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Introduction: Evolution: Scope of International Relations: Actors in International Relations: A: Nations B. Leaders of Nations C. Sub state actors D. Transnational Actors Evaluating the Influence of Actors:
Imperialism, colonialism & neo-colonialism History: A. The Economic Motive: B. political motives: C. ideological motives: D. reactive imperialism: The effect of imperialism: Colonialism: Types of colonies: A. colonies of settlement B. colonies of exploitation: C. contested settlement colonies: D. other types of colonies: History of colonies: A. age of exploration (1450-1700) Spanish colonies Portuguese colonies: Dutch colonies: English colonies: French colonies: B. European merchant empires (1700-1815): C. imperialism of free trade: A. new imperialism (1870-1914): B. mandates and trusts: Motives for colonization: A. economic motives: A. religious and strategic motives: Neocolonialism:
The historical development of the state The state in classical antiquity: The modern state The state in modern political thought: Evolution of modern state system: A. Sumerian city state (existed before 2500 B.C) B. Greek city states C. Roman Empire: D. treaty of Westphalia (1648) and the acknowledgement of other states; E. Italian mercantile city states: F. French revolution and development of ideas of self determination:
Nationalism Concepts of sovereignty: National interest: History:
3 3. Kashmir issue: 4. Non interference:
Elements of national power National power: Elements of national power: 1. geography: 2. Location: Climate: Topology: Population: Economic factors: Military preparedness: Government organization: National character: National prestige: National morale: Economic aspects of international relations: 5. Implementation of UN charter: promotion of world peace 6. promotion of human rights:
Diplomacy Chapter: 9 International development law: nature, origin and
Balance of power Significance to international relations: Balance of power is a doctrine of equilibrium: Historical perspective: Balance of power today: Protection of freedom and sovereignty 1. Better relations with super powers: 2. Cordial countries: relations with Muslim The concept of war and peace in international relations:
New phenomenon and concepts in
Chapter: 1 Introduction:
The discipline that studies interactions between and among states and more broadly the workings of the international system as a whole. BARRY BUZEN Study of the relations of states with each other and with international organization and certain sub national entities (e.g. Bureaucracy and political parties) International relations is the study and practice of political relationship among the worlds nations especially their interactions between non governmental groups, such as multinational corporations (companies that operate in more red cross or the united nations (UN). International relations is a broad and complex topic both for countries engaged in relationships with other nations and for observers trying to understand those interaction. These relationships are influenced by many variables. They are shaped by the primary participants in international relations, including national leaders, other politician, and nongovernmental participants such as private citizens’ corporations and nongovernmental organizations. They are also affected by domestic political events and nonpolitical influence including economics, geography and culture. Despite all of these other influence the primary focus of international relations is on the interactions between nations. Evolution: The history of international relations is often traced back to the peace of Westphalia of 1648 where the modern state system was developed. Prior to this the European medieval organization of political authority was based on a vaguely hierarchical religious order. Westphalia instituted the legal concept of sovereignty which essentially meant that rulers or the legitimate sovereigns would recognize no internal equals within a defined territory and no external superiors as the ultimate authority with in the territory sovereign borders. Classical Greek and
5 roman authority at times resembled the Westphalian system but both lacks the notion of sovereignty. Westphalia encouraged the rise of the independent nation state the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. This particular European system was exported to the Americas, Africa and Asia via colonialism and the standards of civilization. The contemporary international system was finally established through decolonization during the cold war. However this come what over simplified, while the nation state system is considered modern many states have not incorporated the system and are termed pre modern. Further a handful of states have moved beyond the nation state system and can be considers post modern. The ability of contemporary IR discourse to explain the relations of these different types of states id disputed. A level of analysis is a way of looking at the international system which includes the individual level the domestic nation state as a unit the international level of transnational and intergovernmental affairs and the global level. IR theory however has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social sciences. The use of capitalizations of the I and r in international relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of international relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of international relations from the phenomena of international relations. Many cite Thucydides history of Peloponnesian war as the inspiration for realist theory with Hobbes Lwviarhan and Machiavelli’s the prince providing further elaboration. Similarly liberalism draws upon the work of Kant and Rousseau with the work of the former often being cited as the first elaboration of democratic peace theory. Though contemporary human rights is considerably different than the type of rights envisioned under natural law Francisco de Vitoriahugo Grotius and john Locke offered the first accounts of universal entitlement to certain rights on the basis of common humanity. In the twentieth century in addition to contemporary theories of liberal internationalism Marxism has been a foundation of international relations. Scope of international relations: International relations is a branch of political science. It represents the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system including the roles of states inter governmental organizations (IGOs) non governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular
6 states. It can be conceived of either as a multidisciplinary field gathering together the international aspects of politics economics, history, law and sociology or as a meta discipline , focusing on the systematic structures and pattern of interaction of the human species taken as a whole. Apart from political science, IR draws upon such diverse fields as economics, history, law, philosophy, geography, sociology, anthropology, psychology and cultural studies. It involves a diverse range of issues from globalization and its impacts on societies and state sovereignty to ecological sustainability nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development terrorism. Organized crime, human security, and human rights. The scope of international relations has greatly expanded in modern times. Initially international relations were concerned only with the study of diplomatic history. It concentrated on the study of contemporary foreign affairs with a view to draw certain lessons. Later on emphasis began to be laid on the study of international law and international relations began to be studied with in the framework of international law. The field of the study of international relations was further widened with the establishment of the League of Nations after the First World War and the study of international organizations and institutions was also included with in its purview. The scope of international relations in the post world war II period got further widened dir to significant changes which tool place viz the emergence of USA and USSR as the superpowers; the of a large number of non European states in to the society of nations the danger of thermo nuclear war increasing interdependence of states and rising expectations of people in the under developed world etc. greater emphasis began to be placed on scientific study of international relations, which led to development of new methodologies and introduction of new theories in the study of international relations. Actors in international relations: The participants in international relations often called actors have a great influence of the relationships between nations and on world affairs. The major participants include the nations themselves, the leaders of those nations, sub state actors (organizations operating in more than one country) and international organizations. A: nations
7 The nations themselves are the most important actors in international relations. A nation is territory with a defined border and a government that answers to no higher authority than its own. All or part of the population shares a group identity, often based on a combination of common ancestry, language or culture. In 1997 there were 186 recognized nations in the world. There also are a number of political entities sometime thought of as nations. These include territories that function independently, such as Taiwan which is officially considered a province of china; colonies such as Martinique and nations that are not yet recognized such as Palestine. Also included in this list is Vatican City which does not fit into any of these categories. Nations vary in size and power from the United States with a $7 trillion economy and china with more than I1 billion people to nations with fewer the 100,000 people, such as Andorra and Greenland. Size and power are two important variables in determining a nation’s relationships with other countries and its influence in international affairs. The handful of the most powerful nations that control most of the worlds military and economics strength are called great powers. The great powers include the United States, Great Britain, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union) France, china, Germany and Japan. These powers are the most important actors in international relations. B. leaders of nations The most important individual actor with in a nation is the top leader of that country. The top leader is the person who example the top leader in great Britain is the prime minister who is the head of government and has the most political power even though the king or queen of that country is considered the head of state. The top leader I the United States is the president. C. Sub state actors Besides the top leader o f a nation, there are other groups and individuals within that nation that influence its international relationships. These domestic actors, called sub state actors including particular industries with distinct interests in foreign policy (such as the automobile or tobacco industry) and ethnic constituencies with ties to foreign countries, as well as labor unions, cities and regions. All of these actors may be affected by international events differently from each other or the country where they operate. These groups can influence a nation’s foreign policy in several ways such as by lobbying political leaders,
8 donating money to political candidates or parties, or swaying public opinion on certain issues. D. Transnational actors Organizations operating in more than one country are known as transnational actors. They often have specific interests in international issues that differ from those of any nation. Transnational actors include multinational corporations. They also include non governmental organization (NGOs) such as Planned Parenthood and the Roman Catholic Church, which promotes their interests with particular nations that support their interests and come into conflict with those that show lack of support. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) are groups whose members are national governments. Examples of intergovernmental organizations include the European Union (EU) and the Intel sat satellite consortium. They are usually created to promote cooperation between different nations on a particular issue or in a particular geographic region. Nongovernmental organizations and intergovernmental organizations together are called international organizations. Evaluating the influence of actors: Scholars of international relations have divided the various influences in international events in to different categories of levels of analysis. There are three widely used levels of analysis: (1) individual actors (2) domestic influences and (3) interstate influences. Some scholars also study a fourth level of analysis, global influences. In the individual level of analysis scholars study the concerns perceptions and choices of the individual people involved great leaders, crazy leaders, activists or individual citizens. For example if the assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in 1914 had bungled the job World War 1 might not have broken out when it did. In the domestic level of analysis scholars look at how international relations is influenced by domestic actors, including special interest groups , political organizations and government agencies. Scholars study how different kinds of societies and governments behave, such democracies versus dictatorships, they also look at the politics of ethnic conflict and nationalism, both of which can lead to international conflict and war. The domestic level of analysis is also called the state of societal level. In the interstate level of analysis, scholars focus on the interactions of states themselves, without regard to their internal makeup or the particular individuals who lead them. For realists this is the most important level because it looks at how a nation relative power compared with other nations affects its behavior. The interstate level of analysis is also called the international or systemic level of analysis.
