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INTEGRATED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT MANUAL IN LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN CITIES
(Based on the original edition: Manual Gerenciamento Integrado de Resíduos Sólidos, 2001)
1st EDITION – 2008
MINISTRY FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND TERRITORY – ITALY General Director Corrado Clini Director, Division I, Environment and Development Research Department Paolo Soprano Consultant, Division I, Environment and Development Research Department Pierluigi Manzione INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE, IDRC – Canada Senior Program Specialist Walter Ubal Giordano Research Officer Alicia Iglesias Program Assistant Clara Saavedra Webmaster María Noel Estrada BRAZILIAN INSTITUTE OF MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION – IBAM General Director Mara Biasi Ferrari Pinto Director, National School of Urban Services – ENSUR Tereza Cristina Baratta Director, Urban Development and the Environment – DUMA Ana Lucia Nadalutti La Rovere PUBLICATION Technical coordination Karin Segala Technical content – Update and Adaptation Gilson Leite Mansur José Henrique Penido Monteiro Chapter 2 – Collaboration Victor Zular Zveibil Silvia Martarello Astolpho Technical Revision Andrea Pitanguy de Romani Karin Segala Translation from Spanish to English Liliana Battipede and David Reed Design and Layout Roberto Tostes / Doble Clic Editoras Publishing Coordination and Revision, English version Víctor L. Bacchetta and Laura Pallares
Manual on municipal solid waste integrated management in Latin American and Caribbean cities / José Henrique Penido Monteiro …[et al]; updated and adapted by Gilson Leite Mansur and José Henrique Penido Monteiro; technical coordination by Karin Segala; translation by Liliana Battipede and David Reed. – Montevideo: IDRC, 2008. 264p.; 21 X 29.7cm Adapted from: Manual gerenciamento integrado de resíduos sólidos, 2001. 1. Solid waste. I. Monteiro, José Henrique Penido. II. Mansur, Gilson Leite. III. Segala, Karin (coord.). IV. International Development Research Centre (IDRC).
PRESENTATION PREFACE 1 The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services in Latin America and the Caribbean 1.3 Solid waste sector trends Integrated Solid Waste Management Institutional models and payment for services 3.1 Concept 3.2 Forms of administration 3.3 Payment for services 3.3.1 Guidelines for the calculation of a waste collection rate Legislation 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 and Environmental Licenses Introduction Legislation Environmental Licenses Regulations applicable to solid waste 6 12 14 15 15 22 28 32 33 34 39 42 44 45 45 47 48 50 51 51 51 52 59 59 62 63 63 65 66 70 74 75 75 76 78 80 82 83 84 87
Solid waste: origin, definition and characteristics 5.1 Definition of rubbish and solid waste 5.2 Solid waste classification 5.2.1 Potential environmental contamination risks 5.2.2 Nature and origin 5.3 Characteristics of solid waste 5.3.1 Physical characteristics 5.3.2 Chemical characteristics 5.3.3 Biological characteristics 5.4 Influence of solid waste characteristics on urban cleaning system planning 5.5 Factors that influence solid waste characteristics 5.6 Processes for determining principal physical characteristics Solid waste quantity projections Solid waste preparation and storage 7.1 Concept 7.2 The importance of appropriate preparation and storage 7.3 Characteristics of pre-collection storage containers 7.4 Domestic waste pre-collection preparation and storage 7.5 Pre-collection storage of street waste 7.6 Pre-collection storage of waste in low demographic density and low-income areas 7.7 Pre-collection storage of waste produced by large generators 7.8 Special domestic waste pre-collection storage 7.9 Special origin waste pre-collection storage
Solid waste collection and transport 8.1 Domestic waste collection and transport 8.1.1 Concept 8.1.2 Collection regularity 8.1.3 Collection frequency 8.1.4 Collection times 8.1.5 Restructuring domestic collection routes 8.1.6 Collection vehicles 8.1.7 Tools and implements used by collectors 8.2 Public solid waste collection and transport 8.2.1 Concept 8.2.2 Collection of waste gathered by sweeping 8.2.3 Collection of waste from weeding and vegetation cutting 8.2.4 Tree pruning waste collection 8.2.5 Collection of rubble and other construction waste 8.2.6 Special collections 8.2.7 Vehicles and equipment used for collection 8.3 Waste collection in tourist cities 8.4 Solid waste collection in informal settlements 8.5 Collection of medical waste 8.5.1 Acknowledgement of the problem 8.5.2 Segregation 8.5.3 Separate collection of common, infectious and special waste 8.5.4 Vehicles for collection and transport 8.5.5 Aspects of collection planning Solid waste transfer 9.1 Concept 9.2 Types of transfer station 9.2.1 Direct transfer station 9.2.2 Station with storage facilities 9.2.3 Alternative transfer systems 9.3 Vehicles and machines for transfer stations Street cleaning 10.1 The importance of street cleanliness 10.2 Waste found in the street 10.3 Street cleaning services 10.3.1 Sweeping services 10.3.2 Weeding and scraping services 10.3.3 Cutting services 10.3.4 Drain cleaning services 10.3.5 Market cleaning services 10.3.6 Manual and mechanical waste removal services 10.3.7 Beach cleaning services 10.4 How to reduce street waste 10.5 Street cleaning in tourist cities Recovery of recyclable materials 11.1 Concept 11.2 Selective collection programs 11.2.1 Selective door to door collection 11.2.2 Voluntary Drop-off Centres (VDC) 11.2.3 Segregator organizations
90 91 91 91 92 93 94 100 105 106 106 106 107 108 109 109 110 113 114 115 115 116 117 117 119 120 121 122 122 122 124 124 126 127 128 129 130 136 138 143 145 146 147 150 152 154 155 156 157 159 161
Solid waste treatment 12.1 Concept 12.2 Domestic solid waste treatment 12.2.1 Recycling 12.2.2 Composting 12.2.3 Choosing a treatment option 12.3 Treatment of special domestic waste 12.3.1 Construction rubble 12.3.2 Tyres 12.3.3 Batteries and fluorescent tubes 12.4 Treatment of waste from special sources 12.4.1 Industrial solid waste 12.4.2 Radioactive waste 12.4.3 Port and airport waste 12.4.4 Medical waste Solid waste final disposal 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Impacts of inappropriate solid waste disposal 13.3 Sanitary landfill 13.3.1 Sanitary landfill site selection 13.3.2 Environmental licenses 13.3.3 Master plan 13.3.4 Landfill installation 13.3.5 Sanitary landfill operation 13.3.6 Equipment 13.4 Controlled landfills 13.5 Environmental recuperation of refuse dumps 13.6 The situation of segregators 13.7 Special domestic waste disposal 13.7.1 Construction rubble disposal 13.7.2 Disposal of batteries 13.7.3 Disposal of fluorescent tubes 13.7.4 Disposal of tyres 13.8 Disposal of waste from special sources 13.8.1 Industrial waste disposal 13.8.2 Radioactive waste disposal 13.8.3 Port and airport waste disposal 13.8.4 Medical waste disposal 13.9 Sanitary landfills and carbon credits: Opportunities to help resolve environmental problems 13.9.1 Greenhouse effect: causes and consequences 13.9.2 The “logic” of carbon credits 13.9.3 Circumstances in which biogas from a sanitary landfill can be utilized 13.9.4 Requirements for the implementation of GHG emission reduction projects in solid waste landfills 13.9.5 General considerations
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BIBLIOGRAPHY GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS GLOSSARY
These peak activities. and to supporting local authorities in developing voluntary processes at the local level. held in December 2005 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). and assist in implementing national and sub-national environmental policies. urban waste management. which came into force in 2005 and is aimed at achieving common objectives related to environmental protection and integrating them with social and economic development. the role that municipalities can play in the sustainability process is of great importance: the local dimension should be considered as the most significant for experimenting with new environmental strategies and best practices and demonstrating their effectiveness on a broader dimension. The resulting projects (specifically in Latin America and the Caribbean) will be expressly devoted to establishing new partnerships (within the broad category of the “type II initiatives” launched in Johannesburg) in areas of interest common to private and public sectors. This collaboration had previously resulted in significant benefits through the organization of a high level meeting held in Sao Paulo (Brazil). the promotion of clean technologies and industrial processes and the use of renewable energy sources. social and environmental infrastructure.PRESENTATION The role of local authorities for a better environmental policy The training course on integrated urban solid waste management in municipalities of Latin America and the Caribbean. such as sustainable water and sanitation management. which gathered experts. administrators. NGOs and the private sector. represented a significant step in the fruitful collaboration between the Ministry for the Environment and Territory of Italy and the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC) through the Environmental Management Secretariat (EMS). local authorities construct. 6 . professionals and heads of public institutions in order to quantify the process towards sustainability in the urban solid waste management sector and to assess the situation through an exchange of information and an evaluation of best practices in each field. mobilizing and responding to the public in the promotion of sustainable development. pertain to the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by the Ministry for Environment and Territory of Italy and IDRC. or within each of them. but also their intention to initiate actions at all levels with the participation of developed and developing countries. oversee planning processes. As stated in chapter 28 of Agenda 21. international institutions. they play a vital role in educating. This agreement focuses attention on some specific areas related to local environmental policy. all of which are processes geared to ensuring local sustainable development. establish local environmental policies and regulations. operate and maintain economic. together with some others carried out during the year. The MoU established a partnership between the two institutions and implies not only that both parties are committed to achieving the agreed objectives. In this regard. As the level of governance is closest to the people.
In more general terms. have significant impacts on how cities grow. in addition to the improvement of specific policies.Indeed. local authorities can play a more effective role in developing the capacity to deliver feasible sustainable development outcomes. For these reasons. awareness raising campaigns and influencing the market towards the attainment of an environmentally sound waste cycle. urban development. transport. and to diminish environmental pressures to sustainable levels. Paolo Soprano Ministry for the Environment and Territory – Italy 7 . the promotion of renewable energy sources and the improvement of people’s quality of life by preventing pollution in urban areas. The real challenge is to transform waste into reusable resources: measures should be initiated to stimulate private investment in this field and to create opportunities to include municipalities as potential beneficiaries of the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism for curbing greenhouse gas emissions. Policies such as housing. a change in the policy framework itself is required today. including the adoption of specific action plans. waste and water management. so as to enable the decoupling of environmental degradation from population growth and economic development. it rather aims to focus on each policy in an isolated manner: thus. The traditional framework of policies is not designed to consider interrelationships between the policies of different sectors. especially because continued population growth and the expansion of economic activities stimulate higher consumption of resources and a greater waste generation. This is particularly true for the urban waste management sector. the development of clean technologies – by replacing refuse dumps with final waste disposal centres – can be included among the advantages of responsible and sustainable local government policy-making. Waste management issues are at the centre of environmental concerns in many urban areas. An effective environmental management of industrial (hazardous) and urban waste can also serve as a significant mechanism for the creation of new job opportunities. In these circumstances major improvements in efficiency are needed. local governments can play an important supervisory role. enforce laws and regulations and promote initiatives suitable for local conditions.
donde expertos. gestión sustentable del agua y saneamiento. administradores. o dentro de cada uno de ellos. realizado en diciembre de 2005. organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG) y el sector privado. siendo todos ellos procesos acometidos para asegurar un desarrollo local sustentable. implica no sólo que ambas partes están comprometidas con el logro de objetivos acordados. las autoridadeslocales construyen. a través del Secretariado de Manejo del Medio Ambiente (EMS-SEMA). Los proyectos resultantes (en especial en América Latina y el Caribe) estarán expresamente dedicados al establecimiento de nuevas asociaciones (en la categoría más amplia de “iniciativas tipo II” que fueran lanzadas en Johannesburgo) en las áreas de interés entre los sectores público y privado. y para evaluar la situación a través del intercambio de información y evaluación de las mejores prácticas en cada área. Tal como se establece en el capítulo 28 de la Agenda 21. En este sentido. ha sido uno de los pasos más importantes en la fructífera colaboración entre el Ministerio de Ambiente y Territorio – Italia y el Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo (IDRC) de Canadá. que establece una asociación entre las dos instituciones. y para apoyar a las autoridades locales en el desarrollo de procesos voluntarios a nivel local. instituciones internacionales. como por ejemplo en los casos de gestión de residuos sólidos urbanos. El Memorando de Entendimiento. Estas actividades destacadas – combinadas con otras que se desarrollaron en el transcurso del año – corresponden al Memorando de Entendimiento firmado conjuntamente por el Ministerio de Ambiente y Territorio – Italia y el IDRC. mostrando su efectividad en una dimensión más amplia.PRESENTACIÓN El papel de las autoridades locales para una mejor política ambiental El curso de capacitación sobre gestión integrada de residuos sólidos urbanos a nivel de Municipios de América Latina y el Caribe. Este Acuerdo fija su atención en algunas áreas específicas vinculadas a las políticas ambientales locales. promoción de tecnologías y procesos industriales limpios y uso de fuentes de energía renovable. que entró en vigor en el año 2005 y apunta al logro de objetivos compartidos relativos a la protección del medio ambiente y a hacer que los mismos fueran compatibles con el desarrollo social y económico. el papel que podrían desempeñar los municipios en función del proceso de sustentabilidad es de gran importancia: la dimensión local debería ser considerada como la más significativa en la experiencia de nuevas estrategias ambientales y mejores prácticas. Anteriormente esta colaboración ya había logrado un importante resultado a través de la organización de una reunión de alto nivel que tuvo lugar en San Pablo (Brasil). sino que también desean poner en marcha acciones a todo nivel con la participación de países desarrollados y en desarrollo. profesionales y autoridades de instituciones públicas se reunieron para cuantificar el proceso en pro de la sustentabilidad en la gestión integrada de residuos sólidos urbanos. en Río de Janeiro (Brasil). 8 .
en la más amplia difusión de la adopción de fuentes de energía renovable y para mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas. Esto resulta particularmente cierto en el caso del sector de gestión de desechos urbanos. sensibilización. más bien intenta focalizar cada política de manera aislada: es por eso que hoy se requiere un cambio en el propio encuadre de las políticas públicas. La gestión ambiental efectiva del desecho industrial (peligroso) y urbano también podría ser un mecanismo importante en la creación de nuevas oportunidades de empleo. desarrollo urbano. asegurando el cumplimiento de la legislación y las reglamentaciones y promoviendo acciones adecuadas a las condiciones locales. evitando la contaminación en zonas urbanas. En tales circunstancias. transporte. las autoridades locales desempeñan un papel crucial en la educación. movilización y respuesta al público para promover el desarrollo sustentable. social y ambiental. Por todas estas razones. En términos más generales. gestión de desechos y agua. y colaboran en la implementación de políticas ambientales nacionales y sub-nacionales. supervisan los procesos de planificación. los gobiernos locales pueden desempeñar un papel importante en la supervisión. para abatir las emisiones de gases con efecto invernadero. se requiere una considerable mejora en la eficiencia para permitir la separación de la degradación ambiental del incremento de la población y el desarrollo económico. implantan las políticas y reglamentaciones ambientales locales.operan y mantienen la infraestructura económica. El marco tradicional de las políticas no ha sido diseñado para tener en cuenta la interrelación entre las políticas sectoriales. El verdadero desafío está en transformar los residuos en recursos reutilizables: deberían preverse medidas para estimular la inversión privada en este campo y generar oportunidades para incluir a los municipios como beneficiarios potenciales del Protocolo de Kyoto sobre Mecanismos de Desarrollo Limpio. y para reducir las presiones ambientales a niveles sustentables. A medida que el nivel de gobernabilidad se acerca más a los pueblos. Los problemas en torno al manejo de residuos constituyen la principal preocupación ambiental en muchas zonas urbanas. las autoridades locales pueden desempeñar un papel más eficaz en el desarrollo de la capacidad para producir resultados más efectivos en cuanto al desarrollo sustentable. De hecho. Políticas públicas como la de vivienda. producen un importante impacto en la forma en que las ciudades crecen. y liderando al mercado en la dirección correcta para el logro de un ciclo de manejo de desechos que resulte ambientalmente saludable. Paolo Soprano Ministerio de Ambiente y Territorio – Italia 9 . en especial porque el constante crecimiento poblacional y la expansión de las actividades económicas estimulan un mayor consumo de recursos y un incremento en la generación de desechos. el desarrollo de tecnologías limpias – sustituyendo vertederos por centros para la disposición final de los residuos – podría incluirse entre las ventajas que se derivarían al contar con políticas responsables y sustentables en los gobiernos locales. incluyendo la adopción de planes de acción específicos. además de la mejora de algunas políticas específicas.
ha rappresentato un significativo passo in avanti a favore della fruttuosa collaborazione fra il Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio – Italia ed il Centro Internazionale di Ricerca per lo Sviluppo Canadese (IDRC) attraverso il proprio Segretariato per la Gestione Ambientale (EMS). supervisionano i processi di pianificazione. e che ha come scopo l’ottenimento degli obiettivi comuni per la tutela ambientale e la sua compatibilità con lo sviluppo economico e sociale. saranno espressamente volti a stabilire una nuova partnership (nella categoria più ampia delle “iniziative di tipo II” lanciata a Johannesburg) nei settori di interesse fra il settore privato e quello pubblico. la promozione di tecnologie e processi industriali puliti e l’utilizzo di risorse energetiche rinnovabili. tenutosi a dicembre 2005. dimostrando la loro efficacia su scala più ampia. operano e mantengono le infrastrutture economiche. il ruolo che i comuni possono ricoprire verso il processo di sostenibilità è di estrema importanza: la dimensione locale va considerata come la più significativa per sperimentare nuove strategie ambientali e migliori pratiche. Come affermato nel capitolo 28 dell’Agenda 21 “gli enti locali. con le organizzazioni internazionali. A questo riguardo. Il memorandum di intenti. con le ONG e con il settore privato. costruiscono. o con ciascuno di loro. stabiliscono le politiche e le regolamentazioni in materia ambientale a livello locale e partecipano all’implementazione delle politiche nazionali e sub-nazionali in ambito ambientale. e sostenere gli enti locali nello sviluppare dei processi volontari a livello locale. I progetti che ne verranno (in particolare in America Latina ed i Caraibi). a Rio de Janeiro del Brasile. ma anche l’attuazione di attività ad ogni livello con la partecipazione dei paesi industrializzati e quelli in via di sviluppo.PRESENTAZIONI Il ruolo degli enti locali per una politica ambientale migliore Il corso di formazione sui sistemi integrati di gestione dei rifiuti solidi urbani nei comuni dell’America Latina e dei Caraibi. sociali ed ambientali. entrato in vigore nel 2005. Tale collaborazione aveva già ottenuto un risultato importante attraverso l’organizzazione di un incontro ad alto livello tenutosi a San Paolo del Brasile. che stabilisce una partnership tra le due istituzioni. prevede non solo l’impegno di entrambe le istituzioni al raggiungimento degli obiettivi concordati. Tale accordo si concentra su settori specifici collegati alla politica ambientale locale come ad esempio: la gestione dei residui urbani. dove un gruppo di esperti. di professionisti e di dirigenti di istituzioni pubbliche si sono riuniti per quantificare il processo verso la sostenibilità del settore della gestione dei rifiuti solidi urbani e per valutare la situazione grazie ad uno scambio di informazioni ed ad un esame delle migliori pratiche di ogni settore. la gestione sostenibile dell’acqua e dei servizi igienici. Poiché inoltre essi rappresentano il li- 10 . di amministratori. tutti finalizzati a garantire lo sviluppo sostenibile locale. Queste attività di spicco – combinate ad altre attività svoltesi durante l’anno – sono contenute nel memorandum di intenti siglato fra il Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio – Italia e l’IDRC.
Ciò è particolarmente vero per il settore della gestione dei rifiuti. a causa della continua crescita demografica e dell’espansione delle attività economiche. includendo l’adozione di piani d’azione specifici. Effettivamente gli enti locali possono giocare un ruolo più efficace nello sviluppare la capacità di trasmettere risultati validi per lo sviluppo sostenibile. adesso necessario modificare lo schema di per sé. gli enti locali giocano un ruolo vitale rispetto all’educazione. garantendo l’applicazione delle leggi e delle norme e promuovendo delle attività adatte alla condizioni locali. Lo schema tradizionale delle politiche non è atto a considerare l’interdisciplinarità fra le politiche di settore. Una gestione dei rifiuti urbani ed industriali (pericolosi) potrebbe essere anche un meccanismo importante per la creazione di nuovi posti di lavoro. sui trasporti. sulla gestione dei rifiuti e dell’acqua hanno un impatto notevole sulla crescita delle città. si stimola un maggior consumo delle risorse ed una maggiore produzione di rifiuti. sullo sviluppo urbano. per diffondere l’adozione di risorse energetiche rinnovabili e per migliorare la qualità di vita della gente grazie alla prevenzione dell’inquinamento nelle zone urbane. In termini più generali. l’aumento della consapevolezza e la conduzione del mercato verso la direzione giusta per l’ottenimento di un ciclo integrato dei rifiuti. In queste circostanze è necessario un miglioramento dell’efficienza al fine di scollegare il degrado ambientale dalla crescita della popolazione e dallo sviluppo economico ed al fine di ridurre la pressione ambientale a livelli sostenibili. Le questioni relative alla gestione dei rifiuti sono al centro dell’attenzione ambientale in molte zone urbane in quanto. La vera sfida è trasformare i residui in risorse riutilizzabili: vanno presi dei provvedimenti per incoraggiare gli investimenti privati in questo settore e per creare le opportunità affinché i comuni vengano inclusi come potenziali destinatari del Meccanismo di Sviluppo Pulito del Protocollo di Kyoto per la riduzione delle emissioni di gas ad effetto serra. Paolo Soprano Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio – Italia 11 .vello di governo più vicino ai cittadini. Per queste ragioni. al contrario si concentra su ogni politica in modo isolato ed è. oltre naturalmente a migliorare le singole politiche. pertanto. Le politiche sugli alloggi. i governi locali possono giocare un ruolo importante di regia. lo sviluppo di tecnologie pulite – che sostituiscano l’interramento con degli impianti per lo smaltimento finale dei rifiuti – può essere inserito fra i vantaggi delle politiche responsabili e sostenibili dei governi locali. alla mobilizzazione ed alla responsabilizzazione del pubblico nella promozione dello sviluppo sostenibile.
Another aspect of urban cleaning that has more recently come to the fore is the issue of the final disposal of solid waste in relation to Clean Development Mechanisms. 12 . companies. storage and final disposal of waste. the potential generation of work and incomes related to waste. but principally the creation of instruments that incorporate and structure integrated management models as a fundamental strategy to achieve a healthy city. water course and aquifer contamination in the environmental field. In several situations negative impacts relating to solid waste are fundamentally associated with inappropriate management. including clean development mechanisms. in particular children living on rubbish dumps. the Manual provides guidelines that serve as a reference for decision-makers in the formulation of public policies and corresponding legislation. It deals with subjects that are fundamental to the understanding and improvement of urban cleaning systems and services and covers technical and administrative issues.PREFACE There is a notably growing demand for solutions to urban cleaning issues both in global bodies and at the level of civil society and local communities. questions relating to the preparation. political. environmentally appropriate treatment and final disposal practices. wastage and waste generation by citizens. For a long time these issues have been relegated to the background but diverse governmental and civil society sectors are now mobilizing to address the problem due to several areas being affected: disease transmission and therefore public health. NGOs and civil society to deal with aspects of integrated solid waste management in a sustainable way. economic. This Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Integrated Management is aimed at contributing to an improvement in the technical capacities of the public sector. Changing this state of affairs involves not only a mobilization of resources and improvements in technical knowledge of the appropriate processes and technologies for each reality. the withdrawal of children from rubbish dumps. social concerns relating to segregators. agencies. Acknowledging that the main responsibility for providing urban cleaning services falls on the municipal level of government. promoting the social and economic inclusion of segregators. the universalization of urban cleaning services. and pressures deriving from tourist activities. social and legal aspects. as well as institutional. Deep behavioural change is necessary in order to reverse traditional policies and practices and establish strategies that incorporate the following elements: ! ! ! ! ! the reduction of consumption.
The Manual has been prepared by professionals with long-term experience in this sector who also serve as teachers in the courses offered by IBAM. using appropriate technologies and methods and respecting the particular economic social and cultural circumstances of the local population. including institutional adaptations that are necessary for the administration of services and the allocation of available resources in a responsible way. Tereza Cristina Baratta Director. As part of their work methodology a preliminary version was examined by participants in the first IBAM training course. National School of Urban Services – IBAM 13 . and was subsequently revised and completed. You are therefore invited to consider and use the solutions offered by this Manual. plans and initiatives geared to improving urban cleaning systems. held in December 2005 with representatives from several Latin American and Caribbean countries. It is essential that municipal teams in charge of the planning and operation of services are properly equipped to prepare and implement programs. Within this perspective the Manual’s objective is to be a useful tool in integrated administration training for all those who work with solid waste and to be sufficiently flexible so that from all the information provided on different forms of “know how” that which is most useful for application to the particular conditions of each city can be chosen. It is intended for use as a basic didactic instrument that can orientate future workshops.
1 The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean 14 .
1997. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean 1. 2005.2 Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services in Latin America and the Caribbean 1 The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in support of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) governments. was carried out by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2005. The collection of information for 1. an interruption in the payment of bills by the municipality can paralyze services. an evaluation made during a certain period has only a relative value as the quality of services can change very quickly. Based on Diagnosis of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Latin America and the Caribbean.org and http://www. which covered the entire region.ops-oms. Even if the system is in the hands of a private company.paho.htm). through outsourcing or concession contracts. The most recent update of the Report on the Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services in Latin America and the Caribbean.1 Introduction In the municipal solid waste management sector. coordinated the Report on the Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services with the direct participation of public institutions and private agencies. a better evaluation can be made of trends both in service quality and the types of approach to the issue employed by municipal. its executive summary is transcribed here. As it is the best document produced up to now on this subject. provincial and national governments in each country. and taking into consideration the significant role performed by urban sanitation services to reduce health risk factors and environmental impacts. which is significant for answering the question: is waste management improving in Latin American cities? In practically all Latin American countries urban cleaning services are the responsibility of municipalities and often a well functioning system in a particular city does not necessarily reflect the trend in the country as a whole but rather the mayor’s determination to solve the problem. if a study includes a wider range of cities. updated in the form of “Report on the Regional Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management Services in Latin America and the Caribbean". However. IADB and PAHO. However.1.bvsde.org/bvsars/fulltext/informeng/informeng. as well as NGOs involved in solid waste management in countries in the Region. A well administrated landfill can became a rubbish dump in a few days if a tractor stops functioning due to some defect that the municipality is not able to quickly repair because of slow bureaucratic processes involved in buying spare parts or contracting a maintenance service. 1. a periodical analysis of the state of solid waste management services in several cities of a country can indicate the general trend. 15 . (www. The Solid Waste Evaluation constitutes a first regional effort in which 36 LAC countries participated within a common evaluation strategy.
as can be seen by the alarming environmental deterioration and the sanitary problems related to unsafe solid waste management and the scarce attention given to this area. the high levels of consumption. The Solid Waste Evaluation proposal emerges from the need to have a frame of reference that makes the solid waste sector visible in LAC to identify their needs and possibilities within the comprehensive management concept guided towards improving the communities’ quality of life. as well as service providers and the community in general. the materials used in industrial production and the introduction of Figure 1 – Disordered settlement and informal market close to a rubbish dump 16 . health. Even though it is true that moderate progress has been made as a result of national and international initiatives. the purpose of the Regional Evaluation is to generate and expand the knowledge of the current situation. mainly to the final disposal of waste with the purpose of looking for solutions or alternatives at a national and local level to improve the current situation and be able to accomplish waste management that is truly efficient. which is critical in many countries. Within this context. The life styles. The information was complemented with an analytical report for the country executed by each country. among which Agenda 21 stands out – agreed upon in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro during the United Nations International Conference on the Environment and Development – comprehensive solid waste management still represents one of the most important challenges that national and municipal governments face.the Evaluation took place in the countries between 2002 and 2003 through a national coordinating group of representatives from national and local entities involved in solid waste. The information was obtained through a series of forms that collected basic demographic. education and socioeconomic data from the country and specific indicators related to urban sanitation services referred to the year 2001.
Waste collection coverage in the Region varies from 11%-100% with a regional average of 81%.” This means that of the 299. in which only 69% of the population has collection service. transportation. which tend to have more difficulty in waste management. around 230. highways and waterways contaminating the environment and endangering the population’s health. of which 56% is generated in large urban centers.000 tons of waste are indiscriminately deposited in the environment. the economic and social impoverishment present in these settlements. mainly when they are dumped together with municipal waste. but also in institutions at a national level in charge of defining policies and assigning resources. although with great differences within the countries.1.790 kg/inhab/day. mainly women and children. in the streets. regulation and institutional development of the municipalities as sanitation service providers. The Solid Waste Evaluation shows that average regional generation of residential solid waste per capita reaches 0. necessary strategies or components that will allow for the guidance. to find in garbage. as well as the due training of human resources and the capitalization of financial resources are not proposed. where they are more evident. In addition. The Solid Waste Evaluation estimates that by the year 2001. Just a few of the LAC countries have comprehensive plans or programs to respond to the sector’s demands. with a noticeable fluctuation in countries 17 . as well as in final disposal sites. which is not collected. their only means for survival. manage insufficient information. institutions and organizations that are involved in this area.000 tons collected daily in the Region. is burned or dumped without any control in vacant lots. The intensive migration of indigent populations from rural areas to medium and large cities has created outlying poverty belts. a common practice in several countries in the Region. These gaps are seen not only at a local level. 21% in medium size urban centers and 23% in small urban centers. Approximately half of the waste generated in LAC is produced by medium and small centers. Adequate sanitary final waste disposal coverage (landfill) for the LAC Region is 23%. which makes it evident that there is a serious environmental and health problem due to the proliferation of open air “dumps. more noticeable in medium and small populations. takes many families. of which the majority lack public service infrastructure and have completely spread out in a disorderly manner without any urban planning.000 tons of municipal solid waste daily. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean persistent materials in daily human activities. streets. As a consequence. tend to increase the volumes of solid waste. It is presumed that the remainder. representing serious problems for its collection.3%) is urban and generates around 369. at best in dumps with an uncertain control. The Solid Waste Evaluation confirmed the information gaps that exist in the solid waste area in the countries of the Region. treatment and final disposal. Practically all of them. The situation worsens with the lack of adequate hospital and hazardous waste management. the impact to the environment being considerable since the disposal of these wastes is usually deficient. the LAC population reached 518 million of which 406 million (78.
370 kg/inhab/ day to 2. yet. the effectiveness of current legal tools are minimized. which does not allow for the demands of an adequate solid waste management. At a local level. collection and urban sanitation in main streets. Ecuador. This produces an overlapping effect and inconsistencies. even when several countries are developing specific laws and regulations for municipal. the per capita generation varies between 0. they are scattered in several legal bodies. outsourcing and the granting of concessions. with an average of US$29 per ton for collected. in countries where tourism is an important economic factor.650 kg/inhab/day with a regional average of 0. health and environmental ministries have been evolving to replace the governing of the sector and the regulation of services to a certain point.910 kg/inhab/day. Municipalities. demand a more efficient management of urban sanitation services. There are cases in which the per capita generation does not exceed 0. and therefore. among others. but with differing operational modalities: direct public sector administration. These facts show that economic growth and the level of consumption have a great influence in solid waste generation. Several deficiencies are observed in guiding the sector. the per capita generation reaches 2. as well as hazardous waste. The private sector has been becoming ever more prominent. adequately disposed of and treated waste. The breakdown of these costs corresponds to sweeping. Mexico and Peru. The costs for urban sanitation services in the Region fluctuate between US$15 and US$105 per ton.400 kg/inhab/day. lack management and financial capability. and consequently. control and sanctions. With regards to municipal waste. in its planning and programming at medium and long term. treatment and final disposal. mainly regarding sanitary final disposal. as is the case in Bolivia. Therefore. which makes it difficult to implement follow-up mechanisms. municipalities maintain responsibility for services. not only in providing urban cleaning services but also in investment in solid waste sector development. The LAC countries are in different stages of development in the solid waste sector.500 kg/inhab/day. Even though there is an abundance of environmental laws.100 kg/inhab/day while the small and poor settlements in Latin America generate an average of less than 0. Likewise. specifically the smaller ones. With regard to the legal aspects applicable to the sector.with a low Human Development Index (HDI). 18 . great gaps can be observed in the judicial development and in different instruments for their compliance. transfer. At national levels.250 kg/inhab/day. large cities are the largest generators of municipal waste per capita with close to 1.
Informal segregation has increased in countries that have gone through a rapid and deep economic crisis as a result of the increase in poverty and unemployment.3% to organic waste recycling. through a consolidated fund formed by different environmental taxes. handling and inadequate disposal of waste to the community are growing and are significant. and concentrate in acquiring equipment and. This general rate is not exclusively assigned to the urban sanitation service. who work under unsanitary and subhuman conditions.1. which reflects a deficit of close to half the real cost of those services. Investments in the sector are minimal compared to other public services such as electricity.9% is for inorganic recycling and 0. The majority do not have the minimum prevention and occupational safety measures. On average. the Evaluation showed that only 2.5 per user. The inadequate management of solid waste has serious consequences in the environment and the health of the population. urban sanitation services are strongly subsidized by the central government. lastly. potable water and basic wastewater. In the majority of Latin American countries. The formal segregation and recovery of recyclable materials is not carried out on a large scale in LAC. representing between 60% and 70% of the total cost. This is the case of the personnel who work in this sector. several diseases are related to wastes when the conditions conducive to the development of several disease agents are present. in infrastructure works for final disposal.2% of the materials are recovered from garbage. In the English speaking Caribbean countries. among which there is a significant number of women and children. The situation is more critical for individuals working and living from the recovery of materials from waste. but it is part of other services such as public lighting. mainly made up of food and garden waste. real estate taxes and others. a value that does not cover the cost for urban sanitation services. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean The cost breakdown indicates that the highest cost corresponds to sweeping and waste collection and transportation. The direct and indirect environmental and social costs that represent the production. coupled by the lack of initiatives to integrate this form of subemployment into the solid waste sector. financial support for this service is received through the collection of a municipal rate. mainly those who are in contact with wastes. Although the direct casualty has not been determined. 19 . Informal recycling is widely promoted in Latin America and its magnitude is difficult to identify due to the fact that the activities are subtle. The environmental impacts are mainly revealed in the contamination of surface and underground waters for public supply and the obstruction of drainage canals due to the uncontrolled dumping of solid wastes in bodies of water. The monthly average rates for residential waste in LAC reaches US$2. of which 1.
The training of human resources in the solid waste area is usually carried out in some universities in the Region as part of the courses related to sanitation engineering and environmental sciences. Figure 2 . the use of very low cost technologies that use animal. the breeding of bovine and porcine livestock with contaminated organic waste. human or mechanic (tricycles) traction and the promotion of greater community participation to facilitate the material collection and separation operation at the generation source.Other important impacts that affect human health are the emission of air contaminants due to open air burning. as well as vectors that transmit diseases. the incineration of waste without adequate control equipment.” reduction. The contribution in research and technological development from institutes and universities for the solid waste area is scarce. the participation of small companies and private micro companies in solid waste collection has been increasing more and more. 20 . mainly because this means a more economic alternative for the municipalities and/or sanitation municipal companies. Technological and research development in relation to solid waste is reduced in the majority of LAC countries. These are in addition to aesthetic and nuisance impacts due to noise and bad odours. by food. The advantages of these companies resides in the intensive use of labour force. The community has a limited participation in solid waste management in LAC. the transmission of pathogen microorganisms through water. Community participation occurs mainly when there is support from NGOs and a strong educational component.Environmental degradation caused by a refuse dump In several countries in LAC. reuse and recycling. This is complemented with a great variety of courses. workshops and seminars focused on solid waste management. and at the same time is supported by a strong national political base that guides the solid waste sector. Such participation is key to put into practice activities that take into consideration the principle of the three “R’s.
1.Correct landfill operation resulting from public administration commitment The solid waste sectoral analysis will continue being a key instrument in this aspect by providing a comprehensive vision of the sector. Figure 3 . The management aspects of the sector. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean Initiatives such as primary environmental care. institutional and functional organization. therefore. promoting healthy life styles. Taking into consideration that solid waste management is a local activity. personal capacity building through education and empowerment. national and provincial governments should provide more support to municipalities. health-promoting schools and other health promotion strategies are basic to coordinate initiatives with the capacity to maximize participative management that includes the community. 21 . within the real possibilities of the countries. healthy municipalities and communities. should be carefully evaluated in each of the countries to determine the appropriate steps. especially those which have scarce managerial capability and limited resources. These initiatives offer great potential for establishing long lasting activities and allowing the use of shared experiences through community networks and alliances with different institutions that share a common interest. local government. to achieve the proposed national and municipal goals. allowing more efficient approaches and alternatives for their development. create healthy environments. especially in school and Ecoclub environments on solid waste management topics. financial self-sustainability and the participation of the private sector and the community. regulations and operation of solid waste management services. in which the lack of information is more significant. NGOs and the private sector with the purpose of establishing healthy policies.
org/millenniumgoals. 1. especially where universal coverage is sought in the urban zones of a municipality. For more information consult http://www. based on Solid Waste Evaluation together with other studies and experiences in this field. makes it possible to identify general sector trends. ! the widespread exposure in the media of problems in developed countries caused by defective handling of hazardous industrial waste or its inappropriate final disposal and the resultant damaging effects on the health of the population. Municipalities with a population of over 200. Public awareness of the importance of urban cleaning services and municipal solid waste management In almost all LAC countries there has been an increase in community awareness of the need for improved solid waste management. international cooperation has a broad field of action.3 Solid waste sector trends The above summary of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2. ! the perceived relationship between solid waste management and the wellbeing and health of citizens.un. not only in collection services but more so in final disposal. and technical cooperation to guide their efforts towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 2 open new opportunities to promote and coordinate national and international activities to improve solid waste management in the Region.Likewise. ! the increasing cost of services. The issues dealt with below can present variations between one country and another and between one city and another depending on the greater or lesser degree of both commitment by mayors and community participation. The principal causes of this increase are: ! the growing occurrence of environmental problems that affect people’s daily life and the dissemination of information about them through the media. especially in institutional capacity building and in the identification and support of sectoral investments.000 have more financial resources and capabilities to deal with the difficulties involved in maintaining sustainable solid waste management. which demands a more professional management by the municipal administration. The commitment and will of the governments and financial organizations. 22 . Circumstantial differences in service provision between small municipalities and large or medium-sized cities A gradual improvement in solid waste management can be found in large cities.
but smaller ones often only have one person running these services and for essential material resources depend on departments with other functions. Larger municipalities generally have a department of urban cleaning. The legal framework Some large municipalities are establishing norms for solid waste management through municipal regulations or mayoral decrees and some countries are endeavouring to develop a national solid waste policy. Only when pressured by society and environmental control bodies do municipal administrations eventually become more aware of the problem and begin to allocate more resources to the sector. it is not the only requirement for the achievement of good quality solid waste management. urban cleaning services are limited to collection. but these initiatives are sometimes hindered by political and economic interests that delay their implementation. 80% of municipalities have less than 30. for example. NGOs. those responsible for municipal services have to pay more attention to the waste issue and are less able to ignore the problem. In order for legislation and norms to translate into an improved solid waste management service a formal commitment by the mayor to their application is necessary. etc. Carbon credits and the clean development mechanism The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows developing countries. cooperatives. Although the legal framework is important. The training of municipal personnel in the preparation of tender specifications and contracts is a critical element for an efficient initiation and operation of contractual relationships with private counterparts. budget resources will not be allocated to it. to obtain resources through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from their industrial or urban activities. in zones where inhabitants can influence public policy (commercial and high income residential zones) and final disposal takes place in one or more open air dumps without any sanitary or environmental control.1. The importance of political will Sound solid waste management in Latin American cities depends to a large extent on the mayor’s commitment to this issue. service coverage will not be universal and service quality will not be satisfactory. for the most part regular. a classification into which all Latin American countries fall. If the mayor does not consider it to be a priority sector. 23 . It is evident that with easier access to information and its dissemination through the internet.000 inhabitants). The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean In small urban centres. the category into which most Latin American population centres fall (in Brazil. thus improving coverage and service quality.
refuse dumps are beginning to be closed or converted. offers the great advantage of reducing the generation of leachate instead of producing biogas in landfills. Composting Composting is a procedure that is increasingly applied in developed countries due to the prohibition of organic matter dumping in landfills. but with the dissemination of information on how this mechanism functions. which can be operated manually in small towns or be mechanized where large amounts of waste have to be processed. This is so because there is an already existing methodology. This system. The latter option has presented such serious problems that the construction of several new landfills has had to be suspended in response to the reaction of the local community. that has determined that composting does not merely reduce but avoids the emission of greenhouse gases as organic matter in aerobic decomposition only gives off carbonic gas and water and not methane. As mayors become increasingly aware of the seriousness of this problem. 24 . and in addition prolongs the latter’s useful life. Municipal administrations or contracted companies offer compensation to local residents but this is not always accepted. and is now reappearing in developing countries. A complementary advantage of a composting system is that it can contribute to the viability of establishing and operating a medium or large size plant by generating income through the sale of Emission Reduction Certificates. The resources obtained from the sale of Emission Reduction Certificates (ERC) will not guarantee the operation of urban cleaning services. not to mention the difficulties involved in obtaining environmental licenses for new sites. Nevertheless it must be remembered that such benefits from the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism are in effect only up to 2012. or to begin one from scratch in another place. tested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). municipal administrations will know how to maximize its economic advantages to fulfil municipal needs. In such cases the municipality must decide whether to establish a landfill in the same place. Difficulties involved in the establishment of new landfills PAHO’s diagnosis confirms that one of the weak points of solid waste management systems in Latin American cities is final waste disposal. where people are already accustomed to refuse disposal. In many cases these problems result in municipalities continuing to operate rubbish dumps and abandoning the establishment of new installations for the final disposal of waste collected in the city.Many mayors regard the timing of the arrival of carbon credits as opportune for providing financial support for municipal endeavours to improve solid waste management services. which is the harmful gas that would be generated in a landfill if the organic matter was deposited there.
