiveness is questionable as a possibility exists that part of the mass of waste is not exposed to the electromagnetic rays.12. generated by a source of enriched cobalt 60. which render micro organisms inactive. Its advantages are the absence of any type of effluent emission and the fact that it is a continuous process. Solid waste treatment Advantages: ! ! absence of emissions or any type of effluent. Disadvantages: ! ! relatively high operational costs. continuous process.
chlorine dioxide or formaldehyde gas. 194 .Deodorizer HEPA Filter Pre-filter Automatic doors Dust collector Deodorizer HEPA Filter Pre-filter Hydraulic press Weighbridge Reception pit Primary grinder primary cyclones Liquids Secondary grinder secondary cyclones Waste reception Processing unit Grinding and homogenization To the landfill Container Press Control panel Transport Class C waste Treatment Figure 109 . and there is no volume reduction unless a post-treatment grinding system is installed. In this process there is no effluent or gas emission.Ionizing radiation ELECTRO-THERMAL DEACTIVATION This process consists of double grinding prior to treatment. CHEMICAL TREATMENT In this process waste is ground and then submerged in a disinfectant solution that can be sodium hypochlorite. The mass of waste remains in the solution for some minutes and the treatment is by direct contact. generated by low frequency electromagnetic waves. with the addition of equipment maintenance difficulties. The advantages and disadvantages of this process are the same as those for the microwave process. followed by the exposure of the ground mass to a high potency electrical field. reaching a final temperature of 95ºC to 98ºC.
which would have to be a separate process. Bags of medical waste Particle filtering Gas washing Pulverizer Nº 2 (disinfectant) Air extractor HEPA filter Rotary discharge screw conveyor Vapour Feeder Vertical screw conveyor Discharge tube Grinder Nº 1 co nv ey or Mixer ½ to 2 inch grater Grinder Nº 2 sc re w Pulverizer Nº 1 (disinfectant) In cli ne d ½ to 2 inch grater (dry) Horizontal screw conveyor Figure 110 .12. The advantages of this process are its low operational and maintenance costs and the effectiveness of the waste treatment. The disadvantages are the need for effluent neutralization and the absence of volume reduction unless the waste is ground. waste passes through a drying system generating an environmentally harmful effluent that has to be neutralized. Solid waste treatment Before being deposited in the outlet container.Chemical disinfection Im m er sio n Sodium hypochlorite solution 195 .
13 Solid waste final disposal 196 .
The only appropriate form of solid waste final disposal is in sanitary landfills or. Consequently. These people make their living from the separation of recyclable material and often live in huts and shacks on the site of the dump. It is therefore necessary to defeat this stigma through thorough studies and project planning. All the other processes that are regarded as disposal (recycling. particularly the smaller ones. Solid waste final disposal 13. and with a broad awareness raising process in society that communicates the difference between sanitary landfills and dumps. while if the final disposal of waste is carried out in an inappropriate way. as many municipalities in Latin America and the Caribbean have a limited budget. contaminating soil. there are serious social problems connected with the segregators that they attract. but also due to the natural resistance that arises in people when they know that they will be living close to a place where waste will accumulate. 197 . raising families and even forming communities. the urban cleaning system will tend to leave final disposal in the background giving priority to waste collection and street cleaning. The latter issue deserves attention because if collection is inefficient public pressure is put on the municipality to improve service quality due to it being an exposed and visible activity. provided certain conditions that will be described later are fulfilled. As a result in many municipalities. composting and incineration plants) are in reality waste treatment processes that need a landfill for the final disposal of the remaining waste. In addition to the sanitary and environmental problems that refuse dumps present. the water table and neighbouring land.1 Introduction Urban cleaning systems have to face the challenge not only of collecting solid waste from streets and buildings in ever-growing cities but also of ensuring an appropriate final destination for such waste.13. This rejection stems from a perception that society has of solid waste disposal sites as being inadequately set up and badly managed. it is essential that the political will exists to allocate the necessary budgetary resources for the implementation and correct operation of the approved project. At the same time. air. in controlled landfills. few people will be directly disturbed by this and so it will not generate complaints. it is common to find refuse dumps where collected waste is deposited directly on the ground without any supervision or environmental care. The initiation of a sanitary landfill presents difficulties not only because it involves environmental studies. specific sanitary engineering and environmental planning and a relatively high initial investment before it is established.
Biogas is not only toxic but is one of the contributory factors to the greenhouse effect. hence the previous segregation of special waste is indispensable. ! pig raising and presence of other animals ! zoonosis and other public health risks. ! proximity to environmentally protected areas (ecological reserves and equivalents) ! degradation of the area and environmental contamination risks. atmospheric contamination. Landfills are a kind of melting pot for chemical and biological activity and reactions that produce effluents.2 Impacts of inappropriate solid waste disposal Problematic situations often encountered around the site of incorrect municipal solid waste disposal and their respective consequences are: ! proximity to bodies of water ! water contamination. energy wastage. exposure to unhealthy conditions. ! ! segregation activities carried out by women. In addition domestic solid waste anaerobic decomposition processes generate biogas. old people and children ! citizenship degradation. the nature of which depends on the components of the waste. health risks and accidents. unsightliness and landscape contamination. Measures to avoid the negative effects that result when waste is inappropriately disposed of on the ground should include the creation of an environment less favourable for 198 . principally composed of methane. for example). lack of covering. At the final disposal site the biological decomposition of the remains of food and other organic material contained in domestic waste generates an effluent with a high BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) that moves and incorporates other substances contained in the mass of waste. men. dispersion of odours and waste particles. ! lack of physical barriers (areas without fences) and a vegetation belt ! access for people and animals. of waste ! vector proliferation. ! inappropriate disposal of medical waste mixed with domestic waste ! increased risk to people and of environmental contamination. or only partial covering. odours. ! ! practice of burning waste ! safety risks for people. educational centres and kindergartens ! inhabitants subject to various nuisances and sanitary risks.13. The composition of this biogas includes gases with an unpleasant smell such as hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans. As a result this leachate is highly contaminating due to its high BOD and chemical reactions between its components (heavy metals. proximity to population centres. which is explosive in concentrations of 5% to 15% in the air.
The recommended method for domestic waste final disposal is the sanitary landfill. each one supported by the previous one. Nevertheless it can also serve as protection against the contamination of underground water and the environment provided that it is sufficiently deep and impermeable. forming a “landfill level”.3 Sanitary landfill The objectives and principles of sanitary landfill construction and operation can be defined in different ways. This technique uses engineering principles to confine the waste to as small areas as possible. in Spanish). in which each day’s solid waste (or the waste from a shorter period if the daily amount of waste is too great) is deposited in compacted sloping layers and is covered with a layer of earth that is also compacted. Solid waste final disposal undesirable chemical and biological reactions. neither does it harm the environment during its operations or after its closure. depending on project requirements.” A sanitary landfill unit of construction is called a cell. which can be used provided that technical and environmental norms established by regulatory legal instruments are respected. In a solid waste final disposal unit the soil is the principal receptor and conductor of contaminants. In our opinion the most appropriate definition is the one established by the Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Sciences Pan-American Centre (CEPIS. The cell is built against a retaining wall that can be a pre-existent natural elevation. A solid waste final disposal project should therefore incorporate technical solutions that comply with the basic guidelines for avoiding the above mentioned environmental impacts. 13. Finally it is necessary that effluents and gases are dealt with in an appropriate way. of the Pan American Health Organization. engineering resources should be used to comply with the required technical specifications and applicable regulations. it anticipates the problems that could be caused by the liquids and gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter. In Latin American and Caribbean countries an acceptable alternative for smaller municipalities with limited economic resources is the controlled landfill. covering it daily with layers of earth and compacting it to reduce its volume. a berm previously formed with compacted earth or other cells. the landfill can have two or more levels. It is therefore necessary to isolate or minimize the contact between waste components that could react with each other.13. which has been incorporated in many technical norms and adopted by environmental bodies and entities. It states that: “The sanitary landfill is a technique for the final disposal of solid waste in the ground that causes no nuisance or danger to public health or safety. Cells are constructed next to each other. In addition. 199 . Where these favourable conditions do not exist naturally.
Figure 111 – Construction of the operational area . ! dimensions are adjusted according to the stability and availability of the land. Figure 112 – Waterproofing of the operational area 200 .When determining the dimensions of a cell.Embankment ! waterproofing of the bottom (obligatory) and of the top (optional). some basic criteria should be taken into account: ! the width of a cell’s work face should not be greater than is necessary for the safe manoeuvring of machines and vehicles. ! the height should be between 3 and 6 metres depending on the amount of waste to be dealt with (sanitary landfill capacity). medical waste cells (where the municipality does not have a more effective final disposal process for this type of waste). ! the advance should be calculated according to the daily volume of waste. the width of the work face and its height. Operational units ! ! domestic waste cells. A sanitary landfill consists of operational and support units.
Figure 114 – Biogas collection and burning ! rainwater drainage and channelling system. Solid waste final disposal ! collection and treatment system for percolated liquid (leachate).13. Figure 113 – Leachate collection and treatment ! biogas collection and burning (or use) system. Figure 115 – Rainwater drainage system 201 .
Figure 118 – Preparation of an internal service road 202 . storage area for materials. topographical and geotechnical monitoring systems. Figure 117 – Vegetation barrier ! access and service roads.! ! environmental. Figure 116 – Storage area for materials Support units ! fence and vegetation barrier.
Figure 120 – Support units The sanitary landfill pre-operational process consists of the selection of the site. Many other factors have to be taken into account such as the technical requirements of the norms and guidelines issued by relevant public bodies.13. obtaining the necessary licenses.1 Sanitary landfill site selection The selection of the sanitary landfill site is a complex task. mechanical and tyre workshops. 13. Figure 119 – Weighbridge for weighing loads ! ! entrance checkpoint and administrative offices. juridical aspects.3. 203 . Solid waste final disposal ! weighbridge for trucks and waste checkpoint. formulating the project master plan and installation. The intense urbanization and land use in cities limits the availability of sites that are both close to where waste is generated and large enough for the installation of a sanitary landfill that will meet the needs of the municipality.
for example). To make an approximate calculation of the minimum total area necessary for the installation of a sanitary landfill. a critical analysis of each potential site in relation to the prioritized criteria. access roads and political and social aspects involved in the approval of the project by politicians. so that the site that most complies with the required conditions in terms of its natural land characteristics is selected. the governing plan of the corresponding municipality. This factor is based on the following landfill project parameters: Useful life = 20 years. the distance over which waste will have to be transported. PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION OF AVAILABLE SITES The preliminary identification of available sites in the municipality should be carried out as follows: ! preliminary calculation of the total area needed for the sanitary landfill. hydrology and geometric shape. slopes of 1:3 (vertical : horizontal) and an 80% operational occupation of the land. 204 . definition of the selection criteria order of priority. in tons. determination of all selection criteria. Requirements for the appropriate establishment of a sanitary landfill are therefore very rigorous and it is necessary to carefully define an order of priorities.governmental requirements. Applying this strategy minimizes the corrective measures that have to be taken to adapt the land to technical requirements and thus reduces the need for initial investment. local and regional development centres. However the operational usage as a percentage of the total area will depend on the particular conditions of each site (topography. by the factor 560. the media and the community. some experts multiply the quantity of waste collected daily. landfill height = 20 m. The selection strategy for a new sanitary landfill site consists of the following steps: ! ! ! ! preliminary identification of land available in the municipality. in square metres. Economic and financial factors must be a major consideration as municipal resources always have to be used in a balanced way.
where there are no zoning or land use restrictions and sites have dimensions compatible with the preliminary calculation. It is very important that the legal situation in relation to the ownership of a site is in order to avoid potential problems for the municipality and delays in the licensing process. lakes. excluding those where the documentation is not in order. SELECTION CRITERIA The criteria are divided into three groups: technical and legal. It should be noted however that specific aspects of legislation in any particular country may vary from the concepts and dimensions described here.13. ! survey of the available sites within the delimited perimeters. Solid waste final disposal ! perimeter delimitation of rural and industrial zones and conservation areas existing in the municipality. study of documents relating to the sites. and socio-political. Distance to bodies of water The site should be not less than 200 metres from major bodies of water such as rivers. All the conditions and restrictions commonly stipulated by technical norms and relevant regulations are listed in table 17. 205 . Table 17 Technical and legal criteria Criteria Observations The site should be outside the limits of any environmental Land use conservation areas and in a zone where designated land use is compatible with the operation of a sanitary landfill. giving priority to land owned by the municipality. economic-financial. ! ! determination of ownership of surveyed sites. lagoons and oceans and should be not less than 50 metres from any other body of water. which in such cases should be appropriately modified. Technical and legal criteria The selection of a sanitary landfill site for domestic solid waste final disposal should fulfil the technical criteria imposed by technical norms and regulations stipulated by the different levels of authority in each country.