9 Some scholars also look at the global level of analysis. In this analysis scholars study how global tends and forces, such as technological change and the global environment, affect international relation. They also study how the lingering affects of colonialism influence international relations.
Chapter 2 State State is generally a group of people inhabiting a specific territory and living according to a common legal and political authority; a body politic or nation. In this definition the term state includes government; in another usage the two terms are synonyms. A state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a geographic area. These may be nation states sub national states or multinational states. A state usually includes the set of institutions that claim the authority to make the rules that govern the exercise of coercive violence for the people of the society in that territory though its status as state often depends in part on being recognized by a number of other states as having internal and external sovereignty over it. In sociology the state is normally identified with these institutions in max Weber influential definition it is that organization that successfully claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force with in a given territory which may include the armed forces civil service or state bureaucracy courts and police. Usage; although the term often includes broadly all institutions of government or rule ancient and modern the modern state system bears a number if characteristics that were first in western Europe beginning in earnest in the 15 th century when the term state also acquired its current meaning. Thus the word is often used in a strict sense to refer only to modern political systems. Within a federal system the term state also refers to political units not completely sovereign themselves
11 however these systems are subject to the authority of a constitution defining a federal union which is partially or co sovereign with them. Thus we find the states and territories of Australia and the states in the United States of America. In casual usage the terms country nation and state are often used as if they were synonymous but in a more strict usage they can be distinguished; 1, 2, country denotes a geographical area. nation denotes a people who are believed to or deemed to share the
adjectives national and international also refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly states as in national capital international law. 3, state refers to the set of governing institution that has sovereignty over a definite territory and population. The historical development of the state: The earliest forms of the state emerged whenever it became possible to centralize power in a durable way. Agriculture and writing are almost every where associated with this process. This in turn allowed and encouraged the emergence of a class of people who controlled and protected the agricultural stores and thus did not have to spend most of their time providing for their own subsistence. Some political philosophers believe the origins of the state lie ultimately in the tribal culture which developed with human sentence the template for which was the alleged primal alpha male micro societies of our earlier ancestors which were based on the coercion of the weak by the strong. However anthropologists point out that extent band and tribe level societies are notable for their lack of centralized authority and that highly stratified societies i.e. states constitute a relatively recent break with the course of human history. The state in classical antiquity: The history of the state in the west usually begins with classical antiquity. During that period the state took a variety of forms none of them very much like the modern state. There were monarchies whose power (like that of the Egyptian pharaoh) was based on the religious function of the king and his control of a centralized army. There were also large quasi bureaucratized empires like the Roman Empire which depended less on the religious function of the rule and more in effective military and legal organizations and the cohesion of an aristocracy. Perhaps the most important political innovations of classical antiquity came from the Greek city states and the roman republic. The Greek city states before the 4 th century granted citizenship rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political though and history.
12 In contrast Rome developed from a monarchy in to a republic governed by senate dominated by the roman aristocracy. The roman political system contributed to the development of law constitutionalism and to the distinction between the private and the public spheres. From the feudal state to the modern state in the west. The story of the development of the specifically modern state is the west typically begins with the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire. This led to the fragmentation of the imperial state in to the hands of private and decentralized lords whose political, judicial and military production. In these conditions according to Marxists the economic unit of society corresponded exactly to the state on the local level. The state system of Europe was an unstable configuration of suzerains and anointed kings. A monarch formally at the head of a hierarchy of sovereigns was not an absolute power who could rule at will; instead relations between lords and monarch were mediated by varying degree of mutual dependence which was ensured by the absence of a centralized system of taxation. This reality ensured that each ruler needed to obtain the consent of each estate in the realm. This was not quite a state in the Weberian sense of the term since the king did not monopolize either the power of lawmaking (which was shared with the church) or the means of violence (which were shared with the nobles). The formalization of the struggles over taxation between the monarch and other elements of society (especially the nobility and the cities) gave rise to what is now called the Standestaat, or the state of estates characterized by parliaments in which key social groups negotiated with the king about legal and economic matters. These estates of the parliaments but sometimes lost out in their struggles with the monarch leading to greater centralization lawmaking and coercive (chiefly military) power in his hands. Beginning in the 15th century, this centralizing process gave rise to the absolutist state. The modern state: The rise of the modern state as a public power constituting the supreme political authority with in a defined territory is a defined territory is associated with Western Europe gradual institutional development beginning in earnest in the late 15th century culminating in the rise of absolutism and capitalism. As Europe dynastic states England under the Tudors, Spain under the Hapsburgs and France under the bourbons embarked on a variety of programs designed to increase centralized political and economic control, they increasingly exhibited many of the institutional features power involved the delineation of political boundaries as European monarchs gradually defeated or co-opted other place of the fragmented system of feudal rule with its often indistinct territorial claims large unitary states with extensive control over definite territories emerged. This
13 process gave rise to the highly centralized and increasingly bureaucratic forms of absolute monarchical rule of the 17th and 18th centuries, when the principal features of the contemporary state system took form including the introduction of a standing army a central taxation system, diplomatic relations with permanent embassies and the development of state economic policy mercantilism. Cultural and national homogenization figured prominently in the rise of the modern state system. Since the absolutist period, stated have largely been organized on a national basis. The concept of a national state however is not synonymous with nation state. Even in the most ethnically homogeneous societies there is not always a complete correspondence between state and nation hence the active role often taken by the state to promote nationalism through emphasis on shared symbols and national identity. It is in this period that the term the state is first introduced into political discourse in more or less its current meaning. Although Niccolo Machiavelli id often credited with first using the term to refer to a territorial sovereign government in the modern sense in the prince published in 1532m it is nit until the time of the British thinkers Thomas Hobbes and john Locke and the French thinkers jean Bodin that the concept in its current meaning is fully developed. Today most western states more or less fit the influential definition of the state in max Weber’s politics as a vocation. According to Weber the modern state monopolizes the means of legitimate physical violence over a definite territory or their legitimacy may not be adequately described a rational legal. But they are still recognized distinct from feudal and absolutist states in the extent of their bureaucratization and their reliance on nationalism as a Principe of legitimating. Since Weber an extensive literature on the processes by which the modern state emerged from the feudal state has been generated. Marxist scholars for example assert that in the formation of modern states can be explained primarily in terms of the interests and struggles of social classes. Scholars working in the broad Weberian tradition by contrast have often emphasized the institution building effects of war. For example Charles Tilly has argued that the revenue gathering imperatives forced on nascent states by geopolitical competition and constant warfare were mostly responsible for the development of the centralized territorial bureaucracies that characterize modern states in Europe. States that were able to develop centralized tax gathering bureaucracies and to field mass armies survived into the modern era; states that were not able to do so did not. The state in modern political thought:
14 The rise of the modern state system was closely related to changes in political thought, especially concerning the changing understanding of legitimate state power. Early modern defenders of absolutism such as Thomas Hobbes and jean Bodin undermined the doctrine of the divine right of kings by arguing that the power of kings should be justified by reference to the people. Hobbes in particular went further and argued that political power should be justified with reference to the individual not just to the people understood collectively. Both Hobbes and Bodin thought they were defending the power of kings, not advocating democracy but their argument about the nature of sovereignty were fiercely resisted by more traditional England who thought that such defenses ultimately opened the way to more democratic claims. These and other early thinkers introduced two important concepts in order to justify sovereign power the idea of a state of nature and the idea of social contract. The first concept describes an imagined situation in which the state understood as a centralized coercive power does not exist and human beings have all their natural rights and powers the second describes the conditions under which a voluntary agreement could take human beings out of the state of nature and into a state of civil society. Depending on what they understood human nature to be ad the natural rights they thought human beings had in that state, various writers were able to justify more or less extensive forms of the state as a remedy for the problems of the state of nature. Thus for example Hobbes who described the state of nature as a war of every man against every man argued that sovereign power should be almost absolute since that sovereign power should be almost absolute since almost all sovereign powers would be better than such a war whereas john Locke who understood the state of nature in more positive terms, thought that state power should be strictly limited. Both of them nevertheless understood the powers of the state to be limited by what rational individuals would agree to in a hypothetical or actual social contract. The idea of the social contract lent itself to more democratic interpretations than Hobbes or Locke would have wanted. Jean Jacques Rousseau for example argued that the only valid social contract would be one were individuals would be subject to laws that only themselves had made and assented to as in a small direct democracy. Today the tradition of social contract reasoning is alive in the work of john Rawals and his intellectual heirs though I n a very abstract form. Rawls argued that rational individuals would only agree to social institutions specifying a set of inviolable basic liberties and a certain amount of redistribution to alleviate inequalities for the benefit of the worst off. Lockean state of nature reasoning by contrast is more common in the libertarian tradition of political thought represented by the work of Robert Nozick. Nozick argued that given the natural rights that human beings would Havei in a state of nature the only state that could
15 be justified would be a minimal state whose sole functions would be to provide protection and enclose agreements. Some contemporary thinkers such as Michel Foucault have argued that political theory needs to get away from the notion of the state we need to cut off the kings’ head. We need to cut off the king’s head. In political theory that has still to be done. By this he meant that power in the modern world is much more decentralized and uses different instruments than power in the early modern era so that the notion of a sovereign centralized state is increasingly out of date. Evolution of modern state system: The evolution of modern state system can be described in following stages. A. Sumerian city state (existed before 2500 B.C) The earliest known people of the Fertile Crescent were the Sumerians. About 4000 B.C they lived in southern Mesopotamia in a number of independent city states. Each consisted of a small city and its surrounding area. The rulers of these city states constantly warred with one another. Sumerian cities were often rectangular in shape surrounded by high wide walls. Inside the city gates were broad avenues used for religious processions or victory parades. Trade brought riches to cities. Traders sailed along the rivers or risked the dangers of desert travel to carry goods to distant regions. Archaeologists have found goods from as far away as Egypt and India in the rubble of Sumerian cities. Summer included many independent city states. Rival cities often battled for control of land and water. For protection, people turned to courageous and resourceful war leaders. Over time these war leaders evolved into hereditary rulers. In each city states the ruler was responsible for maintaining the city walls and the irrigation systems. He led armies in war and enforced the laws. As government grew more complex he employed scribes to carry out functions such as collection taxes and keeping records. The ruler also had religious duties. He was seen as the chief servant of the gods and led ceremonies designed to please them. Each Sumerian city state had a distinct social hierarchy or system of ranks. The highest class included the ruling family leading officials and high priests. A small middle class was made up of merchants’ artisans and lesser priests and scribes. Like mist ancient peoples the Sumerians were polytheistic worshipping many gods. B. Greek city states
Initially many Greek city states seem to have been petty kingdoms there was often a city official’s carrying some residual ceremonial functions of the king (basileus) e.g. the archon Basileus in Athens. However by the archaic period and the first historical consciousness most had already become aristocratic oligarchies. It is unclear exactly how this change occurred. For instance in Athens the kingship had been reduced to a hereditary life long chief magistracy archon by 1050 BC; by 753 BC this had become a decennial elected archonship and finally by 683 BC an annually elected archonship; and finally by 683 BC an annually elected archonship. Through each stage more power would have been transferred to the aristocracy as a whole and away from a single individual. Inevitably the domination of politics and concomitant aggregation of wealth by small groups of families was apt to cause social unrest in many poleis. In many cities a tyrant not in the modern sense of repressive autocracies, would at some point seize control and govern according to their own will often a populist agenda would help sustain government by a strongman was often the best solution. Athens fell under a tyranny in the second half of the 6th century. When this tyranny was ended as a radical solution to prevent the aristocracy regaining power the Athenians founded the world’s first democracy. A citizen’s assembly the ecclesia for the discussion of city policy had existed since the reforms of draco in 621 BC; all citizens were permitted to attend after the reforms of solon early 6th century but the poorest citizens could not address the assembly or run for office. With the establishment of the democracy the assembly became the de juru mechanism of government all citizens now had equal privileges in the foreigners living in Athens or slaves had no political rights at all. After the rise of the democracy in Athens other city states founded democracies. However many retained more traditional forms of government. As so often in other matters, Sparta was a notable exception to the rest of Greece ruled through the whole period by not one but two hereditary monarchs. This was a form of diarchy. The kings of Sparta belonged to the agiads and the eurypontids descendants respectively of eurysthenes and proclus. Both dynasty founders ere believed to be twin sons of aristodemus a Heracles ruler. However the powers of these kings ere trammeled by both council of elders the gerousia and magistrates specifically appointed to watch over the kings the ephods. C. Roman Empire: The Roman Empire is the phase of the ancient roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and the Mediterranean. Usually Roman Empire is the term used to describe the roman
17 state after the establishment of rule by emperors but is sometimes in non specialist contexts used more generally to refer to the expansionary roman state both after and before the time of the first emperor, Augusts. The 500 years old roman republic (509 BC 1st century BC) which precedes it conceptually had been weakened by the civil wars of the late republic. Several dates are commonly proposed to mark the transition from republic to empire including the date of Julius Caesar’s appointment as perpetual dictator (44 BC) the victory of Caesar’s heir Octavian at the battle of actium (September 2,31 BC) and the roman senate’s granting to Octavian the honorific Augustus. (January 16, 27 BC). The Latin term imperium romanun Roman Empire probably the best known Latin expression where the word imperium denotes a territory indicates the part of the world under roman rule. Roman expansion began in the days of the republic but reached its zenith under Emperor Trojan. At this territorial peak the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5,900,000 km2 (2,300,000 sq. mi) of land surface. Because of the empire vast extant and long endurance. Roman influence upon the language religion architecture philosophy law and government of nation around the world lasts to this day. In the late 3rd century ad Diocletian established the practice of dividing authority between two emperors one in the western part of the empire and one in the east in order to better administer the vast territory. For the next century this practice continued with occasional periods in which one emperor assumed complete control. However after the death of Theodosius I in 395, the teo halves ere permanently divided. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late fifth century as its territory was seized by Germanic tribes. The east roman of Byzantine Empire endured until 1453 with the capture of Constantinople by the ottoman Turks. Therefore it is difficult to give an exact date when the Roman Empire ceased to exist but this permanent division In 395 ad.