It is necessary to convince local residents that a well managed landfill can exist relatively close to houses. Even where the recycling system is institutionalized with the participation of segregator organizations. 25 . and therefore reduces the costs of collection. other independent segregators compete in the streets with the formal system. This phenomenon is happening in almost all large and medium-sized cities in Latin America and the prognosis is that it will increase. In addition municipalities that are implementing formal selective collection systems are facing difficulties in that before the truck passes to collect the recyclable waste. more and more people resort to the streets in search of some means of survival. Informal segregators and formal selective collection systems Due to the growing unemployment that is found in almost all Latin American cities. On the one hand this activity has positive aspects: waste can be a source of income for these people who do not have any other way of surviving and their work removes a significant amount of material from the urban cleaning circuit. while the public authority is not able to create hundreds of jobs overnight or provide programs that generate income to replace that gained from segregation activity in landfills and the streets. especially the larger ones.1. In many South American cities segregators working in rubbish dumps or landfills react forcefully when the municipality attempts to implement the closure of the site and begins a new landfill where their activity will not be allowed. the segregation of materials is often done in a disorderly way. This situation will continue while unemployment remains one of the principal scourges of Latin American countries. with bags of domestic waste being opened. This resistance on the part of segregators is due to the danger of them losing their only source of income. On the other hand. This is a long process and satisfactory results will depend on the provision of numerous examples until residents become convinced that it is possible. transfer and final disposal. as well as extending the useful life of landfills. which produces serious problems and much more work for the sweeping services. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean Communities have also reacted negatively to the establishment of new transfer stations on the grounds that in general landfills and other urban cleaning installations are poorly managed. The last hope is recyclable waste that can be found amongst the refuse. materials that can be commercialized separated and the waste that the segregator is not interested in is left scattered on the street. the street segregators have already taken it.
The trends of change Many municipalities are training their technical personnel and seeking resources from provincial or national bodies with a view to improving service quality. mayors are beginning to look for more effective and less expensive service provision models and are increasingly contracting work. no doubt inappropriate. As a result. The incidence of payment arrears is high and there is not much that can be done to reduce it as an interruption of collection services would only reduce the cleanliness of the city as households that do not receive this service would find another. especially for the establishment and operation of large sanitary landfills that require significant investment and therefore a longer period to see a return on it. way of disposing of their rubbish. The municipality for its part takes on the monthly payment of bills for services rendered and the coordination and supervision of such services. The resources needed for the maintenance of sound and sustainable urban cleaning operations have to be allocated from the municipal budget and this represents the biggest challenge faced by administrators. most large and medium-sized cities outsource collection. This is due not 26 . In recent times some large cities have contracted services with long term concessions. This constitutes one of the main impediments to good quality service management as municipal administrations have to allocate monies from their budgets for urban cleaning services without a corresponding income from rate or tariff collection. a municipality’s income from rates or specific tariffs is nowhere near enough to cover the costs of urban cleaning services. but success is dependent on the mayor’s level of commitment and political will to prioritize the issue. transfer and final disposal operations thus transferring to the private sector the burden of investment and operational costs. Money raised together with national governmental or multilateral bodies for investment in equipment such as collection trucks or in the construction of installations such as landfills. usually does not solve this problem. As municipal budgets are finite. a state of affairs that is detrimental to other municipal services. Economic sustainability of the sector In general. In general this has proved to be a satisfactory solution. provided that the specifications are reasonable and the tender process respects the limits required by law and administrative probity.Contract types Municipal administrations face two big challenges in relation to solid waste management in Latin American cities: to provide a universal service and to improve its quality.
even if sporadic.1. with the help. 27 . municipal administrations are signing agreements that establish periods within which service provision has to reach specified levels of quality and coverage. There is now an unprecedented level of attention and debate on municipal solid waste management and a seemingly inexorable search by municipalities for models that are sustainable from both a socioeconomic and environmental perspective. of provincial and national governments. As a result. The general situation of solid waste management in Latin America and the Caribbean only to the increased awareness of both mayors and the general public about the significance of this issue. but also to the improved performance of environmental control bodies and national ministries that oversee municipalities’ compliance with their legal obligations.
2 Integrated solid waste management 28 .
the sustainability of systems and the role of citizens as generators. transported and disposed of in landfills – which as a consequence will occupy smaller areas or will have a longer useful life – contributes to the economic and environmental sustainability of systems. It is of fundamental importance to also take into consideration the generation of waste. The optimization of these circuits reduces to a minimum the amount of waste for final disposal. as a result of which they are now called the 29 . discarding and final disposal. which call for the establishment of new concepts. Integrated solid waste management Latin American and Caribbean cities present great regional and local imbalances. including packaging. to the maximization of its reuse through the implementation of more appropriate collection systems for each situation and the employment of treatment. dealing only with the management of the system. recyclers and managers. frameworks and practices in regard to solid waste management. consumption. The reduction of waste to be collected. consumers. address the problems of solid waste in a partial way. Traditional practices. In this way only waste with no utility is left for final disposal. In practice this concept ranges from the minimization of waste generation in the production process. in order to establish a shared concept in which all win and positive socio-environmental outcomes are produced. ! consumption pockets having a pattern associated with high levels of refuse production equivalent to that of developed countries together with large sectors of the population who do not have access to consumer goods. recovery and recycling processes and technologies. reuse and recycle – to which has now been added a new R for recover. Typical situations are: ! high technology industrial processes aimed at competitive insertion in global markets side by side with obsolete industrial processes that produce significant environmental damage.2. treatment plants and final disposal. generally insulated. It is important to emphasize the significant differences between traditional and integrated approaches to this subject: in the latter waste is always regarded as a raw material for the production of new products through reuse. Waste therefore has a commercial value that can be added to the production chain thus creating new work opportunities and generating income for various sectors of society. recycling or recovery. ! the availability of waste processing technologies together with a lack of the financial and human resources necessary to maintain them and the presence of large groups of segregators in streets and rubbish dumps. This is the approach recommended by Agenda 21: the transformation of the production and consumption matrix on the basis of the 3R’s – reduce. The concept of integrated solid waste management considers the entire cycle including production.
even national level. ISWMPs must be complemented by national and regional policies on this issue. which presents a unique opportunity to reconcile development with environmental protection. 30 .” (Agenda 21. provincial. chapter 21) Putting these criteria and the concept of integrated solid waste management into practice in Latin American and Caribbean cities requires the development of local participation processes. Plans can also be formulated at a regional. sewerage systems. ! the articulation of proposed solid waste systems with overall urban planning and other urban systems. and in the implementation of an urban cleaning system. However it is possible for a group of municipalities to develop them and share some solutions especially for the final disposal of waste. not only provided by the municipality but also by other agents participating in the management.4R’s. Usually it is recommended that these plans are developed at a municipal or local level. Integrated management depends on the functioning of specific sub-systems that involve installations. private and community stakeholders in the conception and planning of processes and solutions. through the development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan (ISWMP). rainwater drainage and vector control. juridical. environmental. institutional and political aspects in order to guarantee system sustainability. particularly environmental sanitation. labour and technology. Some elements are essential for the development of integrated solid waste management (ISWM) processes: ! the participation of all public. social. This implies the application of the integrated life cycle management concept. or in the case of smaller countries. machines. amongst which are: ! citizens themselves. the integration of technical. This model has been used as a tool to solve problems arising from the increasing amounts of solid waste generated by the industrial society. Participation processes allow the different stakeholders to identify opportunities that can lead to solutions for the problems presented by solid waste. On whatever scale they are made. “Environmentally sound waste management must go beyond the mere safe disposal or recovery of generated waste and seek to address the root cause of the problem by attempting to change unsustainable patterns of production and consumption. ! ! the integration of all elements of the solid waste cycle in the 4R’s processes. responsible for the separation and differentiated pre-collection storage of recyclable materials and other domestic waste. including water provision.
In order to guarantee sustainability from a multi-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary perspective. environmental and political-institutional dimensions and system sustainability. responsible for their own waste. a rational use of natural resources taking into account waste minimization. irrespective of the socioeconomic level and ethnic origin of the population. Environmental – the development of clean technology for application to solid waste. segregators organized in cooperatives. environmental information dissemination and education as instruments for the transformation of personal and collective production and consumption patterns. specific approaches must be promoted in each related field: Social – community participation and quality control. Integrated solid waste management ! ! large generators. the formulation of specific policies for solid waste management. the recovery of operational costs through differentiated charge mechanisms according to generator profile and payment capacity. thus generating income and jobs. responsible for separating recyclable materials discarded by citizens and selling them to the relevant companies. integrated solid waste management prioritizes the social. reusable material recovery. institutions and contracted companies. the provision of sufficient capacity in machines and labour to provide universal coverage in public urban cleaning services. plays the principal role in the integrated management of the entire system. agreements and cooperation accords. including the possibility of consortium solutions. 31 . In addition to the technical and financial aspects of conventional urban cleaning systems and final disposal systems. and by means of contracts. ! the municipality. and the social inclusion of segregators who have to be organized. valued and associated in the solid waste production chain. Economic-financial – an analysis of system costs and the possibility of minimizing them in order to make systems economically viable. the implementation of juridical instruments and ISWMPs. the definition of training programs. that through its agents. ! health institutions with an internal management of infectious waste that either sterilizes it or appropriately separates it by type for differentiated collection.2. Technical-operational – the establishment of a specific department and the appointment of responsible personnel. Political-institutional – the integration of public authorities and other stakeholders and institutions with a clear delimitation of responsibilities. and appropriate treatment and final disposal. the determination of the appropriate technology for each situation.
3 Institutional models and payment for services 32 .
Such participation would directly result in a reduction of solid waste generation. It is important that citizens know that they are the ones who are paying for the system through taxes.3. private companies. cleaner streets. and in the subsequent budget allocation to the system that should include provision for environmental education and the development of programs that generate income opportunities and employment. 33 . This priority must be considered in the definition of municipal fiscal policy. Such regulations must clearly reflect the objectives of the public authority and raise public awareness in regard to appropriate urban solid waste management and environmental problems. protect the environment. contribute to the solution of socioeconomic problems related with the issue. the appropriate preparation and storage of waste for collection and consequently a cheaper operation. which has to be technically and socially just. and induce an acknowledgment by citizens of their role as consumers and therefore as generators of solid waste. protect inhabitants’ quality of life. has the capacity to: ! foster the economical sustentability of operations. Policy instrumentation will be structured through the approval of urban cleaning regulations whereby the city legitimizes the adopted management model and social obligations.1 Concept A city’s urban cleaning system should be institutionalized on the basis of an integrated management model that. Institutional models and payment for services 3. ! ! ! The municipal solid waste management model not only has to allow for the participation of the community but also specifically facilitate it in order to generate public awareness of the different activities involved in the system and its implementation costs. community participation is a key element in the sustainability of the system while the municipality is responsible for establishing an integrated management that necessarily includes awareness raising programs for citizens who will then perceive that the political will to prioritize municipal solid waste management exists. rates or tariffs. Policy making is based on the participation of social leaders. and defines infractions and their respective fines. to the maximum degree possible. and public institutions active in the city and having significant environmental responsibilities. In summary.
is that it is essential for the community and therefore its provision represents an obligation for the public authority and its management is subject to the legal principles specifically related with the efficient provision of service to the community. The negative results of this group of difficulties are: a dissatisfied public. under a partially or totally public regime. low degree of training.2 Forms of administration In general the municipality is. This model is more flexible than direct municipal administration and is more compatible with the dynamic of daily urban cleaning tasks. the creation of a specialized labour force and better conditions for budgetary planning. inevitable bureaucracy. This model is generally used in smaller cities that do not have a volume of service provision that is attractive to the private sector. 34 .3. directly or indirectly. and distinguishes it from other economic activities. political interference and frequent crises in the service. Public services are all material activities assigned by law to the State for it to exercise. the chronic problems inherent to this model are: insufficient budget. Except where they have been resolved in particular cases. sanitary and environmental problems. A public service is an activity undertaken by a public body with a view to satisfying a public interest need. responsible for organizing and providing essential local services and is therefore responsible for urban cleaning services. and indeterminate service costs. directly or through delegates with the objective of effectively satisfying collective needs. What characterizes a public service. Urban cleaning systems can be administered in different ways: Direct municipal management In this case the provision of urban cleaning services is the responsibility of a municipal department or body. It also facilitates greater management autonomy. Autonomous authority This modality involves the creation of a public company specifically for the administration of urban cleaning.
including sweeping. In addition. and can even outsource operations and collect payments directly from users/beneficiaries of the service. 2005.3. for example. Institutional models and payment for services Positive examples of urban cleaning administration by municipal public companies can be found in some cities in Ecuador. In many LAC cities outsourcing is employed for urban cleaning services with sweeping and/or collection often undertaken by small civil society organizations. Outsourcing. Outsourcing is based on the concept of public administration undertaking the functions of planning. Some functions are undertaken by NGOs. with a predefined mechanism of payment based on the specific services to be provided and technical-administrative convenience. specialized in certain types of operation such as landfill management. Integrated Solid Waste Management Workshop organized by IDRC in Sao Paulo.000. In these cases the companies have several responsibilities including planning. organizes. workers cooperatives or small companies through contracts established by municipalities. organization and equipping of a new specialized structure in the municipality. final disposal and the recovery of energy from waste by generating biogas and in some cases selling carbon credits 3. 3. It should be emphasized that service outsourcing can be employed on different scales. Concessions In this modality the concession holder plans. All these cases of delegating state functions to civil society authenticate outsourcing as an efficient practice. they have the necessary flexibility to adopt appropriate alternatives for the provision of some components of the service. This model is only appropriate for large cities as it requires the creation. supervision and the charging of tariffs for services provided. Colombia and Costa Rica with populations of no more than 500. if well planned at every stage – from specifications in the bidding phase to the overseeing of operations – can make a large contribution to the municipal administration’s ability to improve the quality of services provided to the public. Brazil. Outsourcing In this model a private sector company is contracted to undertake an activity. from contracting well structured companies. implements and coordinates the service. to contracting micro-companies or independent workers who undertake waste collection with carts pulled by animals or the manual operation of small-sized landfills. coordination and overseeing while the private company is responsible for operations. 35 . treatment. especially in regard to the speed of response to operational requirements (for example the purchase of spare parts for collector vehicles).
calculating costs and overseeing services. including technical decisions. 36 . authorized companies for the collection of excess waste. which implies a need for technical and administrative training in order to undertake the activities pertaining to the process. the issuing authority keeps the ownership of the service and the right to oversee it. at their own expense. However. significant difficulties lie in the limited guarantees that concession holders receive in regard to the collection of payment for their services and the problems that municipalities have in preparing tender specifications. Consortium A consortium results from an agreement between municipalities with the objective of achieving established common goals. Any of these alternatives. concession contracts are long term to allow for a return on investments in the system through tariffs charged to users. All of each municipality’s human and financial resources available for a certain initiative. or any combination of them. In the case of public services that are delegated to third-parties through concessions.This management model is adopted in special situations where the public authority does not have the necessary technological or budgetary resources to implement interventions or finance the significant investments that are indispensable in dealing with problems related to municipal solid waste management in general or a particular aspect of it. formulation of tender specifications and contracts. It can also be applied to the collection of construction rubble and other civil construction waste in order to alleviate the burden on the public system. In general. but has been widely employed with relative successs in landfill management. This type of modality has proved ineffective for collection services. and the overseeing and control of service provision. program or project are combined in a consortium to facilitate its implementation. Free market This model can be applied for example to large-scale solid waste generators when municipal regulations have defined the maximum quantities permitted for collection by the common domestic collection system and have established that large-scale generators have an obligation to contract. although it functions less well when applied in small cities. has to be selected on the basis of both low cost and environmentally sound technique and with a view to establishing a self-sustainable system that is resistant to changes of administration. definition of reference framework.
! ! ! ! responsiveness to social and political demands. direct administration of the entire urban cleaning system is common in small cities. leaving the generator responsible for contracting a collection company at their own expense. responsiveness to growth in demand for services. In such cases management is usually undertaken by a municipal body or department that shares resources with other sectors of public administration. Urban cleaning administration by a public company specifically created for that purpose. autonomy in the application and reallocation of budgetary resources. demographic and economic characteristics as well as the socio-cultural particularities of its inhabitants must be considered in defining the form of administration. Autonomous authority Outsourcing Concession Free market Consortium A city’s urban.3. Employed when the public authority lacks sufficient resources to finance the necessary investment in the system. investment capacity for human resources and the generation of income and employment. Applied in the cases of large-scale generators where regulations define maximum limits for municipal collection. 37 . investment capacity for technological development. management and supervision. autonomy and flexibility in planning and decision-making. As has already been said. IT systems and quality control. responsiveness to changing economic circumstances. An association of municipalities for common measures and projects. especially in solid waste final disposal. responsiveness to operational emergencies. while at the same time taking into account the following factors: ! ! ! ! ! cost of service administration. Institutional models and payment for services Table 1 Forms of urban cleaning service administration Administration Direct municipal management Description Urban cleaning activities run by a municipal department or body. The contracting of a private company to undertake certain activities.
in the context of large Brazilian cities. changing economic circumstances and operational emergencies. management and administrative services. Whatever model is adopted. establish human resource policy and most importantly. Colombia. They can also outsource operational. such as ones relating to social and political demands. A model that is worth highlighting is the one employed by the Rio de Janeiro City Urban Cleaning Company (COMLURB). Ecuador. It is therefore advisable that the municipality establishes contract devices or alternative plans to deal with such eventualities. and by the Public Cleaning Companies of Cuenca. determine plans. and define the technical terms of contracts. In such a model there can be problems when unforeseen eventualities arise. All of them are autonomous urban cleaning companies and are therefore able to define their own budget allocations. strategies and the logistics of their operations. For their part. 38 . The existence of such agencies exclusively devoted to urban cleaning demonstrates the commitment of the municipality to keeping the city clean and caring for the urban environment. and Pereira. the other factors listed above are difficult to achieve and the service tends to have a lower priority than other services sharing the same resources and having a greater potential for political visibility. activities should always be regulated by the public authority. the companies charge the municipality enough to cover both operational costs and capital expenditure. in the context of medium-sized cities in the Andean region. In cases where refuse collection and street cleaning services are outsourced by contracting specialized companies. as the predetermined form of remuneration established in the contract may not cover them. the municipality only undertakes the administration of contracts and the monitoring of service quality and therefore the municipal administrative nucleus can be small.This type of administration that shares resources with other bodies of the municipality usually has a relatively low cost in comparison with a body or institution exclusively devoted to urban cleaning management. liberating the municipality of the need to invest resources in the purchase of machines and equipment. In determining the form of urban cleaning services administration in tourist cities seasonal fluctuations in demand for services has to be particularly taken into consideration. These companies can develop or subsidize research and technologies related to urban cleaning in general as well as specific areas of it. However.
3. In regard to the collection of payments for service provision. direct or autonomous. street cleaning and final disposal. 3 Payment for services The singularities of tax legislation in each Latin American and Caribbean country makes it difficult to compile a complete generalized summary of the issue of payment for urban cleaning services. ensured collection of charges for urban cleaning. It is therefore necessary that municipal policy ensures a sufficiently large budget allocation to cover the cost of the system and essential investment in it. an urban cleaning system can simply be divided into three components: domestic waste collection. and whatever the administration modality. a municipality cannot charge residents of a street for the sweeping and cleaning services of that street in particular as it is an indivisible service. The term “rate” on the other hand. 39 . whether the taxpayer uses it or not. The value of the rate must reflect divisibility amongst tax-payers in accordance with potential usage by each one. refers to a tax on the availability of a public service provided by the public authority. In the case of domestic waste collection. In cases of concession. which in some cases may need to be adapted to the particularities of each country’s legislation. Certain specific services where usage can be measured and users are clearly identifiable can be priced and therefore be charged for exclusively through a tariff. the municipality has to harmoniously combine two elements: ! ! just and sufficient payment for services. usually called “Waste Collection Rate (WCR)”. Financial resources raised by the waste collection rate cannot be allocated exclusively to the system due to municipal tax regulations. which must be well defined and specifically calculated.3. for example. the company responsible for providing such services may also be responsible for collecting payments for them. This chapter therefore concentrates on a basic outline of the subject. the Municipality can charge residents a specific rate. that is to say that the tariff is proportional to the amount and quality of the service used. The term “tariff” refers to the price charged for a public service provided in an optional form. Similarly. Urban cleaning systems are financed by almost all of the population but not in a direct way. Institutional models and payment for services In all cases.
the quality of services deteriorates and a vicious circle is established. i. Waste collection is not a service that can be suspended when bills are not paid. However this measure does not have much punitive value as it represents only a long term threat to the non-payer in the form of the eventual confiscation of his or her property.e. especially so in view of the socioeconomic conditions of most Latin American and Caribbean populations. as electricity or drinking water provision can be. If it is not possible to adequately finance the system. It is therefore necessary to reverse the tendency to attribute a low priority to urban cleaning services that results in them receiving fewer resources than are necessary. or to the frontage width of the plot. 40 . because rubbish put in the street by the non-payer has to be collected anyway for public health reasons. There are no guarantees that they will be used in the urban cleaning sector. where payment levels are related to the volume of waste generated. this being dependent on the political will of the administration or public budget control mechanisms. it has to be taken into account that financial resources raised by cleaning and solid waste management rates become part of the Municipal Treasury. until the situation balances itself with an improvement in the quality of services provided. in some cases an authority may resort to inscribing the property of the nonpayer in the municipal register of public debt. In some countries only a reform of the tax system would provide municipalities with the necessary instruments to reimburse them in a socially just way for the urban cleaning services that they provide to citizens.In some Latin American cities there is an incipient trend towards payment through tariffs. Once these issues are resolved. The municipality then has to choose one of the following options: ! to face for a certain period the political cost involved in increasing taxes. The municipal solid waste management will be defective due to insufficient resources and the population may not accept the payment of rates because it is not receiving good quality service. There are few legal remedies for the problem of non payment. and even though it is a legally dubious measure. which in general is not inclined to increase the tax burden imposed on citizens. or delayed payment. It should also be noted that the updating or correction of the rate depends on authorization by the municipal council. There is no consensus about the most appropriate basis on which a municipal rate for financing urban cleaning services should be calculated. of rates or tariffs. if this is necessary. etc. There have been attempts to relate the determination of this rate to the consumption of drinking water or electricity. In the absence of other available strategies. This is being applied to particular geographical areas and follows the “pay as you throw” principle.
In regard to investment. technological development and administration. outsourcing through contracts with private companies that. research. treatment and final disposal services. undertake collection. capital expenditure. Payment for urban cleaning systems is calculated by applying the following basic equation: Payments = Expenses Expenses = Municipal Treasury resources + amount collected from WCR + amount collected from tariffs and various other incomes Payments should cover the costs of the system which include expenditure on labour. municipalities almost invariably need to resort to sources of finance that do not always offer appropriate terms and involve prerequisites that are not easy to adapt to. In this case. a sustainable balance must be established between generators and the private operators of centres for treatment and final disposal.3. replacement of vehicles and other equipment. at which point the subsidy can be gradually reduced as its value is gradually incorporated in the rate specifically charged to finance the service. both for the purchase of equipment and the installation of treatment and final disposal units. Institutional models and payment for services ! to subsidize the cost of the service during an initial period until service quality reaches an adequate level. 41 . It is worth digressing to mention industrial waste management. when an industry is producing a certain product the cost of an appropriate final disposal of waste generated in the production process should be reflected in the sale price of that product. with their own resources (labour and machinery). In such cases a concession can also be an appropriate alternative especially when the necessary investment is higher and requires a more prolonged period to allow for a return on it. transport. maintenance. A feasible solution for municipalities that do not have resources for investment is. The investment needed for these units is very high and the acquisition of licenses from environmental control bodies involves a long and complicated process. supervision and support services. as has already been mentioned. street cleaning. backup. Here a tariff is determined as the means by which the concession company makes a return on its investment. However.
Municipal Treasury resources plus the money from tariffs should be equivalent to the budget for expenditure and capital costs for all the operations involved in the cleaning of a city. 3. 42 .e. taking into consideration factors such as social stratum (with a view to socially just pricing) and operational characteristics. otherwise the Municipality would have to reallocate resources designated for other areas.1 Guidelines for the calculation of a waste collection rate For the system to be economically sustainable. The basic WCR value can be adapted to the particularities of individual neighbourhoods in the city. hotels. The charging of a realistic and socially just rate that citizens can afford and that effectively covers the cost of services and applies the “he who can pays more” principle implies political measures that are dependant on the will and determination of the mayor. supermarkets. It should be noted that an efficient way of reducing urban cleaning costs is to motivate the population to decrease the amount of waste generated and implement specific programs for the segregation of recyclable waste at source and its selective collection. etc. can be charged by collecting companies authorized by the municipality.) as well as for other services to which a tariff can be applied (i. medical waste collection and the removal of construction rubble or discarded items.Irrespective of the management model adopted. The payment for waste collection services to large generators (restaurants. It should be emphasized that all operations not financed by adequate tariffs and an efficient tax collection system. will have to be sustained by resources from the Municipal Treasury. that can be measured) such as special collections.3. The establishment of reliable administration and supervision mechanisms for all services relating to urban cleaning is essential in order to correctly ascertain the real costs involved in service provision and therefore the appropriate base for calculating the amount of finance needed to operate the system in an efficient and sustainable way. in which case the budget must allow for a specific allocation to the urban cleaning sector. or create waste recycling subsidies. the basic unit of the waste collection rate (WCR) should be the quotient of the total budget for domestic solid waste collection services and the number of households in the city.
The establishment of a charging mechanism based on the amount of rubbish generated. education and technological development that are linked to collection. location. etc.). monitoring systems. treatment and final disposal. capital expenditure. handling and particularly recycling. so that higher income sectors subsidize services provided to the less well off. transport. topographic conditions.) in order to facilitate collection. so that those who generate more rubbish pay more. as well as costs relating to administration. demographic density. residential. 43 . produces an economic benefit for the population as a whole. etc. In recent years a more conservationist vision is increasingly influential in the determination of pricing polices for urban cleaning. market. shop. This approach involves a greater community commitment to segregating waste at source (home. The budget also has to cover the costs of transfer. Operational characteristics reflect the amount of labour and materials used in the collection process depending on property usage (commercial. etc. In general a distributive criterion is applied. Institutional models and payment for services Social stratum is determined on the basis of the average purchasing power of the inhabitants of different zones of the city. The promotion of this model is important but depends on a wide motivational and educational campaign in the community.3. type of road surface. management.
4 Legislation and environmental licenses 44 .
orientates. The community participates in this management in two ways: ! ! contributing to the financing of services and monitoring them. establishes operational codes. rulings and regulations that manifest an increasing concern 45 . appropriately preparing and storing waste for collection. and by not throwing rubbish in the streets. cooperating with cleaning by reducing the amount of waste. reusing. Community cooperation should be considered as the principal agent for transforming the efficiency of services and consequently generating beneficial operational and budgetary results. of a political and economic order. Legislation and environmental licenses 4. Citizens can be encouraged to reduce the amount of waste that they produce in order to diminish the costs of the operation. 4. A combination of citizen cooperation and measures to increase the reliability of urban cleaning services constitutes a powerful pairing that can solve the principal problems relating to urban cleaning systems. Measures geared to guaranteeing good quality operations and a well structured program of environmental education need legal instruments that support them. ! the third is the legal structure that regulates general environmental issues on a national basis and in particular deals with licenses for the implementation of activities that represent a risk to public health or the environment. segregating. decrees. This approach could be called the principle of service reliability and citizen cooperation for integrated solid waste management.4. ordinances. classifying and recycling materials. establishes the legal forms for institutionalizing the administration of a system and the methods of payment and charging for services.1 Introduction Integrated municipal urban cleaning system management is based on the fundamental conceptual premise of community participation and a systematic political exercise involving all institutions linked to the pertinent spheres of government. In Latin American and Caribbean countries there is wide ranging legislation in the form of laws.2 Legislation The legislation required to set up an urban cleaning system falls into three general categories: ! the first. and defines administrative processes and punitive measures. ! the second. regulates and determines procedures and the obligations of tax-payers and urban cleaning agents.
and introduce other public authority instruments aimed at protecting the environment. Article 225 of the Federal Constitution imposes on public authorities (Union. under its organic law. when the governing plan for a city is formulated. and the requiring where necessary of environmental impact studies or environmental recuperation guarantees prior to the granting of a license. Sub-section II of the same article. In regard to urban cleaning initiatives mostly emanate from municipal councils under their organic law and through local legal instruments. municipal urban cleaning regulations should serve as the spine of the city’s urban cleaning system by establishing the essential principles that govern the conduct of both municipal authority and citizens. As established by article 23.for environmental protection. the implementation of environmental impact assessment processes. Furthermore. regulate the granting of licenses by the relevant municipal body for the exploitation of water and mineral resources. which establish that the Brazilian Federation comprises the Union. including the making of agreements to improve environmental management. Environment Conservation Fund and Municipal Environment Department). the form of management. the analysis of projects. 46 . municipalities are also responsible for the protection of the environment. Municipalities can legislate. the Brazilian Federal Constitution determines that a municipality constitutes a political entity. the states and the municipalities. In most Latin American and Caribbean countries. either directly or through agreements. irrespective of their institutional status in the country. combating contamination and preserving forests. the charging of rates and tariffs and associations with other bodies that can contribute or cooperate. works or activities that actually or potentially produce environmental degradation. sub-sections VI and VII. Article 30 sub-section I allows them to legislate for local matters in the public interest and therefore to implement municipal environmental policy. The environmental management system will include amongst its functions. as prescribed by the 1st and 18th articles. and sub-section VIII grants them exclusive authority to legislate on land planning and land usage in their territory. authorizes them to supplement federal and state legislation where appropriate. provide services. under their organic law municipalities must decide on the best alternative for the institutionalization of the urban cleaning system. the design of environmental protection projects. in the section on environmental policy an environmental management system can be established through which environmental policy is implemented (Municipal Council for the Environment. Specifically. The municipality can therefore pass environmental protection legislation and enforce it. a municipality can. State and Municipal) and the community a duty to defend and preserve the environment for present and future generations thus establishing that a municipality has an obligation of environmental protection. establish and collect municipal taxes and choose their mayors and councillors. Taking into account the urban scale (determined by the number of inhabitants) and the city’s socioeconomic and cultural circumstances. fauna and flora. For example.
With a view to facilitating the granting of licences for new sanitary landfills and refuse dump recuperation in small and medium-sized municipalities. in exercise of its regulatory function. Under the legislation of many Latin American countries it is the Environment Ministry that is responsible for issuing licenses. 47 . especially in the event of natural disasters and particularly so in the case of flooding. as for example in Colombia. a federal law establishes National Environmental Policy mechanisms. are dependent on the prior granting of a license by the competent provincial body integrated in the National Environmental System. This concept is particularly significant in the case of defective management of solid waste dumps located near the higher courses of rivers that form part of a water basin used for water supplies to cities downstream. Waste disposal in water courses represents an environmental risk that renders populations vulnerable. Peru and Brazil. The same law requires that the construction. establishes criteria for environmental impact assessments and identifies activities that require a prior environmental impact study. has come to the fore in environmental assessment: the incorporation of the river basin concept in the definition of the area of influence or impact of a project.4. In many cases the renewal of a license is necessary to authorize the recommencement of an operation. without prejudice to other required licenses. such as the installation of a sanitary landfill. specific legislation can be passed that simplifies the processes involved in obtaining environmental licenses and adapts them to the economic capacity of the Municipal Treasury. Chile. must grant the respective licenses before the establishment of an installation and its operation can begin. including the granting of licenses and the revision of “actually” or “potentially” contaminating activities. enlargement and operation of establishments or the undertaking of activities that use environmental resources and are considered as actually or potentially contaminating or degrading to the environment. Paraguay. establishes that the public authority.3 Environmental licenses It is necessary to establish a system for the granting of environmental licenses that defines responsibilities. In Brazil. 4. instalment. Another legal instrument. echoing the text of the National Environmental Policy law. known as ecosystem management. which requires legal instruments to cover the extrapolation of municipal responsibilities. Legislation and environmental licenses In recent times an innovative vision. SISNAMA.
! the definition of the minimum conditions required in the planning. such as: ! the classification of solid waste by its potential risk to the environment and public health. including their collection. until the relevant environmental body takes responsibility for it. establishment and operation of non-hazardous waste landfills in order to appropriately protect 48 . ! establish criteria for the definition of requirements to obtain licences for works involving sanitary issues. railway stations and bus terminals and the minimum procedures for its management. so that each type of waste can be appropriately handled and disposed of. tyres. ! define the responsibilities of and criteria for environmental impact assessments and identify activities that require an environmental impact study.4. reuse. or the generation of waste. contaminated. should be subject to. treatment and final disposal. ! create security zones around airports that restrict the establishment within them of operations that attract birds. there are aspects of solid waste management that can be subject to technical regulations. ! establish a system for the granting of environmental licenses. ! regulate the final disposal of discarded car. Finally. ports. ! establish the definition and classification of solid waste from healthcare institutions. regulate all related aspects and establish criteria for determining which jurisdictions issue them. ! regulate environmentally sound initial disposal and management of used batteries. recycling. etc. ! determine appropriate procedures for the handling of damaged. ! define appropriate treatment and final disposal for medical waste. uncategorized or abandoned material that is deemed to be a potential source of environmental risk.4 Regulations applicable to solid waste In other Latin American and Caribbean countries there are legal instruments applicable to solid waste management that: ! prohibit the entrance into the country of waste material for final disposal or incineration. airports. ! determine a colour code system for different types of waste that must be used for container identification and in educational campaigns on waste segregation. ! establish criteria for the granting of licences for industrial activities and for the specific controls that existent waste. used oils. truck and bus batteries.
49 . ! the definition of criteria for the planning. ! the definition of criteria for the presentation of projects to establish municipal solid waste sanitary landfills.4. its operators and neighbouring residents. Legislation and environmental licenses superficial and underground water resources. ! the definition of criteria for the presentation of projects to establish municipal solid waste controlled landfills. establishment and operation of hazardous waste landfills.
5 Solid waste: origin. definition and characteristics 50 .
The concept of the reuse of waste therefore prompts a reconsideration of the traditional concept of solid waste. undesirable or disposable by the generators and that may be solid or semi-solid” (substances or products with a humidity content of less than 85%). reactive. The more usual classifications take into account the waste’s potential risk for environmental contamination or its nature and origin. can be transformed into raw material for a new product or process.1 Definition of rubbish and solid waste The general public tends to think that “rubbish is everything that is not wanted any more and is discarded. or produces adverse environmental impacts when inappropriately handled or disposed of.2. corrosive. 51 . toxic or pathogenic and therefore represents a risk to public health in the form of increased mortality or morbidity. CLASS II NON-INERT SOLID WASTE Combustible. or Class III. definition and characteristics 5. biodegradable or soluble waste that can represent health or environmental risks but does not fall within Class I.2 Solid waste classification Solid waste can be classified in different ways. as what is of no use for the person who discards it. inert waste.” Technically. In this manual solid waste and refuse comprises all solid or semisolid unwanted material that must be collected because the person that discards it considers it to be of no use and gets rid of it by putting it in any receptacle intended for that purpose. Only material that is not reusable by anybody can be truly considered to be rubbish. The authors of studies on solid waste tend to use the terms “refuse” and “solid waste” without distinction. 5. Solid waste: origin. things that are useless. 5.5. It should be emphasized however.1 Potential environmental contamination risks Solid waste can be classified as: CLASS I HAZARDOUS SOLID WASTE Solid waste that is intrinsically inflammable. that in regard to rubbish the term “of no use” is relative. some regulatory entities define rubbish as: “the leftovers from human activity that are considered useless. hazardous waste. worn out and without any value.
railway station and bus terminal waste agricultural waste medical waste RESIDENTIAL OR DOMESTIC WASTE Waste generated by daily activities in houses.CLASS III INERT SOLID WASTE Waste with intrinsic characteristics that do not represent a risk to health or the environment and that when sampled in a representative way in accordance with the relevant norms and subjected to static or dynamic contact with distillate or deionized water at room temperature (dissolution tests). 52 . condominiums and other types of residential building.2. airport. except in regard to aspect.2 Nature and origin Origin is the principal element in categorizing solid waste. According to this criterion. does not have any of its dissolved components in concentrations higher than those in drinking water patterns. apartments. the characteristics of which depend on the particular activities pursued by such establishments. solid waste can be grouped in five categories: ! ! ! ! Residential or domestic waste Commercial waste Street waste Special domestic waste: ! ! ! ! rubble batteries fluorescent tubes tyres ! Special origin waste: ! ! ! ! ! industrial waste radioactive waste port. colour. turbidity and taste. COMMERCIAL WASTE Waste generated by commercial establishments. 5.
Municipal urban cleaning regulations can precisely define these two sub-groups. branches. definition and characteristics In urban cleaning terms.000 kg or 50 bags of 30 litres per day. and large rubble generators are those that generate a greater volume each day. This practice reduces by between 10% and 20% the cost of domestic waste collection by the municipality. Solid waste: origin. “domestic waste” is made up of “residential waste” and “smallscale commercial waste” which. dust. and waste discarded by people in a disorganized and improper way. articles considered to be of no more use. In general. Alternatively it is important to identify large generators so that the waste generated by them can be collected and transported by a private company authorized by the municipality. such as leaves. packaging and food remains. such as rubble. the quantity of waste that defines the limit between small and large solid waste generators should correspond to the average amount of solid waste generated daily by a household with five residents. Large commercial waste generators are establishments that generate more than 120 litres of waste per day.5. paper. soil and sand. The parameters could be: Small commercial waste generators are establishments that generate up to 120 litres of waste per day. together with waste from street cleaning. 53 . Clearly these sub-categories cannot be adopted without also establishing a minimum interval between any two collections of rubble from the same generator and/or cumulative limits (by volume or weight) for that generator over a certain period. Commercial waste and construction rubble can both be divided into two sub-categories: “small generator” and “large generator”. In an urban cleaning system the definition of the sub-groups “small” and “large” generators is important because a tariff can be applied to the collection of waste produced by large generators. small generators of construction rubble are individuals or companies that generate up to 1. thus producing an additional source of income that contributes to the economic viability of the system. STREET WASTE Waste that is found in the streets produced by nature. Similarly. represents the majority of solid waste produced in cities.
glass. only comes under this category due to the large amounts in which it is generated and the importance that its recovery and recycling is acquiring globally. It is important to emphasize that construction rubble. cardboard. SPECIAL DOMESTIC WASTE This category consists of construction rubble. plastic. in Brazil.0 1. 63.0 29. Civil construction waste is a mixture of inert materials such as concrete. ceramics and soil. for example. Such material represents 50% of the total weight of municipal solid waste that is collected in cities of the region with more than 500. batteries.0 54 . While in developed countries the average waste produced in the construction of new buildings is less than 100kg per m². wood. also known as civil construction waste.000 inhabitants. mortar. metal. the corresponding figure is approximately 300kg per m².0 7.Street waste is directly related with the aesthetic appearance of a city and special attention should therefore be paid to planning street cleaning services in tourist cities. Table 2 Average composition of construction rubble in Brazil Components Percentage (%) Mortar Concrete and concrete blocks Others Organic waste Total Source: USP – University of Sao Paulo.0 100. Rubble The civil construction industry uses more natural resources and generates more waste than any other. fluorescent tubes and tyres. In many countries commonly used construction techniques for new buildings involve a waste of materials.
button cell) and sizes and contain one or more of the following metals: lead (Pb). Solid waste: origin. nickel (Ni). lead. manias. indigestion dermatitis and arterial hypertension stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth mucosa). Other metals found in batteries such as zinc. diarrhoea) kidney malfunction pulmonary problems poisoning (when ingested) pneumonitis (when inhaled) cancer Cd (cadmium)* ! ! ! ! * Even in small amounts 55 . convulsions brain and neurological lesions that produce psychological problems ! Hg (mercury) ! ! ! ! ! ! digestive problems (nausea. delirium. delirium. see table 3. metallic taste in the mouth) congestion.Hazardous Waste”. pharynx and oesophagus ulceration. zinc (Zn). reactive and toxic. They can have different shapes (cylindrical. manganese and lithium can also cause environmental problems. headaches. kidney and digestive tract lesions insomnia. and are classified as “Class I . diarrhoea (with blood in the faeces) abdominal pains (especially epigastria. silver and nickel have a negative impact on the environment and particularly on human health. Table 3 Contaminant potential of chemical elements used in batteries Element Effects on human health abdominal pains (colic. convulsions and coma) ! ! Pb (lead)* ! ! ! ! ! gingivitis. lithium (Li). manganese (Mn) and their compounds. Substances that contain cadmium. pulmonary problems peripheral neuritis (paralysis) encephalopathy (somnolence. definition and characteristics Batteries The basic principle of a battery is the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy using metals. vomiting. spasm and rigidity) kidney malfunction anaemia. collapse. salivation. The substances in batteries that contain these metals are corrosive. mercury. silver (Ag). mercury (Hg).5. lack of appetite. vomiting. rectangular. cadmium (Cd).
contain mercury steam and release mercury when they are broken.Table 3 (cont. An accumulation of mercury can also occur in the tissues of other wild species such as aquatic birds and animals. burned or buried in sanitary landfills. both the common cylindrical tubes and the compact fluorescent bulbs. which is particularly sensitive to its toxicity. a progressive increase in mercury concentrations in the tissue of for example fish. 56 .) Element Effects on human health digestive disturbances and mouth impregnation argyria (chronic intoxication producing bluish skin colour) death ! Ag (silver) ! ! ! inhalation – causes damage even with immediate attention ingestion – minimal residual damage without treatment Li (lithium) ! ! neurological system malfunctions neurological disturbances stammering and insomnia Mn (manganese) ! ! ! ! pulmonary disturbances can produce residual damage without immediate treatment contact with eyes – causes serious lesion even with immediate attention Zn (zinc) ! ! cancer dermatitis general intoxication Ni (nickel) ! ! Batteries made with non-toxic substances are now available on the market and these can be disposed of without significant problems together with domestic refuse. Consequently they are classified as Class I hazardous waste because mercury is a toxic substance that attacks the human nervous system and when inhaled or ingested can provoke an enormous variety of physiological problems. When pregnant women eat such fish mercury is transferred to the foetus. When mercury is released into the environment and enters bodies of water “bioaccumulation” takes place. Fluorescent tubes Fluorescent tubes. which then become less healthy or even dangerous to consume.
they will cause hollows in the mass of waste and increase landfill instability.5. Waste from ports. SPECIAL ORIGIN WASTE Waste that due to its particular characteristics requires special handling. the disposal of tyres has become a serious environmental problem that still does not have a truly effective solution. storage and final disposal are the responsibility of national public bodies and are subject to very rigorous controls. such as animals. meat and plants. preparation. transport and final disposal. airplanes. 57 . If incinerated. The main types of special origin waste are: Industrial waste Waste generated by industrial activity. Transmission can also take place through potentially contaminated loads. airports and terminals results from consumption by passengers in transit and its hazardous nature lies in the risk of transmission of diseases already eradicated from a country when the incoming transports come from an area where such diseases are endemic. Solid waste: origin. the handling. the rubber generates huge amounts of particles and toxic gases requiring a very efficient and expensive gas treatment system. For all the above reasons. Consequently it is necessary to examine each case individually in order to categorize it as Class I (hazardous). for example. in Portuguese). Due to its specific nature and dangerous characteristics its handling. airport. If they are disposed of in conventional landfills. storage. Radioactive waste Waste that emits radiation in excess of limits stipulated by environmental law. trains and buses. In Brazil. definition and characteristics Tyres The inappropriate disposal of tyres generates many environmental problems. tyres accumulate rainwater and serve as a breeding place for mosquitoes thus fostering their proliferation. Its composition varies greatly according to the type of product that is being made. railway station and bus terminal waste This category comprises waste generated in terminals as well as in boats. Class II (non-inert) or Class III (inert). storage and final disposal of radioactive waste is undertaken by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN. Port. If left in the open air.