It is recommendable that the soil of the selected site has Natural soil impermeability good natural impermeability in order to reduce the possibility of aquifer contamination. The minimum distances recommended are the following: ! Distance to airports in a sanitary landfill with plastic membrane waterproofed bottom. in order to keep the cost of waste covering low. Minimum useful life It is recommended that the site is compatible with a useful life for the new sanitary landfill of at least 8 years. the distance between the water table and the waterproofing layer should not be less than 3 metres.5 metres. This is largely due to the natural rejection of residents to having this type of waste final disposal unit close to where they live. the distance between the water table and the membrane should not be less than 1. deposits of material appropriate for covering. Topography favourable to drainage The rainwater drainage basin should be small in order to avoid significant amounts of rainwater entering the landfill. 206 . Availability of material for covering It is preferable that the site has.Table 17 (cont. The length of a sanitary landfill’s useful life is very important as it is increasingly difficult to find new sites close to the collection area that are suitable for receiving the volume of urban waste generated in the municipality. The site should not be located in the proximity of airports or aerodromes and should comply with current legislation in this respect. Roads leading to the site should not have pronounced Easy access for heavy vehicles inclines or curves and should be well surfaced in order to minimize wear and tear on collection vehicles and enable them to have easy access even at times of intense rain. The soil of the selected site should be clayey. Water table depth ! in a smaller landfill the bottom of which is waterproofed by a layer of compacted clay with a permeability coefficient of less than 10-6cm/s.) Criteria Distance to urban residential centres Observations The site should be not less than 300 metres from urban residential centres with 200 or more inhabitants. or is close to.
collection and treatment of local effluents. electricity supply. non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or the media in the area as any past disharmony with the public authorities is likely to cause negative reactions to the proposed landfill.13. It is recommended that a site is not chosen if there have been previous problems between the municipality and the Local community acceptance local community. If the land is not owned by the municipality. Solid waste final disposal Economic and financial criteria Table 18 Economic and financial criteria Criteria Observations The distance that collection vehicles have to cover on existing Proximity to collection area roads and streets between the collection area and the sanitary landfill should be as short as possible in order to minimize wear and tear on trucks and waste transport costs. it is preferable that it is located in a rural area where purchase prices are lower than in other areas where the landfill could be sited (industrial areas for example). 207 . and communications facilities. It is important that the selected site has access to service infrastructures in order to limit expenditure on water provision. rain water drainage. Construction and infrastructure investment costs Drainage system maintenance costs Political and social criteria Table 19 Political and social criteria Criteria Observations The passage of vehicles transporting waste along residential Access to the site through low demographic density areas streets constitutes an inconvenience for the inhabitants of those streets and it is therefore recommended that truck routes to the sanitary landfill pass through areas of low demographic density and preferably on roads designed to handle heavy vehicles. The selected site should have a gentle incline to avoid soil erosion and limit expenditure on cleaning and maintaining drainage system components. and therefore Land purchase costs has to be purchased.
Table 21 Weight given to criteria and compatibility Priority of criteria 1 2 3 4 5 6 Weight 10 6 4 3 2 1 Compatibility Total Partial or total with work No compatibility Weight 100 % 50 % 0% 208 . as shown in table 21. or total with work” or “no compatibility”. Both the priorities and the compatibility with the defined criteria are given a relative weight. For each criterion the analysis should allocate one of the following categories and provide reasons for doing so: “total compatibility”. each candidate site should be the subject of an exhaustive analysis in regard to each of the established criteria. Table 20 Criteria hierarchy Criteria Compatibility with environmental legislation Compatibility with political and social conditions Compatibility with the main economic conditions Compatibility with the main technical conditions Compatibility with other economic conditions Compatibility with other technical conditions Priority 1 2 3 4 5 6 In order to determine which is the best site for the sanitary landfill. “partial compatibility.SELECTION CRITERIA ORDER OF PRIORITY Table 20 shows a suggestion for the selection criteria order of priority in choosing a sanitary landfill site.
N = No compatibility. P = Partial compatibility. taking into account the relative priority of each one.13. Solid waste final disposal SELECTION OF THE BEST SITE Analysis of candidate sites in relation to the established criteria The site chosen for the sanitary landfill should be the one that is compatible with the highest number of criteria. When the natural attributes of the selected site are not totally compatible with a certain criterion. As an example we present the case of a municipality that has to determine which is the best site amongst three pre-selected candidate sites. Table 22 Site characteristics Criteria Distance from bodies of water Distance from residential centres Distance from airports Water table depth Access through low demographic density areas Acceptance by local community Land purchase costs Existence of infrastructure Minimum useful life Land use Natural impermeability of soil Favourable topography for drainage Easy access for heavy vehicles Coverage material availability Drainage system maintenance Proximity to collection centre Priority 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 Compatibility Site 1 T T T P P N P T P T P P T N P T Site 2 T T T P P P P T T T P P P P P P Site 3 T P T T P T T P T T P T P T T P Note: T = Total compatibility. The site with more points will be considered the best. the characteristics of which are shown in table 22. its deficiencies should be remedied by the application of modern engineering solutions. 209 .
5 1.0 2.5 3 0% 50% 100% 0.0 10.0 3.5 4.0 Site 3 10. is the one that overall has the most advantages. in spite of being located relatively close to a residential centre.0 4.0 1.0 10.0 1.0 6.5 As can be seen.5 67.0 10.0 3.0 1.5 60. in accordance with table 21.0 3.5 1.0 4 4 3 3 3 50% 100% 50% 100% 50% 50% 100% 100% 100% 50% 100% 50% 100% 100% 50% 2. site 3.0 3 100% 50% 50% 3.5 0.0 1 100% 50% 50% 1.5 2.0 1. 210 .5 3.0 Site 2 100% Site 2 10.0 10 10 6 100% 50% 50% 100% 50% 50% 100% 100% 50% 10.0 Distance from bodies of water Distance from residential centres Distance from airports Water table depth Access through low demographic density areas Acceptance by local community Land purchase costs Existence of infrastructure Minimum useful life Land use Natural impermeability of soil Favourable topography for drainage Easy access for heavy vehicles Coverage material availability Drainage system maintenance Proximity to collection centre Points total 10 100% 10 100% 100% 50% 10.0 3.0 0.0 3.5 3.0 10. the candidate sites have the following points: Table 23 Points for each site Priority weight Compatibility weight Site 1 100% Criteria Points for each site Site 3 Site 1 10.0 1.After the weighting process is applied.0 3.0 5.5 3.0 6 0% 50% 100% 0.5 3 50% 50% 100% 1.0 2 50% 50% 100% 1.0 3.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 1.0 4.0 2.5 56.0 3.
with complex methodologies and technical terminology. geology. a second report has to be prepared that presents a summary of the principal finding of the EIS in a language that is accessible for the general public. Solid waste final disposal After choosing the sanitary landfill site the municipality should not immediately proceed with the purchase or compulsory purchase of the land as the project first needs approval from the relevant environmental body. in comparison with other alternative sites. Once the request is received. compatible with the policies of these entities. This document should be accompanied by general information about the site and the conceptual basis of the sanitary landfill project. hydrology. It also establishes measures that can be taken to avoid or diminish identified negative impacts. 211 . biotic (flora and fauna) and anthropic (related to human activities) environment.3. as far as is possible. technical guidelines and conclusions are.). through a licensing process that is based on deeper environmental studies. Thus society in general can form an opinion on the subject and participate democratically in the licensing process. It is important to note that environmental studies should be carried out with the cooperation of technical teams from both the municipality and the environmental control body. pedology. As these studies are highly specialized. The process begins with the presentation of a formal request by the applicant (the municipality or private company. so that the methodology. for example) to the relevant environmental body. the environmental control body prepares technical instructions (or terms of reference) in which the relevant aspects to be evaluated in an Environmental Impact Study (EIS) are defined.13. The preliminary plan for the sanitary landfill should be ready before this study is carried out. The basic actions to take and process stages are presented here: STAGE I Approval of the land for landfill use The objective of this stage of the environmental license application process is to evaluate the selected site to determine whether it is appropriate for use as a landfill. with the objective of determining the positive and negative aspects of the project in regard to the physical (climate. undertaken by specialized companies. 13.2 Environmental licenses The procedures for obtaining the necessary licenses for a sanitary landfill site depend on formal processes and relevant legislation in each country. EIS is a technical study. etc.
support unit buildings and landscaping. the environmental control body will grant the authorization document that licenses the selected site for the installation of a sanitary landfill. electricity supply. the collection and treatment of leachate. vehicle and equipment maintenance. which will analyze them and issue a technical opinion. the collection and burning of biogas. where this is the policy of the environmental control body. EIS presentation at a public hearing should be accompanied by all available audio-visual aids as the participating public will mostly be lay people who will better be able to understand proposed solutions if they can see visual images of them. In the specific case of a new sanitary landfill it is always advisable to hold such public consultations. Once completed. The master plan should also include a detailed operational plan covering the operation of the sanitary landfill. superstructures. geotechnical and topographical monitoring. rainwater drainage. the environmental control body determines the conditions and restrictions that the applicant has to comply with in order to obtain an environmental license to commence sanitary landfill installation works. STAGE II Authorization to commence sanitary landfill installation works In the initial stage of the licensing process. After this opinion is presented the community can be called to participate in public hearings on the approval process. telephones.Once completed. etc. access and service roads. the studies should be immediately sent to the environmental control body. are required. as first several complementary procedures have to be carried out by the applicant. including detailed topographical surveys and new geotechnical probes and tests. water and sanitation. The compilation of field data must be completed in this stage. It should be noted however that this license does not authorize the immediate commencement of works. Once the environmental impact study is approved. together with the pertinent palliative measures. The detailed engineering plan (master plan) should therefore take into account those requirements and incorporate the concepts contained in the environmental impact control and minimization plans recommended in the environmental assessment. and on the basis of the environmental impact study. environmental monitoring. Finally detailed plans for foundations. as should plans for layouts. and after the necessary environmental impact compensatory measures are established. weighbridge operation (if there is one) and machine. these plans should be submitted to the environmental control body that will ascertain whether the requirements and conditions established when granting 212 . Detailed plans that deal with environmental issues should also be completed.