D. treaty of Westphalia (1648) and the acknowledgement of other states; The term peace of Westphalia refer to the two peace treaties of Osnabruck and Munster signed on may 15 and October 24 of 1648 respectively which ended both the thirty years war in Germany and the eighty years war between Spain and the Netherlands. The treaties involved the holy roman emperor Ferdinand III
18 (Hapsburg) the kingdoms of Spain France and Sweden the Dutch republic and their respective allies among the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. The peace of Westphalia resulted from the first modern diplomatic congress and initiated a new order in central Europe based on the concept of national sovereignty. Until 1806 the regulation became part of the constitutional laws of the Holy Roman Empire. The treaty of the Pyrenees signed in 1659 ended the war between France and Spain and is often considered part of the overall accord. E. Italian mercantile city states: The Italian city states were a remarkable political phenomenon of small independent states in the northern Italian peninsula between the tenth and fifteenth centuries. After the fall Roman Empire there was a strong continuity of urban awareness in northern Italy which had virtually disappeared in the rest of Europe. Some cities and their urban institutions had survived in Italy since the cark ages. Many of these towns were survivors of earlier Etruscan and roman towns which had existed with in the Roman Empire. The republican institutions of Rome had also survived. Some feudal lords existed with a servile labor force and huge tract of land but by 11th century many cities including Venice Milan Florence and Genoa had become large trading metropolises able to conquer independence from their formal sovereigns. In fact Italy between 12th an 13th centuries was vastly different from feudal Europe north of the Alps. The peninsula was a mélange of political and cultural elements rather than a unified state. Marc Bloch and Fernand Braudel have argued the geography determined the history of the region. With in the Italian peninsula there is great physical diversity. Italy is cut into numerous small regions very difficult. The po plain however was an exception o teas the only large contiguous area and most city states which fell to invasion were located there. Those that survived longest were in the more rugged regions, such as Florence or Venice defended by her lagoon. Because an attack across the Alps was very difficult, German prince lings could not exert sustained control over their Italian vassal states and thus ital yeas substantially freed of German political interference. So no strong monarchies emerged as they did in the rest of Europe; instead there emerged the independent city states. While those roman urban republican sensibilities persisted there were many movements and changes afoot. Italy first felt the changes in Europe from the 11 th to the 13th centuries. Typically there was:
19 !. 2. A rise in population the population doubled in this period. (the demographic explosion) An emergence of huge cities (in Italy were Venice, Florence and Milan with over 100,000 inhabitants by 13th century bur many others surpassed 50,000 as Genoa bologna Verona). 3. 4. 5. 6. The rebuilding of the great cathedrals. Substantial migration from country to city in Italy the rate of urbanization reached 20% the most urbanized society in the world at that time. an agrarian revolution The development of commerce. It is estimated that the per capita income of northern Italy nearly tripled from the 11th century to the 15th century. This was a highly mobile, demographically expanding society, fueled by rapidly expanding renaissance commerce. By the 13th century northern & central Italy had become the most literate society in the world. More then one third of male population could read in the vernacular an unprecedented rate since the decline of the roman empire as could a small bur significant proportion of women. During the 11th century in northern Italy a new political and social structure emerged the city state or commune. The civic culture which arose from this Arabs was remarkable. In mist places where communes arose e.g. Britain and Flanders they were absorbed by the monarchical state as it emerged. Almost uniquely they survived in northern and central Italy to become independent and powerful city-states. The break way from their feudal overlords by these communes occurred in the late 12th century and 13th century during the investiture controversy between the pope and the emperor Milan led the Lombard cities against the holy roman emperors and defeated them gaining independence barrels of legnano 1176 and Parma 1248 see Lombard league. Meanwhile Venice and Genoa were able to conquer their naval empires on the Mediterranean Sea. By the late 12th century a new and unique society had emerged rich mobile expanding with a mixed aristocracy interested in urban institutions and republican government. But many city states housed also a violent society based on family confraternity and brotherhood who mined their cohesion. By 1300 most of these republics had become princely states dominated by signore. The exceptions ere Venice Florence Laucca and a few others which remained republics in the face of an increasingly monarchic Europe. During 14th century and 15th century the most powerful of these cities Milan Venice Florence were able to conquer 1454 peace of Lodi ended their struggle for the hegemony in Italy and started the policy of balance of power.
20 At the beginning of 16th century apart some minor city states like San Marino only Venice was able to preserve her independence and to match the European monarchies of France and Spain and the Ottoman Empire. F. French revolution and development of ideas of self determination: Just as colonization and colonialism have been practiced throughout human history political self determination has been cherished by people through history the ancient Mesopotamian and later Greek city states being early examples. Self determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given territory to determined their own political status or independence from their current state. The latter is a complex concept with confliction definitions and legal determining which groups may legitimately claim the right to self determination. The revolt of the British colonists in North America has been defined as the first assertion of the right of national and democratic self determination because of the explicit invocation of natural law the natural rights of man and consent of and sovereignty by the people ideas inspired particularly by john Locke’s writings. Thomas Jefferson further promoted the notion that the will of the people was supreme especially through authorship of the declaration of independence which inspired Europeans throughout the 19th century. The French revolution also was motivated by and legitimatized ideas of self determination. During the early 1800s most of the nations of South America achieved independence from Spain. The American public organized groups and even congressional resolutions often supported such movements especially the Greek war of independence (1821-29) and the demands of Hungarian revolutionaries in 1848 however such support never became official government policy. After the American civil war the United States government opposed self determination for the West Indian islands of St. Thomas and St. John in 1868 the Hawaiian island in 1868. By the conclusion of the Spanish American war in 1899 the United States supported its annexation without the consent of the peoples the former Spanish colonies of Guam Puerto Rico and the Philippines; it retained “Quasisuzerainty” over Cuba. However since the early 1990s the legitimatization of the principle of national self determination has led to an increase in the number of conflicts with in states as subgroups seek greater self determination and even full secession and as their conflict for leadership with in groups and with other groups and with the dominant state become violent. The international reaction to these new movements has been uneven and often dictated more by politics than principle.
21 The year 2000 United Nations millennium declaration failed to deal with these new demands mentioning only the right to self determination of peoples which remain under colonial domination and foreign occupation.
Chapter 3 Nationalism
It is a term referring to a doctrine or political movement that holds a nation usually defined in terms of ethnicity or culture has the right to constitute an independent and autonomous political community based on a shared history and common destiny. Most nationalists believe the border of the state should be congruent with the borders of the nation (a nation state). Nationalist efforts such as those propagated by fascist movements in the twentieth century held the nationalist concept that nationality is the most important aspect of ones identity while some of them have attempted to define the nation in terms of race or genetics. Some contemporary nationalist reject the racist chauvinism of these groups and remain confident that national identity supersedes biological attachments to an ethnic group. Nationalism has had an enormous influence on modern history in which the nation state has become the preferred form of societal organization however by no means universal. Historian uses the term nationalism to refer to this historical transition and to the emergence and predominance of nationalist ideology. Nationalism is closely associated with patriotism. Principles: Nationalism is a form universalism when it makes universal claims about how the world should be organized but it is particularistic with regard to individual nations. The combination of both is characteristic for the ideology for instance in these assertions:
23 1. In a nation state the language of the nation should be the official language and all citizens should speak it and not a foreign language. 2. The official language of the United Kingdom should be English and all British citizens should speak it. The universalistic principle bring nationalism into conflict with competing forms of universalism the particularistic principle bring specific nationalist movements into conflict with rival nationalism for instance the Danish German tensions over their reciprocal linguistic minorities. The starting point of nationalism is the existence of nations which it takes as a given. Nations are typically seen as a nation can be created artificially. Nationalist movements see themselves as the representative of an existing nationalism imply the reverse order that the nationalist movements created the sense of national identity and then a political unit corresponding to it or that an existing state promoted a national identity for it self. Nationalists see nations as an inclusive categorization of human beings assigning every individual to one specific nation. In fact nationalism sees most human activity as national character. Nations have national symbols a national culture a national music and national literature; national folklore a national mythology and in some cases a national religion. Individuals share national values and a national identity admire a national hero eat the national dish and play the national sport. Nationalist define individual nations on the basis of certain criteria which distinguish one nation from another; and determine who is a member of each nation. These criteria typically include a shared language culture and or shared values which are predominantly represented within a specific ethnic group. National identity refers both to these defining criteria and to the shared heritage of each group. Membership in a nation is usually involuntary and determined by birth. Individual nationalisms vary in their degree of internal uniformity some are monolithic and tolerate little variance from the national norms. Academic nationalism theory emphasizes that national identity is contested reflecting differences in region class gender and language or dialect. A recent development is the idea of a national core culture in Germany the Leithultur which emphasizes a minimal set of non negotiable values this is primarily a strategy of cultural assimilation in response to immigration. Nationalism has the strong territorial components with an inclusive categorization of territory corresponding to the categorization of individual. For each nation there is a territory which is uniquely associated with it the national homeland and together they account for most habitable land. This is reflected in the geopolitical claims of nationalism which seeks to order the world as a series of nation states each based on the national homeland of its respective nation. Territorial claims