ABNT) is presented as an example in table 4. The classification of medical waste according to Brazilian standards (NBR 12.Agricultural waste This category mostly comprises the remains of containers and packaging impregnated with dangerous pesticides and chemical fertilizers used in agriculture. HIV. scalpel blades and glass. organs. Table 4 Classification of medical waste Type Name Characteristics Class A – Infectious waste Cultures. Due to a lack of controls and low fines for inappropriate handling of this type of waste.3 Surgical. pipettes. A. including remains of food.1 Biological A. as well as waste that has been in contact with them. Secretions and other organic liquids from patients. it is often mixed with common waste and disposed of in municipal dumps or even worse. blood used for analysis. foetuses. anatomical. serum.6 Patient care 58 . Skeletons or parts of animals that have been inoculated. vaccine that is unusable or past its use-by date. The handling of this type of waste should therefore follow the same practices and use the same containers and process as those used for the handling of Class I industrial waste.positive blood. blood and pathological and other organic liquids resulting from surgery and autopexudates sies. a mix of micro organisms and an inoculated culture medium coming from clinical or research laboratories. plasma and other derivatives. and waste contaminated by the above materials. Sharp and puncturing Contaminated animals Needles. filters used to prevent inhalation of gases in areas contaminated by infectious agents and any refuse contaminated by the above materials. A.808 of the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards. ampoules. inoculae. Medical waste This category consists of all the waste generated by healthcare institutions.5 A. anatomical parts.4 A.2 Blood and blood derivatives A. thrown into bodies of water or is burnt in remote rural establishments thus generating toxic gases.Tissue. exposed to pathogenic micro-organisms or are carriers of infectious diseases. Blood and blood derivatives past their use-by date. as well as waste contaminated by them.
explosive. contaminated.3.00 Waste can be analyzed according to its physical. humidity content and compressibility.2 B.60 8.20 8. Solid waste: origin.70 6. due to its similarity with domestic waste.80 The Netherlands 50. does not present any additional risk to public health.40 3.3 Characteristics of solid waste Solid waste characteristics can vary according to the social. Medicine that is past its use-by date.70 6. reactive genotoxic or mutagenic waste.80 5. gravimetric composition.1 Radioactive waste Pharmaceutical waste Hazardous chemical waste Radioactive material or material contaminated with radionuclide. nuclear medicine services and radiotherapy.20 10. economic.30 14.00 25. interdicted or of no further use. probably due to the large amount of semiprepared food available in the market.00 3.5.1 Physical characteristics Solid waste can be categorized according to the following physical characteristics: per capita generation. definition and characteristics Table 4 (cont. chemical and biological characteristics.50 41. apparent specific weight. originating in clinical analysis laboratories. Toxic.3 Class C – Common waste C Common waste Waste that does not fall into classes A or B and that. Table 5 shows the variation in waste composition in some particular countries from which it can be deduced that the percentage of organic matter tends to diminish in more developed or industrialized countries.00 Germany 61.80 18. 5. Table 5 Gravimetric composition of waste in some countries (%) Component Organic matter Glass Metal Plastic Paper Brazil 65.00 4. B. 59 .50 USA 35. inflammable. geographical and climatic factors that distinguish one community from another and even one city from another.00 3. cultural.00 22. corrosive.50 6.) Type Name Characteristics Class B – Special waste B. 5.
Tabla 6 Frequently used categories for determining per capita solid waste generation Size of the city Small Medium-sized Large Megalopolis Urban population (inhabitants) Up to 30. However.50 from 0.80 from 0.00 Like table 6. per capita generation can be estimated through table 6. these parameters should be considered with certain reservations as particular local conditions may produce distortions in individual cases. In the absence of precise data. based on statistical data. the ideal is to carry out field research and.000 over 5.PER CAPITA GENERATION The relation between the amount of solid waste produced in a given region per day and the number of inhabitants in that region.000. Although representative of averages determined by several studies. Figure 4 .80 a 1.000.000 from 30.00 over 1.000 Generation per capita (kg/inhab/day) 0.000 from 500. determine the daily waste generation per inhabitant in relation to the population’s socioeconomic profile. figure 4 shows the correlation between the per capita generation of solid waste and the population of cities.50 a 0.Variation in per capita solid waste generation in relation to population size 60 .000 a 5.000 a 500.
However. plastic. 180 kg/m³ for medical waste and 1300 kg/m³ for construction rubble. glass. although useful for determining the dimensions of a composting plant or other urban cleaning system installations. it is necessary to carefully evaluate the specific situation before adopting these values as variations exist in peoples customs and practices across the different regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. This type of simplified category list. for example.5. Table 7 Most common components in gravimetric composition Organic matter Paper Cardboard Rigid plastic Malleable plastic PET Ferrous metals Non-ferrous metals Aluminium Transparent glass Coloured glass Wood Rubber Leather Cloths Bones Ceramics Fine aggregate The decision about which components to include in a gravimetric composition study is made on the basis of the type of study to be carried out and must involve great care to avoid distortions. definition and characteristics GRAVIMETRIC COMPOSITION Gravimetric composition indicates the percentage of the total weight of an analyzed waste sample that each component represents. 61 . APPARENT SPECIFIC WEIGHT The apparent specific weight is the weight of loose waste in relation to the volume that it freely occupies without any form of compacting and is expressed in kg/m³. The most commonly used categories in the determination of the gravimetric composition of municipal solid waste can be found in table 7. the following general specific weight values can be used: 230 kg/m³ for domestic waste. It is fundamental for determining the dimensions of necessary equipment and installations. the market for rigid plastics is very different from the market for malleable plastic. for example considering only paper/cardboard. metal. organic matter and “other”. Solid waste: origin. many technicians tend to simplify the categories. However. If precise data is not available. as are the markets for ferrous and non-ferrous metals. is not ideal in a precise economic study for recycling or selective collection as.
2 Chemical characteristics CALORIFIC VALUE This chemical characteristic indicates the potential heat generating capacity of a material when incinerated.HUMIDITY CONTENT The humidity content is the amount of water contained by solid waste. on average the volume of waste can be reduced to between a third (1/3) and a quarter (1/4) of its original volume. organic matter. soluble mineral residue and fats contained in solid waste. nitrogen. phosphorus. COMPRESSIBILITY Compressibility is the degree of compacting that is possible. 62 . the reduction of volume that can be achieved in a mass of solid waste when it is compacted. that is. potassium. This parameter can vary by between 40% and 60 % depending on the season and amounts of rainfall.000 kcal/kg. The average calorific value of domestic solid waste is approximately 3.3. measured as a percentage of its weight. called expansion. calcium. carbon. must be heeded when operating a landfill. This phenomenon. When the compacting pressure is withdrawn the mass of solid waste tends to expand but it does not return to its original volume. 5. Subjected to a pressure of 4kg/cm². total mineral residue. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The chemical composition indicates the amount of ashes. POTENTIAL OF HYDROGEN (pH) The potential of hydrogen indicates the acidity or alkalinity of waste which is generally found to be between 5 and 7.
final disposal and degraded site recuperation processes are being developed based on the biological characteristics of waste. It is important for determining vehicle and machine capacity requirements. Table 8 Influence of waste characteristics on urban cleaning Characteristics Importance This data is fundamental for estimating the amount of Per capita generation waste to be collected and disposed of. definition and characteristics CARBON/NITROGEN RATIO (C/N) The Carbon/Nitrogen ratio indicates the degree of decomposition of solid waste organic matter in treatment and final disposal processes. Knowledge of the biological characteristics of solid waste has been extensively utilized to develop odour inhibitors and substances used to delay or accelerate the decomposition of organic matter. Solid waste: origin.4 Influence of solid waste characteristics on urban cleaning system planning Table 8 illustrates the influence of solid waste characteristics on urban cleaning system planning and on the design of certain units that form part of the system. which are generally applied inside collection vehicles to avoid or minimize problems caused to people along the routes of the vehicles. In general for domestic waste that ratio is around 35/1. 63 . 5.3.3 Biological characteristics Solid waste biological characteristics are determined by the microbial and pathogenic agent populations and. 5.5. inform the selection of appropriate treatment and final disposal methods. Similarly. together with the chemical characteristics. tariffs charged for collection and the necessary capacity of all the units that comprise the urban cleaning system.
). transfer stations with waste compaction facilities and fixed compaction containers. the use of organic matter to produce compost and the application of other processes to the solid waste. Influences the determination of the required capacity of Calorific value installations for all thermo treatment processes (incineration. Fundamental to the evaluation of composting process evolution and determining the quality of the compost produced. Directly influences the calculation of percolate production and the required capacity of the percolate collection system.Table 8 (cont. machines and metal containers and boxes. Indicates the degree of corrosiveness of collected waste and is used to establish the type of protection against corrosion that it is necessary to apply to vehicles. Very important for determining the required capacity of Compressibility collection vehicles. etc.) Characteristics Importance Indicates the potential for the commercialization of recy- Gravimetric composition clable components. Fundamental to correctly quantifying the required capacity of the collection fleet. mobile and fixed containers and other collecting equipment. Directly influences the calorific value and apparent specific weight of solid waste. 64 . An important indicator in the solid waste decomposition process in treatment and final disposal units. Important for determining the potential risk posed by solid pH Chemical composition waste to human health and the environment. Important in determining the sanitary risk posed by solid C/N ratio Biological characteristics waste. pyrolysis. Directly influences the decomposition rate of matter in the composting process. thereby indi- Apparent specific weight Humidity content rectly influencing the determination of required incinerator and composting plant capacity. Fundamental for the identification of odour inhibitors and substances to accelerate or delay the decomposition of organic matter in solid waste. Contributes to the determination of the most appropriate form of treatment for collected waste.
Consequently it is necessary to take into account seasonal factors that can influence particularly the physical characteristics of solid waste in order to avoid wrong conclusions in determining the overall characteristics of waste. definition and characteristics 5. the percentage of aluminium (beer and cold drinks cans) in the waste increases.5 Factors that influence solid waste characteristics Clearly during rainy periods the humidity content in solid waste increases and during the celebrations around the end of the year. malleable plastic and metal) increase in organic matter content School holidays ! ! population decrease in non-tourist areas population increase in tourist areas Other festivals ! increase in drinks container content (cans. Table 9 shows the principal factors that have a strong influence on solid waste characteristics. Solid waste: origin.5. Bank holidays and school holidays have an influence on the quantity of solid waste generated in tourist cities. glass and rigid plastic bottles) Demographic Urban population size ! the larger the urban population the greater the per capita solid waste generation 65 . and throughout the summer. glass and rigid plastic bottles) Special periods Christmas / New Year ! ! increase in packaging content (paper/ cardboard. Table 9 Principal factors that influence solid waste characteristics Factor Climatic/seasonal Rain Autumn Summer ! ! ! Effect increase in humidity content increase in leaf content increase in drinks container content (cans.
6 Processes for determining principal physical characteristics Amongst the various types of solid waste characteristics the physical ones are the most important to identify for proficient urban cleaning services management. gravimetric composition.) Factor Socioeconomic Purchasing power ! Effect the higher the purchasing power of the population. the samples must be taken from different collection sectors to obtain results that are as realistic as possible. a 150 kg capacity weighing machine. Not all municipalities can afford to set up laboratories to determine the chemical or biological characteristics of solid waste. an oven and tools and implements commonly used in urban cleaning. or have the financial resources to contract private laboratories. humidity content and per capita generation. ! 66 . the higher the proportion of recyclable material and the lower the proportion of organic matter Purchasing power (monthly) ! greater consumption of luxury goods immediately after payday (end and beginning of month) Purchasing power (weekly) Technological development ! greater consumption of luxury goods at weekends ! reduction in apparent specific weight of waste due to the introduction of increasingly lighter products Commercial promotions ! increase in the amount of packaging 5. The physical characteristics however can be easily determined through processes undertaken in the field and only require: 200 litre metal containers.Table 9 (cont. The practical procedures presented below are employed to determine municipal solid waste specific weight. SAMPLE PREPARATION collect initial samples with a volume of 2 to 3m³ from un-compacted solid waste (loose refuse).
5. 67 . ! after filling the containers. ! ! weigh each component separately. classify as “other” all material found that does not fall into any of the categories on the predefined list of components. ! ! add up the net weights. break up the rest of the selected quarter with machetes in a place that is protected from the elements (sun. using shovels and hoes to rip plastic bags and break cardboard boxes. determine the apparent specific weight (expressed in kg/m³) by dividing the total net weight of the waste in the five containers (in kg) by the total volume of the 5 containers. Solid waste: origin. wind or high temperature). i. 1m³.e. crates and other materials used to package the waste. not adjacent ones). definition and characteristics ! deposit the initial samples on a sheet of canvas extended on flat land and mix them until obtaining one homogeneous pile. APPARENT SPECIFIC WEIGHT DETERMINATION ! weigh each of the filled 200 litre containers and determine the net weight of the waste subtracting the weight of the container. fill a two litre container with the broken up material and close the container as hermetically as possible. spread the contents of one of the containers on a canvas sheet extended on flat land. ! ! separate the waste according to the defined list of components. rain. ! divide the pile of homogenized waste into four equal parts and select two of them (always opposite quarters. Mix these two parts homogenizing the content (the remaining two quarters should be sent for final disposal in the landfill). ! repeat the previous procedure until the volume of each of the quarters is just over 1m³: ! separate one quarter at random and use it to completely fill five previously weighed 200 litre metal containers. GRAVIMETRIC COMPOSITION DETERMINATION ! ! define the list of components to identify depending on the objectives. divide the total weight of the sample by the weight of each component and calculate the percentage of each component in relation to the whole in order to determine the gravimetric composition.
The following is a simplified calculation methodology for use in cities without a weighbridge to weigh solid waste on arrival at the final disposal site. weigh the dry material repeatedly until the weight remains constant. ! ! estimate the percentage of the population served by the collection service. ! ! ! CALCULATION OF PER CAPITA GENERATION The per capita generation of solid waste can be determined by means of field studies on households pre-selected on the basis of appropriate statistical data so that they are representative of the overall socioeconomic profile of the population. based on the above percentage and the total number of inhabitants in the city calculate the number of inhabitants served by the collection service. 68 . ! ! calculate the per capita generation rate by dividing the total weight of waste (in kg) by the number of inhabitants served and then dividing this result by seven to obtain the daily rate. using the specific weight value determined by applying the technique described in a previous section. The following observations are significant: ! sample collection and the measurement of waste being taken to a landfill must never be undertaken on a Sunday or Monday as. due to collection patterns.HUMIDITY CONTENT DETERMINATION ! weigh the two litre sample. these are atypical days for the purposes of determining waste generation. ! measure the volume of waste taken to the landfill during one working week. subtract the dry material weight from the humid sample weight thus determining the percentage of humidity. convert the total volume (in m³) of waste that has arrived at the landfill into total weight (in kg). or by means of procedures undertaken at the final disposal site that produce relevant data. put the sample in an oven at 105ºC for 24 hours or at 75º C for 48 hours.
unless a determination of seasonal influence on the city’s waste generation is required. where possible measurements should always be taken between the 10th and the 20th of a month to avoid distortions nearer the end of a month. ! 69 . ! never measure humidity content on a rainy day. definition and characteristics ! in tourist cities samples should never be taken during school holidays or bank holidays.5. Solid waste: origin.
6 Solid waste quantity projections 70 .
898 80.305 It is known that the greater the economic development of a city (in general related to population size).629 77. Let us suppose that a projection is required for an urban cleaning system in a nontourist city with a current urban population of 50.000 51.963 59. Therefore.636 56.702 61. the larger the per capita solid waste generation. With a projection horizon of 20 years population values would be as in table 10: Table 10 Demographic projection Year Current 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Urban population (inhabitants) 50.000 that is growing at an annual rate of 3% and where the per capita waste generation has been measured as 530g/ inhab/day.195 Year 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Urban population (inhabitants) 69. The following example shows procedures to be followed. A careful analysis should be made of up to date demographic data in order to make reliable population projections (see table 10) and calculate solid waste production over time.426 75.275 57. it is necessary to have demographic data on the resident and seasonal populations. Solid waste quantity projections For an accurate solid waste generation projection. especially in tourist cities where tourists can sometimes generate more solid waste than permanent residents.6.121 87.045 54.211 71.493 63.675 90.238 67. It is important to have data on seasonal fluctuations in population numbers and to take this into account when making projections for solid waste generation in tourist cities.642 85. in 71 .287 73.500 53.338 65.235 82.
55 0.235 82.54 0.275 57.305 Per capita (g/inhab.6 33.963 59.4 38.54 0.675 90.1 29.338 65.55 0.53 0.8 48.426 75.such a case the evolution of the per capita production would be estimated as in table 11: Table 11 Evolution of per capita solid waste generation Period Year 1 to 7 Year 8 to 14 Year 15 to 21 Per capita (g/inhab/day) 530 540 550 Thus the projected amount of solid waste produced daily over 20 years is as in table 12: Table 12 Projected amount of solid waste generation Year Current 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Demographic projection (inhabitants) 50.493 63.54 0.53 0.54 0./day) 0.53 0.195 69.0 29.2 35.54 0.045 54.642 85.8 44.53 0.636 56.629 77.55 0.3 37.54 0.7 41.898 80.2 34.53 0.702 61.53 0.55 0.121 87.2 49.55 0.55 Amount of waste (t) 26.7 72 .2 36.3 28.5 27.55 0.7 31.53 0.54 0.287 73.500 53.238 67.6 42.000 51.5 46.211 71.8 30.5 39.1 45.
A five year horizon is used because changes in a city’s urbanization are significant over a period of time greater than that. it is common to consider a five year projection horizon for planning waste collection and the cleaning of streets and other public spaces. Solid waste quantity projections When an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan is formulated. especially in mediumsized and large cities in Latin America and the Caribbean.6. For projections relating to solid waste treatment and final disposal a 15 year term is more common. 73 . At the end of the five years an assessment of the situation is made and if necessary planning is updated.
7 Solid waste preparation and storage 74 .
Appropriate preparation and storage is important for: ! ! ! ! ! avoiding accidents. avoiding vector proliferation. In urban zones of low quality dwellings and low demographic density there are generally more animals. Figure 5 – Open air solid waste accumulation point Incorrectly prepared and stored solid waste attracts animals. horses and pigs.2 The importance of appropriate preparation and storage The quality of solid waste collection and transportation operations depends on an appropriate preparation and storage of waste and its presence in the place. facilitating collection. In addition such domestic waste attracts rats. reducing waste heterogeneity (in the case of selective collection). such as dogs. Solid waste preparation and storage 7. 75 . Citizens participation in this operation is therefore of great importance. flies. which results in waste being scattered over a large area. mice. damage to the environment and a risk to public health. on the day and at the time established by the urban cleaning body responsible for collection.7. minimizing visual and odour impacts.1 Concept Pre-collection solid waste preparation and storage should be done in an appropriately sanitary way taking into account the type and quantity of waste 7. that roam freely in the streets and frequently tear rubbish bags and knock down containers to access the remains of food. In many cities open air domestic waste accumulation points appear spontaneously causing scattered refuse in the streets. cockroaches and other disease vectors that feed and breed in the refuse.
used oil and fuel drums. Receptacles for domestic waste pre-collection storage should have the following characteristics: ! a maximum loaded weight of 30 kg if the collection is manual. ! the relevant public body takes action to contain the proliferation of rats and mice. however they are acceptable in the context of the socioeconomic conditions that prevail for most inhabitants there. inhabitants of such zones are instructed to put refuse out in the street at a time as close as possible to the collection time. 7. sometimes cut in half. quantity of refuse generated. frequency of collection. supermarket type or specifically for refuse. ! a more appropriate type of container is provided for the solid waste. An example can be found in cities in the north and northeast of Brazil. type of building. with special anchoring devices that enhance their stability. stationary or on wheels. where alternative containers are skilfully made with old tyres. plastic bags. ! ! refuse collection is more frequent and regular in such zones. large metal or plastic containers.To limit damage caused by the activities of such animals it is recommended that: ! the municipality implements regular operations to remove animals that are free in the streets. There are also creative initiatives for storing this type of waste. 76 . wood or cardboard boxes. Larger containers should be standardized so that they can be handled by mechanical devices incorporated in the collector vehicles in order to reduce manual labour.3 Characteristics of pre-collection storage containers The choice of container type should be based on: ! ! ! ! ! refuse characteristics. This is a way of using discarded tyres but the containers are heavy and not very practical. In Latin American and Caribbean cities diverse containers are used for putting out and storing domestic waste for collection: ! ! ! ! ! metal or plastic bins. price of container.
after collection there will be no receptacles left on the street and residents will not need to clean receptacles. ! closable in order to avoid waste spillage or exposure. Another issue is that most plastic bags are non-biodegradable. there are not many objections to their use. including when separately packaged. easy to empty without leaving waste at the bottom. From an environmental perspective there are usually reservations about the use of plastic bags for domestic waste storage. ! safe in that injury is not caused to users or collectors by sharp edged or pointed waste. they are light. polythene bags do not contaminate the atmosphere when appropriately incinerated. but as the use of sanitary landfills is a practically definitive waste disposal method. non-returnable (so collection is more efficient) and allow for silent collection. However. Rigid and semi-rigid receptacles (plastic and metal bins. the use of supermarket plastic bags (used for transporting purchased products to the home) can be acceptable for the pre-collection storage of domestic waste as they do not involve any extra cost.7. In the latter case collection will be more efficient. In Latin American and Caribbean cities where the income level of most inhabitants is low. an important factor particularly for nocturnal collections. 77 . ! ! From a planning perspective another characteristic has to be taken into account: whether the receptacles are returnable or non-returnable. not producing excessive noise when handled. especially in connection with waste incineration processes. it can be concluded that plastic bags are the most convenient receptacles for storing domestic waste prior to manual collection because: ! they are easy to close by tying. ! ! their price is affordable and they can be standardized. containers) should have lids and be stable enough that they are not easily knocked over. For these reasons. Flexible packaging (plastic bags) should be closable. ! economical and affordable for the general public. Solid waste preparation and storage ! devices that facilitate its movement between its place in the building and the place of collection.
4 Domestic waste pre-collection preparation and storage The most appropriate containers for pre-collection domestic waste storage are plastic bags. Figure 6 – Standardized wheelie bins 7. relatively silent. and economical due to their durability (especially if not exposed permanently to sunlight) and have a pleasing appearance. For multi-family housings (apartment blocks) and office blocks standardized wheelie bins with lids are more appropriate as they allow for semi-automatic collection. it being fundamental for example. Plastic bags with a capacity of more than 100 litres are not safe as collectors tend to hold them against their bodies while carrying them to the truck and pieces of glass and other sharp objects in the waste can injure them. 78 . which is more efficient and safer. that they wear appropriate protection gloves. There are wheelie bins of 120. appropriate procedures to reduce the risk of injury to collectors must always be observed. These containers are easy to handle as they have wheels.In regard to the safe handling of plastic bags containing waste. wheelie bins and metal containers. 240 and 360 litre capacity on the market. are light.
a lid and wheels. a tape to close the top. They are used for the storage and transport of domestic waste.7. Such plastic bags should have the following characteristics: ! ! ! ! resistance so that they do not break when handled.100 litres (four wheeled containers). 240 or 360 litres (two wheeled bins) and 760 or 1. 30. comprising a body. Solid waste preparation and storage Plastic bags Waste can be stored in non-returnable plastic bags to be collected by collection vehicles. but can also be used for certain public waste (for example when they are used to store the waste from street sweeping). a colour standardized by the relevant body In general these characteristics are regulated by technical standards. different only in their colour from those for residential waste. Figure 8 – Metal container 79 . a capacity of 20. generally have four small wheels and can be emptied by means of tipping devices installed in compaction trucks. Plastic wheelie bins These are containers made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with a capacity of 120. Domestic waste produced by large generators – the collection and transport of which should be undertaken if possible by private companies authorized by the municipality – can be stored in containers similar to the one in figure 7. Figure 7 – Plastic wheelie bin Metal containers These receptacles.500 litres. with a capacity that ranges between 750 and 1. They are made of partly recycled material plus additives to protect them from the action of ultraviolet rays. 50 or 100 litres.
In this context the use of plastic rubbish bins with a 50 litre capacity. These containers should be installed in parks. due to an ever intensifying use of portable electrical and electronic gadgets. streets. For example. a standardized colour and a special hole in the front part of the lid represents a good option for storing discarded batteries. 80 . in order to maintain the city in a hygienic and clean condition. For many years this type of container was metallic and was of a shape and colour determined by municipal administrations.5 Pre-collection storage of street waste Rubbish bins There are several types of container that can be installed in the street for passers-by to deposit rubbish.Figure 9 – Mechanized metal container tipping 7. are becoming increasingly numerous. a growing environmental awareness in society is resulting in the separation of used batteries that. a lid and a metal tray to stub out cigarettes before throwing them into the bin. public gardens. maintenance and replacement of these metal bins were an obstacle to them being more widely used. Such rubbish bins have a capacity of 50 litres and consist of a body in which rubbish is deposited. They are made of partly recycled material plus additives to protect them from the action of ultraviolet rays. This type of bin can be used for other purposes. avenues and other public spaces that people pass through. squares. easier to install and cheaper. The high costs of the production. more durable. Currently plastic rubbish bins are increasingly used as they are lighter.
can be bigger. Construction rubble requires the use of thicker plastic bags with less volumetric capacity due to the higher specific weight of the material to be stored. Wheelie bins /stationary containers As with plastic bags. Figure 12 . Solid waste preparation and storage Figure 10 – Rubbish bin Figure 11 – Battery bin Plastic bags Plastic bags similar to those used for residential waste can be used for the pre-collection storage of public waste. However metal containers are different. This system is also known as “brooks” or “dumpster”. This type of container is interchangeable and the vehicle that collects a full container brings an empty one to replace it. particularly that collected by sweeping. The difference is that bags for public waste. plastic containers for public waste are exactly like those used for storing residential waste.– Dumpster carrier truck with multifunction crane transporting stationary container 81 .7. Metal containers used for public waste pre-collection storage are stationary receptacles generally with a volumetric capacity of 5 or 7 m³ that can be emptied by compactor trucks (depending on the nature of the waste) or by dumpster carrier trucks equipped with a multifunctional crane to load and unload the containers.
which results in the above mentioned environmental and sanitary problems. there can be fires due to acts of vandalism and a bad odour is produced. In such circumstances standardized plastic containers (with wheels and lid) can be located at previously determined points with as frequent collections as possible. amongst other problems. For all the above reasons. waste becomes scattered around it. They are stationary closed metal containers with an incorporated waste compaction device.6 Pre-collection storage of waste in low demographic density and low-income areas In informal settlement dwellings and low-income housing estate households there is usually little space for storing waste. 82 . users tend to ignore it. Consequently as waste is produced it is taken out of the houses and put on the street. If it is not possible to provide plastic containers. operational and economic capacities of the municipality. when this type of storage is adopted containers must be changed at appropriately frequent and rigorously observed intervals in order to maintain the cleanliness of the area. one of which is the design of the containers that in general do not have a lid. animals forage in it. and when they do have one. one alternative is to provide brooks type dumpsters. However experience demonstrates that this type of container does not produce satisfactory results as. Figure 13 – Brooks dumpster outside a low income community settlement Compaction containers represent a more appropriate solution than brooks dumpsters for pre-collection storage of domestic solid waste in such special areas. Such problems result from a series of factors. and are handled by special vehicles. Their use depends on the amount of waste generated by a community and the technical. awareness raising campaigns should be instigated in the community and an efficient supervision system should be set up.7.
The limit of 120 litres was established to correspond with the capacity of the smallest plastic container with lid and wheels that is available on the market.7 Pre-collection storage of waste produced by large generators Where a specific regulation specifies that commercial and industrial establishments generating more than 120 litres of solid waste per day are categorized as “large generators”. 7. provides technical support and supervises the quality of the operation. in general two main types of large container with a capacity of more than 360 litres are used: 83 . blue containers for large generators and orange containers for normal collections). The body responsible for urban cleaning pays for the services undertaken. Solid waste preparation and storage Figure 14 – Compaction container system It is advisable to establish a team of workers to operate a system for maintaining clean and hygienic conditions in the most problematic poor communities. The associations hire their own employees and are responsible for the management of the work. For collections from large generators and public establishments. contracts are established with residents associations in low income communities whereby they undertake the operation of domestic waste collection and cleaning services for internal streets. Rio de Janeiro for example.7. containers for the pre-collection storage of such waste should be standardized. One of the conditions of this type of contract is that local labour is employed so that local jobs are generated and the community’s awareness of these issues increases as it becomes directly responsible for the cleaning of the settlement. Satisfactory results from this type of program have led to its implementation in almost all of Rio de Janeiro’s informal settlements. In some cities. It is practical for containers used by large generators to be different in colour and size from those used for normal collections in order to facilitate supervision (for example.
Due to the large volumes of rubble. in which cases they are informally referred to as “compactainers”. generally metal.150 or 1. and can be equipped with electric devices for compaction. ! stationary containers without wheels.500 litres. that are interchangeable or are emptied into collection trucks.! metal or plastic (high density polyethylene) containers on wheels that are taken to collection vehicles and mechanically emptied into them. and therefore the size of containers needed to store it. Within the concept of sustainable development established by Agenda 21. In addition construction rubble uses a lot of space in sanitary landfills. 1. Interchangeable containers are moved by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional cranes or by roll-on /roll-off type trucks. similar to those used for storing public waste.8 Special domestic waste pre-collection storage Construction rubble Due to its high apparent specific weight. The biggest challenges presented by construction rubble are: 84 . the reduction of waste and the reuse of it and its by-products are fundamental to the new approaches that society must adopt. space that could be used to deposit non-recyclable types of waste. a significant problem is caused for the circulation of passers-by and vehicles as well as for parking vehicles. These metal containers have a capacity of 3 to 30 m³. Figure 15 – Double dumpster carrier truck with interchangeable containers Figure 16 Roll-on /roll-off truck 7. construction rubble is normally stored in stationary metal containers of 4 or 5m³. The very large containers (20 to 30 m³) are moved by roll-on/roll-off truck equipment either with steel cables pulled by a winch or by hydraulic cylinders. In general these containers have a capacity of 760. Containers of up to 5m³ are emptied into collection trucks by means of steel cables powered by hydraulic devices.
which is explosive in contact with the air. treatment and final disposal systems. Due to their toxicity and the difficulties involved in stopping them being discarded in domestic refuse. ! to reuse generated rubble in the productive cycle thus reducing the consumption of energy and natural resources. 85 . Partially discharged nickel-cadmium batteries must be individually pre-wrapped in plastic bags. Storage containers should be located in places with good ventilation and protection from the elements. and must be kept on platforms or pallets in order to keep them dry. The large numbers and variety of devices that use batteries. commercial outlets and technical assistance networks. have resulted in them often ending up together with the general domestic waste in sanitary landfills where they contaminate the environment. Any legal measures implemented for the regulation of such a system must set a specific timeframe for these stakeholders to establish operational mechanisms for the collection. transport and final disposal of batteries should be taken on by producers.7. together with their small size and the general public’s lack of knowledge about the dangers that they pose. Such legislation should reflect the “polluter pays” principle. Fluorescent tubes Fluorescent tubes also require specific legislation to regulate the way in which they are discarded. responsibility for the storage. stored and handled. and their treatment and final disposal. Legislation should also establish a timeframe within which producers and importers of batteries must implement reuse. Batteries Partially discharged batteries must be stored in such a way that their electrodes do not come into contact with the electrodes of other batteries or with metal objects such as the internal sides of a metal drum. Solid waste preparation and storage ! to reduce the amount of rubble generated thus reducing the use of limited space available for disposal. Containers with stored batteries must be sealed to avoid the release of hydrogen. transport and storage of discarded batteries. recycling. collection. importers.
accompanied by the following information: ! ! ! source (name and address of company or institution). this should be done in covered areas protected from the elements. One of the principal problems with the storage of tyres for collection or recycling is that they accumulate water when left out in the open and thus facilitate the proliferation of disease vectors. Tyres Due to problems associated with the inappropriate disposal of tyres. Tyre storage should respect the following guidelines: ! tyres should not be accumulated but should be sent for disposal at the time that they are discarded. Discarded tyres have been used as fuel in furnaces for the production of cement and also to produce asphalt. a record of these invoices must be kept for at least three years. if possible plastic ones. 86 . ! they should never be burned. tubes should not be broken or physically modified. ! if it is necessary to keep them. ! ! ! ! if a tube breaks. once a sufficient number of tubes has been accumulated they should be sent for recycling. ! all boxes should be labelled. in a reserved area to avoid them being broken.Procedures for handling fluorescent tubes that contain mercury must respect the following requirements: ! intact tubes should be stored in boxes. number of tubes sent. details of the transport company and the recycling company. ! broken tubes should be stored in sealed containers and labelled in the following way: “Broken fluorescent tubes containing mercury”. and following the example of the system for dealing with batteries. date dispatched. producers and importers of tyres should be obliged to collect and dispose of discarded tyres in an environmentally sound way. the pieces of glass must be removed and the area must be washed.
handling and storage of waste follows the same procedures and uses the same receptacles as those for domestic waste. storage and management. usually of woven polypropylene.9 Special origin waste pre-collection storage Industrial waste Industrial waste is usually stored in: ! 200 litre metal drums for non-corrosive solid waste.100 and 1. ! medium-sized cardboard boxes of up to 50 litre capacity for waste to be incinerated. flexible containers. which include the following requirements: ! personnel handling this type of waste must use the obligatory minimum individual protection equipment. It is therefore necessary to establish permanent sanitary vigilance and handle waste in a particularly hygienic manner. i. ! containers must be radiation proof (lead.7. or other situations of risk identified by the body responsible for sanitary vigilance. ! ! ! standardized plastic containers of 120.600 litres for waste that allows for the use of returnable containers.e. Solid waste preparation and storage 7. Medical waste The handling of medical waste (see table 4) must follow specific regulations that stipulate procedures for waste segregation at source. In normal conditions. etc. 1.). 240. Radioactive waste The handling and storing of radioactive waste must comply with the stipulations of the national body responsible for the control and supervision of this type of waste. 87 . with a large storage capacity almost always of more than 1m³. However in cases of quarantine alert. 200 or 300 litre plastic drums for corrosive solid waste or semi-solid waste in general. bags. 360. 750. Port and airport waste From a sanitary perspective ports and airports are places where not only people and goods disembark but also diseases. concrete. special methods must be applied to the handling of personal waste and goods coming from countries with epidemics.
the rate of hospitalization due to such infections diminished by 80%. non-recyclable cream – infectious or special waste (except radioactive waste) ! ! Figure 17 – Plastic bags for medical waste 88 . A lack of care when handling infectious waste is the principal cause of infections in hospitals. after the introduction of clear infectious waste segregation procedures. In Brazil the criteria are the following: ! transparent – common waste. They should be strong. Infectious waste represents between 10 and 15 % of all waste but carries a high contamination risk while common waste does not require any special treatment. An example that illustrates this is the case of municipal hospitals in Rio de Janeiro where.) must be separately discarded at source in rigid containers with hermetic lids and a clear identification of the type of waste that they contain. recyclable opaque colours – common waste.The principal procedure is the segregation at source of infectious and common waste. Pre-collection storage of common waste follows the same procedures as for domestic waste. Infectious waste must in general be put in well identified strong impermeable plastic bags at the moment of its generation. Plastic bags should comply with established colour code specifications. glass. etc. Puncturing and sharp waste (needles. Special waste should be stored in receptacles that guarantee its physical integrity. rigid plastic containers with hermetic lids and a clear identification of the type of waste that they contain.
7. Solid waste preparation and storage
Subsequently the plastic bags must be placed in containers that can be easily moved to a temporary storage facility. These containers must be white for infectious waste and any other colour for common waste.
Figure 18 – Infectious waste containers
Temporary storage facilities must have tiled floors and walls and rounded corners to facilitate the washing of floors and walls.
Figure 19 – Temporary storage facility for infectious waste containers
Personnel handling infectious waste (except radioactive and hazardous chemical waste, which are not the responsibility of urban cleaning systems) should use the following individual protection equipment (IPE):
! ! ! ! !
plastic apron; plastic gloves; PVC boots (for floor and wall washing) or closed shoes; goggles; mask.
Solid waste collection and transport
8. Solid waste collection and transport
Domestic waste collection and transport Concept
Collection is the removal of waste stored by the generator for dispatch by appropriate transport to a transfer station, treatment unit or final disposal site. The collection and transportation of domestic waste generated in households and small-sized public, commercial or service establishments is generally undertaken by the municipal body responsible for urban cleaning. Municipalities may provide these services through their own resources, concessions to companies, outsourcing to companies, or mixed systems such as rented vehicles and municipal labour. It is recommended that solid waste from large generators (establishments that produce more than 120 litres of waste a day) is collected by private companies, registered and authorized by the municipality, without any cost to the public system.
Hotels and restaurants are examples of large solid waste generators in tourist cities.
Common domestic waste collection can be defined as the collection of refuse produced in residential, public and commercial buildings, provided that the latter do not represent large generators.
Domestic waste collection services to each building should be regular, always on the same days of the week and at the same times. When services are regular, citizens will become accustomed to taking waste containers or bags out to the pavement in front of their building a short time before the collection vehicle passes. Consequently domestic waste is not left exposed in the street for more time than is necessary, thus avoiding the presence of unsightly waste in the street and its scattering by animals or people.
In tourist cities special attention should be paid to the amount of time that waste remains in the street, due to the importance of aesthetics, unpleasant odour emissions and the danger of attracting disease vectors and animals.
Regular collection is therefore one of the principal requirements for a good quality service.
In cities that have the means to weigh collected waste, the regularity of collections can be mathematically verified by comparing the weight of waste over two or three consecutive weeks. The weight of waste collected on the same day of each week (for example the weight of the waste collected on a Monday compared with that of the waste collected the following Monday) should not vary by more than 10%. Similarly, the distance travelled by collection vehicles should be more or less constant on the same day of different weeks as the itinerary of each particular day of the week is always the same (with the same number of journeys to the waste destination point). Collection irregularities are clearly indicated by accumulations of waste in the streets and by the amounts of complaints received. The ideal for a domestic solid waste collection system is therefore to establish fixed collection times and inform the entire community of them through individual communications to the responsible person in each building and even the posting of notices in the streets. The community will come to trust the reliability of the collection service and will then cooperate by not discarding waste in inappropriate places, by storing waste for collection in appropriate receptacles and by putting it out in the appropriate place on the day and at the time stipulated, all of which will contribute to increased environmental hygiene and public health, and the cleanliness and improved appearance of the street.