3 Master plan The sanitary landfill master plan should maximize the useful life of the available area. water quality analysis results for surrounding bodies of water and the water table. planning should include an efficient and responsible environmental management strategy. access road construction. paying attention to the circulation of vehicles and machines during the work. which has to rigorously comply with technical norms and environmental legislation. drainage. should be part of the daily routine of engineers. fully utilizing the natural characteristics of the land.13. the regulation of the internal combustion engines and the dispersion of suspended particles in the work area. earth works. minimizing installation costs and ensuring appropriate environmental monitoring and safeguards. excavation. Solid waste final disposal the stage I license have been met.3. The master plan should include the following documents: ! planialtimetric plan for the landfill in an appropriate scale. In general it takes from 90 to 120 days to formulate a sanitary landfill master plan. STAGE III Authorization for commencement of sanitary landfill operation Once the environmental license authorizing the commencement of works is obtained. If they have. amongst other aspects. is carried out. in addition to covering the work itself. that is. 13. etc. overseers and all professionals involved. constructions and other significant features. Consequently. the master plan begins to be put into practice. Fulfilling the relevant environmental requirements and installing systems and devices in accordance with the project plans are essential for obtaining the environmental license that will authorize the operation of the sanitary landfill. ! 213 . Therefore. and showing the location of accesses. the environmental body will issue the license that authorizes commencement of sanitary landfill installation works. In this phase the applicant has to take into account that works should be carried out in a way that rigorously respects not only the engineering plan but also control plans and programs resulting from the environmental impact study that conditioned the approval of the project by the environmental control body. with contour lines representing each metre. plateaus. ! geotechnical research and test results.
! superficial drainage plans for the landfill. ! delimitation plans of sanitary landfill plots. electricity and water installations. biogas collection and burning system plans. ! technical specifications of all equipment. landscaping and structures related to water and electricity provision. the biogas collection and burning network and quantification of machine. electricity and rainwater drainage systems. architectural design. embankments and the final configuration of the sanitary landfill and plans for each annual filling stage with cross sections. informing citizens about the nature of a sanitary landfill. landfill operational manual covering the routine activities of solid waste disposal. including the calculations for foundations and structures. including leachate treatment plant operations and rainwater drainage network maintenance. environmental monitoring plan. pumping network and treatment plant. ! plans for the collection and treatment of leachate. security and others. 214 . earth works. it is essential that it is presented to the community using simple and direct language and the best audiovisual aids. the contamination control measures that will be taken. construction plans. vehicle and labour requirements for landfill operation and maintenance. Such an approach will help to avoid problems during the installation and operation of the sanitary landfill. communications. the benefits of appropriate solid waste disposal and the compensatory measures applicable to residents of the area. ! Once the master plan has been approved. bottom drainage network. superficial and deep water drainage networks. sanitary landfill closure plan. ! ! external network plans for water. construction structures. ! ! ! ! a record of the calculations made for landfill and construction stability studies. services and materials involved in the work. including bottom and top waterproofing layers (where applicable). including water table monitoring wells. including post-closure environmental monitoring plan. surfacing and drainage. sewerage. drainage of the definitive berms. showing cross-sections and details. water drain pipes and discharge structures.! access and service roads plan. including the slope of the platforms both for the landfill’s intermediate stages and for the final stage. ! layout plan for terraces. including layout.
and scrapping off the vegetation layer on operational areas such as the landfill area that will receive domestic and public waste and the effluent treatment plant area. environmental control bodies. Solid waste final disposal 13. A barrier of vegetation should be planted along the wire fence with a minimum width of 15 metres. cows or pigs. electricity.13. telephone. grass. as well as with the requirements of technical norms. In medium-sized and large landfills the sequence of construction is in general as follows: SITE FENCING Site fencing is necessary to discourage the entrance of non-authorized people and animals such as dogs. wherever possible preserving landscape composition elements even if this does not appear in the plans. The objectives of this are to block the line of sight to the operational area. land clearing and constructing the foundations for a weighbridge (where applicable). horses. environmental legislation and norms and directives issued by public service concessionaires (water.4 Landfill installation When the master plan has been approved and authorization for installation has been obtained. INITIAL LAND CLEARING WORKS This includes the removal of natural vegetation (clearing and stump removal) by cutting trees. An approximately two metre high fence is recommended made of concrete or wood posts and galvanized wire with small spaces in the lower part so that small animals cannot enter. contain airborne particles and help to reduce the dissemination of characteristic waste odours. bushes etc.3. Works should always comply with technical specifications and all the other conditions set out in the master plan. 215 . fire control and others). work on the landfill can begin with fencing. government bodies that establish employment and work safety policies.
Earth works finish with the organization of the storage area for materials. ACCESS AND SERVICE ROAD WORKS Sanitary landfill access roads are categorized as external or internal and permanent or temporary. construction rubble or quarry products. They should have a uniform incline towards one side to direct rainwater to a drainage system that runs along the side of the road. special attention has to be paid to the surfacing of external access roads and their capacity to support heavy vehicles right from the stage when alternative sanitary landfill sites are being evaluated. depending on the volume of traffic and therefore the landfill’s size. In smaller landfills internal roads can have different types of surface: brick dust. therefore. 216 . gravel. As has been previously explained. compacted in layers of 15 to 25cm. Layers that need to be compacted should be dampened until “ideal humidity” is achieved. Road maintenance should be a priority in planning for the entire projected operational life of the sanitary landfill in order to ensure the regular flow of collection vehicles to the landfill and. WATERPROOFING WORKS A 3m layer of clayey soil (k<10-7cm/s) between the bottom of the landfill and the top of the water table provides an excellent protection against the contamination of underground water. a technical solution that may be applied is the use of geo-membrane (plastic membrane) lining to waterproof the bottom of the sanitary landfill.EARTH WORKS Earth works should rigorously respect the plans for them and excess material from cuts should be stored in an appropriate place to be used in the future as cover material for landfill cells. These roads have to be easily passable in all seasons of the year and must have appropriate surfacing and road signs so that they are safe for the heavy vehicles that will use them and for the local residents. As a naturally occurring formation of this type is quite rare. sound sanitary and environmental conditions. Internal access and service roads should be built with a primary surface of gravel or selected rubble. which should ideally be located close to the landfill operational area. The recommended thickness for a landfill’s internal road surfaces is from 30 to 50cm.
Solid waste final disposal The bottom of the domestic waste sanitary landfill should be waterproofed immediately after removing the superficial layer of soil from the operational area and this work consists basically of laying the high density polyethylene (HDPE) membrane on the compacted clayey soil. to avoid the use of buried pipes. The soldering of the membrane sections should be done by a specialized team and it is recommended that the supplier provides this service. Access roads (permanent or temporary) have their own drainage systems that also serve service roads. In some cases. Landfill bottom drainage leading effluent and contaminated water to the treatment unit. The viability of this solution should be verified by specific technical studies carried out by the project management and its approval depends on compliance with the relevant environmental body’s regulations and norms. Once the waterproofing work is completed the network of leachate collection pipes should be laid. Whenever possible rainwater drainage should be through ditches lined with cement soil. the bottom of the landfill can be waterproofed with an at least 80cm thick layer of compacted clay with a permeability coefficient of less than 10-6cm/s. it is covered with a layer of earth to protect it against perforation and cutting by materials contained in the waste. such as smaller sanitary landfills or where soil conditions are relatively favourable and underground bodies of water are deep.” This principle requires the installation of three drainage systems for liquids: Peripheral interception drainage that stops rainwater entering the landfill and contaminated water exiting it. etc. The collection of percolated leachate should be done through pipes laid on the waterproofing layer at the bottom 217 . The passing of the leachate collection pipes through the plastic membrane is done by means of a special union already incorporated in the membrane that is soldered to the body of the tube.13. DRAINAGE WORKS “Water does not enter a landfill plot from outside or come out from inside of it without being controlled. the quantity of effluent and the anaerobic reaction in the mass of buried waste. Superficial drainage installed during the operational stage minimizes rainwater infiltration and consequently reduces the flushing of contaminants. grass. Once this geo-membrane is installed.
These pipes should be bedded on gravel or crushed stone (blind drainage) and covered by large grain. formed by the pipe and the gravel.Leachate drainage system 218 .5m PLOT 1 30m PLOT 1 60m PLOT 2 PLOT 2 Secondary drainage pipe L Principal drainage pipe Pumping unit LANDFILL Bidim ® Principal drainage pipe Collection pit LANDFILL To ETU Percolated liquid minimum level Sumergible pump PVC pipe Clay protection layer PVC pipe HDPE membrane Figure 121 . A more effective alternative is to install a Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) or HDPE perforated tube in the gravel bed. with secondary pipes that conduct the collected leachate into the main pipe. The liquid flows to a storage pit from where it is pumped to a treatment plant. Geo-textile membranes can be used instead of the layers of sand. This is used for the sanitary landfill’s principal percolated liquid drainage lines. and then medium grain sand in order to avoid the silting of the pipes by solids suspended in substantial quantity in the leachate. see figure 121. Effluent treatment unit (ETU) Pumping unit PVC pipe See enlargement Secondary drainage pipe Collection pit 1. should be wrapped in geo-textile membrane to avoid silting. The whole.of the landfill in a zigzag pattern. This system is the most frequently used for a sanitary landfill’s secondary drainage lines.
Solid waste final disposal The following figure shows cross sections of these two types of underground pipe. the inclusion in the sanitary landfill project of an initial treatment facility (for at least primary treatment) and a final monitoring lagoon before discharge into the receptor body. At the same time the mass of waste functions as a filter. Another advantage is the reduced volume of effluent to be treated due to evaporation by sun and wind.13. This stage of effluent treatment system works should therefore include at least the installation of a leachate recirculation system. reducing the contaminating potential of the re-circulated effluent. physical. physico-chemical. 219 . thermal or a mixture of these (combined processes). the decomposition of which tends to intensify with the addition of micro organisms contained in the effluent. storage pit and primary treatment plant.Types of underground leachate drainage pipe INSTALLATION OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT SYSTEM The determination of the best leachate treatment system and its dimensions for a particular landfill requires a previous study of the characteristics of the actual effluent generated in the sanitary landfill. but on the contrary requires. This circumstance does not prevent. The effluent treatment process can be biological. Figure 122 . A low cost process that can be used is the recirculation of the effluent through the mass of buried waste.
Before works commence it is very important to check the location of these buildings again as this is the last opportunity to modify plans. for example modifications in the route of internal roads may be necessary where they are incompatible with the location of support units. Once installed the weighbridge should be officially calibrated in the presence of the supervision team. It is obligatory that a weighbridge is mounted on pillars so that the weighing platform does not settle and therefore remains level. Any modification or adjustment of the plan should ideally be made by the planning company. As in all works of a certain size. because it holds all the information and technical specifications covering the overall context of the work. or at least it should be consulted. ELECTRO-MECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS The assembly of the weighbridge should meticulously follow the manufacturer’s instructions and the weighing platform should be perfectly level.Figure 123 – Leachate treatment lagoon CONSTRUCTIONS WORKS Construction works include the foundations and superstructure of support buildings and the treatment plant. It is recommended that the planner is on site during construction work. adjustments often have to be made due to difficulties that arise on site. 220 . adapting them to some condition of the site that may have been overlooked during the formulation of the master plan.