24 characterize the politics of nationalist movements. Established nation states also make an implicit territorial claim to secure their own continued existence sometimes it is specified in the national constitution. In the nationalist view each nation has a moral entitlement to a sovereign state this is usually taken as a given. The nation state is intended to guarantee the existence of a nation to preserve its distinct identity and to provide a territory where the national culture and ethos are dominant nationalism is also a philosophy of the state. It sees a nation state as a necessity for each nation secessionist national movements often complain about their second class status as a minority with in another nation. This specific view of the duties of the state influenced the introduction of national education systems often teaching a standard curriculum national cultural policy and national language policy. In turn nation states appeal to a national cultural historical mythos to justify their existence and to confer political legitimacy acquiescence of the population in the authority of the government. Nationalist recognize that non national states exist and existed but do not see them as a legitimate form of state existed but do not see them as a legitimate form of state. The struggles of early nationalist movements were often directed against such non national states specifically multi ethnic empires such as non national states specifically multi ethnic empires such as Austria Hungary and the ottoman empire. Most multi ethnic empires have disappeared but some secessionist movements see Russia and china as comparable non national imperial states. At least one modern state is clearly not a nation state the Vatican City exists solely to provide a sovereign territorial unit for the Roman Catholic Church. Some critics have maintained that unlike modern nationalism which is a creation of the 19th century nation state authentic nationalism as the Latin Natio would suggest must be based in some form of Genophilia and the sharing of ancestors. Nationalism as ideology includes ethical principles that the moral duties of individuals to fellow members of nation override those to non members. Nationalism claims that national loyalty in case of conflict overrides local loyalties and all other loyalties to family friends’ profession religion or class. Concepts of sovereignty: Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance people or oneself. A sovereign is the supreme lawmaking authority. Enlightenment philosopher jean Jacques Rousseau in book III chapter III of his 1762 treatise of the social contract argued the growth of the state giving the trustees of public authority more and means to abuse their power the more the government has to have force to contain the people the more force the sovereign should have in turn in order to contain the government with the understanding that the sovereign is a collective being (book II chapter I) resulting from the general
25 will of the people and that what any man whoever he may be orders on his own is mot a law (book II chapter VI) and furthermore predicated on the assumption that the people have an unbiased means by which to ascertain the general will. Thus the legal maxim there is no law without a sovereign. In this model national sovereignty is of an eternal origin such as nature or a god legitimizing the divine right of kings in absolute monarchies or a theocracy. A more formal distinction is whether the law is held to be sovereign which constitutes a true state of law the letter of the law if constitutionally correct is applicable and enforceable even when against the political will of the nation as long as not formally changed following the constitutional procedure. Strictly speaking any deviation from this principle constitutes a revolution or a coup d’etat regardless of the intentions. In constitutional and international law the concept also pertains to a government possessing full control over its own affairs with in a territorial or geographical area or limit and in certain context to various organs possessing legal jurisdiction in their own chief rather than by mandate or under supervision. Determining whether a specific entity is sovereign is not an exact science but often a matter of diplomatic dispute. While many purists regard the individual or an individual nation state as the sole seat of sovereignty in international law sovereignty is defined as the legitimate exercise of power and the interpretation of international law by a state dejure sovereignty is the ability in fact to do so which becomes of special concern upon the failure if the usual expectation that dejure and defacto sovereignty exist at the place and time of concern and rest in the same organization. Foreign governments recognize the sovereignty of a state over a territory or refuse to do so. For instance in theory both the peoples’ republic of china and the republic of china considered themselves sovereign governments over the whole territory of main land china and Taiwan. Though some foreign governments recognize the republic of china as the valid state most now recognize the people’s republic of china. However defacto the peoples republic of china exercises sovereign power over mainland china but nor Taiwan while the republic of china exercises its effective administration only over Taiwan and some outlying islands bur not mainland china. Since ambassadors are only exchanged between sovereign high parties the countries recognizing the People’s Republic often entertain defacto but not dejure diplomatic relationships with Taiwan by maintaining offices of representation such as the American institute in Taiwan rather than embassies there. Sovereignty may be recognized even when the sovereign body possesses no territory or its territory is under partial or total occupation by another power. The Holy See was in this position between the annexation in 1870 of the Papal States
26 by Italy and the signing of the Lateran treaties in 1929 when it was recognized as sovereign by many mostly Roman Catholic states despite possessing no territory a situation resolved when the Lateran treaties granted the Holy See sovereignty over the Vatican City. The sovereign military order of Malta is likewise a non territorial body that claims to be a sovereign entity though it is not universally recognized as such. Similarly the governments in exile of many European states for instance Norway Netherlands or Czechoslovakia during the Second World War were regarded as sovereign despite their territories being under foreign occupation their governance resumed as soon as the occupation had ended. The government of Kuwait was In a similar situation vis-à-vis the Iraqi occupation of its country during 1990-1991. National interest: The national interest often referred to by the French term raison d etat is a country’s goal and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural. The notion is an important one in international relations where pursuit of the national interest is the foundation of the realist school. The national interest of a state is multi faceted. Primary is the states survival and security also important is the pursuit of wealth and economic growth and power. Many states in modern times regard the preservation of the nations culture as of great importance. On early human history the national interest was usually viewed as secondary to that of religion or morality. To engage in a war rulers needed to justify the action in these contexts. The first thinker to advocate for the primacy of the national interest is usually considered to be Niccolo Machiavelli. The practice is first seen as being employed by France in the thirty years war when it intervened on the protestant side despite its own Catholicism to block the increasing power of the Holy Roman Empire. The notion of the national interest soon came to dominate European politics that became fiercely competitive over the next centuries. States could now openly embark on wars purely out of self interest. Mercantilism can be seen as the economic justification of the aggressive pursuit of the national interest. A foreign policy geared towards pursuing the national interest is the foundation of the realist school of international relation. The realist school reached its greatest heights at the congress of Vienna with the practice of the balance of powers which amounted to balancing the national interest of several great and lesser powers. Metternich was celebrated as the principal artist and theoretician of this balancing but he was simply doing a more or less clean copy of what his predecessor kaunitz had already dome by reversing so many of the traditional Hapsburg
27 alliances and building international relations anew on the basis of national interest instead of religion of tradition. These notions became much criticized after the bloody debacle of the First World War and the concept of the balance of power was replaced with the idea of collective security whereby all members of the League of Nations would consider and attack upon one as an attack upon all. Thus deterring the use of violence forevermore. The League of Nations did not work partially because the United States refused to join and partially because in practice nations did not always find it in the national interest to deter each other from the use of force. The events of World War II led to rebirth of realist and then neorealist thought as international relations theorists re emphasized the role of power in global governance. Many IR theorists blamed the weakness of league of nation for its idealism contrasted with realism and ineffectiveness at preventing war even as they blamed mercantilist beggar thy neighbor policies for the creation of fascist states in Germany and Italy. With hegemonic stability theory the concept of the US national interest was expanded to include the maintenance of open sea lanes and the maintenance and expansion of free trade. Today the concept of the national interest is often associated with political realists who wish to differentiate their policies from idealistic policies that seek either to inject morality into foreign policy or promote solutions that rely on multilateral institutions which might weaken the exists in every country over what is or is not in the national interest the term is as often invoked to justify isolationist and pacifistic policies as to justify interventionist or warlike policies.
Chapter: 4 Imperialism, colonialism & neo-colonialism
Introduction: Imperialism practice by which powerful nations or people seek to extend and maintain or influence weaker nations or peoples. Scholars frequently use the term more restrictively: some associate imperialism solely with the economic expansion of capitalist states other reserve it for European expansion after 1870. Although imperialism is similar in meaning to colonialism, and the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably, they should be distinguished. Colonialism usually implies formal political control involving territorial annexation and loss of sovereignty. Imperialism refers more broadly to control or influence that is exercised either formally or informally directly or indirectly, politically or economically. History: Imperialism dates from antiquity and throughout history it has taken many forms. In any given historical period certain forms tend to be more prevalent than others. In the ancient world imperialism manifested itself in a series of great empires that arose when one people usually representing a particular civilization and religion attempted to dominate all other by creating a unified system of control. The empire of Alexander the great and the Roman Empire are silent examples. Early modern European imperialism (1400-1750) by contrast generally took the form of overseas colonial expansion. Rather than one state attempting to unify the world in this period many competing states established political control over territories in south and southeast Asia and in the new world. Imperial systems were organized according to the doctrine of mercantilism each imperial state attempted to control the trade of its colonies in order to monopolize the benefits of that trade.