For climatic reasons, in most Latin American and Caribbean cities the interval between domestic waste generation and its final disposal should be of no more than one week in order to avoid bad odours and the proliferation of flies, rodents and other animals attracted by the waste.
This situation is exacerbated in cities that use transfer stations (see chapter 9) as waste is stored there for one or two days before being transported to the landfill where it is finally covered with earth at the end of the day it arrives. If domestic waste collection frequency is three times a week, the waste produced for example on a Saturday may not be collected until the following Tuesday (three days later). If it is then stored in the transfer station for two days and one more day is required for its burial in the landfill, the total number of days between generation and final disposal can be as many as six. Consequently, the minimum collection frequency recommended for warm weather countries is three times a week.
Twice weekly collections, which are very common in suburban areas of Latin American and Caribbean cities, should therefore be avoided. Budgetary restrictions represent one of the main obstacles that municipal administrations face in their attempts to provide sufficiently frequent services. The capacity of households to store solid waste also has to be taken into consideration. In informal settlements and other low income communities, houses do not have the
8. Solid waste collection and transport
capacity (due to limited space) to store waste for more than one day. The same problem is faced in city centres where commercial and service provision establishments not only have insufficient storage space but also produce a considerable amount of waste. In all such cases daily waste collection is preferable.
To significantly reduce costs and optimize the use of collection vehicle fleets, if possible, collection should always be done in two shifts. To obtain maximum performance the ideal usage of the collection fleet would be:
Monday, Wednesday and Friday Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday
¼ of the routes ¼ of the routes
¼ of the routes ¼ of the routes
If for example, 24 collection routes are established, with a collection frequency of three times a week, the number of collection vehicles required would be 24÷4= 6 (with an additional reserve representing at least 10% of the operational fleet, in this example one extra vehicle).
It is recommended that the day is divided into two 12 hours periods with one eight hour working shift in each period. The first shift for example, could begin at 07.00 hrs and the second at 19.00 hrs, so that there would be an interval for maintenance and repair services between the two shifts. In many Latin American and Caribbean cities the ideal of two waste collection shifts per day is not possible due to the type of urbanization that exists in some neighbourhoods where, for example, access streets are precarious and street lighting is scarce, which can make a nocturnal collection shift impossible. The issue of urban violence should also be considered here.
In streets and public areas where sweeping services are not frequent the cleanliness of the collection operation is very important, that is, it is necessary to collect the refuse put out for collection without leaving any refuse scattered in the street.
Whenever possible, sweeping should be done after a collection to remove any refuse that may have been left scattered in the area.
Equilibrium between routes The tasks assigned to each collection team have to represent the same amount of work. A team is the group of workers assigned to a collection vehicle to perform solid waste collection activities. In the future more modern and silent vehicles may be needed. reflecting the tendency for higher productivity with private labour. Several elements should be taken into account. In the case of a collection truck with compaction facility the motor should not be revved up to accelerate the cycle of compaction but should at all times have its automatic acceleration device functioning.In central and commercial zones collection should take place at night when the circulation of people and vehicles has diminished. particularly in large urban centres. In purely residential neighbourhoods it is preferable that collection takes place during the day but avoiding the times when there is more traffic on the principal roads. changes in the characteristics of neighbourhoods and an irregular collection service. During night time collections all necessary measures should be taken to reduce noise. In tourist cities collections should avoid the hours of peak tourist activity in relevant locations. such as: Collection teams In Latin American and Caribbean cities teams have from two to five members per truck. The determination of collection times should also take into account the parking of private vehicles in streets. The collection team should be instructed not to raise their voices. so that the physical effort required of the different teams is equivalent.1. 94 . electric ones perhaps. The team leader’s stop/start commands should be given through a switch at the back of the truck connected to a light in the drivers cab. The truck’s engine should always be well tuned and its silencer in good condition. 8. Municipal teams tend to have more members than those of private companies that provide collection services.5 Restructuring domestic collection routes Some of the factors that indicate a need for the restructuring of collection routes are: increases or decreases in the population. to respond to an ever more demanding general public.
It should also be taken into account that different workers have different physical constitutions and teams should be balanced in this respect. Data collection must include statistical data from high. Solid waste collection and transport In zones with high concentrations of waste collectors carry a lot of weight but walk relatively short distances. depending on the socioeconomic stratum of the inhabitants. ideally a more precise technical evaluation of this parameter should be made. as this data is essential for an effective restructuring of regular waste collection routes. Although it is possible to calculate the per capita domestic waste generation rate through the simplified method explained in chapter 5.50 and 0. In most small and medium-sized Latin American and Caribbean cities the average per capita generation is between 0. the amount of calories consumed can be approximately the same.80 kg/inhab/day (see chapter 5. The location of the fleet garage is another factor to be heeded in planning. In both cases. 95 . The physical notion involved is that of “work”: work = force x distance The restructuring method described here is one of the more simple ones and consists of the division of the area to be restructured into “sub-areas” with a similar demographic density and waste concentration (measured in kg/m). daily per capita waste generation can be calculated. a certain technical rigour should be applied to the determination of this rate as it can vary between 0. given the great variations between the different zones of a city.35kg and 1. Each of these sub-areas can then represent the same amount of work and working time. public establishments and commercial premises. Such variations could distort the dimensions of collection routes which would then require considerable adjustment during the implementation phase of a new collection program.8. Verification of the amount of domestic waste generated It is important to verify the amount of solid waste that is generated in households. Collection route starting points Routes should be laid out in such a way that teams begin at the point farthest from the destination of the waste so that as they work they are diminishing the remaining distance to be covered. As has already been mentioned. Using data projection based on the latest available census.00kg per person per day in different areas of the city. whereas in zones with low concentrations of waste they carry less weight but walk further. medium and low income neighbourhoods. table 6 – Frequently used categories for determining per capita solid waste generation).
and is repeatedly filled and emptied until all collected waste has passed through it. so that necessary adjustments can be made. following the itinerary of the route. ! on pronounced slopes collections should be made beginning at the top and working downwards to save the energy of the team and the fuel of the truck. When the restructuring plans are ready the new routes can be used for two weeks. 96 . recording times.70kg/inhab/day = 140. for example 100 litres. is used. see example in figure 20. a simplified approximate method. the restructuring of collection routes can be more complex and involve other variables that the planner has to take into account. In this way the total number of receptacles per trip and the number of trips per shift. after which problematic details can be adjusted.000kg/day This data is essential for calculating the required number of vehicles in the domestic waste collection fleet. The number of times that the receptacle is emptied into the collection truck is counted to determine how many times it is filled during a collection from one street block. This method consists of: ! doing the cubing per block on the days of the week with more waste production. ! progressively adding up the number of receptacles per street block. until the truck is full.Where for example the daily per capita solid waste generation is 0.000. the weight of waste generated daily for collection will be: 200. called cubing. an alternative should be sought such as gaining access to the weighbridge of a company or public body. Lack of a weighbridge to weigh waste If there is no weighbridge to weigh truck loads of solid waste at its destination. ! test the new routes in practice.70kg and the population is 200. repeating this process for each trip in each shift. Should this prove impossible.000 inhabitants x 0. can be used to restructure collection routes on the basis of the volume of collected waste. per vehicle can be determined. To calculate the amount of waste by cubing a standard receptacle of known capacity. In practice. in general Mondays and Tuesdays. The calculation of per capita waste generation can be done at the same time as studies to determine solid waste characteristics. ! writing down on a map the number of receptacles per street block.
pronounced slopes and ease of access and manoeuvre for the vehicles. Routes should be designed through successive experimentation with a view to finding the optimum one that at the same time responds to conditions such as the direction of one-way streets. Collection route layouts Collection routes should be laid out in such a way that unproductive stretches are minimized.8. that is those along which there is no waste to collect. the avoidance of left turns in two-way streets and duplicated or unproductive stretches.Heuristic method collection route layout 97 . See figure 21 for an example of a rational collection route (heuristic method) Figure 21 . taking into account the direction of traffic. Solid waste collection and transport Figure 20 .Example A street block is each one of the sides of a block in the city. Collection route layouts tend to be arrived at through the “heuristic” method.
600 16.100 17.200 17.08 1. surveying and systematizing the characteristics of each route. analyzing the collected data.400 14. Sub-area II I – Commercial sub-area Sub-area I II – Predominantly residential sub-area III – Hills sub-area Sub-area III Figure 22 Table 13 Current routes – Mondays and Tuesdays Routes Length of route m (1) 14.839 1.12 1.828 1.875 4.851 2.13 Kg/Worker (2)/(4) 4.93 - Workers per team (4) 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 - Rates Kg/hr (2)/(3) 2. A city where the collection routes need to be restructured has to be divided into subareas of similar demographic density.900 Average time of work hrs* (3) 8.100 3.15 1.550 4.36 10.325 4.17 1.667 1.900 4.275 - 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Averages Totals * hours calculated in decimals ** kg/m = waste concentration 98 .180 14.78 8.Collection route restructuring method This method consists of: ! ! ! ! dividing the city in sub-areas. the concentration of waste in each area.141 - Weight of waste Kg (2) 16. Let us suppose that in sub-area II there are currently eight collection routes.500 18.000 1.01 8.100 153.575 4.012 1.20 0.350 3.300 19.977 2. II and III.250 13.75 8.915 Kg/m** (2)/(1) 1.040 13. sub-areas I.400 15. the new weight of waste for collection per shift.870 15.600 18. The data for the current program can be seen in table 13.65 9.96 1.120 18.99 9.660 15.169 1. covered in two shifts three times a week by two compaction vehicles.300 17.19 1.525 4.410 15. restructuring routes based on: ! ! ! the elimination (or minimization) of overtime.20 7.72 8. for example.18 1.
the length of each route is multiplied by the waste concentration until obtaining an approximate weight of 15. As in future the area will be covered by 10 routes. in practice two routes more.744kg = 31. it can be seen that the time used to complete the routes is too much and therefore requires overtime (based on the supposition that the collection is done regularly). Therefore: W01 = 2.343kg.390kg/future route Future routes should be marked on the map taking into account the concentration of waste in each area (expressed in kg/m). W = kg/h x Ts Where Ts is the duration of the work shift (8hours in this case).624kg Total weight 112.828 x 8 = 14.03 new routes That is. one on Mondays.808kg W06 = 2.000kg W02 = 1. applying the formula: LxC=W Where: L = length of route (m) C = waste concentration (kg/m) W = average weight of future routes (kg) 99 .839 x 8 = 14.156kg ÷ 15.712kg W03 = 1.851 x 8 = 14. the weight to be collected per working shift can be calculated assuming no change in the productivity of collectors. it will be necessary to initiate: 31.096kg W07 = 1.169 x 8 = 17.156kg As the average collection weight for new routes would be approximately 15.667 x 8 = 13.744kg Average weight 15.8. If the objective is to finish the collection in eight hours and thus avoid overtime.343kg = 2.000 x 8 = 16. Solid waste collection and transport With a normal work shift of 8 hours.390kg/route. To achieve this. uncollected waste would amount to: 153.336kg W08 = 1.343kg As the weight that can be collected in an eight hour work shift is 15.012 x 8 = 16.352kg W05 = 1.900kg – 112.816kg W04 = 2.900kg ÷ 10 routes = 15. the average weight per route will be: 153.343kg/ route. Thursdays and Saturdays. Wednesdays and Fridays and the other on Tuesdays.977 x 8 = 15.
even load distribution on the truck’s chassis.20m from the floor. a compaction rate of at least 3:1. adequate space for transporting the team.6 Collection vehicles There are two types of specialized vehicle in general use for domestic waste collection and transport: ! ! compactors – rear loader or side loader. three vehicles can be used during the first shift and two during the second. Fluctuations in the number of tourists also have to be taken into account as they cause increases or decreases in waste production. if on Mondays and Tuesdays two journeys are necessary. Particularly in smaller cities with limited budgetary resources conventional open dump trucks are frequently used as well as other equipment described later. The type and capacity of the vehicles depend on the number of journeys that are necessary to the final disposal site. rear loading (preferably). without compaction – with the box closed by sliding doors. a loading compartment capacity of at least 1. lifting devices to empty different types of containers. good manoeuvrability and potency for steep inclines.5m³. 100 . 8. the average load per journey would be 15. The number of vehicles will be: number of routes ÷ 4 = 2. A good domestic waste collection vehicle should have the following characteristics: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! that it does not spill waste or leachate on the street. For example. the possibility of emptying at least two receptacles at the same time.1.In the example. a waist high loading height of no more than 1.390kg. adequate carrying capacity to minimize the number of journeys to the waste destination while at the same time being appropriate for the characteristics of the operational area.695kg. When it is raining the weight of waste increases by 20%. the average weight of the future routes will be approximately 15.5 So. that is 3m³ are reduced by compaction to 1m³.390kg ÷ 2 = 7. fast unloading of waste at its destination.
In compactor vehicles it is essential to always take precautions with the compaction mechanism. the most recommendable technical solution is to use compactor collection vehicles wherever possible. In addition adequate space should always be available on the truck for the collection team. Every time the vehicle stops the team is exposed to the risk of injury through other vehicles colliding with the rear of the collection truck. 101 . Solid waste collection and transport Figure 23 . manoeuvring conditions. sometimes this is not an option for operational or economic reasons. The vehicle that is chosen should be the one with more of the above listed characteristics while taking into account the particular conditions of the service provision area (the condition of the streets. Some vehicles and equipment in general use for domestic waste collection are described below. etc. The risk of being run over is high and efficient preventative measures must always be taken.8. In such cases the most cost efficient type of vehicle and equipment should be selected. However.). due to the characteristics of a particular urban area.Containers being emptied into a compaction truck Solid waste collection operations involve dangers for the collection personnel. Therefore. topography.
public and commercial waste collection. They may have hydraulic devices for the automatic and independent unloading of standardized containers. Figure 24 . Its use can be limited by unfavourable road conditions such as irregular layouts. much higher than the compactor collector loading compartment height of approximately one metre. Total gross weight (TGW) = chassis weight + box weight + load weight. 12. This type of vehicle is used for domestic. which is more than two metres high. This truck represents a low cost option in terms of both purchase and maintenance but has quite a low productivity. 16 and 23 tons respectively. 102 . It requires great physical effort from the collection team who have to lift the waste up to the edge of the box. unpaved and potholed surfaces. It can also be used in areas with pronounced inclines. 15 or 19m³ corresponding to a truck TGWs of 9. The box volume can vary from 4 to 12m³ corresponding to a truck total gross weight (TGW) of from 7 to 12 tons. which are usually rear loaders but can be side loaders. appropriate for working in small communities with a low demographic density. 10. 14. 12. are made of steel and have a capacity of 6.Closed box truck Compactor collection trucks Solid waste compactor collection trucks. Unloading is by hydraulic box tipping. especially in zones where there are high concentrations of solid waste from large generators or a high demographic density. or roads unsuitable for heavy vehicles.Closed box collection trucks A solid waste collection vehicle without compaction.
Containers are located at strategic points close to 103 .Rear loader compactor collection truck – 10 to 15m³ Figure 27 .Side loader compactor collection truck – 6m³ Figure 26 .Rear loader compactor collection truck – 19m³ Dumpster carrier trucks for 5m³ stationary containers Domestic waste collection systems that employ 5m³ stationary containers replaced by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane are appropriate for zones with low quality houses or difficult access.8. Solid waste collection and transport Figure 25 .
104 . Figure 28 . The 7m³ capacity stationary compactors can be transported by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane. Stationary compactor (compaction container) collection trucks For the collection of large volumes of domestic waste special stationary metal containers incorporating a compaction device can be used.that transport only one 5m³ stationary container at a time. in general have capacity for 7 to 20m³ of loose waste and are transported on special vehicles.that can transport two 5m³ stationary containers at the same time. sanitary and economic advantages. double . compaction containers offer aesthetic. unloading is by tipping the box.Compactor container Traditional dump truck type collection vehicles These open box vehicles without a compaction device and not specifically designed for domestic solid waste collection are frequently used in small communities with a low demographic density and in areas of rough topography where it is difficult to manoeuvre bigger compactor trucks. while those with greater capacity are transported by roll-on / roll-off trucks. There are two types of dumpster carrier truck with differing operational capacity: ! ! single . These containers are called stationary compactors.the communities they serve but with easy access for the dumpster carrier trucks that replace loaded containers with empty ones. the volume of which can vary from 4 to 12 m³ in trucks that correspondingly vary from 7 to 12 tons TGW. As with closed box collection trucks. In big cities this system is slowly replacing the system of open stationary containers transported by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane because. being more hermetic and having a greater waste storage capacity.
The main disadvantage for domestic waste collection is that the box is open and it is therefore difficult to keep the load inside it (particularly lighter waste) and avoid it being scattered by the wind along the route. It can be used for various different activities. plastic bags. aesthetic and sanitary advantages when compared with other more conventional systems.7 Tools and implements used by collectors It is important that collection teams collect domestic waste without leaving any of it scattered around. Solid waste collection and transport This type of vehicle is attractive for small municipalities due to its operational flexibility. Amongst them is the “Molok” system that can be considered as an option in special situations. Special solid waste storage systems serviced by dump trucks equipped with a hydraulic crane are now available on the market. including in informal settlements.1. Figure 29 . However it is necessary to carry out a viability study before implementing this system as it requires significant initial investment for purchasing the containers.Dump truck with crane moving a special “Molok” container 8. not only waste collection. due to the low level of waste production. and is therefore appropriate for small cities where. Productivity is also negatively affected by the loading height of the box and this too should be considered. 105 . etc. Figure 29 shows this system in operation. a specialized vehicle would be unused for significant periods of time. In order to minimize this problem. Another advantage is its low purchase and maintenance costs. canvas or plastic sheeting can be used but in practice the efficiency of this is questionable as it significantly reduces the productivity of the collection team. due to its operational.8. For this purpose medium-sized sweeper brooms and shovels should be used.
for which purpose hand carts made of steel tubing with a metal container (sweeper cart). wheelbarrow and wheelie bin 106 .2 Collection of waste gathered by sweeping Waste collected by street sweeping can be transported by the sweepers while performing the service.A medium sized sweeper broom has a wooden base with 22 holes into which natural fibres or recycled plastic bristles are fixed. pruning and special waste collection (for example waste and mud deposited in the street by flooding). waste packed in plastic bags. These days the latter are increasingly being used.2. vehicles and equipment to be used in collection depend on the specific nature of each individual cleaning operation. such as sweeping. There are three basic categories that determine the collection method for public waste: ! ! ! loose waste accumulated on the ground. the type of waste generated and the form of storage. The method. weeding. 8. Figure 30 .2 Public solid waste collection and transport 8.2.Sweeper cart. wheelie bins or.1 Concept Public solid waste collection includes the collection and transport of waste gathered as a result of routine and emergency street cleaning activities. waste stored in wheelie bins or dumpsters. Differences in specific weight and other physical characteristics of waste demand different solutions for loading (manual or mechanical) and transport to a transfer station or final disposal unit. 8. wheelbarrows may be used. on pronounced inclines.
8. Solid waste collection and transport
In all cases it is recommendable that waste, which mostly comprises light material that can be easily scattered by the wind, is stored in plastic bags for collection. They can then be collected by compactor trucks (rear loaders or side loaders), which are especially appropriate in large cities due to the high productivity of this type of vehicle and the large volume of waste to be collected. The collection of this type of waste at the same time as domestic solid waste represents an important device for rationalizing collection and transport costs. Vehicles without compaction devices can also be used: closed box trucks, traditional dump trucks or dumpster carrier trucks that can handle stationary containers. Because sweeping is undertaken in the more urbanized zones of the city it is important to carefully plan the collection of this type of waste so that it remains on the street for the minimum possible time, bearing in mind that a slower collection process could adversely affect the municipal administration’s image of efficiency. As sweeping has to be done in each zone as a programmed routine on pre-established days and at specified times, it is completely feasible to integrate it with collection. To determine the quantity of waste collected by street sweeping, it is necessary to do a field survey in order to identify the average generation per sweeping route and, on that basis, calculate the production of each sector. The generation of waste collected by sweeping is influenced by various factors such as the predominant usage of the street or public space, the level of environmental education of passers by, the type and state of the surfacing on the street and pavement, as well as the characteristics of any trees. Depending on the type of trees, the generation of street waste can increase considerably due to seasonal factors, that is, the falling of leaves and fruit onto pavements and streets.
Collection of waste from weeding and vegetation cutting
Weeding and vegetation cutting activities generate vegetation waste that usually accumulates in piles along the section of a street where the work has taken place. From there it is carried by hand to the box of the collection truck (generally a conventional dump truck). An operational alternative that is sometimes adopted is to locate an open stationary container near to the area where the work is taking place so that waste can be deposited in it as the work advances. Such containers are subsequently removed by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane.
When the dimensions of collection and transport services are being determined the low specific weight of this type of waste should be taken into account as it results in the load capacity of the collection truck being under used. The integration of this waste’s collection with the collection of soil and sands that have accumulated on the streets is an option for utilizing the truck’s full load capacity.
The identification of nearby locations appropriate for the disposal of this waste, eroded areas for example, can also reduce the cost of transport, but appropriate sanitary and environmental care should always be taken in disposing of it. The necessary dimensions of the collection fleet are assessed by experienced operators during a pre-operational visit to the site on which weeding and land clearing services will be undertaken.
Tree pruning waste collection
Tree pruning is often linked with the municipal urban cleaning sector. Due to the nature of this activity it usually requires the support of a truck to transport tools, implements and labour. It is therefore often natural that the same truck is used to collect the waste generated as work progresses. This type of waste includes loose leaves, small branches and thick trunks, and its physical characteristics mean that when it is loaded into the box of the truck many spaces are left unoccupied. Due to this low specific weight, the collection and transport operation is relatively expensive and involves low productivity. As with the disposal of weeding and land clearing waste, disposal sites that are near to the generation site can be sought for pruning waste. The load can be prepared for collection at the generation site using standard pruning tools (machetes, saws and chain saws) to make the material more homogeneous and to prepare part of the waste for reuse (the thicker trunks, for example). Recently new technological alternatives have been incorporated in pruning operations to address the low productivity and high cost of collection and transport in cities that produce large amounts of such waste. A branch grinder can be an important component of an economical and environmentally sound operational solution to this problem. This is a robust and compact machine, available in towable models, that can reduce by up to ten times the volume of a pruning waste load. Another advantage of this system is that the ground waste is easy to dispose of in appropriate nearby locations as the final product has a low granulometry and can be used as coverage for natural soil, minimizing erosion risks and incorporating organic matter. Pruning operations tend to use a fixed box truck with a special elevation platform to raise the worker for the cutting of higher tree branches.
8. Solid waste collection and transport
Collection of rubble and other construction waste
This type of service can be provided directly by the public administration or by authorized private companies. In the latter case previous authorization is needed so that the identity of service providers is known and their activities can be overseen on an ongoing basis in order to prevent the clandestine disposal of waste in inappropriate places. Basically there are two types of situation that require rubble collection services:
where rubble has been clandestinely disposed of in the street, on wastelands or on the banks of bodies of water;
where generators of this type of waste request or contract services.
In the first case it is clearly the responsibility of the public administration to collect construction rubble that has been indiscriminately disposed of in the city, a responsibility that requires the urban cleaning body to maintain the necessary infrastructure for this purpose. Where requests for collection are made by generators it is recommended that this service is provided by the municipal urban cleaning system only to small volume generators (there should be a specific municipal regulation on this subject). Where construction works produce larger amounts of rubble the “polluter pays” principle should be applied. Whoever provides the service it should be scheduled, with the cooperation of the generator, for the day and time most appropriate for waste collection taking into account factors such as the traffic flow and parking conditions in the street closest to the place of generation. Service provision should be organized not only to coordinate requests that have been granted and to incorporate field survey data, but also to ensure a rational route that minimizes unproductive journeys and maximizes operational productivity. Construction rubble collection is in general undertaken by conventional dump trucks or 5m³ stationary containers transported by dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane.
This type of service is necessary in certain situations, which regrettably are common in Latin American and Caribbean cities, where inappropriate waste accumulation sites or clandestine rubbish dumps arise, generally located on wasteland or unoccupied plots. The expression “rubbish attracts more rubbish” summarizes the underlying causes of this type of accumulation: small volumes of pruning waste for example are left in a particular place, this may then be added to by other people disposing of construction rubble there. Subsequently local residents add plastic bags of residential waste and in a short time there is a large accumulation of waste that causes serious sanitary and environmental impacts.
In general the existence of waste accumulation sites and clandestine refuse dumps results from operational defects in the regular domestic waste collection and street cleaning system together with deficiencies in the supervision of municipal activities. The lack of attention to these issues by those responsible for urban cleaning means that the causes of this serious problem are not addressed but only its consequences, and thus new cases repeatedly arise necessitating more and more special collection services.
Due to the large amount of waste that accumulates on such sites, collection operations may require mechanical loading equipment (mechanical loader), rather than a manual operation, and large vehicles for collection and transport to the final disposal site.
Vehicles and equipment used for collection
Dumpster carrier trucks with multifunctional crane for handling 7 ton containers
A truck (minimum total gross weight 13.5 tons) with a mounted minimum 7 ton capacity hydraulic crane for lifting and transporting open metal containers loaded with solid waste. These trucks can be single carriers to transport one container at a time or double carriers to transport two containers at a time. To be productive they have to operate over short distances between container locations and the unloading site.
Figure 31 - Dumpster carrier truck with multifunctional crane
8. Solid waste collection and transport
Short dump truck
A two axle vehicle for the collection of public waste, construction rubble and earth with a box of 5 to 8m³ capacity with a respective truck TGW of from 12 to 16 tons.
Figure 32 - Short dump truck
Long dump truck
A three axle vehicle for the collection of public waste, construction rubble and earth. The box generally has a 12m³ capacity and the truck a TGW of 23 tons. This truck is usually loaded by a mechanical loader to reduce human effort and increase productivity.
Figure 33 - Long dump truck
Roll-on / roll-off container carrier truck
A collection truck with devices for lifting 10 to 30m³ stationary containers without a compaction device (figure 16). Each vehicle should handle six containers for its productivity to justify its use. These three axle trucks should have a TGW of 23 tons.
and to load dump trucks. dumper boxes and semi-trailers in street cleaning operations and at waste accumulation sites.Semi-trailer Mechanical loader A wheeled tractor loader used to pile up earth. Figure 34 . mud and waste. A canvas or plastic sheet should cover the top of the box to avoid waste being scattered in the road by the wind while the vehicle is moving. For street operations machines with a scoop capacity of 1.Mechanical loader 112 . rubble. Figure 35 . It is loaded by mechanical loader and is unloaded at the final destination by box tipping. It can be used to transport rubble or in support of large earth or mud collection operations.5m³ are normally used. A semi-trailer is a trailer the front part of which has to be supported on a towing vehicle called a semi-trailer truck.Semi-trailer A semi-trailer dumper with capacity of 25m³ pulled by a 4x2 truck with a 45 ton pulling capacity. while for loading semi-trailers it is advisable to use machines with a 3m³ scoop to increase productivity and because of the higher loading level.
It is important to note that these measures should be taken in sequence in order to limit the increase in collection costs to a minimum. Other important factors to take into account are: Traffic In tourist cities the traffic is usually congested during holiday periods. Waste collection schedules should therefore be set for times when traffic is less heavy. The basic measures to take are: ! the introduction of overtime for collection workers. As the usual fluctuations (weekly and monthly) have little effect on the size of the fleet that is needed. Whenever possible the contracting of extra vehicles should be planned in advance to avoid overpricing. 113 .3 Waste collection in tourist cities The amount of waste to be collected varies according to tourist season related population fluctuations as well as the usual all year round fluctuations. ! ! ! an increase in the number of collection shifts. A reduction in the frequency of collections should never be considered. even though it may be attractive for economic reasons. not only in regard to the increased amount of waste but also the frequency and times of collection. collection routes that cover streets bordering the sea should be revised and restructured in order to adapt them to seasonal requirements. which impedes the movement of collection vehicles and increases the time taken to cover collection routes. the utilization of the reserve fleet in operations. which are detrimental to the city’s sanitary and environmental condition and discourage tourists. this section will deal with the necessary procedures for maintaining the quality of domestic waste collection in tourist cities during the season of population influx. Beaches In coastal cities where tourists tend to concentrate around the beaches. Solid waste collection and transport 8.8. within the limits imposed by employment legislation. as the longer the interval between collections the greater the danger of waste accumulation sites appearing in the streets. the contracting of extra vehicles from private companies or individuals.
the tendency of inhabitants to discard waste immediately after generation as there is minimal space inside the houses. is the use of special vehicles that are narrow. inadequate or nonexistent preparation and pre-collection storage of waste. (4x2) – two axle vehicle with rear wheel drive. A lack of basic urban infrastructure in these communities causes significant obstacles for the provision of domestic waste collection services: ! ! ! difficult access for conventional collection trucks. These factors have to be taken into account in planning alternative waste collection systems in these communities with a view to improving a situation that presents serious risks to public health and the environment. Mini-tractors or agricultural tractors with 4x2 or 4x4 drive towing 2.Micro tractor Figure 37 .Micro tractor and dump trailer 114 . Figure 36 .4 Solid waste collection in informal settlements There are informal settlements in many Latin American and Caribbean cities due to the poor socioeconomic conditions experienced by a significant sector of the population in the region. (4x4) – two axle vehicle with four wheel drive. often with a pronounced incline.8. have good manoeuvrability and the capacity to deal with steep slopes.5m³ capacity trailers with metal or wooden boxes are feasible alternatives. One solution to the problem of access through narrow internal streets.
1 Acknowledgement of the problem Hygienic conditions in health service establishments (hospitals. 115 . 8. body fluids and any waste from medical activities. In these cases. If appropriately clean conditions and supervision are not maintained there is a risk of people setting fire to the waste. It has to be pointed out that in many of these communities it is not even possible to use the mini-tractors for collection due to a lack of passable access. The frequency of collections should be carefully considered and ideally there should be only short intervals between them. for example. In such cases collection should be manual. veterinary clinics. Appropriate internal transport and storage together with subsequent collection and external transport of waste complete the measures aimed at reducing infections. roofs and furniture free of dust. etc. The problem of pre-collection waste storage in these areas can be dealt with by siting containers along the micro tractor collection route. daily collection being the best option. In several cities the contracting of community collectors has produced good results.) are fundamental for the prevention of infections.5. the municipality contracts the community centre. which then selects the people who will work in the collection team (as well as carrying out weeding and channel cleaning tasks. preferably plastic containers with lid and wheels. etc. When installing open containers in informal settlements it is necessary to take the precautions already mentioned in chapter 7 in order to avoid a prejudicial proliferation of insects and animals. with the waste being carried to some point that is accessible for some type of vehicle. It is normally recommended that stationary containers are used for this temporary storage and they are then either transported by special collection vehicles (dumpster carrier trucks) or emptied into large compactor trucks.8. Solid waste collection and transport As these vehicles are not appropriate for long journeys.). walls. medical centres. clinics. It is worth noting that contracting community collectors involves the principle of community participation as it encourages other residents to participate in the maintenance of the place where they are living as they may feel an obligation to keep public areas clean when it is one of their neighbours who is doing this work.5 Collection of medical waste 8. the collected waste is transported to a temporary storage place where it is kept for subsequent transport to a final disposal site. Regular cleaning with germicide solutions keeps floors.
etc.5. ! semi-critical areas: where the risk of contamination is less. in well closed plastic bags (generally coloured cream). Hospital areas are classified in three categories: ! critical areas: where there is a greater risk of infection such as operating theatres.In hospitals medical waste generation rates are related to the number of beds.65 2.93 3. etc.63 3. refectories and kitchen areas etc. Table 14 shows waste generation per bed in some countries and in Rio de Janeiro city. ! non-critical areas: where in theory there is no risk of infection.80 2.98 Medical waste is classified as common. nurses’ rooms. ! infectious waste must be stored in accordance with stipulated technical standards. storerooms. glass. 8. Table 14 Medical solid waste generation rates Place Chile Venezuela Argentina Peru Paraguay Brazil Rio de Janeiro Average generation kg/bed/day 0. delivery rooms. such as administration rooms.21 3. laboratories.) should be stored in special receptacles specifically for this purpose. etc.97 – 1.85 – 3. infectious disease isolation rooms.2 Segregation There are regulations that must be followed for the segregation of infectious and common waste in health service establishments: ! at the time of its generation all infectious waste should be put in a receptacle close to the place where it is produced. ! puncturing and sharp waste (needles.10 1. infectious or special (see table 4). such as the rooms occupied by patients with non-infectious diseases. laundries. 116 .
5. Common waste generated in these establishments should be collected by the normal collection service.8. blood transfusion therapy and microbiological research should be sterilized in the place of generation. 8. collection vehicles should not have compaction systems and. Light vans with hermetic load compartments and a capacity for approximately 2m³ of waste. stored. infectious and special waste Infectious and special waste should be separated from common waste before collection. collected and disposed of as though it is infectious or special waste. analysis laboratories. The load compartment should be lined with fibre glass in order to avoid the accumulation of infectious waste at the edges and in cracks and to facilitate washing and cleaning. Van A light van with the driver and passenger cab independent from the load compartment and a load capacity of 500 kilos. organs and tissues should be separately put in cream plastic bags that are then appropriately closed. Depending on their size they should have mechanical devices for both empting the containers and unloading the vehicle. This waste represents at the most 30% of the total medical waste generated. 8. Infectious waste and the rest of the special waste should be stored in cream plastic bags which are put into standardized containers that are mechanically emptied into special vehicles for medical waste collection.4 Vehicles for collection and transport As plastic bags with infectious or non-separated waste can break and release contaminated liquids or air. In some cases it 117 . Radioactive waste should be dealt with in accordance with each country’s specific regulations issued by the respective governing body. as an additional precautionary measure. must be hermetic and have liquid capturing devices. are suitable for the collection of puncturing and sharp objects from chemists.3 Separate collection of common. dental clinics and other similar establishments. Solid waste collection and transport ! waste from clinical analysis. even on Sundays.5. Current norms recommend that in most cases medical waste is collected daily. If there is no separation of infectious and special waste all of the waste should be packaged. The types of vehicle usually recommended for medical waste collection are presented below. ! infectious waste consisting of human body parts.
which will then transport it to the final disposal site.Truck for infectious waste collection 118 . MB 914 and Ford Cargo 81. Amongst the chassis recommended are: VW 8150. The rear door of the load box must close with an efficient seal. The unloading of waste is done through the tipping of the load box after the rear door has been fully opened.Van for medical waste collection Truck for infectious waste collection A two axle collection truck with a capacity of 6 to 8m³. A tipping system may be incorporated for the emptying of plastic or metal containers with a capacity of up to 700 litres. The box is made of steel with continuous welded seams to avoid liquid leakage and has a compartment for capturing liquid originating from the load with a device for unloading it in an appropriate place. without a compaction device. Figure 38 .may be economical for these vans to unload waste that they have collected in the loading areas of bigger medical waste collection vehicles. The hydraulic powered system is coupled with the gearbox and is pneumatically operated from inside the cab. Figure 39 .
The basic guidelines for rationalizing costs and establishing an appropriate service management policy are the following: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! facilitate treatment. emergency services and clinics. The steps to follow include: ! locate on a map all health establishments: hospitals. chemists. determine the necessary type. ! based on collected data. while at the same time establishing appropriate methods for its pre-collection preparation and internal storage. 119 . avoid work accidents. the frequency of collections and collection routes. together with the generators and the responsible health authority. acknowledge employees’ work. including in measures for their own protection and work safety practices. out-patient departments.8. medical centres. ! train the service operation teams.5. size and number of collection vehicles. ! select van type collection vehicles with leak-proof load compartments and liquid retention trays.5 Aspects of collection planning When planning the collection of this type of waste a determination should be made. intensify safety measures. of the amount of waste generated in each establishment and the possibilities for treating it at source. maintain an organized and pleasant work environment. reduce absenteeism. prevent contamination. Solid waste collection and transport 8. To achieve good quality medical waste management it is important to instigate educational processes that prepare people for change.
9 Solid waste transfer 120 .
1 Concept At the same time as large and medium-sized cities have experienced intense urban expansion there has been an increase in both environmental pressures and the resistance of residents to accepting the installation close to their homes of facilities related with solid waste final disposal. Solid waste transfer 9. To solve these problems some municipalities are establishing transfer stations.9. In large cities where traffic conditions make travel very slow. Transfer stations are units sited close to areas of large-scale waste generation so that collection trucks can unload there and return rapidly to continue their collection route. for which large areas are required. 121 . ! ! increased transport costs. transfer stations are sometimes used even when the distance to the sanitary landfill is shorter. reduced productivity of collection trucks. ! increased unproductive time that collection teams spend waiting for the return of the truck from unloading at the landfill. This increased distance between collection areas and sanitary landfills creates the following problems: ! delays in completing collection routes thus prolonging the time that waste is exposed on the street. Vehicles used for transporting waste from transfer stations to final disposal sites usually have three times more load capacity than collection trucks. In general transfer stations begin to be considered when the distance between the location of large-scale collection activities and the sanitary landfill is greater than 25km. which are specialized and therefore expensive vehicles. Waste unloaded in transfer stations is transported to the sanitary landfill by a larger vehicle that involves lower transport cost per unit. In addition urban land is too expensive to be used for sanitary landfills. Consequently final disposal sites are being established further and further away from centres of large-scale waste generation. The establishment of a transfer station should be preceded by a feasibility study that evaluates the economic and operational advantages that it could provide to the collection system.
2 Station with storage facilities In most cities all collection trucks begin their routes at the same time and so it is probable that the vehicles become full and arrive at the transfer station within the same timeframe.2 9. This requires a complementary system of trucks to transport waste from the unloading site to the sanitary landfill.Modes of transport from transfer stations can be: Train – suitable for long distances or for cities where traffic on roads to the final disposal site is too congested. so that a collection truck on the higher level unloads directly into the transfer truck below. Figure 40 – Direct transfer station 9.1 Types of transfer station Direct transfer station This is a commonly used type of transfer station. Truck – the most used system. Ideally waste should be transported in closed containers to avoid scattering. Boat – suitable for long distances and an excellent option in cities that have navigable rivers or bays.2. a larger fleet of transfer vehicles is required to avoid collection trucks having to wait too long to unload. 9. Waste storage also facilitates the operation of the system with fewer vehicles. Amongst the more commonly used models for transfer stations with storage facilities are: 122 .2. It has a drop between the unloading platform and the loading area. The simultaneous arrival of vehicles makes it indispensable that the station has an appropriate place for the storage of waste to deal with unloading “peaks”. recommended for transporting over medium distances and in places where the traffic on roads to the final disposal site is not too congested. A complementary system of trucks is required to transport waste from the unloading site to the sanitary landfill. As there is no space for waste storage in these stations.
The traditional model has a storage silo and a drop between loading and unloading platforms. Hydraulic digger type machines load waste from the silos into transfer vehicles. Solid waste transfer Station with silo storage and compaction The main objective of these stations is to increase the specific mass of waste in order to reduce transport costs. Figure 41 . Station with floor storage without compaction Another model commonly used is that of floor storage stations. These stations have covered paved floors with closed sides to avoid the exposure of waste to the elements and improve the aesthetics of the establishment.9.Transfer station with storage and compaction Station with silo storage without compaction Some units have storage silos to receive waste brought by collection trucks. This model is more appropriate for stations that receive a maximum of 1. When this equipment is used weight specifications for the transfer trucks must be observed so that loads do not surpass the legal limits. A hydraulic system installed in the silo compacts waste inside the transfer vehicles. and can be used in small or large stations. Figure 42 – Station with storage without compaction 123 .000 tons per day as in larger units it would imply excessive construction costs. The loading of transfer vehicles is done by hydraulic diggers or mechanical loaders. This model facilitates the fast unloading of collection trucks and loading of transfer vehicles.
an alternative collection system using carts pulled by animals to cover streets that are not accessible to collection trucks. For example. or semi-trailers with or without compaction. It is loaded from a transfer ramp or by a mechanical loader or hydraulic digger.3 Alternative transfer systems The transfer station concept.3 Vehicles and machines for transfer stations To transport waste unloaded in transfer stations large interchangeable tipper containers can be used. although originally developed to respond to the needs of large cities. can be incorporated on a smaller scale in special situations in small communities where access is not possible for conventional collection vehicles. The model most commonly used has a capacity of 45m³. Figure 43 – A 45m³ semi-trailer tipper 124 . may involve the unloading of collected solid waste in a stationary container (or equivalent receptacle) at a site where larger vehicles do have access and can collect the waste and transport it to its final destination. Semi-trailer tippers A semi-trailer tipper towed by a 4x2 semi-trailer truck with a 45 ton pulling capacity. The models most used in transfer stations are: semi-trailer tippers and semi-trailers with movable floor. 9.9. manoeuvred by vehicles equipped with cranes to lift them onto and off platforms.2. and unloaded by tipping.
125 . and unloaded by the alternating movement of the movable floor’s strips.A 70m³ semi-trailer with movable floor In all open semi-trailers the load should be covered with plastic sheeting or a net to avoid waste falling in the roads. Solid waste transfer Semi-trailer with movable floor A semi-trailer with a capacity of 70m³. towed by a 4x2 semi-trailer truck with a 45 ton pulling capacity.9. Figure 44 . It is loaded from a transfer ramp or by a mechanical loader or hydraulic digger.