13. excavated earth) Padlock Sanitary Protection slab protection Sanitary seal Ø Hole 8” Ø Pipe 4” Cement seal WT (Water Table) Perforated or grooved pipe Pre-filter (washed sand or quartz gravel) Fixed cap (pressure or thread) Impermeable layer Figure 125 .Outline cross-section of a monitoring well 5. incorporating the elements shown in figures 124 and 125.Location of environmental monitoring wells Protecting structure Thread cap Cover Internal lining (Ø 4” rigid PVC pipe) Filling (impermeable material: clay.00 221 . Solid waste final disposal DIGGING OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING WELLS At least three monitoring wells should be dug. Flow of underground water Landfill Operational area Watercourse Monitoring well Surface water sample collection points Figure 124 . Surface water should also be monitored at different points along any nearby body of water upstream and downstream from the sanitary landfill area of influence. one upstream and two downstream from the sanitary landfill operational area.
The operational plan should be simple and cover all the routine activities carried out at a sanitary landfill while at the same time making provisions for their safety. Construction materials should be bought from traditional market suppliers that are if possible located close to the site. 13. If there is no weighbridge. the acquisition of materials and machines can present difficulties.5 Sanitary landfill operation Once the installation work is finished and the operational authorization has been obtained. three main factors have to be taken into account: ! ! ! topography.3. LANDFILL OPERATIONS When the construction method for a landfill is being determined. Depending on the location of the landfill. the sanitary landfill can begin receiving loads of waste in accordance with the pre-established operational plan. including an estimate of its weight (or volume). 222 . The vehicle then goes to the operational area to unload the waste it is carrying. The basic activities carried out at a sanitary landfill are listed below: WASTE RECEPTION CHECKING On entering the landfill site the collection vehicle goes directly to the weighbridge where it is weighed and all the information relating to its load is registered. water table depth. Arrangements should be made so that machines and vehicles necessary for particular tasks arrive on the site in accordance with the work schedule. soil type. the vehicle goes to the entry checkpoint where the responsible person writes down data identifying the truck and its load.COMPLEMENTARY WORKS Finishing works on the landfill site. including landscaping and general cleaning work.
the site conditions. dry and with a type of soil suitable for use as waste covering material. Solid waste final disposal In general there are three possible methods of construction and the choice depends on the concept behind the particular sanitary landfill project and.13. Figure 127 – Ramp method Area method – this is the most appropriate technique for a completely flat site and begins with a berm (artificial embankment) of clayey soil against which the first cells of waste lean. in the last analysis. Subsequently procedures are the same as for the ramp method. A natural embankment against which cells can lean inspires the name of this construction method. The construction methods are: Trench or ditch method – this is the most appropriate technique for land that is flat or has only a slight incline and where the water table is relatively deep. Figure 126 – Trench method Ramp method – this is appropriate where the landfill site is flat. 223 .
The procedures to be followed for each cell in each of the operational plots of the sanitary landfill. 224 . on each of the levels (superimposed layers) are: ! prepare the work face. with an incline of 2% towards the edges. ! with a provisional 20cm thick layer of soil cover the top of the cell.BERM RUBBISH 1st Cell 2nd Cell Figure 128 – Area method Solid waste disposal processes are almost identical in the three methods. and the internal slopes. ! cover the external slopes with the definitive 50cm thick layer of clay. the cell should be as narrow as possible but wide enough to allow the simultaneous unloading of a certain number of trucks depending on the sanitary landfill’s capacity (or the demands of collection) so that queues do not form and collection is not delayed. ! the height of the cell should be between four and six metres to provide optimum decomposition conditions for the buried waste. ! the ideal thickness of the coverage soil layer is between 20cm and 30cm for the daily covering of waste. including a truck manoeuvring area with primary surfacing that is big enough for trucks to unload their waste and make the necessary turning manoeuvres to return. ! the usual incline of operational slopes is one metre of base for each metre of height in an active cell and three metres of base for each metre of height in a finished cell. The basic rules of operation for a sanitary landfill are: ! the distribution and compaction of waste should be done if possible from the bottom to the top to achieve better results. ! ! the final layer of covering material should be at least 50cm thick. ! to obtain good compaction the waste should be distributed in not very thick layers and a bulldozer should pass over the mass of waste of each layer three to six times.
make the final coverage of the completed cells with a layer of 50cm thick compacted clay.1 2.0 966.5 0. These difficulties arise because the type of effluent produced depends on the particular characteristics of the waste (determined by its component substances) deposited in the landfill and on a series of specific factors that influence the decomposition process in the mass of organic waste. EFFLUENT TREATMENT The main characteristic of sanitary landfill effluent is its changing composition over time. due to progressive exhaustion of the biodegradable organic matter.0 6. ! when burying the cells of the last level.0 225 .0 Maximum 8. ! repeat the sequence of operations until all plots on all levels are completely filled. Consequently. 3 and so on until the lower level is completed.) Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Nitrate Nitrogen Nitrite Nitrogen Ammoniacal Nitrogen COD Range of variation Minimum 5. prepare the work face for unloading waste into cell 2 in the same way as for cell 1. ! ! as cell 1 is being filled the gas venting system should be progressively built into it.000.0 0. ! repeat the same operations to fill plots 2.0 28. the high contaminating potential of “new leachate” gradually reduces over a period of ten years to a point when it does not need treatment.0 5.9 15. Solid waste final disposal ! some days before completing cell 1.7 3. repeat the operations for filling each cell and preparing the next one until plot 1 is entirely filled. ! fill cell 1 of the upper level following the same operational sequence used on the lower level. Table 24 shows the range of parameter variation for some sanitary landfill percolated liquids in Brazil and is presented here as an example of the difficulties involved in a definitive pre-establishment of the type of effluent that will be produced in a particular sanitary landfill. with an incline of 2% towards the edges.13.140.900.0 0. Table 24 Range of leachate composition variation Parameters pH (un.
It is influenced by temperature.0 26.2 0.0 11.7 0.0 50. and many other factors.) Range of variation Minimum 480.000.7 x 108 Source: Data compilation.1 0.2 3. The volume of percolated liquid produced by a sanitary landfill registers seasonal variations depending on climatic conditions in the region and the local drainage system.0 Maximum 19. Another more complex procedure calculates the production of sanitary landfill percolated liquids through the water balance.0 0. rainfall quantity.000. Another procedure is the “Swiss method” that calculates the flow of sanitary landfill percolated liquid by means of an equation involving the dimensions of the operational area. the nature of the cell coverage material and in particular its permeability. except where another unit is indicated. Stabilization lagoons One of the most frequently used forms of treatment involves lagoons into which leachate effluent is discharged after passing through a grate or a mechanical sieve and 226 .0 230.800.0 0.0 14.3 1. A way of calculating the potential flow of effluent from a new sanitary landfill is by direct correlation with percolate generation data obtained from measurements in similar but already operating landfills located in regions with similar climatic conditions.0 0.0 3.0 0.6 0.1 0.800.2 2. 1993.3 6.9 x 107 1. Brazil).0 49.0 35. the annual rainfall and a factor determined by characteristics of the land. However distortions may occur.9 4.) Parameters BOD5 Chlorides Sulfates Total Phosphorus Copper Lead Iron Manganese Zinc Cadmium Total Chromo Faecal Coliform (un. COMLURB (Rio de Janeiro.) Total Coliform (un. the vegetation cover on the sanitary landfill area.0 1.Table 24 (cont. Note: all values are in mg/l. evapotranspiration.
sludge should be periodically removed so that the effectiveness of the treatment is not impaired. as such vegetation could harbour mosquitoes and other vectors. Entry to the lagoons should be through a two pipe system to improve the flow of effluent in the lagoon avoiding dead zones and short cuts. In general aerobic stabilization lagoons have the following basic characteristics: ! ! ! form – truncated pyramidal.5 metres. 227 . This lagoon is also aerobic and has the same physical characteristics as the previous ones but only retains the effluent for seven days. Lagoon borders should be treated so that no vegetation grows in the air-effluent intermediate zone. This series of lagoons ends with a smaller one where the effluent receives a finishing treatment. depth – 1. Percolate drainage Equalization tank Sanitary landfill Grates First aerobic lagoon Overflow outlet Second aerobic lagoon Finishing lagoon Receptor body Figure 129 .13. Solid waste final disposal remaining for at least 24 hours in an equalization tank to homogenize its composition as much as possible. The height of the effluent overflow outlet should be adjustable to ensure that leachate remains inside the lagoons for the minimum required time irrespective of the flow volume.Treatment in aerobic lagoons It is recommended that a superficial aeration device is installed in the equalization tank to improve the homogenization of the liquid mass and the aerobic condition of the effluent to be treated. retention time – 25 days minimum. The following figure presents an outline of a typical leachate treatment system employing aerobic lagoons. In addition.
while the liquid can be directly discharged into the receptor body.This removed sludge should be put to dry in a drying bed and then deposited in the sanitary landfill. regions where the rate of evaporation is higher than that of rainfall. In addition part of the re-circulated effluent evaporates and to encourage this sprinkler nozzles should be adjusted to produce a fine spray. gross effluent will inevitably drain into some body of water producing environmental damage. It is not advisable to use only documented data to calculate the necessary dimensions of a treatment unit. It can also be used in other regions during dry seasons as an auxiliary procedure complementary to the principal method being used. The disadvantages of this process stem from its high electricity consumption together with its dependence on a constant supply of electricity and the functioning of the pump. thus increasing the rate of evaporation. Another important aspect to consider is that the leachate storage pit should have enough capacity to store a sufficient amount of liquid for the recirculation pump not to have to be used at very short intervals. 228 . thus making it possible for recirculation to take place only once a day and preferably during the eight hour period that the operator is present at the sanitary landfill. that is. If the electricity supply or the recirculation pump fail. Evaporation is an important factor in leachate recirculation and it functions better in regions with a negative water balance. tank trucks or infiltration beds. In determining the type of treatment to use the more correct procedure is a laboratory study of the effluent’s characteristics. Effluent flow measurement should be carried out at a minimum of two points on the treatment system: ! ! immediately after the storage pit or immediately before the equalization tank immediately before the point of discharge into the receptor body Gross effluent and treated effluent should be periodically monitored. Recirculation Another commonly used treatment of sanitary landfill percolated effluent is its recirculation through the mass of waste using sprinklers. In this process the effluent gradually looses its toxicity (basically its organic content) due to airing and the biological action of micro organisms present in the mass of waste. Ideally the pit should be designed to hold one complete day’s production of leachate during the rainy season.
which generates a secondary sludge that remains in suspension. inject air into the liquid mass allowing the aerobic bacteria to stabilize the organic matter. The effluent from the aeration tank passes to a secondary settling tank where the previously generated sludge precipitates. It then goes to an aeration tank where aerators.Infiltration bed recirculation Activated sludge Other processes that can be used in the treatment of sanitary landfill percolated liquids are the activated sludge system and evaporation. Suction pit overflow Drainage valley Submergible pump Ditch for percolated liquid Pumping pipe PVC Ø 02” Service roads Recirculation area Perforated PVC pipes Ø ½” Landfill Suction pit Landfill Ditch for percolated liquid Nº 2 gravel beds Figure 130 . from where it is discharged into the receptor body. Solid waste final disposal Ideally recirculation should serve as a complementary procedure to one of the conventional effluent treatment processes. such as stabilization lagoons or an activated sludge system.13. usually on the surface. In the activated sludge system effluent passes through a preliminary treatment generally in the form of a chamber with bars after which it is directed to a primary settling tank where solids settle. 229 . The dried sludge is taken back to the landfill for disposal. The following figure shows a recirculation system using infiltration beds. From the secondary settling tank the liquid part goes to a finishing lagoon similar to the one at the end of the aerobic lagoons process. A part of that sludge then returns to the aeration tank while the settled sludge is put together with the sludge from the primary settling tank and goes to a drying bed.