29 In the mid 19th century yet another variant of imperialism appeared the imperialism of free trade. The practice endured in this period even though mercantilism and the pace of formal empire building declined significantly. European especially British power and influence were extended informally mainly through diplomatic and economic means rather than formally through direct colonial rule. The imperialism of free trade however was short lived: by the end of the 19th century European powers were once again practicing imperialism in the form of overseas territorial annexation expanding into Africa Asia and the pacific. Since the end of World War II when most of the formal empires were dissolved what might be called modern economic imperialism has come to predominate. Control is exercised informally and less overly. The US for instance exerts considerable influence over certain third world nations as a result of its national economic power and its dominance of certain international financial organizations such as the World Bank and the international monetary fund. Similarly European powers have continued to affect significantly the politics and the economics of their former colonies and they have consequently been accused of neocolonialism the exercise of effective sovereignty without the formality of colonial rule. Explanation of imperialism: Historically states have been motivated to pursue imperialism for a variety of reasons which may be classified broadly as economic political and ideological theories of imperialism break down similarly according to which motive or motives are viewed as primary. A. The Economic Motive: economic explanation of imperialism are the most common proponents of this view hold that states are motivated to dominate others by the need to expand their economies to acquire raw materials an additional sources of labor or to find outlets for surplus capital and markets for surplus goods. The prominent economic theories linking imperialism with capitalism are derived from those of Karl Marx Lenin for example explained the European expansion of the late 19 th century as the inevitable outcome if the need for the European capitalist economies to export their surplus capital. Similarly contemporary Marxists explain the postwar expansion of the US in to the third world in terms of economic imperatives.
B. political motives: Alternatively some stress the political determinants of imperialism contending that states are motivated to expand primarily by the desire for power prestige security and diplomatic by advantages vis-à-vis other states. In this view late 19th
30 century French imperialism was intended to restore Frances international prestige after its humiliating defeat in the Franco Prussian war. Similarly soviet expansion into Eastern Europe after 1945 can be understood in terms of security needs specifically the need to protect nation from another invasion across its western border. C. ideological motives: a third set explanations focuses on ideological or moral motives. According to this perspective political cultural or religious beliefs force states in to imperialism as a missionary activity. Britain’s colonial empire was motivated at least in part by the idea that it was the white mans burden to civilize “backward” peoples. Germany’s expansion under Hitler was based in large measure on a belief in the inherent superiority of German national culture. The desire of the US to protect the free world and of the former Soviet Union to liberate the peoples of Eastern Europe and the third world are also examples of imperialism driven by moral and ideological concerns. D. reactive imperialism: Finally some explanations of imperialism focus not on the motives of powerful states but rather on the political circumstances in weaker states. The argument holds that powerful states may not intend to expand but may be forced to by instability on the periphery; new imperial actions result from past imperial commitments. The British conquest of India and the Russian colonization of central Asia in the 19th century are classic examples of reactive imperialism. The effect of imperialism: Because imperialism is so often viewed as economically motivated discussion of its effects also tend to revolve around economic issues. Disagreement arises between those who believe that imperialism implies exploitation and those who believe that imperialism implies exploitation and in responsible for the underdevelopment and economic stagnation of the poor nations and those who argue those although the rich nations benefit from imperialism the poor nations also benefit at least in the long run. The truth has been difficult to ascertain for at least two reasons. 1. no consensus has been reached on the meaning of exploitation and 2. It is frequently difficult to disentangle the domestic causes of poverty from those that are possibly international. What is apparent is that the impact of imperialism is uneven: some poor nations have enjoyed greater economic benefits from contact with the rich than have others. India Brazil and other developing nations have even begun to compete
31 economically with their former colonial powers. Thus it is prudent to examine the economic impact of imperialism on a case by case basis. The political and psychological effects of imperialism are equally difficult to determine. Imperialism has proven both destructive and creative: for better or worse it has destroyed traditional institutions and ways of thinking and has replaced them with the habits and mentality of the western world.
Colonialism: Colonialism is the extension of a nation’s sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by the establishment of either setter colonies or administrative dependencies in which indigenous populations are directly ruled or displaced. Colonizing nations generally dominate the resources labor and markets of the colonial territory and may also impose socio cultural religious and linguistic structures on the indigenous population. It is essentially a system of direst political economic and cultural intervention and hegemony by a powerful country in a weaker one. Though the word colonialism is often used interchangeably with imperialism the latter is sometimes used more broadly as it covers control exercised informally via influence as well as formal military control or economic leverage. The term colonialism may also be used to refer to an ideology or a set of beliefs used to legitimize or promote this system. Colonialism was often based on the ethnocentric belief that the morals and values of the colonizer were superior to those of the colonized some observers link such beliefs to racism and pseudo scientific theories dating from the 18th to 19th centuries. In the western world this led to a form of proto social Darwinism that placed white people at the top of the animal kingdom, naturally in charge of dominating non European aboriginal populations. The historical phenomenon of colonialism is one that starches around the globe and across time including such disparate peoples as the Hittites the Incas and the British although the term colonialism is normally used with reference to discontinuous European overseas empires rather than contiguous land based empires European or otherwise. Land based empires are conventionally described by the term imperialism such as age of imperialism which includes colonialism as a sub topic but in the main refers to conquest and domination of nearby lesser geographic powers. Examples of land based empires include the Mongol empire a large empire stretching from the western pacific to Eastern Europe the empire of Alexander the great the Umayyad caliphate the Persian empire the roman empire the byzan tine empire. The Ottoman Empire was created across Mediterranean north Africa and into
32 south eastern Europe and existed during the time of European colonization of the other parts of the world. After the Portuguese Reconquista period when the kingdom of Portugal fought against the Muslim domination of Iberia in the 12 th and 13th centuries the Portuguese started to expand overseas. European colonialism began in 1415 with Portugal’s conquest of the Muslim port of Ceuta northern Africa. In the following decades Portugal braved the coast of Africa establishing trading posts ports and fortresses. Colonialism was led by Portuguese and Spanish exploration of the Americas and coasts of Africa the Middle East India and East Asia. The latter half of the sixteenth century witnessed the expansion of the English colonial state throughout Ireland. Despite some earlier attempts, it was not until the 17th century that Britain, France and the Netherlands successfully established overseas empires outside in direct competition with Spain and Portugal and each other. In the 19th century the British Empire grew to become the largest empire yet seen. The end of the 18th and early 19th century saw the first era of decolonization when most of the European colonies the Americas gained their independence from their respective metropolis. Spain and Portugal were irreversibly weakened after the loss of their new world colonies but Britain after the union of England and Scotland France and the Netherlands turned their attention to the old world coastal enclaves had already established. The German empire now republic created by most of Germany being united under Prussia omitting Austria and other ethnic territories in other parts of the world were also added to the tarns-oceanic or extraEuropean German colonial empire. Italy occupied Eritrea Somalia and Libya. During Abyssinia and in 1936 the Italian empire was created. The industrialization of the 19th century led to what has been termed the era of new imperialism when the pace of colonization rapidly accelerated the height of which was the scramble for Africa. During the 20th century the overseas colonies of the losers of World War I were distributed amongst the victors as mandates but it was not until the end of World War II that the second phase of decolonization began in earnest. Types of colonies: Colonialism and colonies one country’s domination of another country or people usually achieved through aggressive often military actions and the territory acquired in this manner. The terms colonialism and imperialism are sometimes used interchangeably bur scholars usually distinguish between the two reserving colonialism for instance where one country assumes political control over another and using imperialism more broadly to refer to political or economic control exercised either formally or informally. This article will discuss both concepts and
33 how they have been practiced in different parts of the world. It will summarize colonial practices before the 15th century and then focus in more detail in colonialism and imperialism during the last 500 years. In the past 500 years there have been several types of colonies. The main ones were colonies of settlement colonies of exploitation and what might be called contested settlement colonies. Most European powers established more than one type of colony. The British Empire for instance included colonies of settlement (Virginia, Massachusetts, newsziland, New South Wales) colonies of exploitation (Nigeria, Jamaica, Malaya) a preexisting empire India contested settlement colonies Kenya and spheres of influence Argentina. The French empire also included settlement colonies Algeria Québec exploitation colonies (Martinique, the French Congo) and a preexisting empire (Indochina). A. colonies of settlement Colonies of settlement resulted when citizens of a foreign country the colonizing country migrated to and eventually took complete control of a new area. These areas came to be dominated not only by foreign people but also by foreign crops and animals. The foreign colinizers ordinarily substituted their culture for the existing one. Settlers often excluded native inhabitants from their societies or killed many if them in violent confrontations or by exposure to disease. In the Americas many Native Americans died from diseases introduced by European diseases to which they had no immunity. Colonies of settlement were located in temperate zones with climates similar to Europe’s. They are sometimes called neo Europe’s or until recently white man’s countries examples of settlement colonies include English colonies in parts of the United States, Canada and Australia. B. colonies of exploitation: Colonize of exploitation also knows as tropical dependencies did not attract large numbers of permanent European settles. European went to these colonies European settlers. European went to these colonies primarily as planters, administrators, merchants or military officers. In exploitation colonies foreign powers established political control if necessary using forces against colonies resistance bur they did not displace or kill native societies. They also did not for the most part intentionally destroy indigenous native cultures. Thus the geographical circumstances and historical dynamics of exploitation colonies are profoundly different from those of colonies of settlement.