10 Street cleaning 126 .
as are the plagues and epidemics that they produced. Most animal excrement (except for dog excrement) was eliminated from the streets with the advent of motorized transport that replaced animal driven carts. to promote road safety by eliminating dust and earth that can cause skidding and dry leaves and grass that can cause fires. the rats. The principal motives for keeping streets clean are: Sanitary ! to prevent diseases caused by vector proliferation in waste accumulations on the street or on wasteland. ears. in several cities of the world for many centuries there have been laws and municipal regulations prohibiting the discarding of waste and objects in the streets. treated and appropriately disposed of is a significant source of disease and can provoke fast spreading epidemics. They are called disease “vectors”. ! to avoid rain water drainage systems becoming clogged up. it was recognized for the first time that human waste not collected. ! to avoid damage to health caused by dust coming into contact with eyes.10. Street cleaning 10. Flies and rats that proliferate in rubbish can transmit many diseases. It was then that effective measures began to be taken for the collection of domestic waste rather than allowing it to be thrown onto streets or wasteland. However. The surfacing of streets and the dissemination of hygiene and public health principles in schools also contributed to the reduction of waste in the streets. flies and cockroaches attracted by it and the transmission of diseases through those vectors was also discovered. As a result of developments in medicine and sanitary engineering during the 19th century. The filthy conditions in Europe during the Middle Ages are well documented. Keeping streets clean is important for the community and the collective interest must be given priority over individual interests in order to respect the wishes of most citizens. 127 . Safety ! ! to avoid damage to vehicles from branches and sharp objects.1 The importance of street cleanliness Up to the mid-19th century there was not only refuse in city streets but also the remains of food and large amounts of animal and human excrement. The relationship between waste dumped in the street. nose and throat.
paper. packaging.2 Waste found in the street Waste commonly found in the streets: ! ! ! ! ! ! material from road surface break-up. in the context of tourism it is hard for a visitor to leave with a positive impression when a place is aesthetically ugly due to a lack of cleanliness. While it is true that a tourist demands cleanliness of a city. a consumer of space. plastic. domestic waste (in general in small amounts. Whatever the historical significance. particularly so in tourist cities. In general people take more care of their own houses than of spaces that do not belong to them. helps to attract new residents and tourists. increases the value of property and stimulates business. Consequently his consideration for the place is less intense than that of residents. weeds and other vegetation. In view of these attitudes. landscape beauty or cultural richness of a city. ! ! dog and other animal excrement (also in small amounts). newspapers. particles from atmospheric contamination. with a view to maintaining urban aesthetics and therefore contributing to an improvement in the city’s sanitary conditions. it should also be noted that he himself is in many cases contributing to its dirtiness. he is a mere visitor. tree branches and leaves. 128 . improves the appearance of a place. The aesthetic aspect of street cleanliness forms a significant part of arguments for the implementation of policies and measures to improve the image of cities. In general the tourist does not establish an attachment with the place he is visiting.Aesthetic ! a clean city inspires pride in its inhabitants. 10. sand and earth carried by vehicles or coming from wasteland and slopes. rubber from tyres and residues from brake pads and linings. it is important that tourist city municipalities implement urban cleaning education campaigns specifically addressed to visitors. principally on wasteland and areas close to informal settlements).
A street considered as “dirty”. kerb painting and street washing. street market cleaning and waste removal.) when defining quality standards for urban cleaning services that are compatible with client-citizens’ ever more demanding criteria. etc. tree pruning. disinfection. pest control. bits of plastic. A gutter with some earth and material from road surface break-up is not perceived as “dirty” by the general public while paper and plastic items are associated with “rubbish” (i. with pieces of paper and plastic in the gutters Figure 46 . with no visible refuse The types of refuse that most offend citizens’ sense of hygiene and cleanliness are papers. the unblocking of drains.10. drain cleaning.A street considered as “clean”.3 Street cleaning services Street cleaning services in general include activities such as sweeping. Street cleaning Figure 45 .e. More developed cities are giving increasing importance to a combination of cleaning services and street conservation measures (maintaining street surfaces and pavements in good condition. They can also cover other activities such as beach cleaning. types of waste that produce bad odours. weeding and scraping. grass and vegetation cutting. 129 . 10. have an ugly appearance and attract undesirable animals). packaging and the remains of food discarded in the street.
They will determine the methodology and frequency of cleaning and 130 . Service quality As there is no process for determining precisely the degree. Restructuring manual sweeping routes Review of the existing sweeping plan The organization of existing sweeping routes should be examined. in the direction of the drains. the length of each one (expressed in metres of pavement and gutter) and the teams assigned to it (sweepers). Rainwater also carries debris towards the kerb. The review of the plan should register the street sections that are swept on each route.Cross section of a street In non-surfaced streets dirt and litter behave in a different way and it is necessary to clean the entire width of the street. In the streets themselves there is practically no dirt unless there is almost no traffic. It is essential to take these characteristics into account when determining street cleaning methodology. due to the transverse curvature of the street. The gutters are in reality “channels” designed to conduct rainwater.3. quality and standard of cleanliness that each street requires.1 Sweeping services Characteristics of city streets In surfaced streets most debris is found in the gutters (at the most 60 cm from the kerb) due to the air displacement produced by passing vehicles that “pushes” dirt towards the kerb. Figure 47 . those responsible for urban cleaning have to use their own criteria.10.
which then encourages the public to cooperate in maintaining clean and hygienic conditions in the streets. Identification of sites that influence public opinion Citizen participation is indispensable for public cleaning services to maintain an appropriate level of cleanliness. sites that influence public opinion and minimum sweeping frequency for the different areas have been determined. if a street needs to be swept every day double the number of workers will be needed than if it is swept every other day.10. if they are kept clean. This index is of fundamental importance for the restructuring of sweeping routes and is usually measured in samples of typical residential. certain streets that. it is advisable to evaluate workers’ productivity in the field. investigating previous complaints and consulting press files. These sites should be photographed periodically to facilitate a comparative checking. Determination of sweeping frequency The minimum sweeping frequency necessary to maintain the required level of cleanliness in streets has to be determined. that is. habits and culture. To carry out the tests. workers of medium performance are chosen and for a period of approximately fifteen days the distance that each one sweeps in each type of street is measured thus determining the average distance covered per shift. Tourist areas. Productivity tests As each city has its own characteristics. New sweeping plan layout Once the existing plan has been examined and productivity indexes (metres of gutters and pavements swept per worker per shift in each type of street). the new plan can be laid out on a map to a scale appropriate for the relevant area. for example. principal streets and avenues. commercial centres and access roads to the city are sites that influence public opinion. This information is significant as. One of the first measures to take in order to improve services is the identification of sites that influence public opinion. how many metres of gutter and pavement can be swept per worker per shift. It is possible to gauge public opinion about cleaning services by carrying out opinion surveys. Reference sites should therefore be established where comparative studies can be made of resource mobilization and the quality of services provide by the responsible body. and principal thoroughfares. form and consolidate a favourable public opinion on the part of both residents and tourists in regard to the cleanliness of the city. 131 . commercial and tourist streets. Street cleaning will evaluate the approval or disapproval of the public according to the number and content of complaints and suggestions received. that is.
small broom (4). on the basis of which necessary adjustments can be made. Implements. Up to three workers can be assigned to each route but it is recommended that only one is assigned to each route in order to clarify responsibilities and facilitate supervision. hoe for cleaning drains and extracting waste from them. used to collect waste and finish sweeping. brush (3). the level of cleanliness achieved should be checked through photos.Manual sweeping 132 . (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Figure 48 . sweeper broom (2).Modern broom (1). key for drains (5). shovel (7) and special waste collection pan (8) Figure 49 . small broom and shovel. tools and clothing The principal tools and implements for manual sweeping are: ! ! ! ! sweeper broom (vegetable fibre or plastic).Once the new plan is operational. key for opening drains. and the reaction of the public should be evaluated through opinion surveys and the registration of complaints. hoe for cleaning drains (6).
In such cases it is advisable to consider the possibility of mechanical sweeping. sweep the pavement and gutter along the assigned route. For safety reasons the use of reflecting strips on the uniform is recommended. mechanical sweepers with vacuum system. empty rubbish bins. mechanical sweeping is recommended for some situations. mechanical sweepers without vacuum system. high closing shoes and cap. manual sweeping is in general more appropriate.10. A large mechanical sweeper can sweep an average of 30 km of gutter per shift. However the monthly cost of renting a large mechanical sweeper in Latin American and Caribbean countries can be equivalent to the wages of at least 18 sweepers and taking into account the importance of job creation for citizens who have received little education. clean rainwater drains on the route. 133 . tunnels and bridges represent dangerous situations for manual sweeping. particularly for nocturnal work. Street cleaning Clothing can be the same as for most urban cleaning service workers: trousers. a mechanical sweeper can replace 15 human sweepers. where roads with high volumes of fast moving traffic. Nevertheless there are exceptions. In tourist areas and city centres small mechanical sweepers can be used as they have a positive impact on public opinion by demonstrating the efforts made and the resources invested by the municipality in the urban cleaning sector. Types of sweeping In spite of the cost. Sweeper tasks In general each sweeper should: ! ! ! ! ! collect domestic waste discarded in the street (not packaged for collection). large mechanical sweepers and mini-vacuums. t-shirt. weed the gutters and areas around trees and posts (once every 15 days). The main mechanical sweepers used are mini-sweepers. As the average productivity of the manual system is 2km of gutter per worker per shift.
two frontal brushes. etc. These machines are used for the mechanical sweeping of pavements.MINI-SWEEPER A self-propelled sweeper and vacuum machine with two front brushes and water sprinkler nozzles to avoid raising dust.3m³ receptacle.Mini-sweeper MECHANICAL SWEEPER WITHOUT VACUUM SYSTEM A medium-sized self-propelled sweeper machine. pedestrian ways. In general they provoke curiosity and create public awareness of the municipality’s efforts to improve and modernize the urban cleaning system. Figure 51 . Figure 50 . These machines are used for the mechanical sweeping of roads with fast moving traffic and represent a good option wherever human sweepers would be in danger of being run over. one central brush and water sprinkler nozzles to avoid raising dust. squares.Mechanical sweeper without vacuum 134 . without vacuum. with a 2.
pavements and parks. and water sprinkler nozzles to avoid raising dust. thus avoiding having to move the sweeper itself to empty its load in a transfer station. When its waste receptacle is full it can be emptied directly into a dump truck that operates together with it.Large mechanical sweeper MINI-VACUUM Small vacuum machine that sucks debris through a flexible tube manoeuvred by the operator. one central brush and water sprinkler nozzles to avoid raising dust. Figure 52 . It has lateral and central brushes. LARGE MECHANICAL SWEEPER A self-propelled sweeper and vacuum machine with two lateral brushes. both driven by hydraulic motors. This machine is used for cleaning cycle ways.10. This machine is used for sweeping tunnels. bridges and large streets with high traffic volumes. 135 . Street cleaning MECHANICAL SWEEPER WITH VACUUM SYSTEM A 14ton TGW sweeper machine with a capacity of 6m³ and a vacuum system driven by an auxiliary engine.
Mini-vacuum 10. earth can accumulate in gutters and weeds begin to grow.2 Weeding and scraping services Where sweeping is not regularly undertaken or rain carries debris onto surfaced streets.3.Weeding 136 . Figure 54 .Figure 53 . In such cases weeding and scraping services are necessary to remove earth from the gutters and re-establish good drainage conditions and the appropriate appearance of the street.
A scraper is used to deal with mud. as they tend to become clogged when gutters are covered with earth and weeds. small or big mechanical loaders are used for scraping. ! ! ! machines and tools are easy to obtain and operate. The main advantages and disadvantages of each method are listed below: Manual ! ! ! uses unqualified labour.Hoe. is a simple and well known method. the operation uses more time. wheelie bins or stationary containers can be used for waste collection operations. involves fewer environmental risks. Street cleaning In general these services are carried out using very sharp 3½ pound hoes and the waste is collected using shovels or four pronged pitchforks. When there is a large amount of earth. When the earth is very compact hoes or picks are used to scrap it. pick and scraper Figure 56 . usually after intense rain in streets close to slopes. depending on the amount of material and on the type of access and space for manoeuvring. Wheelbarrows.10. the main one being erosion processes due to the inappropriate removal of vegetation.Rake Types of weeding Weeding operations can be manual or chemical. Figure 55 . requires large numbers of workers. 137 . plastic bags. Rakes can be used to complete weeding and brushes to finish the cleaning. It is important that drains are cleaned at the same time as weeding and scraping operations are undertaken.
3. Chemical weeding uses herbicides and should always be undertaken in compliance with the producer’s specifications and the relevant legal and environmental restrictions. For the manual cutting of grass a broad scythe is used. when done well. slicer and broad scythe 138 . ! ! ! requires qualified labour. Manual cutting uses tools such as scythes and slicers that can also be used for cutting tree branches. facilitates the removal of vegetation. represents a risk to the environment when used without fulfilling technical requirements. its use is restricted to specific situations and is always an auxiliary to manual weeding.Chemical ! ! ! the operation uses less time and requires fewer workers. This decision depends on the characteristics of each particular area and the more common method employed is manual weeding. it involves few environmental risks. cleaning and maintenance techniques.Scythe. with appropriate techniques and products.3 Cutting services Cutting services are necessary when grass or vegetation is too long and can be carried out manually or mechanically. ! the use of machines and tools involves diverse operating. Planning of weeding operations The first planning task is to determine the type of weeding: manual or chemical. It should only be used as an auxiliary and complementary method side by side with manual weeding. 10. Figure 57 . which quickly dies. and exclusively under the guidance of a specialized professional. and when it is adopted regulatory restrictions and requirements should be rigorously observed as should the instructions on the product labels.
000m² per day. The cutters attached to tractors are appropriate for relatively flat land and can cut between 2. For cutting operations on the borders of roads cutters with articulated arms laterally mounted on agricultural tractors can be used.10. medium and large tractors are currently available and produce a good quality result with good productivity.Portable cutter (backpack type) 139 .000 and 3. The manual cutting of grass and other vegetation with sickles or scythes does not produce good quality results or represent good productivity (only 100m² per worker per day). Figure 59 .Manual cutting Mechanical cutting employs machines such as portable cutters. Portable mechanical cutters that operators carry on their backs and cutters mounted on small. tractor cutters. Street cleaning Rakes can be used to complete the operation. Figure 58 . One of these machines can cut approximately 800m² per day. tractor mounted side-arm cutters and cutters towed by an agricultural tractor. Portable cutters are suitable for rough land and places that are difficult for larger cutters to access. lateral cutters.
tractor mounted side-arm cutter. which should not be delayed for more than two days to avoid them catching fire or becoming scattered. Figure 61 . while the toothed disc and the blade are appropriate for thicker vegetation and 140 .Cutter attached to a tractor Cut vegetation and the refuse that inevitably appears should ideally be gathered on the day of the cutting operation using standard or long rakes. Waste can be put in bags and cut vegetation organized into piles to await collection. Four to ten pronged pitchforks and long rakes should be used for gathering and removal operations. The nylon string is appropriate for light vegetation and grass and where the machine is used as an edge cutter.Long rake and four pronged pitchfork Mechanical equipment for cutting vegetation Commonly used mechanical equipment: portable cutter. chainsaw. towed grass cutter and stationary or towed branch-grinder.Figure 60 . Portable cutter An approximately 11 kg cutting machine powered by a petrol engine with the rotation transmitted to the cutting head through a flexible cable. a disc or a nylon string depending on the type of vegetation. mini-tractor grass cutter. The cutting can be done by a blade.
Chainsaw Chainsaw A tool powered by a two stroke petrol engine.000 hours. after which maintenance costs are excessively high. The machine’s useful life is short.10. which rotate at high speed.Backpack cutter Figure 63 . principally after storms and gales. Precautions should be taken to isolate the area surrounding the work site because the blades. approximately 2. It is used to cut large lineal extensions such as roadside strips and slopes. can throw out objects such as small stones from under the vegetation with the risk of causing injury to people or animals. Street cleaning bushes such as guinea grass (Panicum maximum).Tractor mounted side-arm cutter 141 . Figure 62 . Tractor mounted side-arm cutter A hydraulic arm with wheeled head that is mounted on the rear part of a mediumsized agricultural tractor. It is used to prune and cut trees or large branches. At the extreme of the arm there is a hydraulically operated rotating axis blade cutter. Figure 64 . where for example they are likely to fall and cause accidents.
Mini-tractor grass cutter
A compact machine on wheels with a central blade. It is appropriate for cutting large flat and even extensions of grass. This machine does not cut edges but has the advantage of not throwing out stones or other objects while in use.
Figure 65 - Mini-tractor grass cutter
Towed grass cutter
An implement towed by an agricultural tractor. Its cutting width is up to 1.20m and is appropriate for relatively flat land. As with the micro-tractor grass cutter, this implement does not throw out stones or other objects while in use.
Figure 66 - Towed grass cutter
Stationary or towed branch grinder
This machine is powered by a diesel motor. Branches and foliage are fed into the grinder and the ground material passes through a tube to be deposited in a dump truck or container. It is used in areas with many trees and bushes where frequent pruning takes place.
10. Street cleaning
Figure 67 - Branch grinder
An important rule for mechanical vegetation cutting: Work should only be undertaken in a screened off area using protective netting to stop the circulation of people near the area of operations in order to avoid people, vehicles or objects being hit by stones thrown out by machines. Workers should use all the recommended IPE (individual protection equipment).
10.3.4 Drain cleaning services
A well functioning street sweeping system significantly reduces the volume of waste that falls into storm drain inlets or is carried there by rainwater. Consequently the cleaning of drain inlet boxes is usually assigned to the body responsible for urban cleaning. As some sweepers may otherwise sweep debris into the drain inlet boxes, thus slowly clogging them, in general sweepers themselves are responsible for cleaning them. The first step of this operation is to remove the covering grill using a drain key. If the grill is stuck it can be levered out. Where asphalt type material used for repairing the road surface is partially covering the grill it can be removed with a hammer and chisel taking care not to break the grill. The same procedures should be followed when working with any type of rainwater drain. Waste that has accumulated in drain inlet boxes can be removed using worn hoes, which are narrower than new ones, grub hoes or special shell shaped tools. Waste with a low specific weight (leaves and branches) can be put into bags and collected together with sweeping waste. Earth extracted from drains should be collected by dump trucks.
Figure 68 - Clogged drain
Figure 69 - Lever (1), hammer (2), chisel (3) and drain key (4)
Drain inlet boxes can also be cleaned using special machines with suction hoses (VacAll type) or sweepers with vacuum suction equipment.
The cleaning of the rainwater drainage network is done with special machines through points of access to the drainage system.
Figure 70 - Pumping truck
A pumping truck is used in urban and industrial operations for cleaning drain boxes, drain accesses, septic tanks, separated chambers and sewers. Waste is pumped through a four inch diameter hose and the most commonly used models have a capacity of 6, 7 or 8m³ corresponding to a truck TGW of 12, 14 or 16 tons respectively. Mechanical sweepers with suction systems usually have tubes appropriate for drain cleaning.
The cleaning of drain inlet boxes in areas that are susceptible to flooding in the event of heavy rain should be regarded as a priority.
10. Street cleaning
10.3.5 Market cleaning services
In most Latin American and Caribbean countries there are informal public street markets set up particularly for the sale of vegetables, fruit, fish and other types of food. Many people go to them and generate large amounts of waste. It is therefore necessary to plan appropriate cleaning services in order to keep the markets clean from the moment they begin functioning until the stalls are dismantled. Market cleaning is done manually and the size of teams should correspond to the size of the market, i.e. the number of stalls and the number of people visiting it. Independently of the market cleaning services that it provides, the Municipality should take firm measures to ensure that stall operators themselves avoid waste being discarded in the street and install receptacles to store waste by their own stalls. While large markets are functioning workers can be collecting waste produced by stall owners and their customers by circulating with manual collection carts lined with large plastic bags. When full these bags can be kept at a storage point adjacent to the market in a location chosen to incur the minimum possible nuisance to the public and facilitate collection by the collection vehicle. Where possible 240 litre plastic containers with lid and wheels should be used to store waste produced while the market is operating. Special attention should be given to stalls selling fish, chicken and pork products.
Figure 71 - Containers located close to a market
When the market is dismantled a larger team of between four and eight workers sweeps and cleans the area. For this task sweeper brooms are used together with shovels and brushes for collecting the waste. In some cities large wooden squeegees are used as an auxiliary tool. Waste is collected by a compactor truck or a dumpster carrier truck.
Once it has been swept the street should be washed by a street washing truck with a pressure water jet, paying particular attention to areas around fish stalls sites, which, along with the drains, should be washed with disinfectant and deodorant products.
Figure 72 - Sweeper broom (1), brush (2), wooden squeegee (3) and shovel (4) used in market cleaning
10.3.6 Manual and mechanical waste removal services
In many cities with large wasteland areas refuse is often irregularly discarded there. Open wastelands and uncared for public areas, in combination with inadequate urban cleaning systems, generate what are called “waste accumulation sites”. The accumulation often begins with construction rubble being dumped and, as “rubbish attracts rubbish”, this is followed by the addition of pruned vegetation, old tyres, the remains of packaging, and organic waste. Later weeds start to grow and the entire scenario results in blocked drains and serious sanitary and environmental consequences. To deal with this type of problem cleaning services should establish a specific operational methodology as these situations involve not only clearing activities (weeding and vegetation cutting) but also the removal of all types of waste that have accumulated on such sites. This work requires machines and tools appropriate for each type of waste, not only for clearing tasks but also for collection and transport to the final destination, all of which places an additional burden on the system through higher operational costs due to the extra personnel and machines required in these cases. This type of activity is commonly called waste removal and can be manual or mechanical. The removal of unpackaged refuse such as common waste, soil and rubble can be done manually with shovels, lifting it directly into the box of a dump truck or into metal containers that will later be removed by appropriate trucks with cranes. To remove cut vegetation a four pronged fork is used. A three or four pronged pitchfork
Each summer.7 Beach cleaning services Sandy beaches have to be kept clean by the application of various complementary measures.Mechanical loader at work Figure 74 . the planning of services should involve the following principal elements: ! the frequency of beach cleaning operations should be organized with a view to the beach always being as clean as possible and in good condition for use by citizens. The first and most important of these is to reduce the amount of waste that gets onto the beach by installing rubbish bins both on the beach itself and on pavements that border it so that people can deposit waste in them. In cases where there is a large amount of waste and especially where a lot of soil or rubble has to be removed the use of a wheeled front loader (mechanical loader) is recommended. Where it is not possible to install purpose made rubbish bins. 147 . awareness raising campaigns should be initiated to promote the use of rubbish bins for waste generated on the beach.10. Street cleaning is used to separate the pile of accumulated waste in order to facilitate its handling and transport. alternative structures for depositing waste can be used such as setting vertical concrete pipe sections on the beach lined with plastic bags.Three pronged pitchfork 10. ! the timing of operations should be compatible with beach activities so as not to inconvenience users.3. ! labour requirements are calculated according to the surface area to be maintained. Figure 73 . the required frequency of operations and productivity rates determined by field measurements. Once these basic measures have been adopted.
ten pronged pitchforks and plastic net sieves. The labour productivity rate varies depending on diverse factors such as user behaviour and the availability of rubbish bins.Manual removal of beach waste 148 .Waste containers Figure 77 . ten pronged pitchfork (3). The manual cleaning of the beach surface should ideally be done at the end of every sunny day using wire rakes (usually having 20 to 25 prongs with a 1cm gap between them).! service organization can be based on defined sectors or on the entire extension of the relevant beach.000m² per hour per worker can be taken as an initial base value.Wire rake (1). An average of 1. concrete pipe section with plastic bag (4) and container (5) Figure 76 . (1) (2) (5) (3) (4) Figure 75 . as well as plastic bags and containers for carrying the waste to the compaction vehicle or dump truck that accompanies the team as it progresses. plastic net sieve (2). Beach cleaning services can involve both manual and mechanical operations.
Beach cleaning machines towed by four wheel drive mini-tractors with a maximum potency of 60hp are used.000m² per hour. This type of cleaning collects large and medium-sized waste but leaves ice cream sticks. straws.Manual beach cleaning Mechanical cleaning is appropriate for beaches with large amounts of waste and big extensions of sand.Mechanical beach cleaning 149 . In these cases purpose built machines towed by agricultural tractors are used and have a productivity of approximately 10. sieved.10.Transfer of beach waste from a tractor drawn trailer to a truck Figure 79 . pass it through a vibratory sieve in order to catch smaller objects and produce a bactericidal effect by exposing lower layers of sand to sunlight. On very wide beaches (where there is more than 30 metres of sand between the water and the land). cigarette ends and food remains. The operation of this machine is entirely mechanical. Sand is taken from a maximum depth of 20cm. The type of net used in the sieve varies according to the characteristics of the beach. In out of season periods beaches should be cleaned with machines that stir the sand. aired and returned to the beach. Street cleaning Figure 78 . four wheel drive agricultural tractors with trailers can be used to accompany the cleaning team as they progress along the beach and transport waste to a truck similarly progressing along the street bordering the beach. Figure 80 .
An option that may be considered for very crowded beaches is to replace sand above the tide line with sand from below it that has been washed by the sea and is therefore cleaner. ! instalment of rubbish bins in streets with high pedestrian concentrations. gutters and pavements. Figure 83 . cafes and supermarkets.Rubbish bins 150 .Uneven gutters make cleaning difficult ! planting tree species in combinations that do not result in abundant leaf fallings several times a year. 10. Figure 81 . at bus stops and in front of bars. appropriate dimensions and maintenance for rainwater drainage systems. Such an operation should be carried out using tractor-bulldozers and mechanical loaders after an environmental study has been undertaken by specialists. on corners.Smooth pavements and gutters facilitate cleaning Figure 82 .4 How to reduce street waste The amount of solid waste in streets can be reduced through: ! ! smooth surfaces and appropriate inclination for streets.
As can be seen. plastic and packaging.A dirty square The dirty and uncared for appearance of the square is added to by so-called “white waste”. (Figure 85) Figure 85 – Figure 85 .10. urban cleaning issues are related to various aspects of public urban works and should be taken into account by the respective municipal bodies when urban improvement projects are being planned. made up of papers. Commercial establishments should not be allowed to sweep their waste onto the street.Waste being swept into the street 151 . Figure 84 . Street cleaning ! regular sweeping and waste removal from waste accumulation sites (“rubbish attracts rubbish” while “cleanliness promotes cleanliness”). Those who persist in doing so should be fined and for this the municipality needs to have a good supervision system. establishment of legal devices that sanction citizens who disobey urban cleaning regulations. ! ! public awareness raising campaigns related to the maintenance of cleanliness. In general it can be observed that in well cared for and well maintained streets passersby are more conscious of cleanliness and discard less rubbish on the ground.
In regard to sweeping. an influx of tourists to a city causes considerable problems for the street cleaning service. beach cleaning. These however are the same tourists who will not return to the city if they consider it dirty or not well cared for. An underlying cause of these problems is the temporary population increase and the resultant increase in demand for public services. ! restructure existing routes increasing the number of sweeping shifts and contracting extra workers on a temporary basis. There are also cultural and behavioural questions with some tourists who take the view that as it is not their city they are not interested in keeping it clean.10. Another aspect that creates difficulties for cleaning services is that in general tourists are not acquainted with the operational routine of cleaning in the city and many times they do not do what they should as users to cooperate with the body providing the service. A good example is the increase in the number of people circulating through the streets and the consequent generation of waste in different quantities and at different times than those in the normal routine of the city.5 Street cleaning in tourist cities As is the case with domestic waste collection.“Molok” type container in use 152 . the measures that have to be implemented to maintain required levels of street cleanliness are: ! increase the hours of work shifts (overtime) on some sweeping routes in order to respond to the greater seasonal demand for services. Figure 86 . taking into account the limits imposed by employment legislation. principally in regard to sweeping and. They discard rubbish indiscriminately and fail to comply with behavioural norms and regulations. in the case of coastal cities.
One general administrative measure that a municipality can take to reduce problems faced by the urban cleaning sector during the high tourist season is to schedule employees’ holidays for the months of the low season so that during periods when demand for services is at its greatest the entire staff is available. with few exceptions. such as hotels. For an effective provision of this service during the tourist season the most appropriate course of action may be to contract a separate team to undertake the cleaning of the beach and its bordering seafront. squares and other public spaces to facilitate appropriate waste disposal. restaurants and entertainment establishments. 153 . Street cleaning It is also important to increase the numbers and maintenance of containers and rubbish bins strategically positioned in streets.10. they do not maintain teams exclusively for beach cleaning services. Such a campaign can and should be directed to the entire city but may concentrate more on neighbourhoods associated with tourism and along the seashore where applicable. An ongoing awareness raising campaign can be run throughout the high tourist season with the participation of companies that benefit from tourism. and equip it with all the tools necessary to carry out this service. The campaign should encourage people to take better care of the city and guide visitors to cooperate in maintaining hygienic conditions and cleanliness in the streets. Extending work shifts and giving seasonal tasks to workers who normally perform other activities is in general neither feasible nor sufficient to solve the problem completely. The aesthetics of these units and their integration with the landscape should be taken into account. which are complex. In the case of coastal tourist cities the problems are more difficult to solve as. difficult to mechanize and relatively labour intensive.
11 Recovery of recyclable materials 154 .
Reuse. through a change in consumption habits. Different types of waste can be reused such as bottles. Recover. newspapers. In spite of the integral nature and order of the 4Rs. in transfer stations or at final disposal sites. favouring products with more durability and less packaging.11. magazines. recycle – the transformation of materials into raw material for production processes. not only concerns environmentalists but also governments and the general public. This concept establishes the principle of waste generation prevention. taking as its departure point reduction. recycling is the one that provokes most public interest principally due to its clear claims to environmental benefits. not to mention the negative impacts caused by an irrational consumption of non-renewable natural resources. reuse – the reuse of a material or product without changing its shape or original nature. fruit of capitalist society’s high consumption model. the less waste the better. mostly associated with energy generation. Reuse. The reorientation of consumers’ preferences. books and other products. resulting in what is known as 4Rs practice (Reduce. On an international level these issues have prompted a debate about the consumption habits of societies and the responsibility of companies.1 Concept With the growing prominence of environmental conservation policies citizens are becoming increasingly concerned about solid waste issues. putting pressure on producing companies to use the least amount of packaging possible. The increased per capita waste generation. favouring products that are less damaging to the environment and avoid wastage. This process requires the segregation of waste at source. recover – principally related to appropriate waste incineration processes that produce energy and consequently conserve fossil fuels. Recycle. and therefore of companies’ production. 4 Rs practice: reduce – aimed at diminishing the amount of disposable packaging and containers. One of the most important incentives for recycling is the saving of energy and natural resources. 155 . Reduce. maximize or diversify the use of a given consumer product. That is. This concern with waste issues is due both to the potential for contamination and the continuous need to find new final disposal sites. Recycle and Recover). a positive contribution where reduce and reuse are not applicable. a reorientation of consumers’ needs and purchasing preferences. Recovery of recyclable materials 11.
These programs. paper. shops and factories) and associated with a program of income and employment generation. the prolongation of sanitary landfills’ useful life. metal and glass) are: ! ! ! ! the saving of non-renewable raw materials.2 Selective collection programs A significant role can be played by educational programs that promote 4Rs practice and foster the development of environmental awareness amongst citizens. almost always in extremely precarious conditions. Another example is the establishment of partnerships between public authorities and civil organizations. The principal benefits of recycling discarded materials (plastic. However the social and environmental benefits of these programs also have to be considered. For example. can become instruments for income and employment generation. in which the latter undertake the collection of materials. a model involving the selective collection of materials at the source of generation (houses. for the most part related to pre-recycling waste segregation. offices. particularly in less developed countries. the saving of energy in production processes. This aspect has a significant relevance to many Latin American and Caribbean cities where social crises have resulted in large numbers of people turning to refuse segregation as a means of survival through the commercialization of recyclable materials. is the one most applied in Latin American and Caribbean cities. Traditional models applied in developed countries almost always involve public subsidies and are difficult to apply in developing countries. In practice. such as segregator cooperatives. A scarcity of resources often hinders the implementation of such programs but some municipalities are endeavouring to promote alternative models adapted to fit their particular economic circumstances. 156 . The great challenge in implementing selective collection programs is to find a model that is in itself economically sustainable.11. the generation of income and employment. where large parts of the population live in poor socioeconomic conditions projects can be established that involve the “bartering” of recyclable materials for food and an increased level of community participation.
Recovery of recyclable materials Amongst the options available for the segregation of recyclable materials at the source of generation are: ! ! ! selective door to door collection. voluntary drop-off centres. segregator organizations.11. which are then collected by specialized vehicles from each housing unit. in a similar way to conventional domestic waste collection.1 Selective door to door collection The most commonly used model for selective collection programs is the segregation by residents of discarded recyclable materials. 11. or putting all recyclable materials in one container.2. Figure 87 – Selective collection by compactor truck Figure 88 – Selective collection by truck without compaction The separation of recyclable materials in households can be done in two ways: identifying and separating different types of recyclable material and storing them in separate containers. 157 .
This model also requires a collection truck with a box divided into compartments to transport materials separately. Segregation plants should also have presses so that materials with a lower specific weight (paper and plastic) can be baled to facilitate storage and transport. which makes it more difficult in apartments or small houses. 158 . With the other more commonly used model residents separate domestic waste into two categories: ! organic material (damp) – including the remains of food and non-recyclable materials that are stored in a container for this category and are collected by the normal domestic waste collection service. The principal disadvantages of door to door selective collection are the increased transport costs involved in the need for extra collection trucks and the high unitary cost of collection compared with conventional collection. Once collected.The system in which different types of recyclable materials are separated requires more space for keeping the containers. Figure 89 – Recyclables segregation plant It is important that the public is clearly informed of the correct criteria for the separation of materials for commercialization in order to avoid the expense incurred with transporting and handling non-recyclable waste at the segregation plant. door to door selective collection can be made once a week using open box trucks. The relatively long interval between selective collections is possible because of the inert nature of recyclable materials. where materials are separated by type in preparation for their commercialization. In most cities where the system is operated. generally equipped with tables. ! recyclable materials (dry) – paper. metal. one for each type of recyclable material. recyclable materials should be transported to a segregation plant. glass and plastic. which are stored in a container for this category and are collected by the selective collection service.
transported and disposed of in a landfill. Table 15 Colour code for recyclable solid waste Container colour Blue Red Green Yellow Brown Recyclable material Paper and Cardboard Plastic Glass Metal Organic waste Source: CONAMA resolution Nº 275 of 25/4/2001 (Brazil) 159 .11. to add value to the recyclable material. Recovery of recyclable materials Both before and after the initiation of selective collection services the public authority should continuously encourage citizen participation through promotional campaigns and environmental education. See the suggestions in table 15. which will then be used for identifying containers and collection trucks. as well as in waste segregation educational campaigns. Selective collection is not profitable when the municipality uses its own vehicles. labour and structure. A selective collection system in which a municipality does not directly participate but establishes alliances with the community for operating it. which are fundamental to maintaining citizen participation levels. all of which reduces the costs and work of the municipality. grinders. As an incentive it could invest in warehouses and equipment such as bale-presses. results in significant economic benefits for the urban cleaning system as previously segregated recyclable materials will not need to be collected.2. regulate and foster the process without participating directly in its operation. It can for example define a colour code for the different types of waste. The responsible public body usually standardizes the program to facilitate organization and community participation. Ideally it should standardize. etc.2 Voluntary Drop-off Centres (VDC) Containers sited in public places for the public to voluntarily deposit pre-segregated recyclable waste. Consequently planning for a project has to allow for the necessary resources to run such campaigns. 11. washers.
Special containers for a VDC Figure 91 . To overcome the language problem it is recommended that images are used to indicate the correct storage container for each type of recyclable material. Figure 90 .VDCs can be set up in partnership with private companies that can for example finance their installation in return for the use of the site for advertisements. Here too it is important to regularly empty VDC containers in order to avoid irregular waste accumulation on the site. Some municipalities are establishing partnerships with recycling companies that finance both the installation of containers and the collection of materials deposited in them.Examples of VDCs 160 . The establishment of VDCs in tourist areas should take into account potential communication problems with the labelling of containers.
principally in regard to granting the use of physical space. carts. the organization of segregators’ work to avoid untidiness in waste collection and the storage of materials in the streets.11. bale lifters) so that the segregated materials increase in value in the recyclables market. 161 . Recovery of recyclable materials 11. The less 4. the social inclusion of segregators (who mostly live in the streets) as citizens. held in Brazil in 2003 and 2005. working conditions for most segregators are still very precarious and many of them continue to work without any support or acknowledgement. standardized carts. establish some type of agreement or partnership with segregator cooperatives that then undertake the collection and separation of discarded recyclable materials. a reduction in the costs of selective collection programs. as has already been mentioned. which though still incipient has nevertheless grown significantly 4. It is important that municipalities adopting this model offer institutional support to segregator organizations. presses. The principal advantages of working with segregator organizations are: ! ! ! ! the generation of income and employment. transportation and final disposal. Segregators from several Latin American countries met to define common strategies at the first and second Latin American Congress of Recyclable Material Segregators. Many municipalities. providing basic equipment such as bale-presses. in an effort to include a social dimension in their selective collection programs or pressed by groups of segregators themselves. Assistance should also be provided for the training of organization members to promote greater autonomy. In spite of advances. etc. One of the main factors that fosters the strengthening and success of segregator organizations is the profitable commercialization of recyclable materials. Improvements in this sector’s working conditions depend to a large degree on several institutions having an articulated vision and commitment that leads to the formulation and implementation of effective public policies. providing juridical and administrative assistance for legalization processes and.2. ! a reduction in the costs of the city’s urban cleaning system due to the collection of part of the waste by segregators leaving less waste for collection. Such savings on costs should benefit segregator organizations in the form of investment in uniforms and infrastructure (warehouses for segregation and storage.3 Segregator organizations The appearance of numerous segregator organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean during recent decades reflects not only the socioeconomic crises that many of these countries have experienced but also segregators’ capacity for articulation and organization.
with a low impurity content and appropriate packaging or baling). implementation of rehabilitation programs for those with a dependency on chemical substances. The following basic conditions should be met: ! good quality material (sorted by type of material. Figure 92 – Segregators from a cooperative working in the street 162 . implementation of literacy courses and training for segregators. ! ample scale of production and storage: the larger the production and the quantity available to the buyer. When a public authority enters into partnership with a segregator organization it is important that it continues to offer institutional support for the provision of basic needs. ! implementation of environmental education programs for segregators. These conditions are rarely achieved by small groups but the organization of joint commercialization centres is an option that creates better conditions for direct negotiations with recycling companies. the better the selling conditions. Amongst the measures that should be taken in support of segregator organizations are: ! administrative and accounting support. the lack of which would hinder efficient performance. ! ! ! ! implementation of a social assistance program for segregators and their children. provision of uniforms and individual protection equipment.intermediaries that are involved in the process between the segregator organizations and the final consumer (the recycling industry) the higher the sale price will be. ! regular production and delivery to the final consumer. especially when operations are beginning to be established. the contracting of a professional specialized in management to train the group.
it is important that the strengthening of the segregator groups leads in the long term to them gaining more autonomy and independence in their activities. Recovery of recyclable materials Taking into account the lack of experience of those running the organizations. For the eventuality of difficulties related to fluctuations in the buying market. that is. also help with the commercialization of recyclable materials. during the initial phase. it is recommended that the group has a small liquid capital so that segregators’ minimum incomes are guaranteed until better commercialization conditions are re-established. the public authority can. 163 .11. All these initiatives and types of support should be applied with a view to eventual sustainability.
12 Solid waste treatment 164 .
separating recyclable material at source and appropriately disposing of waste. economic and sanitary benefits. or limited presence. contribute to human and environmental protection. Thermal ! incineration – controlled burning at high temperature in purpose built equipment with environmental control devices. Mechanical ! classification – sorting by economic criteria or as a preparatory step for subsequent processing. The most effective treatment is applied by the general public when they take action to reduce the amount of solid waste by avoiding wastage. known as waste treatment. other acids of low molecular weight and some unpleasantly smelling toxic gases such as sulfhidric acid (H2S). reusing materials. ! grinding – reduces the granulometry and volume of waste as well as mixing and homogenizing it. ! compaction – reduces empty spaces (increases waste density). Biological ! aerobic – stabilization and composting processes that principally generate water. Waste degradation is slower and generates fatty acids. 165 . Processes applied to solid waste can be mechanical. of oxygen at a lower temperature than that involved in incineration. thermal or biological. These processes.12. ! anaerobic – important for the production of methane. producing high energy liquids and gases and less atmospheric contamination. acetic acid. Solid waste treatment 12.1 Concept Between collection and final disposal municipal solid waste can be subject to processes that produce technical-operational. The objectives of solid waste treatment are to reduce its volume and to lower its contaminating potential by transforming it into inert or biologically stable material. ! pyrolysis – thermally induced waste degradation in the absence. carbon dioxide and heat.