Primary settling tank Aerators Preliminary treatment Aeration tank Secondary settling tank Finishing lagoon Flow measurement Receptor body Figure 131 . where it is heated to a temperature of 80ºC to 90ºC causing part of the liquid to evaporate and consequently the effluent to become more concentrated. Treated air outlet Burner Biogas inlet T= 80ºC to 90ºC Percolated liquid inlet Thermal lining Humidity filter Temperature of departing air 750ºC to 900ºC Chimney Evaporator Concentrated sludge Sludge outlet Average concentration 30% solid Sludge pump Biogas inlet Combustion air Supporting base Figure 132 . dry. The great advantage of this process is its low operational cost as the fuel used to evaporate the effluent is biogas from the sanitary landfill itself. comes out through the lower part of the evaporator and is disposed of in the landfill.Activated sludge Evaporation In the evaporation process effluent is sent to a metal tank. now more dense with 30% of it being solid material. The hot vapour leaving the evaporator passes through a filter that retains humidity and then goes to a final heating chamber from where it is discharged. The sludge.Leachate evaporator 230 . into the atmosphere. the evaporator.
and on the slopes. the decomposition process that gradually takes place in the mass provokes frequent settlings of the surface.13. Solid waste final disposal Whatever treatment option is selected. in order to promptly correct potentially damaging effects on the rainwater drainage devices. particularly underground conduits. GAS VENTING The gas venting system comprises vertical wells surrounded by gravel or gross ground stone. comprising mostly organic matter. RAINWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM The rainwater drainage system should be kept clean and free of obstructions. In both cases the pipe should be high enough to serve as a guide for its further extension when work begins on the next level up. located at a distance of 50m to 60m from each other. A burner should be installed in the mouth of the well. Figure 133 . The gas venting system should be constantly monitored so that burners are always alight.Installation of gas drainage wells 231 . at its edges. Once the well is installed. As the sanitary landfill is constructed with solid waste. It is important to constantly make adjustments to the system accommodating to these movements in the mass of the landfill. treated effluent should meet all discharge standards established by the environmental control body. There are two methods for installing a gas drainage system: extending the pipe as the landfill evolves (recommended) or excavating the completed cell to install the pipe. the ground around it should be covered over a radius of approximately two metres with a 50cm thick layer of clay to avoid the dispersion of gas into the atmosphere.
The second phase of environmental monitoring commences when effluent generated by the sanitary landfill begins to be stored for treatment and gases begin to be produced.physical. dump truck . concrete frameworks should be installed in the work faces for the purpose of monitoring the differential settling of the buried layers. Example of an environmental monitoring program: ! Monthly .for transporting coverage material and material for surfacing internal access roads. The quality of these samples is evaluated so that they can be compared with future samples. total and fixed sedimentary residues and colimetry tests. COD. The frequency of sampling and the parameters that are analyzed must comply with regulations established by the environmental control body. The reading of these frameworks will also be useful to monitor the geotechnical stability of the sanitary landfill through the measurement of horizontal displacement. In addition to these considerations. and the frequency of readings should be increased when significant settling is observed. These frameworks should be read monthly. ! GEOTECHNICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL MONITORING At all times during the filling of sanitary landfill cells attention must be paid to topographical alignment. chemical and bacteriological analyzes of gross and treated effluent in the treatment system.analysis of water from the monitoring wells and from water body sampling sites both upstream and downstream from the sanitary landfill. 13. Every three months . BOD. up to and including the creation of the final covering surface incline.ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING The monitoring of water in the area surrounding the sanitary landfill should begin before the commencement of its operational phase with the collection and analysis of samples from nearby bodies of water and the water table.3. including tests for pH. 232 . compacting and covering of waste.6 Equipment Commonly used machines and vehicles for the operation of a sanitary landfill are: ! ! bulldozer . analyzing results for the same parameters in each case.for the distribution. Careful attention should also be paid to topographical aspects in determining the incline of percolated liquid drains to ensure optimum drainage conditions after collection.
not only for installation but also for their ongoing operation in compliance with all the technical requirements and applicable regulations. specialized labour for maintenance and spare parts for immediate delivery. tank truck – to supply water for reducing dust on internal roads and dampening lighter waste (papers. Solid waste final disposal ! ! ! mechanical loader . a rigorous system controlling its use should be established not only in relation to the number of hours that machines are operating for. Such definitions tend to focus on specific aspects of particular projects rather than providing a wider conceptual description. plastics. Nevertheless.for digging and maintaining drainage ditches. in spite of all these obstacles it is necessary to deal with the problem of solid waste disposal as it has such serious consequences for sanitary and environmental conditions in cities. The most appropriate definition of a controlled landfill is: “A controlled landfill is a modified version of a sanitary landfill where the rigorous technical requirements applicable to the latter are more flexible in order to facilitate urban solid waste final disposal on the ground. In addition. a type of landfill that is often misunderstood or badly defined even by the technical community itself. and the wear and tear on their components. but also in regard to their correct operation during daily tasks in order to optimize their use and minimize unproductive procedures. to such a degree that only a few municipalities can install them. 233 .13. Factors that have to be taken into account when selecting machinery are: the availability of financial resources. 13. As this equipment represents the most significant operational expenditure for a sanitary landfill. etc. the extensive range of technical components involved in them can be appreciated as can the amount of resources that it is necessary to allocate. The sanitary landfill’s operational method is the principal factor that determines the selection and dimensions of machinery needed for landfill operations. In this context the alternative “controlled landfill” option arises. mechanical digger .) to avoid it being scattered.4 Controlled landfills With everything that has been previously explained about sanitary landfills. even when the necessary financial resources are available for installation there can be difficulties in obtaining sufficient resources and qualified labour to operate a sanitary landfill in a way that meets its rigorous technical requirements. In Latin American and Caribbean countries the limited availability of public resources and the great demands made upon them create a situation in which it is very difficult to establish sanitary landfills. from the planning and installation phase to the final disposal of urban solid waste. with the waste duly isolated and covered.to load trucks.
self-propelled waste compactors). the principal characteristics of which should be: soil that is not very permeable (clayey) and a deep water table (at least 3 metres below the level of the natural land).Cross section of a controlled landfill h>3. There is no exact definition of a “controlled landfill”. or to implement. though it must be routinely covered with earth. operate and maintain some of the systems required by the norms that regulate sanitary landfills. In this respect it is also important that the waste coverage layers are of clayey earth and particular attention should be paid to the top covering when the landfill reaches its maximum height. and in doing so demonstrates the principle “the ideal can be the enemy of the good”. The cells of a controlled landfill are also built with compacted layers of waste but without necessarily using specialized machines (bulldozers. a bulldozer exclusively and permanently allocated to final waste disposal. Upper waterproofing Controlled landfill Lower waterproofing Maximum water level Flow of underground water Impermeable soil Figure 134 . the natural characteristics of which minimize the risk of negative environmental impacts. for example. as the more effective that system is the less effluent will be produced in the landfill.0m Water table 234 . It is common for controlled landfills to be used in small cities that collect up to 50 tons of solid waste per day and where municipalities are not in an economic condition to maintain. waste can be manoeuvred using lighter equipment or manual tools. A controlled landfill offers municipalities with limited investment and budgetary capacity a relatively immediate opportunity to operate a low cost urban solid waste disposal system that eliminates the environmental and social aggression of refuse dumps. as they vary from very simple installations to ones that are similar to sanitary landfills.complying with minimum sanitary control requirements through the selection of a site. Where the soil type is not appropriate the controlled landfill project should make provision for the installation of an at least 50cm thick waterproofing layer of clayey soil brought from the nearest deposit. that is. Of these systems it is the absence of effluent treatment that causes such municipalities most problems. Consequently special care should be taken with the rainwater drainage system of controlled landfills.” The key to a successful controlled landfill project is therefore the choice of the land where it will be installed.
the selection of the site becomes fundamentally important for an effective functioning of the controlled landfill. The waste can be manoeuvred and the top surface and lateral sloped (1:1) surfaces can be levelled using hoes. Waste compacting can be done with mallets.for example those used for road maintenance .Manual compaction of waste in a cell 235 . This is not a realistic possibility for most small-sized municipalities in Latin America and the Caribbean with their budgetary limitations and the significant under use of equipment that this would imply due to the relatively small amount of waste to be disposed of. as well as the drain on equipment resources needed for other municipal services. pitchforks and forks. The covering of waste should be done at the end of each working day. Figure 135 . A mechanical digger for example could excavate trenches for future waste cells where the land type permits the employment of this method of solid waste landfill construction. For such municipalities a controlled landfill allows for alternative solutions such as the periodic and programmed use of machines from other municipal sectors . Manoeuvring and coverage work is done manually as described below. A practical alternative for small-sized municipalities is to use easily obtainable manual tools for landfill operations. In such a case resultant material would be stored in a nearby place for later use in the covering operation. compaction and covering of waste.13. rakes. An entirely manual operation is recommendable only for a daily waste volume of up to 40m³ or approximately 10 tons. In this case additional compaction can be achieved by collection vehicles being driven over filled areas as the cell advances.in the preparation of the weekly work face. Solid waste final disposal One of the requirements for a sanitary landfill is the permanent presence of specialized machines for the manoeuvring. When it is not possible to guarantee even the infrequent programmed availability of machines to do the heavier work involved in landfill routines (such as excavating earth). The ideal in such a case is a small dry natural hollow. mallets.