34 C. contested settlement colonies: In a contested settlement colony a significant number of European settlers took up permanent residence. They tended to develop their own government, independent of or even in defiance of the parent country. A contested settlement colony also formed its own cultural and political identity. Politically white citizens dominated native people. However the native population not only survived but increased. Native peoples managed to maintain some control over their lives although their political control was usually slight. Furthermore their labor remained the backbone of the economy. Eventually native people were able to successfully contested white control of the colony both the control by the colonizing country and control by the settlers. Examples of contested settlement colonies include Algeria and southern Rhodesia both in Africa. D. other types of colonies: There are several other types of colonialism and imperialism including preexisting empires were or had been powerful states that possessed a large population strong political structures and sophisticated economy. India under English rule is an example. In internal colonialism one geographic area or ethnic group dominated another within the same country. Examples of this kind of internal control include the economic domination of the American south by the north after the American civil war (1861-1865) or the influence of England over other areas of the British Isles. In spheres of influence or informal empires European interfered in the internal affairs of a state but stopped short of formal political annexation. During the 19th century individual western nations declared so called spheres of influence over parts of china. They even required that disputes involving Europeans in these areas of china had to be judged according to western law in western courts. During the 19th and early 20th centuries in areas ruled under the Ottoman Empire some western nations invested heavily in canals and rail roads and intervened politically when they felt they needed to protect those investments. The concept of an informal empire is used to describe British or American relations with the former Spanish colonies in south and Central America after Latin American independence in the early 19th century. History of colonies: The Greeks and the Romans both had colonies which they dominated by establishing military posts in conquered territory. The Greeks controlled most of the islands in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and later the Romans controlled the
35 whole area from Constantinople now Istanbul in turkey to Palestine and North Africa to Gaul France and Britain. The Romans developed a theory of colonization they believed that a garrison military post must include women who could work in fields and bear children. The post could then become a settlement capable of supporting and reproducing itself. Century’s later English settlers put this theory in to practice in their colonies in Ireland and Virginia. The Vikings people from what is now Norway Sweden and Denmark established colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland but the settlements failed because the Vikings were unable to supply them. The Vikings were more successful in establishing colonies in parts of Europe including northern France Sicily England and Ireland eventually the people who settled in these areas were called Normans. From the 11th century to the 13th century Christian Europeans launched military expeditions called crusades against the Muslims in Palestine. The Europeans wanted to recapture Jerusalem and other places to which Christian made religious pilgrimages. The crusades were the first military expeditions that western Christians under look far from home. They also marked the first time that significant numbers of European Christians carried their culture and religion beyond Europe. In the steppe (grassy plains) regions of central Asian the Mongols created a vast empire during the 13th and early 14th centuries. The Mongol empire controlled the expanse to territory from the Ural Mountains in Russia across Asia to the Pacific Ocean. Every adult male was a mounted warrior and the Mongols were a nation of cavalry. The ottoman Turks were also originally a steppe people. They took over most of North Africa the Middle East and the Balkan Peninsula. The Ottoman Empire founded in the late 13th century was a significant world power until the early 20th century. There were also militarily aggressive peoples in sub Saharan Africa and in the Americas. The Fulani in the western Sudan established a series kingdom in the 19th century and the Zulu dominated much a southern Africa during the early part of that century. In the Americas the Inca and Aztec people dominated large geographic areas when European arrived. A. age of exploration (1450-1700) In the 15th century Europe was divided in to a number of emerging nation states that competed intensely with one another. This competition was one factor that drove these states to expand. In contrast during the same time period china was a strong unified power that possessed both the technology and the economic base for expansion but did not do so. China had conducted overseas voyages but decided to end them after a bitter debate at the imperial court in the early 15th
36 century. In the contrast Europe was not a single entity and its various states competed fiercely for advantage over their neighbors. Each of the European states ventured beyond its borders at different times: first Portugal then Spain then the Netherlands England and France. Their attempts to expand overseas were linked very closely with their struggles for political and economic power. Trade was considered a form of war and trading station were called forts. The search for a variety of products to trade drove the Europeans explorations. The Portuguese began race to build a commercial empire in the early 15 th century by exploring the coast of West Africa. There they established a trade in gold and slaves by the 16th century African slaves were common place throughout southern and Western Europe. Other trade items encouraged exploration of other areas. In the North Atlantic Ocean an enormously valuable trade in fish encouraged boats of all European nations to search for fishing grounds farther from Europe. Spices drew explorers around the tip of Africa to Southeast Asia. European refrigeration needs spices to preserve the meat they ate. By trading directly with the east Europeans could avoid costly customs duties or taxes charged by the rulers of every country between Egypt and Europe for letting spice shipments pass through. Religion also played an important role in the increase of exploration. Early modern European especially Catholics gave high priority to converting people with other beliefs. The Spaniards in particular incorporated religion as a vital part of their colonial movements and they sent many missionaries to the Americas as did the Portuguese. In early English and Dutch settlements chaplains primarily ministered to the settlers instead of converting the indigenous peoples. The British missionary movement did not develop significantly until about 1800 although some early settlers left England for the Americas so that they could be free to practice their particular religious beliefs. For example Plymouth colony in what is now Massachusetts was founded in 1620 by the pilgrims a group of puritans who had been persecuted in England for their religious beliefs. A pivotal point in European expansion occurred at the end of the 15 th century. In 1492 Italian navigator Christopher reach Asia by anew route. Basing his voyage on his calculation of earth’s size (an estimate that turned out to be wrong), Columbus reached the Caribbean islands off what would later be called north and South America. On that journey as well as others that followed, Columbus claimed the areas and established outposts for Spain which financed his voyages. Although at first he insisted the area as part of Asia Columbus eventually realized that he was exploring what he called new world as yet unknown to Europeans. In late 1497 Portuguese navigator Vasco d agama rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa and in the spring of 1498 became the first European to reach India by a sea route. Columbus’s and Da Gama’s explorations
37 helped spur vast movement towards exploration and European colonialism during the 16th century.