Such prior separation reduces the amount of contamination affecting materials and in consequence increases the productivity of segregation plants.1 Recycling The recycling process comprises: the segregation of materials such as paper. where it would be subject to more rigorous environmental controls. economies in solid waste transport costs and in the occupation of landfills (as the amount of waste to be transported to the landfill is reduced). Recyclable material segregated from mixed solid waste is dirty and contaminated.2 Domestic solid waste treatment 12. so its processing is more complicated and expensive. the outcome is much worse than if the waste had been disposed of in a sanitary landfill. 166 .2. Recyclable material contained in general domestic solid waste can be separated in the segregation plant through manual or electromechanical processes that in terms of weight usually yield only 3% to 6%. The high cost of recyclable material transformation processes has resulted in many recycling companies not following environmental guidelines stipulating the use of clean (but expensive) technologies. together with the rest of the domestic waste. energy saving. Recycling offers the following advantages: ! conservation of natural resources. depending on the plant’s size and degree of sophistication. greater public awareness of social and environmental problems. If the necessary precautions are not taken recyclable material transformation processes can be extremely harmful to the environment.12. In such a case. glass and metal from domestic solid waste. plastic. ! The ideal recycling system begins with the separation of solid waste in homes so that only potentially recyclable materials are sent to segregation plants. their sale to specialized companies and their transformation into material for producing goods that can be sold in the consumer market. ! ! ! generation of income and employment.
are in general as expressed in the following flow chart of a hypothetical plant with an intake capacity of 1. thus avoiding a mixture of recyclable and non-recyclable waste and reducing the percentage of nonrecoverable waste.12. It can be seen that. which are: ! small-sized unit (low quantity of waste to be processed) which facilitates maximum efficiency of manual segregation. Domestic waste collection 189kg/day (12. The gravimetric values (in weight) of the different types of solid waste after processing in a segregation plant with a composting unit.4%) Sieving Figure 93 . ! reception of domestic waste from differentiated collections.6% needs to be transported to the final disposal site. ! existence of a strong and diversified market for recyclable materials so that the commercialization of a wide range of materials is possible. from the total amount of waste that arrives for processing only 12. which is fundamentally organic. This material is inert and therefore not contaminating because the residual organic content has been stabilized with most of the organic matter being transformed into compost. can be processed to obtain compost for agricultural use. thus reducing the amount of non-recoverable waste. and their uses. 167 . provided there is compost production.Flow chart of the process and mass fraction proportions These percentages however are based on the optimum operational performance conditions for a segregation and composting plant.500kg/ day (see figure 93). the rest of the domestic waste.6%) Landfill Refuse Grinding of the predominantly organic fraction 60kg/day (humidity loss 4%) Selection table Pre-selection of bulky objects Reception Recyclable materials Compost curing piles Loss of matter heat+CO +water 225kg/day (15%) Recoverable materials Storage of composted ground material Refuse Organic preparation (compost) 456kg/day (30. This subject is dealt with in the next section. Solid waste treatment After the segregation of recyclable material that can be used for production.
as mentioned in chapter 5. The operation of a segregation and composting plant is divided into three stages: reception. Reception Here collection trucks unload domestic solid waste and the following processes are applied in sequence: ! determination of the volume or of the weight using a weighbridge. which results in a larger percentage of non recyclable waste at the end of the process. 168 . As in practice optimum conditions rarely exist. feeding and selection. or in smaller establishments by means of estimative calculations. Feeding The loading of waste onto the processing line by means of machines such as loaders. the average production of nonrecoverable waste in recycling and composting plants can be estimated as 25% of the total weight of refuse processed there. Selection In this sector the flow of waste on the selection lines is regulated and segregation by type of recyclable material is carried out. which can be affected by local particularities. Clearly this proportion depends on the composition of the domestic solid waste generated in each city.In the case of bigger recycling and composting units (in large cities) the level of recyclable material recovery tends to be less and the amount of disposable material for treatment greater. thus freeing the operation of the processing lines from dependence on the functioning of feeding equipment. In smaller plants feeding can be manual. ! storage of unloaded waste in silos or warehouses of a size compatible with the daily processing capacity. overhead cranes. or hydraulic arm grabs. In bigger establishments devices can be used to enable trucks to unload solid waste directly onto the processing lines.
The distinct selection processes can be set up independently of each other or be interconnected. Figure 94 . to allow sufficient time for the manual separation of materials by the segregators. Solid waste treatment Equipment used for flow regulation comprises metal conveyor belts and mixer drums. cardboard and sheet plastic) so that smaller objects (aluminium cans. a concrete table can be used that should be slightly inclined and have raised lateral borders to avoid the fall of waste. while more complete ones use other equipment that itself removes recyclable materials or assists manual segregation. In general simple plants only have selection conveyor belts. glass containers. The ones near the beginning of the conveyor belt separate larger objects (paper. magnetic separators and pneumatic separators. In plants that process up to 10tons/day. In establishments that have several parallel selection belts they should be installed on a level that is high enough to allow for a level below them where baling presses can operate and there should be enough space available for moving segregated materials. The latter are appropriate for plants with a maximum capacity of 10tons per hour per line. Examples of auxiliary equipment are: sieves. The selection conveyor belt speed should be 10 to 12m/min. etc. In this type of plant the waste that arrives from collection is unloaded close to the end of the selection table and is transferred to the table by a worker with a pitchfork or another appropriate tool.12. In general. Waste is manually pushed along the table by segregators using small planks as recyclable materials are withdrawn.) can be seen and separated by segregators nearer to the end of the line. ballistic separators. the first position on the selection line is occupied by a worker who breaks open bags and scatters their contents across the width of the belt in order to facilitate the work of the other segregators. instead of a selection belt. Segregators are stationed along the selection belt next to channels or containers.Manual selection in a small capacity recycling plant 169 .
etc. It is important to note that a segregation plant can only operate if the urban cleaning system of the city includes the selective collection of hazardous waste. 12. etc.Manual selection in a large capacity recycling plant The type of recyclable material that will be separated in a segregation plant depends above all on demand from the industry. HDPE. It 170 .). non-ferrous metal (aluminium cans.).2 Composting Composting is the natural biological degradation of organic materials (with carbon in their structure) of animal or vegetable origin through the action of micro organisms. However in most plants the following materials are segregated: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! paper and cardboard. sheet metal.2. ferrous metal (cans. It is essential that this type of material does not arrive at the segregation plant in order to avoid endangering workers who handle the waste. antimony.Large capacity recycling plants need to use a high level of mechanization for feeding and the movement of the large volumes of waste along the operational lines. lead. PET). mixed glass. transparent glass. sheet plastic (low density polyethylene). hard plastic (PVC. Street sweeping waste and construction rubble should also not be brought to the segregation plant as they contain materials that can damage the machines. Figure 95 . such as medical waste. entire bottles. coloured glass.
reaching 65ºC and later stabilizing at the ambient temperature towards the end of the cycle.12. emits a strong unpleasant odour and requires more time for the organic matter to stabilize. Factors that influence composting A sufficient quantity of the micro organisms necessary for degrading organic matter is inherently present in domestic waste. to the mass of organic domestic waste for composting to take place. maturing. In anaerobic composting. involves a significant increase in the temperature of the organic mass. takes another 30 days. 171 . If humidity and airing are appropriately controlled these micro-organisms proliferate quickly and homogeneously throughout the mass of waste. Temperatures can reach 70ºC. The second stage. which in natural composting systems takes approximately 60 days. therefore the water content has to be controlled during the process. it takes place at relatively low temperatures. The first stage. These pathogenic agents are eliminated by the heat generated in the biological process as they do not survive temperatures in excess of 55ºC for more than 24 hours. In aerobic composting. The final product of an organic waste aerobic composting process is compost. depending on the presence or absence of oxygen in the process. dark in colour and high in colloidal particle content that when applied to soil improves its physical characteristics for agriculture. including chemical substance. the more appropriate treatment for domestic waste. Structurally the micro organisms that degrade the organic matter are approximately 90% water. degradation is caused by micro organisms that only live in environments containing oxygen. Hummus is a completely bio-stabilized homogeneous organic substance. In this stage the humidification and mineralization of the organic matter takes place. Stages of composting The aerobic composting process can be divided into two stages. a material rich in hummus and mineral nutrients that can be used in agriculture to improve soil quality and as a fertilizer. Composting can be aerobic or anaerobic. odours are not unpleasant and degradation is quicker. bio-stabilization. degradation is caused by micro organisms that live in environments without oxygen. The waste also contains pathogenic micro organisms such as salmonella and streptococcus. Solid waste treatment is not necessary to add any type of substance.
50m to 2m in height. Once it is biologically stable the material is refined in a sieve and is ready to be used in the preparation of agricultural soils. These effluents.In aerobic composting the metabolism of the micro organisms needs oxygen.Aerobic composting in a small capacity plant 172 . The organic matter remains there until its bio-stabilization and is stirred with a predetermined frequency (for example. In addition. which makes the airing process more difficult. well compacted and if possible surfaced. Sufficient space for the storage of compost that is ready for use should also be made available. which in well managed piles are produced in very small quantities. temperature and granulometry influence the availability of oxygen. should be sanitarily treated in stabilization ponds. In small units it can be stirred manually with pitchforks or other tools. In such plants the waste is fragmented in a hammer-mill and then “piles” are set. mechanical loaders and special machines for stirring the piles can circulate. the quicker the degradation. Figure 96 . When designing the composting area sufficient space has to be planned for between the piles so that trucks. During the aerobic stage the more the matter is exposed to oxygen. A lack of oxygen produces unpleasant odours. the greater the surface area that is exposed to oxygen and therefore the shorter the composting process. with bases of up to 3m per side or 2m diameter and be no more than 1. Factors such as humidity. Composting piles should have a pyramidal or conical shape. and from then on. Simple composting plants Simple plants make compost naturally in the open air. on the third day after the formation of the pile. every 10 days until completing 60 days). if particles are too small an excessively compacted mass can result. Compost is aired by stirring the material with mechanical loaders or special machines. The surface of the area where piles are set in a composting plant should be smooth. with enough of a slope (2%) for rainwater and leachates produced in the composting process to run off. the smaller the particles. However.
Characteristics of compost The principal characteristic of compost produced by domestic waste composting is the presence of hummus and mineral nutrients. whether or not chemical fertilizers are being used. magnesium and iron.Aerobic composting in a large capacity plant If the height of the piles is more than 2m it is difficult to stir and air the organic mass. phosphorus. the amounts of which determine the quality of the compost. A conical form facilitates the running off of rainwater and avoids the pile becoming saturated. potassium.0% < 40% < 18/1 > 6. Hummus makes soil more porous thus facilitating the airing of roots and the retention of water and nutrients. calcium. It can be used to correct soil acidity and rehabilitate eroded areas. which are absorbed by plant roots. Mineral nutrients can comprise up to 6% of the weight of the compost and include nitrogen.10% . Solid waste treatment Figure 97 . Compost can be used for any type of cultivation. Compost quality In general compost quality is standardized on the basis of parameters established by public institutions in each country with a view to ensuring its effective application in agriculture. In Brazil.0 Margin . commercialized compost produced by domestic waste composting plants must comply with minimum values established by the Ministry of Agriculture. These values are presented in table 16 as a reference.10% 173 .10% + 10% 21/1 . for example. Table 16 Values established in Brazil for commercialized compost Parameter Organic matter Total Nitrogen Humidity C/N relation PH Value > 40% > 1.12.
Some components of domestic waste such as coloured paper.Compost must be periodically subject to physical and chemical analysis in order to verify its compliance with the minimum quality standards established by the relevant governmental body. public and medical waste. existence of selective collection for domestic. 174 . maintain machines and supervise their operation. before proceeding they should examine the practicalities of the following required conditions: ! ! ! ! existence of a reasonably efficient and regular collection system. 12. ! ! availability of resources to finance initial investment. In most Latin American and Caribbean cities. supervise the setting up of a plant. especially in small and medium-sized ones. it is unlikely that compost produced from domestic waste will contain a concerning level of heavy metals because of the socioeconomic characteristics of most of the population and therefore the type of waste generated. Composting plants’ segregation operations must remove these materials as much as is possible from the waste that is received. ceramics and batteries contain heavy metals.2. the higher the initial investment and maintenance costs and the lower the level of employment generation. However.3 Choosing a treatment option Segregation and/or composting plants are alternatives that municipalities should consider when planning the treatment of domestic solid waste that they collect. textiles. availability of sufficient space to establish a segregation plant and/or composting area. One of the main concerns of compost users is the presence of heavy metals in sufficient concentrations to be prejudicial for cultivation and/or produce consumers. existence of a market for recyclables and compost in the region. rubber. availability of personnel with sufficient technical training to select appropriate technology. When determining which machines to install it should always be taken into account that the more sophisticated and automatic they are.
capital expenditure (interest and amortization) and depreciation. purchase of machines and tools. energy and tariffs of public service concessionaires. operational and maintenance costs. generation of incomes and employment. architectural and engineering planning and works. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDIES Prior to the establishment of a segregation or composting plant an economic feasibility study should be carried out covering the following points: Investment ! ! ! ! ! environmental licenses.12. technical. Income ! direct ! sale of compost and recyclable material. labour intensive systems are recommended such as manual segregation plants. Solid waste treatment In Latin American and Caribbean countries. the implementation. Expenditure ! ! ! ! personnel (non-qualified labour. operation and maintenance. ! indirect ! ! savings through the reduced cost of transport to the sanitary landfill. sale of compost and recyclable material. purchase and legalization of land. where there is high unemployment. spare parts and machine replacement. management and administration teams). A considered economic feasibility study of any proposed project should be undertaken taking into account on the one hand the advantages of installing a plant (reduction of the amount of waste to be transported and buried. 175 . savings through reduced sanitary landfill costs resulting from reduced waste volumes. and on the other. environmental benefits).
176 . represents a significant environmental and economic benefit from segregation and composting plants. However. RECYCLABLE MATERIALS MARKET The market for recyclable material is growing rapidly and offers significant rates of return.Environmental ! ! ! energy savings. Social ! provision of dignified and formal employment for segregators – the participation of segregator organizations in plants should be prioritized whenever possible. natural resource savings. Segregation and composting plants generate income and employment and reduce the amount of waste to be disposed of in sanitary landfills or refuse dumps. regularity of supply. reduced environmental contamination from waste. it can be seen as being extremely positive when indirect income and the potential for significant environmental and social benefits are considered. promotion of public environmental awareness. It is unlikely that the direct income from a segregation and composting plant will cover its expenditures and the project should not be entered into as a profitable undertaking from a strictly commercial perspective. good quality material. Companies that buy recyclables impose three basic conditions: ! ! ! sufficient production scale. although there has been a concomitant increase in quality requirements. ! ! income generation. taken as a whole. The use of recyclable material results in a saving of energy and resources that would otherwise be used in the transformation of raw materials and this. together with the transformation of organic matter separated from waste into compost that improves agricultural soils.
or difficult access to. an improvement in the urban environment due to reduced indiscriminate dumping of construction rubble in the streets.3. The establishment of recycling plants for this type of material should therefore be fostered and the possibility of charging special tariffs should be considered to ensure their economic viability. Availability of natural aggregate – a scarcity of. and 177 . Another fundamental requirement is to have a storage place for the materials in order to rationalize their transport to the customer and be able to offer larger amounts of recyclable material and in consequence obtain better prices. Market prices vary and are directly influenced by the price of raw materials as well as other factors such as the level of demand from recycling companies for a particular recyclable material at certain periods of the year. The commercialization of these products. In order of importance they are: Demographic density – a high demographic density in the area is essential to ensure a constant supply of rubble to the recycling plant. relatively clean. Recycled rubble can be used in the base and sub-base of roads or as gross aggregate in construction works. are easier to commercialize in the market. the conservation of non-renewable raw material. the creation of employment for unqualified labour. eliminating intermediary agents.3 Treatment of special domestic waste 12. Three factors should be analyzed in a pre-establishment evaluation for a rubble recycling plant in a particular location.12. Solid waste treatment Materials that are appropriately segregated. aluminium cans and hard plastic. Some segregator cooperatives seek ways of increasing the value of their recyclable material by for example endeavouring to make it as clean as possible and at least segregating and baling the different types of paper and cardboard. ! ! the availability on the market of cheaper construction materials. depends on the existence of local recycling companies that are interested in them. They will also endeavour to sell directly to companies. 12. including the sale price and production flow. natural deposits of raw material favours rubble recycling. and so more valuable. However an abundance of. reinforced concrete works of art and pre-moulded elements. The recycling of construction rubble has the following advantages: ! ! ! a reduction in the extraction of raw material.1 Construction rubble The most common treatment of construction rubble is its segregation. cleaning and grinding for reuse in the construction industry itself.
place of origin. market conditions (type. quantity. reserves). price.easy access to. distances. Figure 98 . current consumption. demolition and renovation (techniques applied. responsible agent. price). existing local regulations). ! ! ! In connection with commercialization: ! ! ! natural raw material (quality.basic features 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 - Administration Control centre Entry checkpoint Feeder Grinder Conveyor belt Rubble to be recycled Storage Area Reception Area Green Belt Garden 178 . regulations in force). the following factors should be studied: In connection with rubble received: ! rubble characteristics (quantity.Rubble recycling plant . processing (feasibility. type and quality. recycled material (technical quality. technical team. standards). organization and machines). rubble transport). collection and final disposal possibilities (prices. The location of a recycling plant on the periphery of an urban area is of fundamental importance in order to keep the final cost of the recycled product down. Technical level – it is necessary to use appropriate technologies to avoid environmental degredation. natural deposits does not necessarily exclude the viability of rubble recycling. Also.
In the semi-automatic process iron is separated before grinding. able to receive and grind construction rubble without the prior separation of iron rods that therefore remain inside concrete blocks. Solid waste treatment Construction rubble recycling can be done in two ways: automatic and semi-automatic. the unloading of the vehicle will not be allowed and it will be sent to a sanitary landfill. Operational sequence for a semi-automatic plant ! rubble brought in by collection trucks is weighed on the recycling plant’s weighbridge and sent to the reception area.12. The appropriate procedures and control devices should be adopted to avoid the emission of particles. If it is not of an appropriate type. 179 . ! in the reception area it is superficially inspected to determine whether the load is compatible with the grinder. which is pressed. The rest of the material passes through a revolving sieve that segregates it according to granulometric characteristics. Figure 99 . The automatic process employs a robust machine of great potency. The grinder feeder should be equipped with water sprinklers to minimize the emission of dust and a rubber lining to keep noise levels within the limits established by environmental control bodies. After being ground the material passes through a magnetic separator to remove ferrous material.General view of a rubble recycling plant The plant should receive only inert waste so that there is no possibility of releasing contaminating substances. baled and commercialized.
if the material is compatible with the machinery the vehicle unloads in the reception area. Manual segregation takes place there, separating out material of no use such as plastic, metal and small amounts of organic matter;
during manual segregation a mechanical loader is used to stir the material and facilitate the work of segregators;
the separated out material is categorized into what can be commercialized (scrap iron) and what is for disposal (the rest of the material), and is put in separate areas for storage and future disposal respectively;
material with larger dimensions than those of the feeding mouth is not accepted, nor concrete blocks with internal iron rods that can damage the mill by breaking the hammers. In some cases reception area workers can break the blocks and separate out the iron;
material in which significant amounts of plastic are incorporated must never be admitted as it can damage the machines;
rubble from small construction works often arrives in bags and is manually unpacked before the feeding and grinding operations;
once material that is of no use has been removed, the rubble is lightly dampened by a sprinkler system in order to minimize the dust generated during grinding. A mechanical loader then places it in the feeder, which regulates its entry into the grinder.
Figure 100 - Rubble recycling plant - feeder and grinder
from the feeder the material passes to the mill where it is ground. From the grinder the material moves along a small conveyor belt equipped with a magnetic separator to separate iron that was not seen during the manual segregation and was introduced into the impact mill;
12. Solid waste treatment
later the material passes to the vibratory sieve that segregates it according to predefined granulometry;
each type of material is transported to its respective storage area on a conventional constant speed conveyor belt.
Conveyor belts are mounted on wheels so that they can be moved sideways in a semicircle in the storage area. This facilitates direct transportation to the storage area in an interrupted operation that avoids the need to move piles of ground material with a mechanical loader.
Figure 101 - Rubble recycling plant - grinder and conveyor belt
The conveyor belt wheels should move on a concrete surface strong enough to support its weight. The sideways movement of the belt is a manual operation carried out by storage area workers each time that the pile of ground rubble reaches the maximum height allowed by the incline of the belt. In the storage area the ground material should always be kept damp to avoid scattering by the wind and dust generation. Vehicles that take ground rubble away are loaded with a mechanical loader similar to the one used in the reception area. Products made with recycled rubble include:
! ! ! ! !
pavement paving slabs; road sub-base and base; breeze blocks for cheaper housing walls and masonry; fine aggregate for surfacing; aggregate for storm drain inlet, kerb and gutter construction.
The costs presented here are based on the establishment and operation of a large automatic rubble recycling plant with a 100 ton/hour production capacity located 10km from the urban perimeter:
cost of the plant (construction work + machines): US$ 1,091,274.33 unit production cost: US$ 10.30/ton
The establishment and operational costs for a semiautomatic plant are as follows: A 120 ton/day capacity plant:
! ! !
investment costs: US$ 45,000.00 construction work: US$ 25,000.00 maintenance/operation: US$ 11.50/ton
A 240 ton/day capacity plant:
! ! !
investment costs: US$ 80,000.00 construction work: US$ 30,000.00 maintenance/operation: US$ 13.60/ton
Problems caused by the inappropriate disposal of tyres in wasteland, watercourses and streets, especially in peripheral urban areas, are a source of growing concern for public authorities due to their significant environmental impacts. Due to climatic conditions and other characteristics particular to Latin American and Caribbean countries, the problem is of equal concern from a public health perspective as inappropriately discarded tyres become a shelter and breeding ground for disease vectors due to the water that accumulates in them. In the United States, where the consumption of tyres is equivalent to one tyre per inhabitant per year (approximately 300 million tyres a year), the most common treatment is burning in thermoelectric plants. However due to difficulties involved in this process it is applied to no more than 5% of used tyres.
In both the 100 million dollar Modesto plant in California, which burns 4.5 million tyres a year generating 15 megawatts and providing energy to 14,000 houses, and the Sterling plant in Connecticut, which burns 10 million tyres a year generating 30 megawatts, operational costs are double those for coal burning plants.
12. Solid waste treatment
The disposal of used tyres in sanitary landfills is inappropriate as there are operational problems involved in burying them and they provoke empty spaces that cause points of instability in the mass of waste. Consequently alternatives have been sought to address this problem but up to now no definitive solution has been found. This problem came to the fore in Brazil in the mid 1990s when the annual tyre production had reached 35 million. At the end of that decade CONAMA introduced a requirement obliging tyre companies to take responsibility for the disposal of waste resulting from their production (used tyres) under the “polluter pays” principle. Burning in cement industry clinker furnaces was the immediate solution that producers turned to. However not all furnaces were adapted to burn tyres and there were some restrictive factors associated with the procedure because of a change in the quality of the cement produced and the emission of gases not in compliance with limits established by environmental bodies. In recent years the ongoing search for new technological processes has seen developments such as one in Brazil that uses organic solvents to separate rubber from the wire and nylon in tyres facilitating its recovery and recycling. However, many of these new developments are not economically viable. In spite of these efforts the problem continues and, as in other situations, it is the urban cleaning system that has to bear the significant expenditure involved in dealing with used tyres habitually discarded in unpopulated peripheral areas as it has an obligation to collect them for sanitary and environmental reasons.
In this context, an initiative that can serve as an example for other urban cleaning bodies in Latin American and Caribbean cities is the COMLURB “ecotyres” experience in Rio de Janeiro. Concerned with the growing number of used tyres discarded in the city, a study was carried out on the route taken by tyres from their moment of purchase in different neighbourhoods of the city to the moment when they are discarded, in general in peripheral zones. The study found this route to be: producers, dealers, recovery agents and tyre workshops. Tyres without any further possibility of use are discarded on wasteland, in drainage channels or are burned. This data led to the following measures: the registering of all locations, both formal and informal, where tyres are repaired; the implementation of the “ecotyres” system 5 in cooperation with the private tyre sector; and the development of an information program on the use of the “ecotyres” system covering dealers, tyre mechanics, bus companies and haulage companies.
A network of locations with the minimum infrastructure necessary for the reception and storage of unusable tyres that, when a predetermined number have accumulated, are then taken away by the private sector to be recycled.
The public authority should introduce specific regulations that consolidate the application of the “polluter pays” principle by establishing the responsibilities of producers and distributors for waste generated when their products are discarded.
12.3.3 Batteries and fluorescent tubes
The number of batteries present in domestic waste continues to increase as the use of electrical and electronic gadgets spreads in modern society and plays an increasing role in people’s daily lives. The incidence of this type of waste in the overall composition of domestic solid waste is clearly dependent on the socioeconomic condition of the population as here the relation between consumption and disposal is direct. In Latin American and Caribbean countries the problem has therefore yet to reach the concerning proportions that it has in the United States, Japan and European countries. However immediate action is necessary to establish control mechanisms for this type of waste as it should receive the same level of treatment as hazardous industrial waste. Fluorescent tubes fall into a similar category and due to their high level of toxicity, together with the difficulties involved in controlling environmental contamination from them, they should be dealt with in the same way as toxic waste.
In the cases of both batteries and fluorescent tubes specific legislation is required to consolidate the “polluter pays” principle. Under such legislation responsibility for the treatment and final disposal of these types of waste would be assigned to producers, with the participation of dealers and distributors in the reception of discarded material and of the general public in separation, appropriate storage and delivery.
Treatment of waste from special sources
12.4.1 Industrial solid waste
It is usual to treat industrial waste with a view to its reuse, or at least to leaving it inert. Due to its diversity however there is no pre-established universally applicable process so research and development for economically viable processes is always needed. This waste should not be the responsibility of the urban cleaning authorities but of the waste generators themselves, the industrial companies that produce it. Such an
12.4. without any participation by the urban cleaning sector. To encourage waste recycling and recovery. However transformation processes require significant investment and offer unpredictable returns as the scope for corresponding charges on the price of the product is limited. 12. Atomic stabilization processes for radioactive material have been developed but still cannot be used on an industrial level. or waste that they want to purchase. Recycling and recovery In general there is a trend towards transforming waste into base material for other processes. thus generating savings in the industrial process. ! incorporation – the adding of waste to a mass of concrete or clay in a proportion that does not damage the environment. but this risk reduces as technological developments provide more secure and economical ways of using the material. ! thermal destruction – incineration and pyrolysis.2 Radioactive waste There are still no economically viable treatment processes for radioactive waste. Solid waste treatment approach requires comprehensive legislation and effective supervision mechanisms to avoid irregular disposal of the waste. 185 . As has already been explained this type of waste is the responsibility of a specialized national body that operates within international regulations and safety procedures. some states issue free periodical publications in which industrial companies anounce waste that they have for sale or donation. or the adding of it to combustible material where gases that are harmful to the environment will not be generated during burning. drying by mixing – the mixing of waste that has a high humidity content with dry waste or inert material such as sawdust. ! encapsulating – the lining of waste with a coat of impermeable synthetic resin with a very low leaching level. Other treatment processes The most common treatment processes are: ! ! neutralization – for waste with acid or alkaline characteristics.
12.4. ! process sufficient volumes in relation to the capital and operational costs of the system in order to be economically viable in terms of the local economy. collection. that is. which has imposed economic restrictions on its use. ! comply with regulations established by the government’s environmental control body for effluents and gas emissions. treatment and final disposal of this waste. New technical processes have led to the development of several treatments that are already available on the market. Irrespective of its technical basis any waste treatment that is adopted should: ! reduce the biological content of waste in accordance with stipulated requirements. the elimination of bacillus stearothermophilus in the case of sterilization and of bacillus subtyllis in the case of disinfection. In such cases it is important that the work of the urban cleaning team is integrated with that of the professionals responsible for sanitary vigilance so that appropriate sanitary and environmental procedures can be applied to the storage.3 Port and airport waste This type of waste is not usually treated in a special way except in the case of waste generated on boats or planes coming from regions where a particular disease is endemic. The available commercial processes that meet these fundamental requirements are: incineration. or another equivalent treatment. ionizing radiation.4. Incineration. microwave. 12. ! avoid the de-characterization of waste thus ensuring that it is recognizable as medical waste. Recent progress in environmental research led to the discovery of atmospheric contamination risks in the incineration process and resulted in a requirement for very expensive treatments of generated gases. In general most waste generated on these sites has similar characteristics to domestic waste and can be collected and sent to the same final disposal units. is usually recommended for waste with a high potential risk. pyrolysis. electro-thermal deactivation and chemical treatment.4 Medical waste There are many technical processes for the treatment of medical waste. 186 . autoclave. Until a short time ago the debate on medical waste treatments was between incineration and autoclave treatment as many countries do not allow its disposal in septic tanks at sanitary landfills.
cyclones or electrostatic precipitators. In the case of toxic waste that contains chlorine. Normally the amount of oxygen used in incineration is 10% to 25% greater than is necessary in the common burning of waste. In the first chamber solid and liquid waste is burned with a high level of oxygen at a temperature of 800ºC to 1. In the second chamber gases produced by the initial combustion are burned at a temperature of 1.12. Solid waste treatment INCINERATION Incineration is a burning process in the presence of a high level of oxygen. 187 . Basically an incinerator consists of two combustion chambers. phosphorus or sulphur. they become mixed with the ashes from where it is possible to separate and recover them for commercialization. Correctly carried out waste incineration is also an effective means of reducing the volume of waste and leaving it absolutely inert in a short time. In the case of waste composed exclusively of carbon. gases not only need to remain for more time inside the chamber (approximately two seconds) but also require treatment by sophisticated systems before they can be discharged into the atmosphere.200ºC to 1. the most common being fixed grate. As the waste burning temperature is not high enough to melt and volatilize metals. before being discharged into the atmosphere through a chimney. transforming it into gases. There are different types of incineration furnace. Gases resulting from the secondary combustion are rapidly cooled to avoid the recomposition of their extensive toxic organic chains and are then treated in washers. through which carbon based materials are decomposed.400°C.000ºC. releasing heat and generating ashes as residue. ashes and scoria. hydrogen and oxygen atoms all that is required is an efficient system to filter particles expelled together with the combustion gases. However installation and operational costs are generally high principally because of the need for filters and sophisticated technological devices to reduce or eliminate the contamination of the air with gases produced during the burning of waste. moving grate and rotary kiln.
Hot ashes and scoria from the burning are continuously deposited in a pit located under the furnace from where they are removed mechanically or by water. the first one is for drying and the waste is completely burned in the second and third sections. To ensure the level of oxygen necessary for the complete combustion of waste and gases.Fixed grate incinerator Moving grate incinerators The grate consists of stepped cast iron sheets connected to a hydraulic system for moving it in a swaying motion that conducts the waste from the access door through to the ash and scoria pit. Air for combustion in the furnace is provided by two blowers. 188 .Fixed grate incinerators In this process waste is deposited on a fixed grate where it is burned. Chimney Overhead crane Feeding Collection truck Air blower Fixed grate Reception pit Contamination control equipment Combustion chamber Ash outlet Ash outlet Air extractors Figure 102 . the air flow is augmented by an extractor located at the base of the chimney. The combustion grate is divided into three sections. Ashes and scoria resulting from the burning process fall through the holes of the grate into an ash pit. from where they are removed mechanically or by water. Air is introduced from above the grate to minimize the trailing of ashes. one that blows air amongst the waste (air below fire) and the other that introduces air above the waste (air above fire).
the opposite end to the burners.Rotary kiln 189 . Solid waste treatment Chimney Overhead crane to transport waste Overhead crane to transport ashes Heater Condenser Gas cooler Filter sleeve Gas re-heater Reagent catalytic reactor Steam control valve Use of heat generated by waste Steam turbine Condensation tank Swaying grate Ventilation blower Overhead crane for bulky waste Bulky waste pit Waste pit Furnace Conveyor belt for ashes Fly ash treatment Ash pit Gas washer Ventilation blower Bulky non-combustible waste Magnetic separator Aluminium separator Ferrous material press Rotary sieve Bulky combustible waste Ground combustible material Aluminium press Aluminium storage Slow speed blade grinder Hammer grinder Ferrous material storage Figure 103 . so that the waste moves slowly downwards due to the rotation of the cylinder. The entrance is at the higher end.Moving grate incinerator Rotary kiln Rotary kilns are useful for the thermal destruction of infectious waste but are more used for burning hazardous industrial waste. Chimney Heat interchanger Washer water oxidation Feeder system Liquid waste burner Rotary kiln Electrostatic filters Gas washer Collection truck Reception pit Post-burning chamber with chimney Air extractor Figure 104 . mounted with a slight incline in relation to the horizontal plane. They are cylindrical incinerators with a diameter of approximately four metres and a length of up to four times the diameter. Gases generated pass to a secondary burning chamber that accommodates burners for liquids and gases. Gases resulting from this burning flow into heat interchangers and washing equipment.12.
000ºC and dual chamber models with temperatures of between 600ºC and 800ºC in the primary chamber and between 1. where the calorific value of the waste maintains a certain temperature during the process.Pyrolytic furnace The feeder system can be automatic (continuous) or semi-automatic (by lots) and the auxiliary burners can burn diesel or gas.000ºC and 1.PYROLYSIS Like incineration. Its main disadvantages are: ! high operational and maintenance costs. Pyrolytic furnaces are very much used in the treatment of medical waste. 190 . There are single chamber models where the operating temperature is approximately 1. Secondary air Cyclone Ash extractor Boiler Air extractor Figure 105 . carbon based materials de-compose into combustible gases or liquids and carbon. Its main advantages are: ! ! effective treatment is guaranteed given optimum operational conditions. pyrolysis is a thermal destruction process with the difference that it absorbs heat and takes place in the absence of oxygen. Primary air Temperature Gradient Drying Decomposition Gasification .200ºC in the secondary chamber. In this process. substantial reduction in the volume of waste to be disposed of (almost 95%).
this process was adapted and developed for waste sterilization. high cost of effluent treatment.Medical waste incineration plant with a capacity of 250kg/hour AUTOCLAVE Originally used for the sterilization of surgical equipment. unless natural gas is used. Basically it consists of a feeder system that conveys the waste into a hermetic chamber where a vacuum is created and steam is then injected (from 105ºC to 150ºC) under certain pressure conditions. ! ! risk of air contamination due to the emission of particulate matter. 191 . ! high risk of air contamination from dioxins generated by the inappropriate burning of chloro materials present in PVC bags and disinfectants. Solid waste treatment ! maintenance difficulties requiring constant cleaning work in the auxiliary fuel feeder system. Figure 106 .12. It should be noted that neither incineration nor pyrolysis completely solve the medical waste final disposal problem as both the ashes that are produced and the sludge resulting from the treatment of gases require an appropriate final disposal.
continuous treatment is not possible. relatively easy and cheap maintenance. after which water is discharged from one side and the waste from the other. ! ! does not reduce the volume of waste unless it is previously ground. Figure 107 . as a continuous process.Autoclave Advantages: ! ! ! relatively low operational costs.The waste remains in the chamber for a certain period until it is sterile. MICROWAVE In this process waste is ground. waste is processed in lots. does not emit gases and effluent is sterile. Disadvantages: ! there is no guarantee that the steam will reach all parts of the mass of waste unless it has been appropriately ground before the sterilization phase. 192 . dampened with steam at 150ºC and is fed. into a microwave furnace where there is a device to stir and transport the mass so that all of the material uniformly receives the microwave radiation.
Figure 108 . waste in its natural form is exposed to the action of gamma rays. continuous process. Its advantages are the absence of any type of effluent emission and the fact that it is a continuous process.Microwave IONIZING RADIATION In this process.12. Solid waste treatment Advantages: ! ! absence of emissions or any type of effluent. Disadvantages: ! ! relatively high operational costs. generated by a source of enriched cobalt 60. This process has the following disadvantages in comparison with previously mentioned processes: ! treatment effectiveness is questionable as a possibility exists that part of the mass of waste is not exposed to the electromagnetic rays. which render micro organisms inactive. the volume of waste to be buried is not reduced unless it is ground. ! the used cobalt 60 source (radioactive) requires appropriate disposal. 193 .
with the addition of equipment maintenance difficulties. In this process there is no effluent or gas emission. generated by low frequency electromagnetic waves. The advantages and disadvantages of this process are the same as those for the microwave process. and there is no volume reduction unless a post-treatment grinding system is installed. followed by the exposure of the ground mass to a high potency electrical field. The mass of waste remains in the solution for some minutes and the treatment is by direct contact. reaching a final temperature of 95ºC to 98ºC. 194 .Ionizing radiation ELECTRO-THERMAL DEACTIVATION This process consists of double grinding prior to treatment. CHEMICAL TREATMENT In this process waste is ground and then submerged in a disinfectant solution that can be sodium hypochlorite.Deodorizer HEPA Filter Pre-filter Automatic doors Dust collector Deodorizer HEPA Filter Pre-filter Hydraulic press Weighbridge Reception pit Primary grinder primary cyclones Liquids Secondary grinder secondary cyclones Waste reception Processing unit Grinding and homogenization To the landfill Container Press Control panel Transport Class C waste Treatment Figure 109 . chlorine dioxide or formaldehyde gas.
Bags of medical waste Particle filtering Gas washing Pulverizer Nº 2 (disinfectant) Air extractor HEPA filter Rotary discharge screw conveyor Vapour Feeder Vertical screw conveyor Discharge tube Grinder Nº 1 co nv ey or Mixer ½ to 2 inch grater Grinder Nº 2 sc re w Pulverizer Nº 1 (disinfectant) In cli ne d ½ to 2 inch grater (dry) Horizontal screw conveyor Figure 110 .12. which would have to be a separate process. waste passes through a drying system generating an environmentally harmful effluent that has to be neutralized.Chemical disinfection Im m er sio n Sodium hypochlorite solution 195 . The advantages of this process are its low operational and maintenance costs and the effectiveness of the waste treatment. Solid waste treatment Before being deposited in the outlet container. The disadvantages are the need for effluent neutralization and the absence of volume reduction unless the waste is ground.
13 Solid waste final disposal 196 .
This rejection stems from a perception that society has of solid waste disposal sites as being inadequately set up and badly managed.1 Introduction Urban cleaning systems have to face the challenge not only of collecting solid waste from streets and buildings in ever-growing cities but also of ensuring an appropriate final destination for such waste. provided certain conditions that will be described later are fulfilled. 197 . As a result in many municipalities. and with a broad awareness raising process in society that communicates the difference between sanitary landfills and dumps. It is therefore necessary to defeat this stigma through thorough studies and project planning. All the other processes that are regarded as disposal (recycling. particularly the smaller ones. it is essential that the political will exists to allocate the necessary budgetary resources for the implementation and correct operation of the approved project. Solid waste final disposal 13. but also due to the natural resistance that arises in people when they know that they will be living close to a place where waste will accumulate. The initiation of a sanitary landfill presents difficulties not only because it involves environmental studies. contaminating soil. Consequently. specific sanitary engineering and environmental planning and a relatively high initial investment before it is established. composting and incineration plants) are in reality waste treatment processes that need a landfill for the final disposal of the remaining waste. raising families and even forming communities. In addition to the sanitary and environmental problems that refuse dumps present. air. while if the final disposal of waste is carried out in an inappropriate way. The only appropriate form of solid waste final disposal is in sanitary landfills or. in controlled landfills. the urban cleaning system will tend to leave final disposal in the background giving priority to waste collection and street cleaning.13. At the same time. These people make their living from the separation of recyclable material and often live in huts and shacks on the site of the dump. it is common to find refuse dumps where collected waste is deposited directly on the ground without any supervision or environmental care. there are serious social problems connected with the segregators that they attract. few people will be directly disturbed by this and so it will not generate complaints. the water table and neighbouring land. as many municipalities in Latin America and the Caribbean have a limited budget. The latter issue deserves attention because if collection is inefficient public pressure is put on the municipality to improve service quality due to it being an exposed and visible activity.
! proximity to environmentally protected areas (ecological reserves and equivalents) ! degradation of the area and environmental contamination risks. lack of covering.13. energy wastage. health risks and accidents. ! lack of physical barriers (areas without fences) and a vegetation belt ! access for people and animals. As a result this leachate is highly contaminating due to its high BOD and chemical reactions between its components (heavy metals. odours. the nature of which depends on the components of the waste. hence the previous segregation of special waste is indispensable. which is explosive in concentrations of 5% to 15% in the air. educational centres and kindergartens ! inhabitants subject to various nuisances and sanitary risks. At the final disposal site the biological decomposition of the remains of food and other organic material contained in domestic waste generates an effluent with a high BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) that moves and incorporates other substances contained in the mass of waste. Landfills are a kind of melting pot for chemical and biological activity and reactions that produce effluents. proximity to population centres. men. exposure to unhealthy conditions. principally composed of methane. unsightliness and landscape contamination. for example). In addition domestic solid waste anaerobic decomposition processes generate biogas.2 Impacts of inappropriate solid waste disposal Problematic situations often encountered around the site of incorrect municipal solid waste disposal and their respective consequences are: ! proximity to bodies of water ! water contamination. The composition of this biogas includes gases with an unpleasant smell such as hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans. ! inappropriate disposal of medical waste mixed with domestic waste ! increased risk to people and of environmental contamination. ! ! segregation activities carried out by women. Measures to avoid the negative effects that result when waste is inappropriately disposed of on the ground should include the creation of an environment less favourable for 198 . atmospheric contamination. ! pig raising and presence of other animals ! zoonosis and other public health risks. old people and children ! citizenship degradation. or only partial covering. of waste ! vector proliferation. Biogas is not only toxic but is one of the contributory factors to the greenhouse effect. ! ! practice of burning waste ! safety risks for people. dispersion of odours and waste particles.
the landfill can have two or more levels. This technique uses engineering principles to confine the waste to as small areas as possible. in Spanish). which has been incorporated in many technical norms and adopted by environmental bodies and entities. The recommended method for domestic waste final disposal is the sanitary landfill. covering it daily with layers of earth and compacting it to reduce its volume.13. it anticipates the problems that could be caused by the liquids and gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter. Finally it is necessary that effluents and gases are dealt with in an appropriate way. Solid waste final disposal undesirable chemical and biological reactions. in which each day’s solid waste (or the waste from a shorter period if the daily amount of waste is too great) is deposited in compacted sloping layers and is covered with a layer of earth that is also compacted. In a solid waste final disposal unit the soil is the principal receptor and conductor of contaminants. 13. Nevertheless it can also serve as protection against the contamination of underground water and the environment provided that it is sufficiently deep and impermeable. In addition. engineering resources should be used to comply with the required technical specifications and applicable regulations.” A sanitary landfill unit of construction is called a cell. which can be used provided that technical and environmental norms established by regulatory legal instruments are respected. Cells are constructed next to each other. The cell is built against a retaining wall that can be a pre-existent natural elevation. of the Pan American Health Organization. Where these favourable conditions do not exist naturally. forming a “landfill level”. It is therefore necessary to isolate or minimize the contact between waste components that could react with each other. In our opinion the most appropriate definition is the one established by the Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Sciences Pan-American Centre (CEPIS.3 Sanitary landfill The objectives and principles of sanitary landfill construction and operation can be defined in different ways. A solid waste final disposal project should therefore incorporate technical solutions that comply with the basic guidelines for avoiding the above mentioned environmental impacts. It states that: “The sanitary landfill is a technique for the final disposal of solid waste in the ground that causes no nuisance or danger to public health or safety. neither does it harm the environment during its operations or after its closure. 199 . each one supported by the previous one. depending on project requirements. In Latin American and Caribbean countries an acceptable alternative for smaller municipalities with limited economic resources is the controlled landfill. a berm previously formed with compacted earth or other cells.