On rainy days they should wear plastic waterproofs. shoes and gloves that guarantee their protection and safety. subsequently recuperating the excavated area by filling it with natural soil from the region. clothing. technical-operational and economic results.Where a landfill is manually operated it is indispensable that workers engaged in the manoeuvring and covering of waste have. 13. the recuperation of the degraded refuse dump area and the installation of a new final disposal system on another site. environmental. Often a municipality does not have access to sufficient finance for carrying out two works. that is. so it will naturally opt for undertaking the latter and leave aside remedying the environmental liability incurred by the refuse dump. especially in cities with restricted financial resources. that investment in the environmental recuperation of a dump is combined with the creation of disposal service and environmental protection infrastructure in the same place. Areas degraded by refuse dumps should therefore be recuperated by containing such impacts and re-establishing healthy conditions there. In this way the municipality can avoid generating negative impacts on a virgin site before exhausting the waste disposal capacity (useful life) of the area previously used as a refuse dump. It is always recommended. Theoretically the correct way to recuperate land degraded by a refuse dump is to collect all the waste inappropriately disposed of there and transfer it to a sanitary landfill. Another aspect to consider is the availability of resources. in addition to the appropriate tools. An analysis of these alternatives is fundamental to appropriate planning for future solid waste final disposal. It should be noted that the strategic context of a refuse dump environmental recuperation exercise can be: ! ! that the area will be recuperated after it is closed for the dumping of waste. thus allowing for the continued disposal of waste there but in sanitary conditions. in order to optimize the use of resources and maximize sanitary. a refuse dump is an inappropriate form of urban solid waste disposal as it produces a series of negative environmental impacts and poses sanitary risks for the population. or that the area will be recuperated in such a way that it will be able to continue receiving waste but on a sound sanitary and environmental basis. Therefore whenever possible the refuse dump site or neighbouring land should be used to install a new final disposal system. In practice however this procedure is not usually economically viable and in most cases it is anyway impossible to implement due to the physical characteristics of the dump site.5 Environmental recuperation of refuse dumps As has been explained. 236 .
in general 1:3 (V:H). and the quality of underground water should be checked through the monitoring wells. b) delimit the affected area in situ. g) after they have been levelled. n) use three of the previously made probe holes to install water table monitoring wells: one on the upstream side of the area of the recuperated dump and two on the downstream side. and site recuperation is undertaken. e) form lateral slopes with an appropriate incline. as should the surface water in nearby bodies of water. f) give the top surface an incline as indicated in the section on drainage. including the lateral slopes. j) dig one or more storage pits for effluent collected by the leachate drainage devices. k) construct vertical wells for gas venting. Leachate that accumulates in the storage pits should be periodically recirculated in the mass of waste. through sprinklers (similar to those used for grass watering) or infiltration beds. The recuperation of a refuse dump does not finish with the implementation of these procedures.13. c) carry out probes to measure the thickness of the layer of waste throughout the degraded area. previous urban cleaning personnel should be consulted to determine as precisely as possible the extent of the area affected by waste and the principal physical characteristics of the natural land. h) recuperate the excavated area by filling it with natural soil from the region. Solid waste final disposal When a refuse dump is permanently closed. d) remove the waste from the parts of the site where the layer of waste is thinner (in general less than one metre) and deposit it on the part of the refuse dump where the layer of waste is thickest. m) sow grass and native plant species with short roots. i) install rainwater and leachate drainage devices appropriate for the particular project. l) spread a layer of top soil over the layer of clay on the top surface and slopes. cover the exposed waste surfaces with an at least 50cm thick layer of good quality clay. the basic procedures are: a) if there is no reliable cadastral data. gas vents should be periodically checked so that those extinguished by wind or rain can be relit. 237 . thus ending any type of waste disposal there.
establish procedures for distribution. ! install a leachate recirculation system and (depending on the climatic conditions of the zone) an effluent treatment system with stabilization lagoons. waterproofing it with good quality clay and installing underground pipes to collect leachate. in addition to creating a serious risk of accidents involving the working machines and vehicles. ! ! ! excavate one or more storage pits for effluent generated in new cells. as the landfill evolves build vertical wells for gas venting. which together with low work training levels leads people to seek any activity that at least provides a means of survival for themselves and their families. and such activity hinders distribution. one upstream and two downstream from the future operational area. Even though recyclable waste segregation in refuse dumps and streets is an unhealthy activity.6 The situation of segregators In the present situation of Latin American and Caribbean countries there are not enough employment opportunities in the formal work market to allow universal entrance into it by a growing population. the sequence of procedures listed in the previous paragraph is modified after point “g” in the following way: ! prepare the excavated area to receive more solid waste. Segregators tend to circulate freely in the operational area of a refuse dump. 238 . but as a landfill. 13. it has become an “alternative job” as a result of the now endemic large-scale social crisis. together with collection trucks and scrap dealers. due to the difficulty of finding new sites appropriate for sanitary landfills. In this case. ! dig water table monitoring wells. whenever possible a recuperated dump site should continue to be used.As has been previously explained. ! install the necessary rainwater drainage channels to stop rain water run off reaching future work faces. either due to a lack of alternative options for parents who do not have anybody to take care of them while they are engaged in segregation work. compaction and covering as if it were a sanitary landfill. compaction and covering operations. but rather requires articulated action involving various governmental sectors. Even more serious is the presence of children at dumps. Refuse dump recuperation projects are therefore not limited to engineering issues but also have to solve a complex social problem that cannot and should not be the sole responsibility of the body providing urban cleaning services. or because the children themselves are segregating materials in order to increase family income.
Disposing of construction rubble in a sanitary landfill is not economical as it is inert waste that is being deposited in a specialized system surrounded by technical resources designed to protect the environment. However when a municipality does not have this option. the ideal destiny for construction rubble is recycling. programs that provide children with integral fulltime places in schools or sports and recreational centres and a compensatory system for parents whose children cease to engage in segregation work.7.7 Special domestic waste disposal 13. with effective management. for example). Figure 136 – Recycling plant operated by a segregator cooperative 13. Solid waste final disposal Some of the initiatives that should be implemented to gradually change this situation are the development of alternative income and employment programs (such as segregator cooperatives. Depositing this type of waste in a sanitary landfill is also not economical from an environmental perspective as the useful life of the landfill will be diminished by waste that. when it could be disposed of in more simple landfills at a lower cost. cooperation with non-governmental institutions and private companies. the provision of technical training for segregators so that they can engage in other activities in the formal labour market. could be used for the recuperation of excavations resulting from the extraction of materials used in the construction industry.13.1 Construction rubble disposal As has been explained in the chapter on solid waste treatment. 239 . it is disposed of at the bottom of a landfill.
240 . is in a landfill designed specifically for industrial waste with this risk classification.3 Disposal of fluorescent tubes Often small pieces of broken tubes are accidentally discarded together with common waste in sanitary landfills. dealers and other players in this economic sector. as there is mercury in them the appropriate final disposal of such waste. This waste should be regarded as waste from the industrial process of its producers. In this case too the “polluter pays” principle applies. especially in large amounts. 13.7. Two initiatives are presented below as examples of measures that the private sector can adopt for the collection and final disposal of batteries. who should be responsible for financing such a process. ! establish an agreement with mobile phone producers under which they set up a discarded battery collection program that includes the provision of a telephonic information centre providing the location of places where there are special containers for used batteries. their final disposal should be managed with the same criteria as are applied to industrial waste that carries the same type of risk. 13. with a view to recycling or another form of treatment and final disposal. However.7.The only appropriate types of rubble disposal in a sanitary landfill are: ! ! its use as base material for internal roads and unloading areas. who should therefore be responsible for its collection. particularly due to the presence of heavy metals in their composition. treatment and final disposal. ! develop a project together with associations of authorized technical service providers for the installation of battery collection containers on their premises.2 Disposal of batteries As used batteries constitute hazardous waste. its use for the temporary covering of urban waste when there is a scarcity of the usual covering material in the zone. Before organizing a system for battery separation at source. the body responsible for urban cleaning should ensure the participation of producers. Corresponding regulations should be brought into force in support of this type of model to avoid the risk that the municipality will be left with responsibility for costs associated with production process waste from private sector enterprises. Batteries collected in this way would be removed once a month and taken to a treatment or recycling site.
SOIL BIO-REGENERATION Soil bio-regeneration (land farming) is a biological treatment through which the organic part of waste is decomposed by the micro organisms that live in the upper layer of soil. The treatment consists of mixing and homogenizing waste with the upper layer of soil (to a ploughing depth of 15cm to 20cm). In support of this current perspective on the problem national legislation is needed to facilitate a progressive reduction in the quantity of such waste through a policy that fosters recycling by the industry and suppliers. a new layer of waste can be treated in the same soil. repeating the same steps. for example. which should be the responsibility of producers and distributors as it is their economic activity that generates this waste. Although the same land can be used repeatedly the disadvantage of this method is its need for large areas of land as the layers are not thick.8 Disposal of waste from special sources 13. and so on.7. The body responsible for urban cleaning should not have to take on the problematic final disposal of used tyres.4 Disposal of tyres When it is not possible to recycle used tyres or use them in cement industry furnaces. they can be disposed of in sanitary landfills after being ground so that they do not cause structural problems in the landfill. 13.13. industrial landfills. Once the micro organisms complete the degradation work. Solid waste final disposal 13.8. waste barrages and other forms of disposal are commonly used for industrial waste. This treatment is very much used for the final decomposition of oil by-products and organic compounds. 241 . The following figure shows an outline cross section of a bio-regeneration area. Finally it is necessary to pay attention to the import of used but still usable tyres as together with these goods the companies of exporter countries are also exporting the problem of disposal when they are of no further use.1 Industrial waste disposal Soil bio-regeneration (land farming).
Rain Evaporation Superficial drainage Leaching Waste landfill Leaching Percolation Maximum water level Flow of underground water Non-saturated zone Wastewater Impermeable soil Figure 138 .Periodic application and mixing of waste and soil Containment of rainwater that falls on the treatment area Evaporation Diversion of rainwater that falls outside the treatment area 200 m Infiltration Water course Aerobic decomposition. the incursion of rainwater falling outside the limits of the landfill that would otherwise increase the volume of effluent percolating inside the landfill. non-inert waste. In Brazil. for example. by means of barriers and drainage ditches. only inert waste. 242 . the first step is to avoid. those for Class II. landfills for Class I waste can receive hazardous industrial waste. absorption and adsorption in the upper layer Figure 137 . In any type of industrial waste landfill a rainwater drainage system and bottom waterproofing are essential to avoid soil and water table contamination from rainwater that has percolated through the waste.Soil bio-regeneration outline INDUSTRIAL LANDFILLS Industrial landfills are classified according to the hazard presented by the waste to be deposited there. and those for Class III.Flow of water in a landfill In order to reduce the amount of effluent to be treated. as demonstrated in the following figure.
that is. that is. Consequently. fire or explosion.5% Physical protection layer t = 30cm Waste Storage pit Maximum water level To the effluent treatment unit PVC tube Plastic membrane (double layer) t =1. dissolution of toxic substances and violent polymerization.000 tons requires an initial investment of approximately two million dollars and involves operational costs of 50 to 150 dollars per ton.0 to 2.typical cross-section 243 . wastes that do not react in contact with each other or with infiltrated rainwater.Industrial landfill for Class I waste .13.00m Intermediate coverage (soil – t = 25cm) Plastic membrane t = 20 to 30cm Waste Waste Vegetation coverage Pumping unit Blind drainage I = min 0. The main disadvantage of an industrial landfill as a means of final waste disposal is that it requires a large area of land in order to be economically and operationally viable and it should be taken into account that the waste continues to be potentially dangerous until it can naturally incorporate itself in the environment. production of smoke and gases that are toxic and inflammable. An industrial landfill with a capacity of 15. before waste is unloaded at the landfill the list of compatible wastes published by environmental control bodies must be consulted. Industrial landfill for Class I waste Final coverage layer I = 2% Rainwater drainage Drainage layer t = 25cm h = 4 to 6m Waste t = 0. When operating an industrial landfill special precautions have to be taken to control the type of waste unloaded there as only chemically compatible wastes can be disposed of in any given landfill. The operational cost varies according to the waste’s degree of toxicity. Solid waste final disposal The second step is waterproofing the bottom of the landfill with a plastic membrane in order to stop leachate contaminating the soil and the water table. on the reduction of waste production and its treatment so that only unusable refuse is deposited in industrial landfills. In this context the best course of action is to concentrate efforts on earlier stages.60 to 1.5mm h > 3m Leakage detection layer (t = 25cm) Figure 139 . The most common phenomena produced by the mixture of incompatible wastes are: heat generation.