When determining the dimensions of a cell. A sanitary landfill consists of operational and support units. ! dimensions are adjusted according to the stability and availability of the land. the width of the work face and its height. Figure 112 – Waterproofing of the operational area 200 . Operational units ! ! domestic waste cells.Embankment ! waterproofing of the bottom (obligatory) and of the top (optional). ! the advance should be calculated according to the daily volume of waste. ! the height should be between 3 and 6 metres depending on the amount of waste to be dealt with (sanitary landfill capacity). Figure 111 – Construction of the operational area . some basic criteria should be taken into account: ! the width of a cell’s work face should not be greater than is necessary for the safe manoeuvring of machines and vehicles. medical waste cells (where the municipality does not have a more effective final disposal process for this type of waste).
Figure 115 – Rainwater drainage system 201 . Figure 113 – Leachate collection and treatment ! biogas collection and burning (or use) system.13. Figure 114 – Biogas collection and burning ! rainwater drainage and channelling system. Solid waste final disposal ! collection and treatment system for percolated liquid (leachate).
! ! environmental. storage area for materials. Figure 117 – Vegetation barrier ! access and service roads. topographical and geotechnical monitoring systems. Figure 118 – Preparation of an internal service road 202 . Figure 116 – Storage area for materials Support units ! fence and vegetation barrier.
13. obtaining the necessary licenses. Figure 119 – Weighbridge for weighing loads ! ! entrance checkpoint and administrative offices. Many other factors have to be taken into account such as the technical requirements of the norms and guidelines issued by relevant public bodies. formulating the project master plan and installation. The intense urbanization and land use in cities limits the availability of sites that are both close to where waste is generated and large enough for the installation of a sanitary landfill that will meet the needs of the municipality. juridical aspects. 203 . Solid waste final disposal ! weighbridge for trucks and waste checkpoint.13. mechanical and tyre workshops. Figure 120 – Support units The sanitary landfill pre-operational process consists of the selection of the site.3.1 Sanitary landfill site selection The selection of the sanitary landfill site is a complex task.
by the factor 560. access roads and political and social aspects involved in the approval of the project by politicians. The selection strategy for a new sanitary landfill site consists of the following steps: ! ! ! ! preliminary identification of land available in the municipality. 204 . To make an approximate calculation of the minimum total area necessary for the installation of a sanitary landfill. the distance over which waste will have to be transported. However the operational usage as a percentage of the total area will depend on the particular conditions of each site (topography. definition of the selection criteria order of priority. the media and the community. for example). hydrology and geometric shape. in tons. the governing plan of the corresponding municipality. Economic and financial factors must be a major consideration as municipal resources always have to be used in a balanced way. a critical analysis of each potential site in relation to the prioritized criteria. landfill height = 20 m. slopes of 1:3 (vertical : horizontal) and an 80% operational occupation of the land. so that the site that most complies with the required conditions in terms of its natural land characteristics is selected. some experts multiply the quantity of waste collected daily. local and regional development centres.governmental requirements. Applying this strategy minimizes the corrective measures that have to be taken to adapt the land to technical requirements and thus reduces the need for initial investment. PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION OF AVAILABLE SITES The preliminary identification of available sites in the municipality should be carried out as follows: ! preliminary calculation of the total area needed for the sanitary landfill. Requirements for the appropriate establishment of a sanitary landfill are therefore very rigorous and it is necessary to carefully define an order of priorities. This factor is based on the following landfill project parameters: Useful life = 20 years. in square metres. determination of all selection criteria.
study of documents relating to the sites.13. excluding those where the documentation is not in order. lagoons and oceans and should be not less than 50 metres from any other body of water. lakes. Technical and legal criteria The selection of a sanitary landfill site for domestic solid waste final disposal should fulfil the technical criteria imposed by technical norms and regulations stipulated by the different levels of authority in each country. and socio-political. where there are no zoning or land use restrictions and sites have dimensions compatible with the preliminary calculation. Distance to bodies of water The site should be not less than 200 metres from major bodies of water such as rivers. giving priority to land owned by the municipality. ! ! determination of ownership of surveyed sites. economic-financial. Table 17 Technical and legal criteria Criteria Observations The site should be outside the limits of any environmental Land use conservation areas and in a zone where designated land use is compatible with the operation of a sanitary landfill. SELECTION CRITERIA The criteria are divided into three groups: technical and legal. Solid waste final disposal ! perimeter delimitation of rural and industrial zones and conservation areas existing in the municipality. It should be noted however that specific aspects of legislation in any particular country may vary from the concepts and dimensions described here. It is very important that the legal situation in relation to the ownership of a site is in order to avoid potential problems for the municipality and delays in the licensing process. which in such cases should be appropriately modified. ! survey of the available sites within the delimited perimeters. 205 . All the conditions and restrictions commonly stipulated by technical norms and relevant regulations are listed in table 17.
the distance between the water table and the membrane should not be less than 1. The length of a sanitary landfill’s useful life is very important as it is increasingly difficult to find new sites close to the collection area that are suitable for receiving the volume of urban waste generated in the municipality. or is close to. Water table depth ! in a smaller landfill the bottom of which is waterproofed by a layer of compacted clay with a permeability coefficient of less than 10-6cm/s. The site should not be located in the proximity of airports or aerodromes and should comply with current legislation in this respect. Topography favourable to drainage The rainwater drainage basin should be small in order to avoid significant amounts of rainwater entering the landfill. Minimum useful life It is recommended that the site is compatible with a useful life for the new sanitary landfill of at least 8 years. Roads leading to the site should not have pronounced Easy access for heavy vehicles inclines or curves and should be well surfaced in order to minimize wear and tear on collection vehicles and enable them to have easy access even at times of intense rain. in order to keep the cost of waste covering low.) Criteria Distance to urban residential centres Observations The site should be not less than 300 metres from urban residential centres with 200 or more inhabitants. the distance between the water table and the waterproofing layer should not be less than 3 metres.Table 17 (cont. Availability of material for covering It is preferable that the site has. The minimum distances recommended are the following: ! Distance to airports in a sanitary landfill with plastic membrane waterproofed bottom. The soil of the selected site should be clayey.5 metres. This is largely due to the natural rejection of residents to having this type of waste final disposal unit close to where they live. deposits of material appropriate for covering. It is recommendable that the soil of the selected site has Natural soil impermeability good natural impermeability in order to reduce the possibility of aquifer contamination. 206 .
and therefore Land purchase costs has to be purchased. Construction and infrastructure investment costs Drainage system maintenance costs Political and social criteria Table 19 Political and social criteria Criteria Observations The passage of vehicles transporting waste along residential Access to the site through low demographic density areas streets constitutes an inconvenience for the inhabitants of those streets and it is therefore recommended that truck routes to the sanitary landfill pass through areas of low demographic density and preferably on roads designed to handle heavy vehicles. It is important that the selected site has access to service infrastructures in order to limit expenditure on water provision. The selected site should have a gentle incline to avoid soil erosion and limit expenditure on cleaning and maintaining drainage system components. non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or the media in the area as any past disharmony with the public authorities is likely to cause negative reactions to the proposed landfill. 207 . and communications facilities. electricity supply. It is recommended that a site is not chosen if there have been previous problems between the municipality and the Local community acceptance local community. collection and treatment of local effluents. Solid waste final disposal Economic and financial criteria Table 18 Economic and financial criteria Criteria Observations The distance that collection vehicles have to cover on existing Proximity to collection area roads and streets between the collection area and the sanitary landfill should be as short as possible in order to minimize wear and tear on trucks and waste transport costs. If the land is not owned by the municipality. it is preferable that it is located in a rural area where purchase prices are lower than in other areas where the landfill could be sited (industrial areas for example).13. rain water drainage.
as shown in table 21. Table 21 Weight given to criteria and compatibility Priority of criteria 1 2 3 4 5 6 Weight 10 6 4 3 2 1 Compatibility Total Partial or total with work No compatibility Weight 100 % 50 % 0% 208 .SELECTION CRITERIA ORDER OF PRIORITY Table 20 shows a suggestion for the selection criteria order of priority in choosing a sanitary landfill site. For each criterion the analysis should allocate one of the following categories and provide reasons for doing so: “total compatibility”. Table 20 Criteria hierarchy Criteria Compatibility with environmental legislation Compatibility with political and social conditions Compatibility with the main economic conditions Compatibility with the main technical conditions Compatibility with other economic conditions Compatibility with other technical conditions Priority 1 2 3 4 5 6 In order to determine which is the best site for the sanitary landfill. each candidate site should be the subject of an exhaustive analysis in regard to each of the established criteria. or total with work” or “no compatibility”. “partial compatibility. Both the priorities and the compatibility with the defined criteria are given a relative weight.
As an example we present the case of a municipality that has to determine which is the best site amongst three pre-selected candidate sites. N = No compatibility.13. P = Partial compatibility. The site with more points will be considered the best. 209 . Table 22 Site characteristics Criteria Distance from bodies of water Distance from residential centres Distance from airports Water table depth Access through low demographic density areas Acceptance by local community Land purchase costs Existence of infrastructure Minimum useful life Land use Natural impermeability of soil Favourable topography for drainage Easy access for heavy vehicles Coverage material availability Drainage system maintenance Proximity to collection centre Priority 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 Compatibility Site 1 T T T P P N P T P T P P T N P T Site 2 T T T P P P P T T T P P P P P P Site 3 T P T T P T T P T T P T P T T P Note: T = Total compatibility. the characteristics of which are shown in table 22. When the natural attributes of the selected site are not totally compatible with a certain criterion. taking into account the relative priority of each one. its deficiencies should be remedied by the application of modern engineering solutions. Solid waste final disposal SELECTION OF THE BEST SITE Analysis of candidate sites in relation to the established criteria The site chosen for the sanitary landfill should be the one that is compatible with the highest number of criteria.
0 10. is the one that overall has the most advantages.0 5.0 1.0 10.5 3.0 3.0 1.0 2.0 Site 2 100% Site 2 10.After the weighting process is applied.5 3.0 6 0% 50% 100% 0.5 3 0% 50% 100% 0.0 Distance from bodies of water Distance from residential centres Distance from airports Water table depth Access through low demographic density areas Acceptance by local community Land purchase costs Existence of infrastructure Minimum useful life Land use Natural impermeability of soil Favourable topography for drainage Easy access for heavy vehicles Coverage material availability Drainage system maintenance Proximity to collection centre Points total 10 100% 10 100% 100% 50% 10.0 4.0 3.5 60.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 10. 210 .0 1.5 2.5 56. the candidate sites have the following points: Table 23 Points for each site Priority weight Compatibility weight Site 1 100% Criteria Points for each site Site 3 Site 1 10.0 1.0 3.0 4.0 2 50% 50% 100% 1. in accordance with table 21.0 6.5 As can be seen.0 10.0 3 100% 50% 50% 3.0 3.0 3.0 3. in spite of being located relatively close to a residential centre.5 1.5 4.5 67. site 3.0 Site 3 10.0 1 100% 50% 50% 1.0 5.0 3.0 1.5 0.0 5.5 3.5 3 50% 50% 100% 1.0 10 10 6 100% 50% 50% 100% 50% 50% 100% 100% 50% 10.0 2.0 3.5 1.0 4 4 3 3 3 50% 100% 50% 100% 50% 50% 100% 100% 100% 50% 100% 50% 100% 100% 50% 2.
Once the request is received. It also establishes measures that can be taken to avoid or diminish identified negative impacts. undertaken by specialized companies. for example) to the relevant environmental body. hydrology. pedology. with complex methodologies and technical terminology. compatible with the policies of these entities. 211 . The basic actions to take and process stages are presented here: STAGE I Approval of the land for landfill use The objective of this stage of the environmental license application process is to evaluate the selected site to determine whether it is appropriate for use as a landfill.13.). It is important to note that environmental studies should be carried out with the cooperation of technical teams from both the municipality and the environmental control body. Solid waste final disposal After choosing the sanitary landfill site the municipality should not immediately proceed with the purchase or compulsory purchase of the land as the project first needs approval from the relevant environmental body. a second report has to be prepared that presents a summary of the principal finding of the EIS in a language that is accessible for the general public. The preliminary plan for the sanitary landfill should be ready before this study is carried out. in comparison with other alternative sites.2 Environmental licenses The procedures for obtaining the necessary licenses for a sanitary landfill site depend on formal processes and relevant legislation in each country. biotic (flora and fauna) and anthropic (related to human activities) environment.3. EIS is a technical study. as far as is possible. so that the methodology. technical guidelines and conclusions are. the environmental control body prepares technical instructions (or terms of reference) in which the relevant aspects to be evaluated in an Environmental Impact Study (EIS) are defined. geology. As these studies are highly specialized. The process begins with the presentation of a formal request by the applicant (the municipality or private company. with the objective of determining the positive and negative aspects of the project in regard to the physical (climate. 13. Thus society in general can form an opinion on the subject and participate democratically in the licensing process. etc. through a licensing process that is based on deeper environmental studies. This document should be accompanied by general information about the site and the conceptual basis of the sanitary landfill project.
Once the environmental impact study is approved. including detailed topographical surveys and new geotechnical probes and tests. telephones. EIS presentation at a public hearing should be accompanied by all available audio-visual aids as the participating public will mostly be lay people who will better be able to understand proposed solutions if they can see visual images of them. together with the pertinent palliative measures. vehicle and equipment maintenance. In the specific case of a new sanitary landfill it is always advisable to hold such public consultations. and after the necessary environmental impact compensatory measures are established. the environmental control body determines the conditions and restrictions that the applicant has to comply with in order to obtain an environmental license to commence sanitary landfill installation works. The master plan should also include a detailed operational plan covering the operation of the sanitary landfill. environmental monitoring. access and service roads. rainwater drainage. water and sanitation. Detailed plans that deal with environmental issues should also be completed. as first several complementary procedures have to be carried out by the applicant. The compilation of field data must be completed in this stage. Once completed. and on the basis of the environmental impact study. support unit buildings and landscaping. are required. where this is the policy of the environmental control body. the environmental control body will grant the authorization document that licenses the selected site for the installation of a sanitary landfill. It should be noted however that this license does not authorize the immediate commencement of works. electricity supply. geotechnical and topographical monitoring. STAGE II Authorization to commence sanitary landfill installation works In the initial stage of the licensing process. the collection and burning of biogas. superstructures. which will analyze them and issue a technical opinion.Once completed. After this opinion is presented the community can be called to participate in public hearings on the approval process. the collection and treatment of leachate. the studies should be immediately sent to the environmental control body. as should plans for layouts. The detailed engineering plan (master plan) should therefore take into account those requirements and incorporate the concepts contained in the environmental impact control and minimization plans recommended in the environmental assessment. weighbridge operation (if there is one) and machine. etc. these plans should be submitted to the environmental control body that will ascertain whether the requirements and conditions established when granting 212 . Finally detailed plans for foundations.
In general it takes from 90 to 120 days to formulate a sanitary landfill master plan. the regulation of the internal combustion engines and the dispersion of suspended particles in the work area. overseers and all professionals involved. the master plan begins to be put into practice. constructions and other significant features. amongst other aspects. is carried out. plateaus. If they have. The master plan should include the following documents: ! planialtimetric plan for the landfill in an appropriate scale.13. the environmental body will issue the license that authorizes commencement of sanitary landfill installation works. ! 213 . which has to rigorously comply with technical norms and environmental legislation. In this phase the applicant has to take into account that works should be carried out in a way that rigorously respects not only the engineering plan but also control plans and programs resulting from the environmental impact study that conditioned the approval of the project by the environmental control body. Fulfilling the relevant environmental requirements and installing systems and devices in accordance with the project plans are essential for obtaining the environmental license that will authorize the operation of the sanitary landfill.3. that is. Consequently. 13. fully utilizing the natural characteristics of the land. drainage. with contour lines representing each metre. minimizing installation costs and ensuring appropriate environmental monitoring and safeguards. etc. water quality analysis results for surrounding bodies of water and the water table. access road construction. in addition to covering the work itself. planning should include an efficient and responsible environmental management strategy. should be part of the daily routine of engineers. STAGE III Authorization for commencement of sanitary landfill operation Once the environmental license authorizing the commencement of works is obtained. earth works.3 Master plan The sanitary landfill master plan should maximize the useful life of the available area. Therefore. paying attention to the circulation of vehicles and machines during the work. ! geotechnical research and test results. and showing the location of accesses. excavation. Solid waste final disposal the stage I license have been met.
embankments and the final configuration of the sanitary landfill and plans for each annual filling stage with cross sections. including layout. ! ! external network plans for water. ! Once the master plan has been approved. including leachate treatment plant operations and rainwater drainage network maintenance. including post-closure environmental monitoring plan. construction plans. ! technical specifications of all equipment. sewerage.! access and service roads plan. showing cross-sections and details. biogas collection and burning system plans. security and others. ! ! ! ! a record of the calculations made for landfill and construction stability studies. sanitary landfill closure plan. ! plans for the collection and treatment of leachate. the biogas collection and burning network and quantification of machine. Such an approach will help to avoid problems during the installation and operation of the sanitary landfill. electricity and water installations. vehicle and labour requirements for landfill operation and maintenance. ! delimitation plans of sanitary landfill plots. electricity and rainwater drainage systems. landfill operational manual covering the routine activities of solid waste disposal. including the slope of the platforms both for the landfill’s intermediate stages and for the final stage. including the calculations for foundations and structures. it is essential that it is presented to the community using simple and direct language and the best audiovisual aids. superficial and deep water drainage networks. surfacing and drainage. bottom drainage network. landscaping and structures related to water and electricity provision. including water table monitoring wells. 214 . environmental monitoring plan. earth works. informing citizens about the nature of a sanitary landfill. ! layout plan for terraces. the benefits of appropriate solid waste disposal and the compensatory measures applicable to residents of the area. including bottom and top waterproofing layers (where applicable). construction structures. water drain pipes and discharge structures. drainage of the definitive berms. the contamination control measures that will be taken. services and materials involved in the work. pumping network and treatment plant. ! superficial drainage plans for the landfill. communications. architectural design.
A barrier of vegetation should be planted along the wire fence with a minimum width of 15 metres. environmental control bodies. An approximately two metre high fence is recommended made of concrete or wood posts and galvanized wire with small spaces in the lower part so that small animals cannot enter. and scrapping off the vegetation layer on operational areas such as the landfill area that will receive domestic and public waste and the effluent treatment plant area. horses. as well as with the requirements of technical norms. telephone.4 Landfill installation When the master plan has been approved and authorization for installation has been obtained. fire control and others). bushes etc.3. electricity. work on the landfill can begin with fencing. grass. contain airborne particles and help to reduce the dissemination of characteristic waste odours. environmental legislation and norms and directives issued by public service concessionaires (water. Solid waste final disposal 13.13. 215 . Works should always comply with technical specifications and all the other conditions set out in the master plan. cows or pigs. INITIAL LAND CLEARING WORKS This includes the removal of natural vegetation (clearing and stump removal) by cutting trees. land clearing and constructing the foundations for a weighbridge (where applicable). government bodies that establish employment and work safety policies. wherever possible preserving landscape composition elements even if this does not appear in the plans. The objectives of this are to block the line of sight to the operational area. In medium-sized and large landfills the sequence of construction is in general as follows: SITE FENCING Site fencing is necessary to discourage the entrance of non-authorized people and animals such as dogs.
Earth works finish with the organization of the storage area for materials. In smaller landfills internal roads can have different types of surface: brick dust. 216 . As has been previously explained. a technical solution that may be applied is the use of geo-membrane (plastic membrane) lining to waterproof the bottom of the sanitary landfill. They should have a uniform incline towards one side to direct rainwater to a drainage system that runs along the side of the road. Road maintenance should be a priority in planning for the entire projected operational life of the sanitary landfill in order to ensure the regular flow of collection vehicles to the landfill and.EARTH WORKS Earth works should rigorously respect the plans for them and excess material from cuts should be stored in an appropriate place to be used in the future as cover material for landfill cells. gravel. depending on the volume of traffic and therefore the landfill’s size. ACCESS AND SERVICE ROAD WORKS Sanitary landfill access roads are categorized as external or internal and permanent or temporary. compacted in layers of 15 to 25cm. Internal access and service roads should be built with a primary surface of gravel or selected rubble. These roads have to be easily passable in all seasons of the year and must have appropriate surfacing and road signs so that they are safe for the heavy vehicles that will use them and for the local residents. which should ideally be located close to the landfill operational area. WATERPROOFING WORKS A 3m layer of clayey soil (k<10-7cm/s) between the bottom of the landfill and the top of the water table provides an excellent protection against the contamination of underground water. The recommended thickness for a landfill’s internal road surfaces is from 30 to 50cm. sound sanitary and environmental conditions. construction rubble or quarry products. therefore. Layers that need to be compacted should be dampened until “ideal humidity” is achieved. As a naturally occurring formation of this type is quite rare. special attention has to be paid to the surfacing of external access roads and their capacity to support heavy vehicles right from the stage when alternative sanitary landfill sites are being evaluated.
it is covered with a layer of earth to protect it against perforation and cutting by materials contained in the waste. The collection of percolated leachate should be done through pipes laid on the waterproofing layer at the bottom 217 . DRAINAGE WORKS “Water does not enter a landfill plot from outside or come out from inside of it without being controlled.” This principle requires the installation of three drainage systems for liquids: Peripheral interception drainage that stops rainwater entering the landfill and contaminated water exiting it. Solid waste final disposal The bottom of the domestic waste sanitary landfill should be waterproofed immediately after removing the superficial layer of soil from the operational area and this work consists basically of laying the high density polyethylene (HDPE) membrane on the compacted clayey soil. Landfill bottom drainage leading effluent and contaminated water to the treatment unit.13. In some cases. Once this geo-membrane is installed. Once the waterproofing work is completed the network of leachate collection pipes should be laid. such as smaller sanitary landfills or where soil conditions are relatively favourable and underground bodies of water are deep. Access roads (permanent or temporary) have their own drainage systems that also serve service roads. to avoid the use of buried pipes. The passing of the leachate collection pipes through the plastic membrane is done by means of a special union already incorporated in the membrane that is soldered to the body of the tube. grass. The soldering of the membrane sections should be done by a specialized team and it is recommended that the supplier provides this service. The viability of this solution should be verified by specific technical studies carried out by the project management and its approval depends on compliance with the relevant environmental body’s regulations and norms. etc. Superficial drainage installed during the operational stage minimizes rainwater infiltration and consequently reduces the flushing of contaminants. the quantity of effluent and the anaerobic reaction in the mass of buried waste. Whenever possible rainwater drainage should be through ditches lined with cement soil. the bottom of the landfill can be waterproofed with an at least 80cm thick layer of compacted clay with a permeability coefficient of less than 10-6cm/s.
5m PLOT 1 30m PLOT 1 60m PLOT 2 PLOT 2 Secondary drainage pipe L Principal drainage pipe Pumping unit LANDFILL Bidim ® Principal drainage pipe Collection pit LANDFILL To ETU Percolated liquid minimum level Sumergible pump PVC pipe Clay protection layer PVC pipe HDPE membrane Figure 121 . A more effective alternative is to install a Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) or HDPE perforated tube in the gravel bed. The liquid flows to a storage pit from where it is pumped to a treatment plant. These pipes should be bedded on gravel or crushed stone (blind drainage) and covered by large grain. with secondary pipes that conduct the collected leachate into the main pipe. This is used for the sanitary landfill’s principal percolated liquid drainage lines.Leachate drainage system 218 . Effluent treatment unit (ETU) Pumping unit PVC pipe See enlargement Secondary drainage pipe Collection pit 1. This system is the most frequently used for a sanitary landfill’s secondary drainage lines. formed by the pipe and the gravel. should be wrapped in geo-textile membrane to avoid silting. Geo-textile membranes can be used instead of the layers of sand.of the landfill in a zigzag pattern. and then medium grain sand in order to avoid the silting of the pipes by solids suspended in substantial quantity in the leachate. The whole. see figure 121.
Figure 122 . A low cost process that can be used is the recirculation of the effluent through the mass of buried waste. Solid waste final disposal The following figure shows cross sections of these two types of underground pipe. 219 . The effluent treatment process can be biological. physico-chemical. the decomposition of which tends to intensify with the addition of micro organisms contained in the effluent.Types of underground leachate drainage pipe INSTALLATION OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT SYSTEM The determination of the best leachate treatment system and its dimensions for a particular landfill requires a previous study of the characteristics of the actual effluent generated in the sanitary landfill. reducing the contaminating potential of the re-circulated effluent.13. but on the contrary requires. At the same time the mass of waste functions as a filter. thermal or a mixture of these (combined processes). Another advantage is the reduced volume of effluent to be treated due to evaporation by sun and wind. storage pit and primary treatment plant. physical. This stage of effluent treatment system works should therefore include at least the installation of a leachate recirculation system. This circumstance does not prevent. the inclusion in the sanitary landfill project of an initial treatment facility (for at least primary treatment) and a final monitoring lagoon before discharge into the receptor body.
because it holds all the information and technical specifications covering the overall context of the work.Figure 123 – Leachate treatment lagoon CONSTRUCTIONS WORKS Construction works include the foundations and superstructure of support buildings and the treatment plant. for example modifications in the route of internal roads may be necessary where they are incompatible with the location of support units. adjustments often have to be made due to difficulties that arise on site. or at least it should be consulted. Any modification or adjustment of the plan should ideally be made by the planning company. Once installed the weighbridge should be officially calibrated in the presence of the supervision team. It is obligatory that a weighbridge is mounted on pillars so that the weighing platform does not settle and therefore remains level. It is recommended that the planner is on site during construction work. Before works commence it is very important to check the location of these buildings again as this is the last opportunity to modify plans. 220 . adapting them to some condition of the site that may have been overlooked during the formulation of the master plan. As in all works of a certain size. ELECTRO-MECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS The assembly of the weighbridge should meticulously follow the manufacturer’s instructions and the weighing platform should be perfectly level.
Outline cross-section of a monitoring well 5.00 221 .13. incorporating the elements shown in figures 124 and 125. Flow of underground water Landfill Operational area Watercourse Monitoring well Surface water sample collection points Figure 124 . Solid waste final disposal DIGGING OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING WELLS At least three monitoring wells should be dug.Location of environmental monitoring wells Protecting structure Thread cap Cover Internal lining (Ø 4” rigid PVC pipe) Filling (impermeable material: clay. one upstream and two downstream from the sanitary landfill operational area. Surface water should also be monitored at different points along any nearby body of water upstream and downstream from the sanitary landfill area of influence. excavated earth) Padlock Sanitary Protection slab protection Sanitary seal Ø Hole 8” Ø Pipe 4” Cement seal WT (Water Table) Perforated or grooved pipe Pre-filter (washed sand or quartz gravel) Fixed cap (pressure or thread) Impermeable layer Figure 125 .
Arrangements should be made so that machines and vehicles necessary for particular tasks arrive on the site in accordance with the work schedule. three main factors have to be taken into account: ! ! ! topography. The basic activities carried out at a sanitary landfill are listed below: WASTE RECEPTION CHECKING On entering the landfill site the collection vehicle goes directly to the weighbridge where it is weighed and all the information relating to its load is registered. water table depth.3. 222 . the vehicle goes to the entry checkpoint where the responsible person writes down data identifying the truck and its load. the sanitary landfill can begin receiving loads of waste in accordance with the pre-established operational plan. soil type. The vehicle then goes to the operational area to unload the waste it is carrying. 13. including landscaping and general cleaning work. If there is no weighbridge. Depending on the location of the landfill.COMPLEMENTARY WORKS Finishing works on the landfill site. including an estimate of its weight (or volume). LANDFILL OPERATIONS When the construction method for a landfill is being determined.5 Sanitary landfill operation Once the installation work is finished and the operational authorization has been obtained. the acquisition of materials and machines can present difficulties. The operational plan should be simple and cover all the routine activities carried out at a sanitary landfill while at the same time making provisions for their safety. Construction materials should be bought from traditional market suppliers that are if possible located close to the site.
The construction methods are: Trench or ditch method – this is the most appropriate technique for land that is flat or has only a slight incline and where the water table is relatively deep. Solid waste final disposal In general there are three possible methods of construction and the choice depends on the concept behind the particular sanitary landfill project and. the site conditions.13. in the last analysis. A natural embankment against which cells can lean inspires the name of this construction method. Figure 126 – Trench method Ramp method – this is appropriate where the landfill site is flat. Subsequently procedures are the same as for the ramp method. Figure 127 – Ramp method Area method – this is the most appropriate technique for a completely flat site and begins with a berm (artificial embankment) of clayey soil against which the first cells of waste lean. 223 . dry and with a type of soil suitable for use as waste covering material.
with an incline of 2% towards the edges. ! to obtain good compaction the waste should be distributed in not very thick layers and a bulldozer should pass over the mass of waste of each layer three to six times. on each of the levels (superimposed layers) are: ! prepare the work face. ! the ideal thickness of the coverage soil layer is between 20cm and 30cm for the daily covering of waste. the cell should be as narrow as possible but wide enough to allow the simultaneous unloading of a certain number of trucks depending on the sanitary landfill’s capacity (or the demands of collection) so that queues do not form and collection is not delayed. including a truck manoeuvring area with primary surfacing that is big enough for trucks to unload their waste and make the necessary turning manoeuvres to return. ! cover the external slopes with the definitive 50cm thick layer of clay. ! the usual incline of operational slopes is one metre of base for each metre of height in an active cell and three metres of base for each metre of height in a finished cell. and the internal slopes. ! the height of the cell should be between four and six metres to provide optimum decomposition conditions for the buried waste. ! with a provisional 20cm thick layer of soil cover the top of the cell. The procedures to be followed for each cell in each of the operational plots of the sanitary landfill.BERM RUBBISH 1st Cell 2nd Cell Figure 128 – Area method Solid waste disposal processes are almost identical in the three methods. The basic rules of operation for a sanitary landfill are: ! the distribution and compaction of waste should be done if possible from the bottom to the top to achieve better results. 224 . ! ! the final layer of covering material should be at least 50cm thick.
These difficulties arise because the type of effluent produced depends on the particular characteristics of the waste (determined by its component substances) deposited in the landfill and on a series of specific factors that influence the decomposition process in the mass of organic waste.7 3.0 Maximum 8. Table 24 Range of leachate composition variation Parameters pH (un.140. 3 and so on until the lower level is completed.900.0 0.13. repeat the operations for filling each cell and preparing the next one until plot 1 is entirely filled. the high contaminating potential of “new leachate” gradually reduces over a period of ten years to a point when it does not need treatment.0 225 . due to progressive exhaustion of the biodegradable organic matter. Solid waste final disposal ! some days before completing cell 1. with an incline of 2% towards the edges.5 0.0 966. Consequently.1 2. ! when burying the cells of the last level.0 6.0 5. make the final coverage of the completed cells with a layer of 50cm thick compacted clay.000. ! repeat the sequence of operations until all plots on all levels are completely filled.) Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Nitrate Nitrogen Nitrite Nitrogen Ammoniacal Nitrogen COD Range of variation Minimum 5. ! ! as cell 1 is being filled the gas venting system should be progressively built into it.0 0. ! fill cell 1 of the upper level following the same operational sequence used on the lower level. EFFLUENT TREATMENT The main characteristic of sanitary landfill effluent is its changing composition over time. prepare the work face for unloading waste into cell 2 in the same way as for cell 1.0 28. ! repeat the same operations to fill plots 2.9 15. Table 24 shows the range of parameter variation for some sanitary landfill percolated liquids in Brazil and is presented here as an example of the difficulties involved in a definitive pre-establishment of the type of effluent that will be produced in a particular sanitary landfill.
1993. Brazil). Another more complex procedure calculates the production of sanitary landfill percolated liquids through the water balance.) Total Coliform (un.0 3. The volume of percolated liquid produced by a sanitary landfill registers seasonal variations depending on climatic conditions in the region and the local drainage system.7 x 108 Source: Data compilation. rainfall quantity. It is influenced by temperature.3 6.9 4.0 Maximum 19. Another procedure is the “Swiss method” that calculates the flow of sanitary landfill percolated liquid by means of an equation involving the dimensions of the operational area.1 0. A way of calculating the potential flow of effluent from a new sanitary landfill is by direct correlation with percolate generation data obtained from measurements in similar but already operating landfills located in regions with similar climatic conditions. except where another unit is indicated. the nature of the cell coverage material and in particular its permeability. Note: all values are in mg/l.800. However distortions may occur.0 26.7 0.9 x 107 1.) Parameters BOD5 Chlorides Sulfates Total Phosphorus Copper Lead Iron Manganese Zinc Cadmium Total Chromo Faecal Coliform (un.0 0.0 230. the vegetation cover on the sanitary landfill area.6 0.0 1.2 2.) Range of variation Minimum 480.0 0.0 50.800. the annual rainfall and a factor determined by characteristics of the land.0 49.Table 24 (cont.0 14. Stabilization lagoons One of the most frequently used forms of treatment involves lagoons into which leachate effluent is discharged after passing through a grate or a mechanical sieve and 226 .000.2 3.000.0 0.1 0.0 11. COMLURB (Rio de Janeiro. evapotranspiration.3 1.2 0. and many other factors.0 0.0 35.
Percolate drainage Equalization tank Sanitary landfill Grates First aerobic lagoon Overflow outlet Second aerobic lagoon Finishing lagoon Receptor body Figure 129 . This lagoon is also aerobic and has the same physical characteristics as the previous ones but only retains the effluent for seven days. In addition. 227 . The following figure presents an outline of a typical leachate treatment system employing aerobic lagoons.Treatment in aerobic lagoons It is recommended that a superficial aeration device is installed in the equalization tank to improve the homogenization of the liquid mass and the aerobic condition of the effluent to be treated. depth – 1. In general aerobic stabilization lagoons have the following basic characteristics: ! ! ! form – truncated pyramidal. Solid waste final disposal remaining for at least 24 hours in an equalization tank to homogenize its composition as much as possible. The height of the effluent overflow outlet should be adjustable to ensure that leachate remains inside the lagoons for the minimum required time irrespective of the flow volume. This series of lagoons ends with a smaller one where the effluent receives a finishing treatment. as such vegetation could harbour mosquitoes and other vectors. Lagoon borders should be treated so that no vegetation grows in the air-effluent intermediate zone. sludge should be periodically removed so that the effectiveness of the treatment is not impaired.5 metres. retention time – 25 days minimum.13. Entry to the lagoons should be through a two pipe system to improve the flow of effluent in the lagoon avoiding dead zones and short cuts.
tank trucks or infiltration beds. regions where the rate of evaporation is higher than that of rainfall. thus making it possible for recirculation to take place only once a day and preferably during the eight hour period that the operator is present at the sanitary landfill. that is. gross effluent will inevitably drain into some body of water producing environmental damage. It is not advisable to use only documented data to calculate the necessary dimensions of a treatment unit. Evaporation is an important factor in leachate recirculation and it functions better in regions with a negative water balance. while the liquid can be directly discharged into the receptor body. Effluent flow measurement should be carried out at a minimum of two points on the treatment system: ! ! immediately after the storage pit or immediately before the equalization tank immediately before the point of discharge into the receptor body Gross effluent and treated effluent should be periodically monitored. thus increasing the rate of evaporation. 228 .This removed sludge should be put to dry in a drying bed and then deposited in the sanitary landfill. Recirculation Another commonly used treatment of sanitary landfill percolated effluent is its recirculation through the mass of waste using sprinklers. The disadvantages of this process stem from its high electricity consumption together with its dependence on a constant supply of electricity and the functioning of the pump. Ideally the pit should be designed to hold one complete day’s production of leachate during the rainy season. In addition part of the re-circulated effluent evaporates and to encourage this sprinkler nozzles should be adjusted to produce a fine spray. In determining the type of treatment to use the more correct procedure is a laboratory study of the effluent’s characteristics. Another important aspect to consider is that the leachate storage pit should have enough capacity to store a sufficient amount of liquid for the recirculation pump not to have to be used at very short intervals. In this process the effluent gradually looses its toxicity (basically its organic content) due to airing and the biological action of micro organisms present in the mass of waste. If the electricity supply or the recirculation pump fail. It can also be used in other regions during dry seasons as an auxiliary procedure complementary to the principal method being used.
usually on the surface. 229 . from where it is discharged into the receptor body. Solid waste final disposal Ideally recirculation should serve as a complementary procedure to one of the conventional effluent treatment processes. From the secondary settling tank the liquid part goes to a finishing lagoon similar to the one at the end of the aerobic lagoons process. Suction pit overflow Drainage valley Submergible pump Ditch for percolated liquid Pumping pipe PVC Ø 02” Service roads Recirculation area Perforated PVC pipes Ø ½” Landfill Suction pit Landfill Ditch for percolated liquid Nº 2 gravel beds Figure 130 . It then goes to an aeration tank where aerators. The following figure shows a recirculation system using infiltration beds. The dried sludge is taken back to the landfill for disposal. such as stabilization lagoons or an activated sludge system. inject air into the liquid mass allowing the aerobic bacteria to stabilize the organic matter.Infiltration bed recirculation Activated sludge Other processes that can be used in the treatment of sanitary landfill percolated liquids are the activated sludge system and evaporation. which generates a secondary sludge that remains in suspension. The effluent from the aeration tank passes to a secondary settling tank where the previously generated sludge precipitates. In the activated sludge system effluent passes through a preliminary treatment generally in the form of a chamber with bars after which it is directed to a primary settling tank where solids settle. A part of that sludge then returns to the aeration tank while the settled sludge is put together with the sludge from the primary settling tank and goes to a drying bed.13.
dry. the evaporator. The great advantage of this process is its low operational cost as the fuel used to evaporate the effluent is biogas from the sanitary landfill itself.Leachate evaporator 230 . Treated air outlet Burner Biogas inlet T= 80ºC to 90ºC Percolated liquid inlet Thermal lining Humidity filter Temperature of departing air 750ºC to 900ºC Chimney Evaporator Concentrated sludge Sludge outlet Average concentration 30% solid Sludge pump Biogas inlet Combustion air Supporting base Figure 132 . The hot vapour leaving the evaporator passes through a filter that retains humidity and then goes to a final heating chamber from where it is discharged.Activated sludge Evaporation In the evaporation process effluent is sent to a metal tank. The sludge.Primary settling tank Aerators Preliminary treatment Aeration tank Secondary settling tank Finishing lagoon Flow measurement Receptor body Figure 131 . where it is heated to a temperature of 80ºC to 90ºC causing part of the liquid to evaporate and consequently the effluent to become more concentrated. now more dense with 30% of it being solid material. into the atmosphere. comes out through the lower part of the evaporator and is disposed of in the landfill.
the decomposition process that gradually takes place in the mass provokes frequent settlings of the surface.13. treated effluent should meet all discharge standards established by the environmental control body. and on the slopes. There are two methods for installing a gas drainage system: extending the pipe as the landfill evolves (recommended) or excavating the completed cell to install the pipe. RAINWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM The rainwater drainage system should be kept clean and free of obstructions. It is important to constantly make adjustments to the system accommodating to these movements in the mass of the landfill. A burner should be installed in the mouth of the well. comprising mostly organic matter. the ground around it should be covered over a radius of approximately two metres with a 50cm thick layer of clay to avoid the dispersion of gas into the atmosphere. in order to promptly correct potentially damaging effects on the rainwater drainage devices. Once the well is installed.Installation of gas drainage wells 231 . at its edges. Solid waste final disposal Whatever treatment option is selected. GAS VENTING The gas venting system comprises vertical wells surrounded by gravel or gross ground stone. As the sanitary landfill is constructed with solid waste. particularly underground conduits. located at a distance of 50m to 60m from each other. Figure 133 . In both cases the pipe should be high enough to serve as a guide for its further extension when work begins on the next level up. The gas venting system should be constantly monitored so that burners are always alight.
The second phase of environmental monitoring commences when effluent generated by the sanitary landfill begins to be stored for treatment and gases begin to be produced. The reading of these frameworks will also be useful to monitor the geotechnical stability of the sanitary landfill through the measurement of horizontal displacement.physical. analyzing results for the same parameters in each case. concrete frameworks should be installed in the work faces for the purpose of monitoring the differential settling of the buried layers. The quality of these samples is evaluated so that they can be compared with future samples. In addition to these considerations. 232 .for transporting coverage material and material for surfacing internal access roads. Example of an environmental monitoring program: ! Monthly . dump truck . chemical and bacteriological analyzes of gross and treated effluent in the treatment system.ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING The monitoring of water in the area surrounding the sanitary landfill should begin before the commencement of its operational phase with the collection and analysis of samples from nearby bodies of water and the water table. including tests for pH. up to and including the creation of the final covering surface incline. These frameworks should be read monthly. Careful attention should also be paid to topographical aspects in determining the incline of percolated liquid drains to ensure optimum drainage conditions after collection. The frequency of sampling and the parameters that are analyzed must comply with regulations established by the environmental control body. total and fixed sedimentary residues and colimetry tests.analysis of water from the monitoring wells and from water body sampling sites both upstream and downstream from the sanitary landfill. Every three months . COD. and the frequency of readings should be increased when significant settling is observed. BOD. 13.for the distribution. ! GEOTECHNICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL MONITORING At all times during the filling of sanitary landfill cells attention must be paid to topographical alignment.6 Equipment Commonly used machines and vehicles for the operation of a sanitary landfill are: ! ! bulldozer . compacting and covering of waste.3.
Such definitions tend to focus on specific aspects of particular projects rather than providing a wider conceptual description.) to avoid it being scattered. mechanical digger . a rigorous system controlling its use should be established not only in relation to the number of hours that machines are operating for.to load trucks.4 Controlled landfills With everything that has been previously explained about sanitary landfills. Solid waste final disposal ! ! ! mechanical loader . the extensive range of technical components involved in them can be appreciated as can the amount of resources that it is necessary to allocate. tank truck – to supply water for reducing dust on internal roads and dampening lighter waste (papers. In this context the alternative “controlled landfill” option arises. As this equipment represents the most significant operational expenditure for a sanitary landfill. In Latin American and Caribbean countries the limited availability of public resources and the great demands made upon them create a situation in which it is very difficult to establish sanitary landfills. 13. from the planning and installation phase to the final disposal of urban solid waste. with the waste duly isolated and covered.for digging and maintaining drainage ditches. and the wear and tear on their components. not only for installation but also for their ongoing operation in compliance with all the technical requirements and applicable regulations. In addition. to such a degree that only a few municipalities can install them. 233 . Nevertheless. The sanitary landfill’s operational method is the principal factor that determines the selection and dimensions of machinery needed for landfill operations. even when the necessary financial resources are available for installation there can be difficulties in obtaining sufficient resources and qualified labour to operate a sanitary landfill in a way that meets its rigorous technical requirements. plastics. a type of landfill that is often misunderstood or badly defined even by the technical community itself. etc. Factors that have to be taken into account when selecting machinery are: the availability of financial resources. specialized labour for maintenance and spare parts for immediate delivery. The most appropriate definition of a controlled landfill is: “A controlled landfill is a modified version of a sanitary landfill where the rigorous technical requirements applicable to the latter are more flexible in order to facilitate urban solid waste final disposal on the ground. in spite of all these obstacles it is necessary to deal with the problem of solid waste disposal as it has such serious consequences for sanitary and environmental conditions in cities. but also in regard to their correct operation during daily tasks in order to optimize their use and minimize unproductive procedures.13.
In this respect it is also important that the waste coverage layers are of clayey earth and particular attention should be paid to the top covering when the landfill reaches its maximum height. for example.complying with minimum sanitary control requirements through the selection of a site. as the more effective that system is the less effluent will be produced in the landfill. Of these systems it is the absence of effluent treatment that causes such municipalities most problems. the natural characteristics of which minimize the risk of negative environmental impacts.Cross section of a controlled landfill h>3. It is common for controlled landfills to be used in small cities that collect up to 50 tons of solid waste per day and where municipalities are not in an economic condition to maintain. self-propelled waste compactors). Upper waterproofing Controlled landfill Lower waterproofing Maximum water level Flow of underground water Impermeable soil Figure 134 .” The key to a successful controlled landfill project is therefore the choice of the land where it will be installed. Consequently special care should be taken with the rainwater drainage system of controlled landfills. though it must be routinely covered with earth. Where the soil type is not appropriate the controlled landfill project should make provision for the installation of an at least 50cm thick waterproofing layer of clayey soil brought from the nearest deposit. or to implement. operate and maintain some of the systems required by the norms that regulate sanitary landfills. the principal characteristics of which should be: soil that is not very permeable (clayey) and a deep water table (at least 3 metres below the level of the natural land). that is. a bulldozer exclusively and permanently allocated to final waste disposal.0m Water table 234 . as they vary from very simple installations to ones that are similar to sanitary landfills. The cells of a controlled landfill are also built with compacted layers of waste but without necessarily using specialized machines (bulldozers. A controlled landfill offers municipalities with limited investment and budgetary capacity a relatively immediate opportunity to operate a low cost urban solid waste disposal system that eliminates the environmental and social aggression of refuse dumps. waste can be manoeuvred using lighter equipment or manual tools. There is no exact definition of a “controlled landfill”. and in doing so demonstrates the principle “the ideal can be the enemy of the good”.
An entirely manual operation is recommendable only for a daily waste volume of up to 40m³ or approximately 10 tons. Solid waste final disposal One of the requirements for a sanitary landfill is the permanent presence of specialized machines for the manoeuvring. as well as the drain on equipment resources needed for other municipal services. The ideal in such a case is a small dry natural hollow.13. The covering of waste should be done at the end of each working day. pitchforks and forks. Waste compacting can be done with mallets. When it is not possible to guarantee even the infrequent programmed availability of machines to do the heavier work involved in landfill routines (such as excavating earth). the selection of the site becomes fundamentally important for an effective functioning of the controlled landfill. This is not a realistic possibility for most small-sized municipalities in Latin America and the Caribbean with their budgetary limitations and the significant under use of equipment that this would imply due to the relatively small amount of waste to be disposed of. For such municipalities a controlled landfill allows for alternative solutions such as the periodic and programmed use of machines from other municipal sectors . In this case additional compaction can be achieved by collection vehicles being driven over filled areas as the cell advances.Manual compaction of waste in a cell 235 . rakes. In such a case resultant material would be stored in a nearby place for later use in the covering operation. Manoeuvring and coverage work is done manually as described below.for example those used for road maintenance . A mechanical digger for example could excavate trenches for future waste cells where the land type permits the employment of this method of solid waste landfill construction. A practical alternative for small-sized municipalities is to use easily obtainable manual tools for landfill operations. mallets.in the preparation of the weekly work face. Figure 135 . The waste can be manoeuvred and the top surface and lateral sloped (1:1) surfaces can be levelled using hoes. compaction and covering of waste.
5 Environmental recuperation of refuse dumps As has been explained. Theoretically the correct way to recuperate land degraded by a refuse dump is to collect all the waste inappropriately disposed of there and transfer it to a sanitary landfill. especially in cities with restricted financial resources. Areas degraded by refuse dumps should therefore be recuperated by containing such impacts and re-establishing healthy conditions there. clothing. in order to optimize the use of resources and maximize sanitary. 13. so it will naturally opt for undertaking the latter and leave aside remedying the environmental liability incurred by the refuse dump. subsequently recuperating the excavated area by filling it with natural soil from the region. environmental. 236 .Where a landfill is manually operated it is indispensable that workers engaged in the manoeuvring and covering of waste have. In this way the municipality can avoid generating negative impacts on a virgin site before exhausting the waste disposal capacity (useful life) of the area previously used as a refuse dump. thus allowing for the continued disposal of waste there but in sanitary conditions. that is. Often a municipality does not have access to sufficient finance for carrying out two works. In practice however this procedure is not usually economically viable and in most cases it is anyway impossible to implement due to the physical characteristics of the dump site. or that the area will be recuperated in such a way that it will be able to continue receiving waste but on a sound sanitary and environmental basis. shoes and gloves that guarantee their protection and safety. a refuse dump is an inappropriate form of urban solid waste disposal as it produces a series of negative environmental impacts and poses sanitary risks for the population. Therefore whenever possible the refuse dump site or neighbouring land should be used to install a new final disposal system. the recuperation of the degraded refuse dump area and the installation of a new final disposal system on another site. that investment in the environmental recuperation of a dump is combined with the creation of disposal service and environmental protection infrastructure in the same place. in addition to the appropriate tools. An analysis of these alternatives is fundamental to appropriate planning for future solid waste final disposal. It is always recommended. Another aspect to consider is the availability of resources. On rainy days they should wear plastic waterproofs. It should be noted that the strategic context of a refuse dump environmental recuperation exercise can be: ! ! that the area will be recuperated after it is closed for the dumping of waste. technical-operational and economic results.
cover the exposed waste surfaces with an at least 50cm thick layer of good quality clay. 237 . h) recuperate the excavated area by filling it with natural soil from the region. as should the surface water in nearby bodies of water. gas vents should be periodically checked so that those extinguished by wind or rain can be relit. f) give the top surface an incline as indicated in the section on drainage. m) sow grass and native plant species with short roots. l) spread a layer of top soil over the layer of clay on the top surface and slopes. in general 1:3 (V:H). and the quality of underground water should be checked through the monitoring wells. Leachate that accumulates in the storage pits should be periodically recirculated in the mass of waste. j) dig one or more storage pits for effluent collected by the leachate drainage devices. Solid waste final disposal When a refuse dump is permanently closed. i) install rainwater and leachate drainage devices appropriate for the particular project. g) after they have been levelled. including the lateral slopes. d) remove the waste from the parts of the site where the layer of waste is thinner (in general less than one metre) and deposit it on the part of the refuse dump where the layer of waste is thickest. and site recuperation is undertaken. b) delimit the affected area in situ. k) construct vertical wells for gas venting. the basic procedures are: a) if there is no reliable cadastral data.13. e) form lateral slopes with an appropriate incline. The recuperation of a refuse dump does not finish with the implementation of these procedures. through sprinklers (similar to those used for grass watering) or infiltration beds. c) carry out probes to measure the thickness of the layer of waste throughout the degraded area. thus ending any type of waste disposal there. previous urban cleaning personnel should be consulted to determine as precisely as possible the extent of the area affected by waste and the principal physical characteristics of the natural land. n) use three of the previously made probe holes to install water table monitoring wells: one on the upstream side of the area of the recuperated dump and two on the downstream side.
Refuse dump recuperation projects are therefore not limited to engineering issues but also have to solve a complex social problem that cannot and should not be the sole responsibility of the body providing urban cleaning services. together with collection trucks and scrap dealers. it has become an “alternative job” as a result of the now endemic large-scale social crisis. whenever possible a recuperated dump site should continue to be used. compaction and covering operations. which together with low work training levels leads people to seek any activity that at least provides a means of survival for themselves and their families. in addition to creating a serious risk of accidents involving the working machines and vehicles. one upstream and two downstream from the future operational area. and such activity hinders distribution. ! dig water table monitoring wells. ! install the necessary rainwater drainage channels to stop rain water run off reaching future work faces. due to the difficulty of finding new sites appropriate for sanitary landfills. ! install a leachate recirculation system and (depending on the climatic conditions of the zone) an effluent treatment system with stabilization lagoons. Even more serious is the presence of children at dumps. 238 . the sequence of procedures listed in the previous paragraph is modified after point “g” in the following way: ! prepare the excavated area to receive more solid waste.As has been previously explained. but as a landfill. In this case. as the landfill evolves build vertical wells for gas venting. establish procedures for distribution. 13. or because the children themselves are segregating materials in order to increase family income. compaction and covering as if it were a sanitary landfill. waterproofing it with good quality clay and installing underground pipes to collect leachate.6 The situation of segregators In the present situation of Latin American and Caribbean countries there are not enough employment opportunities in the formal work market to allow universal entrance into it by a growing population. either due to a lack of alternative options for parents who do not have anybody to take care of them while they are engaged in segregation work. Segregators tend to circulate freely in the operational area of a refuse dump. but rather requires articulated action involving various governmental sectors. ! ! ! excavate one or more storage pits for effluent generated in new cells. Even though recyclable waste segregation in refuse dumps and streets is an unhealthy activity.
cooperation with non-governmental institutions and private companies.13. programs that provide children with integral fulltime places in schools or sports and recreational centres and a compensatory system for parents whose children cease to engage in segregation work. it is disposed of at the bottom of a landfill. Figure 136 – Recycling plant operated by a segregator cooperative 13.7 Special domestic waste disposal 13.1 Construction rubble disposal As has been explained in the chapter on solid waste treatment. the provision of technical training for segregators so that they can engage in other activities in the formal labour market. Depositing this type of waste in a sanitary landfill is also not economical from an environmental perspective as the useful life of the landfill will be diminished by waste that.7. Disposing of construction rubble in a sanitary landfill is not economical as it is inert waste that is being deposited in a specialized system surrounded by technical resources designed to protect the environment. Solid waste final disposal Some of the initiatives that should be implemented to gradually change this situation are the development of alternative income and employment programs (such as segregator cooperatives. could be used for the recuperation of excavations resulting from the extraction of materials used in the construction industry. However when a municipality does not have this option. when it could be disposed of in more simple landfills at a lower cost. for example). with effective management. 239 . the ideal destiny for construction rubble is recycling.
their final disposal should be managed with the same criteria as are applied to industrial waste that carries the same type of risk. treatment and final disposal. dealers and other players in this economic sector. In this case too the “polluter pays” principle applies. particularly due to the presence of heavy metals in their composition. 13.The only appropriate types of rubble disposal in a sanitary landfill are: ! ! its use as base material for internal roads and unloading areas.3 Disposal of fluorescent tubes Often small pieces of broken tubes are accidentally discarded together with common waste in sanitary landfills. especially in large amounts. 13. with a view to recycling or another form of treatment and final disposal. This waste should be regarded as waste from the industrial process of its producers. Before organizing a system for battery separation at source. Batteries collected in this way would be removed once a month and taken to a treatment or recycling site. who should be responsible for financing such a process.7. ! establish an agreement with mobile phone producers under which they set up a discarded battery collection program that includes the provision of a telephonic information centre providing the location of places where there are special containers for used batteries.7. is in a landfill designed specifically for industrial waste with this risk classification. as there is mercury in them the appropriate final disposal of such waste. its use for the temporary covering of urban waste when there is a scarcity of the usual covering material in the zone. Corresponding regulations should be brought into force in support of this type of model to avoid the risk that the municipality will be left with responsibility for costs associated with production process waste from private sector enterprises. 240 . However. Two initiatives are presented below as examples of measures that the private sector can adopt for the collection and final disposal of batteries.2 Disposal of batteries As used batteries constitute hazardous waste. who should therefore be responsible for its collection. the body responsible for urban cleaning should ensure the participation of producers. ! develop a project together with associations of authorized technical service providers for the installation of battery collection containers on their premises.
The following figure shows an outline cross section of a bio-regeneration area. Finally it is necessary to pay attention to the import of used but still usable tyres as together with these goods the companies of exporter countries are also exporting the problem of disposal when they are of no further use. which should be the responsibility of producers and distributors as it is their economic activity that generates this waste.7. 13. Once the micro organisms complete the degradation work.1 Industrial waste disposal Soil bio-regeneration (land farming).8 Disposal of waste from special sources 13. industrial landfills.4 Disposal of tyres When it is not possible to recycle used tyres or use them in cement industry furnaces. This treatment is very much used for the final decomposition of oil by-products and organic compounds. Although the same land can be used repeatedly the disadvantage of this method is its need for large areas of land as the layers are not thick. The treatment consists of mixing and homogenizing waste with the upper layer of soil (to a ploughing depth of 15cm to 20cm). SOIL BIO-REGENERATION Soil bio-regeneration (land farming) is a biological treatment through which the organic part of waste is decomposed by the micro organisms that live in the upper layer of soil. waste barrages and other forms of disposal are commonly used for industrial waste.13. 241 . repeating the same steps. for example. they can be disposed of in sanitary landfills after being ground so that they do not cause structural problems in the landfill. and so on. In support of this current perspective on the problem national legislation is needed to facilitate a progressive reduction in the quantity of such waste through a policy that fosters recycling by the industry and suppliers. The body responsible for urban cleaning should not have to take on the problematic final disposal of used tyres. Solid waste final disposal 13.8. a new layer of waste can be treated in the same soil.
In Brazil. for example.Soil bio-regeneration outline INDUSTRIAL LANDFILLS Industrial landfills are classified according to the hazard presented by the waste to be deposited there.Periodic application and mixing of waste and soil Containment of rainwater that falls on the treatment area Evaporation Diversion of rainwater that falls outside the treatment area 200 m Infiltration Water course Aerobic decomposition.Flow of water in a landfill In order to reduce the amount of effluent to be treated. the incursion of rainwater falling outside the limits of the landfill that would otherwise increase the volume of effluent percolating inside the landfill. landfills for Class I waste can receive hazardous industrial waste. as demonstrated in the following figure. those for Class II. only inert waste. In any type of industrial waste landfill a rainwater drainage system and bottom waterproofing are essential to avoid soil and water table contamination from rainwater that has percolated through the waste. by means of barriers and drainage ditches. the first step is to avoid. 242 . absorption and adsorption in the upper layer Figure 137 . non-inert waste. and those for Class III. Rain Evaporation Superficial drainage Leaching Waste landfill Leaching Percolation Maximum water level Flow of underground water Non-saturated zone Wastewater Impermeable soil Figure 138 .
In this context the best course of action is to concentrate efforts on earlier stages. The most common phenomena produced by the mixture of incompatible wastes are: heat generation.5mm h > 3m Leakage detection layer (t = 25cm) Figure 139 . dissolution of toxic substances and violent polymerization. Consequently. on the reduction of waste production and its treatment so that only unusable refuse is deposited in industrial landfills. wastes that do not react in contact with each other or with infiltrated rainwater. An industrial landfill with a capacity of 15.0 to 2.000 tons requires an initial investment of approximately two million dollars and involves operational costs of 50 to 150 dollars per ton.5% Physical protection layer t = 30cm Waste Storage pit Maximum water level To the effluent treatment unit PVC tube Plastic membrane (double layer) t =1. production of smoke and gases that are toxic and inflammable. that is. When operating an industrial landfill special precautions have to be taken to control the type of waste unloaded there as only chemically compatible wastes can be disposed of in any given landfill. that is.13. before waste is unloaded at the landfill the list of compatible wastes published by environmental control bodies must be consulted. Solid waste final disposal The second step is waterproofing the bottom of the landfill with a plastic membrane in order to stop leachate contaminating the soil and the water table.00m Intermediate coverage (soil – t = 25cm) Plastic membrane t = 20 to 30cm Waste Waste Vegetation coverage Pumping unit Blind drainage I = min 0.Industrial landfill for Class I waste . The main disadvantage of an industrial landfill as a means of final waste disposal is that it requires a large area of land in order to be economically and operationally viable and it should be taken into account that the waste continues to be potentially dangerous until it can naturally incorporate itself in the environment. The operational cost varies according to the waste’s degree of toxicity. fire or explosion.60 to 1. Industrial landfill for Class I waste Final coverage layer I = 2% Rainwater drainage Drainage layer t = 25cm h = 4 to 6m Waste t = 0.typical cross-section 243 .
a top waterproofing layer of plastic membrane or good quality clay (k = 10 . Industrial landfill for Class II and Class III waste Final coverage layer I = 2% Rainwater drainage Drainage layer t = 25cm h = 4 to 6m Waste t = 0. drainage layer on top of the top waterproofing layer (t = 25cm).6cm/s. ! ! ! leakage detection layer between the bottom waterproofing layers. A minimum water table depth of three metres is required and the following layers are compulsory: ! double layer of bottom waterproofing: PEAD membrane and clay protection layer (k < 10 . Beginning at least 1. percolates drainage system.60 to 1. ! although it is not obligatory.5m Figure 140 . layers of waste (from 4.5mm h > 1. 244 . thickness > 50cm) is recommended.0m to 6. ! 25cm thick sand drainage (necessary only where there is top waterproofing).Industrial landfill for Class II and Class III waste – typical cross-section Industrial landfills for Class II and Class III waste are similar to domestic waste sanitary landfills but do not usually have a gas venting system. top waterproofing layer.7cm/s). physical protection for the plastic membrane.5% Physical protection layer t = 30cm To the effluent treatment unit PVC tube Plastic membrane t = 0.Industrial landfills for Class I waste require more rigorous waterproofing than those for Class II and III.8 to 1.0m thick) with 25cm thick layers of soil between them.5m above the highest level of the water table and going from bottom to top this type of landfill usually consists of the following layers: ! ! ! ! bottom waterproofing with PEAD membrane.00m Vegetation coverage Pumping unit Blind drainage Waste Storage pit Maximum water level t = 20 to 30cm Waste Waste I = min 0.
or can be injected into exhausted oil wells. 13. OTHER FORMS OF DISPOSAL Highly hazardous waste can be disposed of in underground saline or calcareous caves. vegetation coverage with short root plant species. After the closure of the landfill. Solid waste final disposal ! ! organic soil (thickness > 60cm). ! encapsulation in an impermeable concrete covering followed by dumping in the deep ocean (this process is very much criticized by environmentalists and in some countries is prohibited).8. collected through a drainage system similar to the one in the previous figure. The type of treatment depends on the characteristics of the waste deposited in the landfill but usually a complete physicochemical process is applied. A top waterproofing layer is not required as the surface serves to evaporate off part of the liquid content. should be led to a treatment unit. all very expensive and sophisticated: ! construction of special shelters with double walls of high resistance concrete. The percolated liquid. These landfills are not deep and cover an extended area. WASTE BARRAGES Waste barrages are used for the disposal of liquid waste as well as sludgy waste that has a humidity content of more than 80%. preferably underground. followed by a conventional biological process (stabilization lagoons or activated sludge). 245 . Such barrage systems use a double layer of waterproofing only on the bottom. They have a filtration and drainage system at the bottom (flute) to collect and treat the liquid part while containing the solid matter inside the barrage.2 Radioactive waste disposal There are three final disposal processes for nuclear waste. when the top layer of waste has solidified. the surface is waterproofed with a layer of clay to reduce rainwater infiltration and thus the need for ongoing treatment of percolated liquids.13.
3 Port and airport waste disposal In some countries it is required by law that port and airport waste is disposed of by incineration. the surfaces of which should be covered daily. Conceptually a septic trench is in reality a Class II industrial landfill. which involves the daily covering of waste and obligatory waterproofing but no leachate collection. It is therefore essential that an effective and safe solid waste storage. In recent years the sanitary vigilance authorities of several countries have begun to implement measures that increase controls in ports and airports out of a concern for the potential economic impact of diseases such as foot-and-mouth or mad-cow disease being “imported” from other countries or regions. is a viable option for cities with budgetary limitations.8. a distinct plot should be separated for medical waste disposal. This plot should be fenced and isolated from the rest of the landfill.8. There are two types of septic trench: individual ones such as may be used by large hospitals and ones that are annexed to a municipal sanitary landfill. When the septic trench is annexed to a municipal landfill. in many of these countries only some ports and airports comply with such environmental legislation while in the others no special attention is paid to waste disposal. Top waterproofing should begin as soon as the volume of waste reaches its final height and should progress at the same rate as the filling of the trench.8. trenches should be excavated with dimensions appropriate for receiving waste generated over a pre-determined period (a month.4 Medical waste disposal The only final disposal process for this type of waste in the ground is the septic trench. Port and airport waste not at risk of being contaminated by contact with waste generated in boats or planes arriving from areas with endemic diseases can be disposed of in sanitary landfills. handling and internal transport system is implemented in order to avoid contact between common waste and waste that is contaminated or represents a potential sanitary risk. In the first type. six months or a year). 13. a method that is very much questioned by most professionals but. 246 . as described in 13.1. due to its low investment and operational costs. The bottom and sides of the excavated trench are then waterproofed and waste begins to be deposited there. However.! disposal in saline underground caves that are sealed so as not to contaminate the biosphere. 13.
the atmosphere. The unpleasant appearance and the bad odour that they emit discredit city administrations where waste is not appropriately disposed of.9 Sanitary landfills and carbon credits: Opportunities to help resolve environmental problems The environmental damage resulting from refuse dumps and irregular dumping always causes significant problems for municipal administrations. provided they are well built and correctly 247 . surface and underground water and represent a potential source of epidemics and fires as well as being susceptible to disintegration.13. Solid waste final disposal The procedures for waste disposal and waterproof layer installation are similar to those previously described. they require significant financial investment and their operation involves a high level of complexity. Attempting to resolve urban solid waste final disposal problems through the installation of recycling or incineration plants is often not feasible as. Final coverage Drainage layer Plastic membrane Fence Waste 3m to 4m Waste Waste Top coverage Lateral slopes coverage Plastic membrane Figure 141 . both of which are beyond the capacity of municipalities that lack financial resources and specialized personnel. especially in relation to the final disposal of waste. From an environmental perspective dumps are a real calamity as they contaminate the soil. The simplest and cheapest option for solving the problem of refuse dumps is undoubtedly the installation of sanitary landfills. Many mayors have been held directly accountable by environmental bodies.Septic trench installed in a sanitary landfill 13. in spite of spectacular promotional offers by equipment manufacturers. auditing tribunals and public prosecutors for poor urban cleaning management.
in which case they should be replaced by a sanitary landfill elsewhere that will then receive the city’s domestic waste. which are offering resources and information for the installation of sanitary landfills with systems that recover and exploit “waste biogas”. Consequently. However such initiatives involve investment and operational costs that in general are beyond municipalities’ financial means. impedes the release into space of heat generated by the incidence of the sun’s rays on the Earth’s surface. In this chapter we will try to clarify the question of carbon credits as the recovery and use of biogas for fuel has already been dealt with in many technical publications. our planet would be as cold and sterile as Mars. One potentially positive economic factor being studied with increasing attention as a solution to this problem is the exploitation of biogas naturally produced during organic waste anaerobic decomposition processes. This combustible gas can be used to fuel boilers.operated. Sanitary landfills do not contaminate or emit unpleasant odours and after their final closure they can be used for the construction of sports complexes or public parks. while if it existed to a greater degree the Earth would be similar to Venus. according to which the percentage of cities that still have refuse dumps is very high. carbonic gas and methane. the average 248 .9. As a result of this situation the problem of solid waste disposal in Latin America is far from being solved. the presence of certain gases in the atmosphere. as is revealed by PAHO reports on basic sanitary services (see chapter 1). approximately 50% of which is methane. This new opportunity is beginning to receive support from the World Bank and other international development bodies. Refuse dumps can be eliminated either by transforming them into sanitary landfills or by eradicating them altogether in an environmentally sound way. furnaces and vehicle internal combustion engines or to generate electricity. Over recent decades the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere has increased. sterile and with an extremely high ambient temperature. The naturally occurring “greenhouse effect” is a phenomenon of the Earth’s particular type of atmosphere that ensures climatic conditions favourable for life as we know it. If this phenomenon did not exist. principally water vapour.1 Greenhouse effect: causes and consequences This phenomenon is similar to the one produced by the glass panels of a greenhouse that retain heat produced by the sun. 13. as established in the Kyoto Protocol the objective of which is to reduce the proportion of gases that provoke the greenhouse effect in the earth’s atmosphere. principally due to the intensive use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil in domestic and industrial activities and in transport. for example. which is then reflected outwards. As with the glass panels of a greenhouse. with the additional advantage that its producers will receive Certified Emission Reductions (CERs).
9. Countries not included in Annex 1 of the Protocol. or is captured. Following its ratification by Russia in November 2004. disappeared when a layer of dust was raised by the impact of a meteorite on the surface of the Earth provoking a drastic fall in global temperatures. the Kyoto Protocol came into force on 16th February 2005. thus endangering the delicate balance that makes our environment liveable. Solid waste final disposal temperature on Earth is increasing. A dramatic example of what a change in the Earth’s climate can imply is the extinction of the dinosaurs that once lived all over the planet and. according to the most accepted theory. Global carbon markets have therefore begun to form and several international funds have been created to support the development of projects that reduce anthropogenic 6. As a result of these cost differences the Emissions Reduction Market was created where the current value of a ton of CO2 or equivalent that is not emitted. are not obliged by the Protocol to reduce emissions but rather can transfer to Annex 1 countries credits corresponding to emission reductions produced by projects implemented for that purpose that qualify as what are called CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects.00 per ton of CO2. such as Latin American and Caribbean countries. The Protocol defined a baseline criterion separating the group of surplus emission producing countries (credit buyers) and the group of sub-baseline producing countries (credit sellers). Out of a concern to stop. The Kyoto Protocol established that between 2008 and 2012 countries listed in its Annex 1 (developed countries) should reduce their emission of green-house gases (GHG) to a level approximately 7 % below that of 1995. is approximately US$ 10.00 per ton of carbon while in countries not included in Annex 1 of the Protocol they vary from US$ 1.int/2860. or at least reduce. which established the “Framework Convention on Climate Change” that finally became the Kyoto Protocol 6 signed in 1997 in the Japanese city of that name. the acceleration of this process the UN called a summit.13.2 The “logic” of carbon credits The interest in buying Certified Emission Reduction credits is due to differences between countries in the cost of emission reduction through processes applied to installations.00.00 to US$ 30. Available on the Convention on Climate Change website http://unfccc. 13.php 249 . the moment at which the timeframe for commitments taken on in that international agreement became applicable. Rio 92. Consequently commitments were established that defined greenhouse gas emission reduction goals for developed countries listed in Annex 1 of the Protocol and a program of reduction quota commercialization. In developed countries these costs can reach to values higher than US$ 500.
Another Brazilian project for implementation in the Salvador Centre Metropolitan sanitary landfill (Bahia). Each ton of CO2 that a developing country does not emit or captures (that is. This is the first Argentinean project that has been presented to the Kyoto Protocol Executive Council as a CDM. transforms for example into vegetable matter. In Argentina for example. it is not required by law. Buenos Aires. requires low investment. For CERs to be issued. has been put to tender with the support and assistance of the World Bank. the concession for the collection and treatment of methane produced by the large sanitary landfill at Villa Dominico. In relation to the greenhouse effect it should be noted that each ton of methane is equivalent to 21 tons of CO2.5 per ton) and its first client is the government of the Netherlands. that is. already approved by the Brazilian government through the Inter- 250 . a process called fixation in plants) can be traded on the global market in the form of the above mentioned CER credits. the planning. is aligned with public policies for the improvement of sanitary and environmental conditions and results in a better quality of life for the urban population by contributing to the transformation of refuse dumps into sanitary landfills. In consequence CERs are generated to the degree that the combustion of methane takes place and the emission of CO2 equivalent is therefore diminished. Latin American cities are beginning to invest in urban waste treatments that reduce methane emissions and generate income through CERs linked to sanitary landfill projects implemented in accordance with CDM. implementation and operation of a project should be certified and audited by independent bodies authorized by the UN.5 million tons of carbonic gas (US$ 4. whether there are real measurable long term benefits. The project is expected to capture the equivalent of 2.carbon emissions. To take advantage of this new economic opportunity. whether emission reductions are additional to those that would take place if the project was not implemented (baseline). The first CDM project approved by the Executive Council is in Brazil: an electricity generating station fuelled by methane from landfill biogas in Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro). taking into account: ! ! ! whether the project is entered into voluntarily. The application of CDM to sanitary landfills is very effective for emission reduction.
with the objective of capturing 18.3 Circumstances in which biogas from a sanitary landfill can be utilized For an effective implementation of a biogas recovery and utilization project.962 tons of methane over the course of 15 years. as well as a specific annual budget allocation to municipal solid waste management large enough to cover the system’s investment and operational costs. The first pilot project in Latin America was implemented in Uruguay at Las Rosas sanitary landfill.13. There should also be a national policy for solid waste management establishing minimum service provision standards and requiring the implementation of final waste disposal systems that are both sanitarily and environmentally sound. is at present awaiting the evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol Executive Council. there are requirements that have to be met. the company operating the sanitary landfill where that service is subcontracted. Institutional The mayor and secretaries of departments related to municipal solid waste management and the environment should clearly and unequivocally demonstrate their intention to implement a permanent program of domestic waste collection and final disposal that covers the entire urban population (universal coverage) in order to ensure healthy conditions for everybody and the protection of the local environment.9. 251 . an organizational agreement should be established between the different institutions involved in the project such as the municipality. Solid waste final disposal ministerial Climate Commission. provincial or municipal environmental conservation bodies. the electricity distribution company or gas consumer company where there is energy or gas generation using biogas. Here we present some of the essential conditions that the various sectors involved in the operation of an urban cleaning system should fulfil in order to achieve the established objective. To achieve these objectives there must be a separate management unit within the municipal administration with sufficient training to carry out these functions. and national. Finally. Maldonando province. It is therefore clear that the carbon credit market is rapidly expanding and adapting to the CDM principles established by the Kyoto Protocol. headed by the Science and Technology Ministry. 13. with its consequent reduction of methane emission into the atmosphere.
7t/m³. Social A public awareness raising program should be instigated focusing on the issue of urban cleaning with a view to informing all citizens about sanitary problems in their region. 252 . the waste is not covered with clay and there is no leachate and biogas collection. In addition guarantees are required not only for an effective collection of the biogas and the transformation of its methane into carbon dioxide (CO2) but also for the long term continuity of the process as biogas continues to be produced during a period of more than 15 years after the closure of a landfill as a waste disposal site. where relevant. so that they can be analyzed and given different degrees of priority by the Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change. provided that the ownership. with a view to the possible allocation of public resources or investment by the private sector at a national or international level.Physical and operational The existence of a sanitary landfill principally dealing with the disposal of domestic waste with a high organic matter content that has already received a minimum quantity of 15. the surface of the landfill and its slopes are covered with clay except for the work face where trucks unload. which occupies a volume that can be represented. 13. and there is a regular reception of at least 50 tons of domestic waste per day.000 tons of waste (corresponding to 25. the possibility of recuperating the land at the same time as sanitary or controlled operations begin on it should be examined. considering a density of 0. Disposal operations should preferably continue on the site of the old refuse dump. in order to avoid the difficulties involved in the implementation of a new landfill in an urban area even when it will be operated on a sound basis.9. If the site is not operated in a sanitary way. urban zoning and minimum environmental conditions are appropriate. the layer of waste is at least 10 metres deep. that is.4 Requirements for the implementation of GHG emission reduction projects in solid waste landfills The implementation of emission reduction programs for methane produced in urban waste landfills should comply with CDM requirements.200 cubic metres. by the national body responsible for climate change issues. the resources needed to solve them and the responsibilities that each party has in the process. by a 10m high prism with sides of 60m). Consequently the formulation of a table of conditioning factors is recommended that can be filled in according to the specific characteristics of each project and subsequently analyzed to determine if a given project can receive preliminary approval from the national body responsible for the environment and later. to give an idea.
Even though income from CERs is not received immediately after the transformation of a refuse dump into a sanitary landfill. are less onerous than other GHG emission reduction options. a landfill growth plan that is followed. a qualified technical team within the responsible body. a landfill operation that is ongoing and functions in a regulated way: a sufficiency of machines. ! the existence of land owned by the municipality that meets the environmental conditions necessary for installing a sanitary landfill. more than 10 metre thick layers of waste. a municipal budgetary allocation specifically for urban cleaning services that is big enough to maintain the quality of those services at an appropriate level. the existence of a body responsible for urban cleaning in the municipality. Such sanitary landfill projects are therefore likely to be of interest to large international corporations as a way of obtaining cheaper CERs. involving burning and transformation into CO2. ! no depositing of industrial waste in the landfill. a collection and either treatment or recirculation of leachate. Solid waste final disposal The following is a list of project related characteristics that will facilitate the analysis of a given project prior to a decision on whether or not basic CDM requirements are met: ! ! ! ! ! ! an urban population of more than 30.000 inhabitants. in the medium term it can represent real financial assistance for municipalities enabling them to ensure the correct operation of urban 253 . where applicable. ! ! a sub-contraction of the landfill operation. and install a new sanitary landfill. the compaction of waste and its regular coverage with a layer of clay.9. ! an effective body of municipal regulations applicable to urban cleaning that may be part of a general body of municipal regulations. a waste collection system coverage of at least 80% of the population. ! a political decision on the part of the mayor to recuperate the existing refuse dump.13. 13. a daily waste collection delivered to the site of at least 50 tons. ! a municipal urban cleaning or waste collection rate that covers more than 40% of service costs.5 General considerations The relation between sanitary landfills and carbon credits is based in the fact that landfill biogas capture and utilization projects. ! an existing or planned public awareness raising campaign on environmental issues in general or urban cleaning in particular.
Finally it should be noted that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has recently approved a new methodology for calculating the emissions avoided by composting processes. 254 .solid waste final disposal installations. This offers municipalities a definitive and low cost way of fulfilling their constitutional and moral duty to appropriately dispose of waste produced in urban concentrations and provide basic sanitary conditions for the inhabitants of the city they administer. This is of interest as it can facilitate the viability of projects that add this form of waste treatment to the operation of sanitary landfills thus extending their useful life. reducing leachate generation and avoiding methane emissions. which can lead to CER income.
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GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS ABNT – Brazilian Institute of Technical Standards ASCE – American Society of Civil Engineers BOD – Biochemical Oxygen Demand CEPIS/PAHO – Pan American Center for Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Sciences CER – Certified Emission Reduction CDM – Clean Development Mechanism CNEN – National Nuclear Energy Commission. Brazil COD – Chemical Oxygen Demand COMLURB – Rio de Janeiro Urban Cleaning Company CONAMA – National Commission on the Environment. Brazil TGW –Total Gross Weight UN – United Nations VDC – Voluntary Drop-off Centres WCR – Waste Collection Rate 258 . 1992) SISNAMA –National Environmental System. Brazil EIS – Environmental Impact Study EMS – Environmental Management Secretariat. IDRC GHG – Green-House Gas HDI – Human Development Index HDPE – High Density Polyethylene IADB – Inter-American Development Bank IBAM – Brazilian Institute of Municipal Administration IDRC – International Development Research Centre of Canada IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPE – Individual Protection Equipment ISWM – Integrated Solid Waste Management ISWMP – Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan LAC – Latin America and the Caribbean Region LDPE – Low Density Polyethylene MoU – Memorandum of Understanding NGO – Non-Governmental Organization PAHO – Pan-American Health Organization PET – Polyethylene Terephtalate PVC – Poly Vinyl Chloride Rio 92 – United Nations International Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro.
veterinary clinics. clinics. laboratories. Compensatory measures: measures to compensate communities or social groups for the use of non-renewable environmental resources. treatment or rehabilitation. 259 . resulting in increased heat on the Earth’s surface and thus an increase in the average temperature of the planet. medical centres and all other establishments where any level of human or animal healthcare is practiced with a view to prevention. Indivisible service: a public service available to all tax-payers that cannot be measured on the basis of the amount used by individual citizens. Domestic waste: residential waste and waste from small commercial generators. Final disposal: the final process applied to solid waste resulting in its ultimate placement. or for unavoidable negative environmental impacts. Intermediary agents: agents involved in the commercialization of recyclable materials in general as intermediaries in sales by segregators to recycling companies. Governing plan: a fundamental legally binding policy instrument for the development and organization of the municipal territory aimed at guaranteeing an appropriate social functioning of the city. replicating on a planetary scale an effect similar to the one observable in a greenhouse.GLOSSARY Biogas: combustible gas naturally generated during the organic matter putrefaction process. This phenomenon stops heat from the sun leaving the atmosphere and returning to space. Healthcare institutions: public and private hospitals. which implies a reduced financial income for segregators. Integrated solid waste management plan: a technical planning instrument for activities linked to urban cleaning. Greenhouse effect: the absorption by the Earth’s atmosphere of infrared radiation emitted by its surface. Composting: procedures for the transformation of biodegradable organic municipal solid waste into organic compounds. diagnosis. Clean technology: technology that does not produce secondary effects or impact on the environmental balance or natural systems. Environmental impact assessment: a procedure aimed at identifying and interpreting the effects of public or private actions or projects that may cause environmental impacts or alter the quality of life.
commercial or institutional origin. Plant: a solid waste processing site including the land. structures. including planning. Municipal waste: solid or semisolid waste generated by activities in population centres. healthcare institutions. Municipal Treasury: the resources of a municipality out of which the municipal budget is financed. Recycling company: a company specializing in the recycling of material. transfer. Refuse dump: a place where waste is indiscriminately dumped in the open air without the application of any sanitary treatment. design and evaluation. treatment and final disposal of solid waste. street cleaning. that is related to appropriate solid waste management. small industries and the sweeping and cleaning of public spaces. 260 . transport. or from markets. recyclable material recovery. legislative and judicial branches. works and added features. contains materials in solution or in suspension and results from the decomposition process plus the infiltration of rainwater. Master plan: a document containing all of the necessary elements for the complete implementation of a project in accordance with relevant technical regulations. also called scavenger or waste picker.Leachate: liquid that drains through solid waste. of residential. Organic law: a municipality’s foundational law defining the areas of jurisdiction and responsibility for its executive. collection. Urban cleaning service: all activities relating to solid waste management: preparation and storage. Refuse: all waste produced by human activity that is not reused. Segregator: a person engaged in the separation of recyclable material from refuse. Solid waste management: all technical and administrative activity. Medical waste: all waste generated by healthcare institutions.
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