percolates drainage system.5% Physical protection layer t = 30cm To the effluent treatment unit PVC tube Plastic membrane t = 0. layers of waste (from 4. a top waterproofing layer of plastic membrane or good quality clay (k = 10 .Industrial landfill for Class II and Class III waste – typical cross-section Industrial landfills for Class II and Class III waste are similar to domestic waste sanitary landfills but do not usually have a gas venting system. ! although it is not obligatory. physical protection for the plastic membrane.5m Figure 140 .8 to 1. Beginning at least 1.5m above the highest level of the water table and going from bottom to top this type of landfill usually consists of the following layers: ! ! ! ! bottom waterproofing with PEAD membrane.Industrial landfills for Class I waste require more rigorous waterproofing than those for Class II and III.0m to 6. drainage layer on top of the top waterproofing layer (t = 25cm). ! 25cm thick sand drainage (necessary only where there is top waterproofing).00m Vegetation coverage Pumping unit Blind drainage Waste Storage pit Maximum water level t = 20 to 30cm Waste Waste I = min 0.6cm/s. ! ! ! leakage detection layer between the bottom waterproofing layers. Industrial landfill for Class II and Class III waste Final coverage layer I = 2% Rainwater drainage Drainage layer t = 25cm h = 4 to 6m Waste t = 0.0m thick) with 25cm thick layers of soil between them.60 to 1. thickness > 50cm) is recommended. 244 .7cm/s). A minimum water table depth of three metres is required and the following layers are compulsory: ! double layer of bottom waterproofing: PEAD membrane and clay protection layer (k < 10 . top waterproofing layer.5mm h > 1.
8. 245 . Solid waste final disposal ! ! organic soil (thickness > 60cm). all very expensive and sophisticated: ! construction of special shelters with double walls of high resistance concrete. A top waterproofing layer is not required as the surface serves to evaporate off part of the liquid content. followed by a conventional biological process (stabilization lagoons or activated sludge). They have a filtration and drainage system at the bottom (flute) to collect and treat the liquid part while containing the solid matter inside the barrage. Such barrage systems use a double layer of waterproofing only on the bottom. or can be injected into exhausted oil wells. vegetation coverage with short root plant species.13. WASTE BARRAGES Waste barrages are used for the disposal of liquid waste as well as sludgy waste that has a humidity content of more than 80%. OTHER FORMS OF DISPOSAL Highly hazardous waste can be disposed of in underground saline or calcareous caves. The type of treatment depends on the characteristics of the waste deposited in the landfill but usually a complete physicochemical process is applied.2 Radioactive waste disposal There are three final disposal processes for nuclear waste. preferably underground. ! encapsulation in an impermeable concrete covering followed by dumping in the deep ocean (this process is very much criticized by environmentalists and in some countries is prohibited). the surface is waterproofed with a layer of clay to reduce rainwater infiltration and thus the need for ongoing treatment of percolated liquids. should be led to a treatment unit. collected through a drainage system similar to the one in the previous figure. The percolated liquid. These landfills are not deep and cover an extended area. After the closure of the landfill. when the top layer of waste has solidified. 13.
3 Port and airport waste disposal In some countries it is required by law that port and airport waste is disposed of by incineration.8. When the septic trench is annexed to a municipal landfill. due to its low investment and operational costs. handling and internal transport system is implemented in order to avoid contact between common waste and waste that is contaminated or represents a potential sanitary risk. Top waterproofing should begin as soon as the volume of waste reaches its final height and should progress at the same rate as the filling of the trench. a distinct plot should be separated for medical waste disposal. is a viable option for cities with budgetary limitations. which involves the daily covering of waste and obligatory waterproofing but no leachate collection. a method that is very much questioned by most professionals but. in many of these countries only some ports and airports comply with such environmental legislation while in the others no special attention is paid to waste disposal. In the first type. 13. Conceptually a septic trench is in reality a Class II industrial landfill.1. Port and airport waste not at risk of being contaminated by contact with waste generated in boats or planes arriving from areas with endemic diseases can be disposed of in sanitary landfills. In recent years the sanitary vigilance authorities of several countries have begun to implement measures that increase controls in ports and airports out of a concern for the potential economic impact of diseases such as foot-and-mouth or mad-cow disease being “imported” from other countries or regions.8. 246 . The bottom and sides of the excavated trench are then waterproofed and waste begins to be deposited there. There are two types of septic trench: individual ones such as may be used by large hospitals and ones that are annexed to a municipal sanitary landfill. as described in 13. the surfaces of which should be covered daily. trenches should be excavated with dimensions appropriate for receiving waste generated over a pre-determined period (a month. 13. It is therefore essential that an effective and safe solid waste storage.8.4 Medical waste disposal The only final disposal process for this type of waste in the ground is the septic trench. However. This plot should be fenced and isolated from the rest of the landfill.! disposal in saline underground caves that are sealed so as not to contaminate the biosphere. six months or a year).
The unpleasant appearance and the bad odour that they emit discredit city administrations where waste is not appropriately disposed of. they require significant financial investment and their operation involves a high level of complexity. provided they are well built and correctly 247 . auditing tribunals and public prosecutors for poor urban cleaning management. From an environmental perspective dumps are a real calamity as they contaminate the soil. especially in relation to the final disposal of waste.Septic trench installed in a sanitary landfill 13. Attempting to resolve urban solid waste final disposal problems through the installation of recycling or incineration plants is often not feasible as. Final coverage Drainage layer Plastic membrane Fence Waste 3m to 4m Waste Waste Top coverage Lateral slopes coverage Plastic membrane Figure 141 . The simplest and cheapest option for solving the problem of refuse dumps is undoubtedly the installation of sanitary landfills. Many mayors have been held directly accountable by environmental bodies.13. both of which are beyond the capacity of municipalities that lack financial resources and specialized personnel. surface and underground water and represent a potential source of epidemics and fires as well as being susceptible to disintegration.9 Sanitary landfills and carbon credits: Opportunities to help resolve environmental problems The environmental damage resulting from refuse dumps and irregular dumping always causes significant problems for municipal administrations. in spite of spectacular promotional offers by equipment manufacturers. Solid waste final disposal The procedures for waste disposal and waterproof layer installation are similar to those previously described. the atmosphere.
However such initiatives involve investment and operational costs that in general are beyond municipalities’ financial means. carbonic gas and methane. 13. Over recent decades the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere has increased. Sanitary landfills do not contaminate or emit unpleasant odours and after their final closure they can be used for the construction of sports complexes or public parks.1 Greenhouse effect: causes and consequences This phenomenon is similar to the one produced by the glass panels of a greenhouse that retain heat produced by the sun. as is revealed by PAHO reports on basic sanitary services (see chapter 1). principally water vapour. This combustible gas can be used to fuel boilers. One potentially positive economic factor being studied with increasing attention as a solution to this problem is the exploitation of biogas naturally produced during organic waste anaerobic decomposition processes. sterile and with an extremely high ambient temperature. with the additional advantage that its producers will receive Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). In this chapter we will try to clarify the question of carbon credits as the recovery and use of biogas for fuel has already been dealt with in many technical publications. the average 248 . the presence of certain gases in the atmosphere. in which case they should be replaced by a sanitary landfill elsewhere that will then receive the city’s domestic waste. impedes the release into space of heat generated by the incidence of the sun’s rays on the Earth’s surface. Consequently. If this phenomenon did not exist.9. which is then reflected outwards. As with the glass panels of a greenhouse. which are offering resources and information for the installation of sanitary landfills with systems that recover and exploit “waste biogas”. for example. as established in the Kyoto Protocol the objective of which is to reduce the proportion of gases that provoke the greenhouse effect in the earth’s atmosphere. our planet would be as cold and sterile as Mars. while if it existed to a greater degree the Earth would be similar to Venus. As a result of this situation the problem of solid waste disposal in Latin America is far from being solved. according to which the percentage of cities that still have refuse dumps is very high. Refuse dumps can be eliminated either by transforming them into sanitary landfills or by eradicating them altogether in an environmentally sound way. approximately 50% of which is methane. furnaces and vehicle internal combustion engines or to generate electricity.operated. principally due to the intensive use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil in domestic and industrial activities and in transport. The naturally occurring “greenhouse effect” is a phenomenon of the Earth’s particular type of atmosphere that ensures climatic conditions favourable for life as we know it. This new opportunity is beginning to receive support from the World Bank and other international development bodies.
The Kyoto Protocol established that between 2008 and 2012 countries listed in its Annex 1 (developed countries) should reduce their emission of green-house gases (GHG) to a level approximately 7 % below that of 1995. thus endangering the delicate balance that makes our environment liveable. As a result of these cost differences the Emissions Reduction Market was created where the current value of a ton of CO2 or equivalent that is not emitted. In developed countries these costs can reach to values higher than US$ 500. the Kyoto Protocol came into force on 16th February 2005.13. Available on the Convention on Climate Change website http://unfccc. which established the “Framework Convention on Climate Change” that finally became the Kyoto Protocol 6 signed in 1997 in the Japanese city of that name. Solid waste final disposal temperature on Earth is increasing. or is captured.00 per ton of carbon while in countries not included in Annex 1 of the Protocol they vary from US$ 1. Out of a concern to stop. such as Latin American and Caribbean countries. The Protocol defined a baseline criterion separating the group of surplus emission producing countries (credit buyers) and the group of sub-baseline producing countries (credit sellers).2 The “logic” of carbon credits The interest in buying Certified Emission Reduction credits is due to differences between countries in the cost of emission reduction through processes applied to installations.9. according to the most accepted theory. the acceleration of this process the UN called a summit. Consequently commitments were established that defined greenhouse gas emission reduction goals for developed countries listed in Annex 1 of the Protocol and a program of reduction quota commercialization.00 per ton of CO2.php 249 .00 to US$ 30. Rio 92. A dramatic example of what a change in the Earth’s climate can imply is the extinction of the dinosaurs that once lived all over the planet and.int/2860. Global carbon markets have therefore begun to form and several international funds have been created to support the development of projects that reduce anthropogenic 6. Countries not included in Annex 1 of the Protocol. 13. the moment at which the timeframe for commitments taken on in that international agreement became applicable. disappeared when a layer of dust was raised by the impact of a meteorite on the surface of the Earth provoking a drastic fall in global temperatures. or at least reduce. Following its ratification by Russia in November 2004. is approximately US$ 10. are not obliged by the Protocol to reduce emissions but rather can transfer to Annex 1 countries credits corresponding to emission reductions produced by projects implemented for that purpose that qualify as what are called CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects.00.
Each ton of CO2 that a developing country does not emit or captures (that is. is aligned with public policies for the improvement of sanitary and environmental conditions and results in a better quality of life for the urban population by contributing to the transformation of refuse dumps into sanitary landfills. whether emission reductions are additional to those that would take place if the project was not implemented (baseline). a process called fixation in plants) can be traded on the global market in the form of the above mentioned CER credits. the planning. that is. In Argentina for example. already approved by the Brazilian government through the Inter- 250 . This is the first Argentinean project that has been presented to the Kyoto Protocol Executive Council as a CDM. In relation to the greenhouse effect it should be noted that each ton of methane is equivalent to 21 tons of CO2. The project is expected to capture the equivalent of 2. The first CDM project approved by the Executive Council is in Brazil: an electricity generating station fuelled by methane from landfill biogas in Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro). it is not required by law. Latin American cities are beginning to invest in urban waste treatments that reduce methane emissions and generate income through CERs linked to sanitary landfill projects implemented in accordance with CDM. implementation and operation of a project should be certified and audited by independent bodies authorized by the UN.carbon emissions.5 million tons of carbonic gas (US$ 4. Another Brazilian project for implementation in the Salvador Centre Metropolitan sanitary landfill (Bahia). To take advantage of this new economic opportunity.5 per ton) and its first client is the government of the Netherlands. the concession for the collection and treatment of methane produced by the large sanitary landfill at Villa Dominico. The application of CDM to sanitary landfills is very effective for emission reduction. Buenos Aires. requires low investment. transforms for example into vegetable matter. whether there are real measurable long term benefits. In consequence CERs are generated to the degree that the combustion of methane takes place and the emission of CO2 equivalent is therefore diminished. has been put to tender with the support and assistance of the World Bank. For CERs to be issued. taking into account: ! ! ! whether the project is entered into voluntarily.
To achieve these objectives there must be a separate management unit within the municipal administration with sufficient training to carry out these functions. an organizational agreement should be established between the different institutions involved in the project such as the municipality. is at present awaiting the evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol Executive Council.3 Circumstances in which biogas from a sanitary landfill can be utilized For an effective implementation of a biogas recovery and utilization project. There should also be a national policy for solid waste management establishing minimum service provision standards and requiring the implementation of final waste disposal systems that are both sanitarily and environmentally sound. Maldonando province. provincial or municipal environmental conservation bodies. Finally. 251 . Here we present some of the essential conditions that the various sectors involved in the operation of an urban cleaning system should fulfil in order to achieve the established objective. the company operating the sanitary landfill where that service is subcontracted. headed by the Science and Technology Ministry. and national. 13. It is therefore clear that the carbon credit market is rapidly expanding and adapting to the CDM principles established by the Kyoto Protocol. as well as a specific annual budget allocation to municipal solid waste management large enough to cover the system’s investment and operational costs. The first pilot project in Latin America was implemented in Uruguay at Las Rosas sanitary landfill. Solid waste final disposal ministerial Climate Commission. there are requirements that have to be met. Institutional The mayor and secretaries of departments related to municipal solid waste management and the environment should clearly and unequivocally demonstrate their intention to implement a permanent program of domestic waste collection and final disposal that covers the entire urban population (universal coverage) in order to ensure healthy conditions for everybody and the protection of the local environment. with its consequent reduction of methane emission into the atmosphere.9. with the objective of capturing 18. the electricity distribution company or gas consumer company where there is energy or gas generation using biogas.962 tons of methane over the course of 15 years.13.
that is. where relevant.200 cubic metres. Disposal operations should preferably continue on the site of the old refuse dump. the waste is not covered with clay and there is no leachate and biogas collection. the resources needed to solve them and the responsibilities that each party has in the process. so that they can be analyzed and given different degrees of priority by the Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change. provided that the ownership. by a 10m high prism with sides of 60m). the surface of the landfill and its slopes are covered with clay except for the work face where trucks unload. the possibility of recuperating the land at the same time as sanitary or controlled operations begin on it should be examined. with a view to the possible allocation of public resources or investment by the private sector at a national or international level. Social A public awareness raising program should be instigated focusing on the issue of urban cleaning with a view to informing all citizens about sanitary problems in their region. considering a density of 0.9. If the site is not operated in a sanitary way. and there is a regular reception of at least 50 tons of domestic waste per day.4 Requirements for the implementation of GHG emission reduction projects in solid waste landfills The implementation of emission reduction programs for methane produced in urban waste landfills should comply with CDM requirements. by the national body responsible for climate change issues. urban zoning and minimum environmental conditions are appropriate.000 tons of waste (corresponding to 25. which occupies a volume that can be represented. in order to avoid the difficulties involved in the implementation of a new landfill in an urban area even when it will be operated on a sound basis. In addition guarantees are required not only for an effective collection of the biogas and the transformation of its methane into carbon dioxide (CO2) but also for the long term continuity of the process as biogas continues to be produced during a period of more than 15 years after the closure of a landfill as a waste disposal site.Physical and operational The existence of a sanitary landfill principally dealing with the disposal of domestic waste with a high organic matter content that has already received a minimum quantity of 15. Consequently the formulation of a table of conditioning factors is recommended that can be filled in according to the specific characteristics of each project and subsequently analyzed to determine if a given project can receive preliminary approval from the national body responsible for the environment and later.7t/m³. 13. to give an idea. 252 . the layer of waste is at least 10 metres deep.
more than 10 metre thick layers of waste. ! a municipal urban cleaning or waste collection rate that covers more than 40% of service costs. Even though income from CERs is not received immediately after the transformation of a refuse dump into a sanitary landfill. Solid waste final disposal The following is a list of project related characteristics that will facilitate the analysis of a given project prior to a decision on whether or not basic CDM requirements are met: ! ! ! ! ! ! an urban population of more than 30. a landfill growth plan that is followed. involving burning and transformation into CO2.9. the existence of a body responsible for urban cleaning in the municipality. a qualified technical team within the responsible body. 13. ! ! a sub-contraction of the landfill operation.13. a landfill operation that is ongoing and functions in a regulated way: a sufficiency of machines. ! an existing or planned public awareness raising campaign on environmental issues in general or urban cleaning in particular. a waste collection system coverage of at least 80% of the population. ! the existence of land owned by the municipality that meets the environmental conditions necessary for installing a sanitary landfill. a collection and either treatment or recirculation of leachate. where applicable. and install a new sanitary landfill.5 General considerations The relation between sanitary landfills and carbon credits is based in the fact that landfill biogas capture and utilization projects. ! a political decision on the part of the mayor to recuperate the existing refuse dump. Such sanitary landfill projects are therefore likely to be of interest to large international corporations as a way of obtaining cheaper CERs. ! an effective body of municipal regulations applicable to urban cleaning that may be part of a general body of municipal regulations. ! no depositing of industrial waste in the landfill. in the medium term it can represent real financial assistance for municipalities enabling them to ensure the correct operation of urban 253 . a daily waste collection delivered to the site of at least 50 tons. the compaction of waste and its regular coverage with a layer of clay. are less onerous than other GHG emission reduction options.000 inhabitants. a municipal budgetary allocation specifically for urban cleaning services that is big enough to maintain the quality of those services at an appropriate level.
This offers municipalities a definitive and low cost way of fulfilling their constitutional and moral duty to appropriately dispose of waste produced in urban concentrations and provide basic sanitary conditions for the inhabitants of the city they administer. reducing leachate generation and avoiding methane emissions. which can lead to CER income. Finally it should be noted that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has recently approved a new methodology for calculating the emissions avoided by composting processes. This is of interest as it can facilitate the viability of projects that add this form of waste treatment to the operation of sanitary landfills thus extending their useful life.solid waste final disposal installations. 254 .
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GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS ABNT – Brazilian Institute of Technical Standards ASCE – American Society of Civil Engineers BOD – Biochemical Oxygen Demand CEPIS/PAHO – Pan American Center for Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Sciences CER – Certified Emission Reduction CDM – Clean Development Mechanism CNEN – National Nuclear Energy Commission. Brazil EIS – Environmental Impact Study EMS – Environmental Management Secretariat. 1992) SISNAMA –National Environmental System. IDRC GHG – Green-House Gas HDI – Human Development Index HDPE – High Density Polyethylene IADB – Inter-American Development Bank IBAM – Brazilian Institute of Municipal Administration IDRC – International Development Research Centre of Canada IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPE – Individual Protection Equipment ISWM – Integrated Solid Waste Management ISWMP – Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan LAC – Latin America and the Caribbean Region LDPE – Low Density Polyethylene MoU – Memorandum of Understanding NGO – Non-Governmental Organization PAHO – Pan-American Health Organization PET – Polyethylene Terephtalate PVC – Poly Vinyl Chloride Rio 92 – United Nations International Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro. Brazil COD – Chemical Oxygen Demand COMLURB – Rio de Janeiro Urban Cleaning Company CONAMA – National Commission on the Environment. Brazil TGW –Total Gross Weight UN – United Nations VDC – Voluntary Drop-off Centres WCR – Waste Collection Rate 258 .
This phenomenon stops heat from the sun leaving the atmosphere and returning to space. Healthcare institutions: public and private hospitals. clinics. Clean technology: technology that does not produce secondary effects or impact on the environmental balance or natural systems. replicating on a planetary scale an effect similar to the one observable in a greenhouse. Greenhouse effect: the absorption by the Earth’s atmosphere of infrared radiation emitted by its surface. Indivisible service: a public service available to all tax-payers that cannot be measured on the basis of the amount used by individual citizens. medical centres and all other establishments where any level of human or animal healthcare is practiced with a view to prevention. which implies a reduced financial income for segregators. Compensatory measures: measures to compensate communities or social groups for the use of non-renewable environmental resources. resulting in increased heat on the Earth’s surface and thus an increase in the average temperature of the planet. or for unavoidable negative environmental impacts. 259 . Governing plan: a fundamental legally binding policy instrument for the development and organization of the municipal territory aimed at guaranteeing an appropriate social functioning of the city. diagnosis. Environmental impact assessment: a procedure aimed at identifying and interpreting the effects of public or private actions or projects that may cause environmental impacts or alter the quality of life.GLOSSARY Biogas: combustible gas naturally generated during the organic matter putrefaction process. treatment or rehabilitation. Composting: procedures for the transformation of biodegradable organic municipal solid waste into organic compounds. Integrated solid waste management plan: a technical planning instrument for activities linked to urban cleaning. Final disposal: the final process applied to solid waste resulting in its ultimate placement. laboratories. Domestic waste: residential waste and waste from small commercial generators. veterinary clinics. Intermediary agents: agents involved in the commercialization of recyclable materials in general as intermediaries in sales by segregators to recycling companies.
Organic law: a municipality’s foundational law defining the areas of jurisdiction and responsibility for its executive. Plant: a solid waste processing site including the land. works and added features. 260 . legislative and judicial branches. Recycling company: a company specializing in the recycling of material. Solid waste management: all technical and administrative activity. Medical waste: all waste generated by healthcare institutions. including planning. Refuse dump: a place where waste is indiscriminately dumped in the open air without the application of any sanitary treatment. of residential. also called scavenger or waste picker.Leachate: liquid that drains through solid waste. Master plan: a document containing all of the necessary elements for the complete implementation of a project in accordance with relevant technical regulations. contains materials in solution or in suspension and results from the decomposition process plus the infiltration of rainwater. collection. street cleaning. recyclable material recovery. design and evaluation. healthcare institutions. Segregator: a person engaged in the separation of recyclable material from refuse. transport. Urban cleaning service: all activities relating to solid waste management: preparation and storage. structures. commercial or institutional origin. small industries and the sweeping and cleaning of public spaces. transfer. Municipal waste: solid or semisolid waste generated by activities in population centres. Municipal Treasury: the resources of a municipality out of which the municipal budget is financed. Refuse: all waste produced by human activity that is not reused. or from markets. that is related to appropriate solid waste management. treatment and final disposal of solid waste.
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