Spanish colonies: Within a few years Spanish conquistadors (conquerors) over whelmed the power Aztec Inca empires in what are now Mexico and Peru. These conquistadors claimed the land for Spain and settlements were soon established. This was the beginning of the Spanish empire which became the most powerful empire of its day. Individual Spanish settlers received large areas of land called Ecomiendas as well as the right to control the labor of the people who lived on the land. On these encomiendas the Spaniards raised cattle and sheep but the most important product of New Spain as the Spaniards called their claims in the Americas was silver. The indigenous people overseen by the Spaniards mined silver in the mountains of Peru and in Mexico often at great risks that resulted in death. The silver that reached Spain helped finance that country’s trade with other European nations, and it fueled massive inflation in the price of goods that lasted until well after 1600 through out Europe. Much of the silver from the new world ended up in India and china. Europeans could not sell their goods in Asia because Asian manufactured goods particularly textiles, were more advanced than those of the Europeans. For this reason Europeans used the gold and silver acquired from their colonies to pay for Asian spices, silk and cotton cloth. Portuguese colonies: Meanwhile the Portuguese were starting settlements in Brazil. Like the Spaniards in other parts of the Americas they tool overland and forced the native population to work it. Also Portuguese explorers were establishing a very different sort of commercial empire in the Indian Ocean. This system was based on trade and war rather than on taking large amounts of land and dominating its people. At first the Portuguese had no competition the Chinese had called their fleets’ home: Indian and Arab ships did not carry guns and other European nations had not yet entered the field. BY the early 16th century the Portuguese had established a string of strategic bases including Hormuz at the tip of the Persian Gulf, Goa on the western coast of India and the straits of Moluccca the gateway between the Indian ocean and the china sea. From these bases the Portuguese could control and monitor the sea going trade of the entire region. Portuguese power however was entirely naval and they were unable to threaten the internal strength of land based empires. Moreover
38 when larger European nation arrived in the area, Portuguese naval supremacy vanished. Dutch colonies: By the early 17th century the Dutch had replaced the Portuguese as the primary European colonial power in Asia. They tool control of the Moluccas (now part of the republic of Indonesia) and instituted a new sustem that would have great significance for areas in other parts of the world: the plantation system. The dutch plantations in Indonesia were like Spanish encomiendas inthat they employed native labor. There were however important differences. Plantations were usually more compact and were dedicated to the production of a single cash crop a crop produced primarily for market. The plantation was much like a modern factory it was an early and highly profitable form of industrial capitalism. On a plantation labor was a commodity a cost of producing a crop quickly became associated with the plantation system. The Dutch also colonized parts of North America. They based their claims on the explorations of Henry Hudson an English mariner employed by Dutch east India Company. In 1609 Hudson entered present day New York Bay and explored the river that now bears his name. During the next few years the Dutch dispatched several trading vessels to the region which they named new Netherlands. A few permanent colonists began to arrive in 1624 when a trade outpost was built. The town was named New Amsterdam (now New York City) in 1626 and the first large wave of settlement there occurred the same year. English colonies: England began exploration during the same period as the Dutch. In 1600 England granted a charter to the east India Company to establish overseas commercial and trade interests. The English government granted the company a monopoly of English trade with the East Indies which the company eventually stretched to include the lucrative opium trade in china. Similar companies were established for the trade with Africa Virginia and elsewhere in the Americas. English colonization in the Americas however remained almost unknown in the 16th century because England was at war with Spain. The first English colony in North America was established on Roanole Island off the North American coast. This colony failed and the English did not attempt further exploration and colonization in the Americas until 1604 after they made peace with Spain. During the 17th century the English established colonies in the Caribbean and North America that became the foundations of the British Empire. In the West Indies the English established sugar plantation and in 1655 they conquered the Spanish colony of Jamaica the first English colony taken by force. The English established a string of colonies along the eastern seaboard of North America.
French colonies: The English faced competition in upper North America as the French colonized parts of what is now Canada. In 1608 French explorer Samuel de Champlain founded the colony of Québec as a fur trading center strengthening French control of the St. Lawrence River. The French were also interested in converting the native peoples to Christianity and they used the fur trade to fund their missionary activities. Later in the century the French became interested in expansion. In 1673 explorer Louis Joliet and Jesuit missionary Jacques Marquette reached the Mississippi river and traveled down it as far as the Arkansas River. In 1682 explorer René Robert cavalier Sueur de la sale led an expedition down the Mississippi to the gulf of the Mexico claiming all the land drained by the river for Louis XIV king of France and naming the region Louisiana. As the French gained more control in north America they developed a rivalry with England that would come to a head during the 18th century. A. European merchant empires (1700-1815): The foundations of European sea based empires were laid during the 16th and 17th centuries. By the 18th century these empires had become powerful. To understand these empires it is helpful break them up into regional networks or world systems. A world system is an area where different cultures are related through commercial and other interactions. The boundaries of a world system are not restricted to territory controlled by any one country. The Atlantic Ocean is an example of a world system as the Indian Ocean. For the Atlantic Ocean it is helpful to think of two fairly distinct but connected world systems. The north Atlantic system included Western Europe Russia the Baltic Scandinavia the abundant fishing areas near Newfoundland and New England and what became Canada and the northern states of the United States. Its main products were timber fish and fur. The south Atlantic system included the Spanish colonies in south and Central America the Portuguese colony of Brazil the sugar producing islands of the Caribbean West Africa and the southern colonies in North America. Its most prominent products were silver sugar tobacco African slaves and after 1880, cotton The north Atlantic world system relied heavily on the French, Dutch and English colonies in North America. By the beginning of the 18th century conflicts between competing European powers had intensified in that area. Territories along north America eastern seaboard changed hands as the British gained control of Dutch areas and the French and British entered a series of wars. Following the French and Indian war great Britain gained control of Canada and all French territories
40 east of the Mississippi river. The British also gained Florida from Spain which had been an ally of France. The war determined that British rather than French ideas and institution would dominate North America. In the south Atlantic world system slavery was crucial as a source of labor. Millions of Native American people had died because they lacked immunity to diseases introduced to the area. Death rated reached as high as 80 to 90 percent of the native population during the first century of contact with Europeans. Also relatively few Europeans migrated to the new world until the late 18th century providing few workers for new industries. The shortage of labor became particularly acute after the Europeans introduced the plantation system which became the main form of agricultural production in the south Atlantic system. The plantation system was particularly prominent in the sugar producing areas of the Caribbean islands and Brazil and in the southeastern colonies of mainland North America where cotton and tobacco were important. Around the world in the Indian Ocean world system British power was growing. By the beginning of the 18th century the powerful Mughal Empire centered in north India began decline. The English east India Company which had established a presence in India during the 1600s had a fort in Calcutta (now Kolkata). The company used this fort as abase to gradually take over the entire Indian subcontinent. The company accomplished this by hiring an Indian army overseen by British officers which were paid for with taxes collected from Indians. This army formed the main British military weapon in Asia until India achieved independence from Britain in 1947. In the Indian Ocean world system trade was primarily in spices silk and other luxury goods. This trade had existed for thousands of years providing Asian countries with economies featuring large sophisticated markets credit industrial revolution of the late 18th century Europeans produced little that Asians wanted so they were able to participate in the Indian ocean world system only because they possessed a great deal of silver from America. The industrial revolution the shift from hand manufacturing large scale factory production allowed Europeans increase productivity of labor by about ten times. Consequently they were able to cut costs substantial while maintaining or even improving product quality. European had another huge advantage military power. More than any other people Europeans had made fighting a profession one that helped them expand their commercial activities. B. imperialism of free trade: During the mid 19th century Britain was the dominant economic and political power in the world. Britain faced little competition from other European powers. The French were recovering from the French revolution (1789-1799) and
41 Napoleonic wars (1799-1815). The Dutch although still in control of Indonesia had declined in power and were not a serious threat. Left unchallenged on the seas the British were often able to extend their power through informal influence without necessarily asserting formal political control which would add administrative and defensive costs and responsibilities. The push for informal influence became known as the imperialism of free trade. The British did not establish many formal colonies but they controlled other nations in order to increase their economic power. In china for example British commercial expansion resulted in the opium wars (1839-1842, 1856-1860) when the Chinese illegally importing opium. Britain also gained a great deal of informal power in Latin America after Spain’s colonies became independent between 1807 and 1824. Because Britain’s power and influence were so vast a popular saying was “the sun never sets on the British empire.” C. new imperialism (1870-1914): That lack of competition changed in the late 19th century as European powers again became interested in expanding. This was particularly true of Germany which had become a united nation in 1871 (see German unification). Almost all the European powers vied with one another for colonies. This surging political rivalry drove new imperialism. Although European colonial expansion colonial expansion at the end of the 19th century was called new imperialism the motives of colonizers remained the same as in earlier periods. They usually sought economic advantages but these were hard to disentangle from political and strategic motives. The main differences in the era were the number of competing colonial powers and the parts of the world they chose to colonize. Almost all European powers participated and they sought colonies in Africa and in the pacific. In what is called the scramble for Africa European nations partitioned Africa at the Berlin West Africa conference (1884-1885). The Germans got southwestern Africa along with Tanganyika in east Africa. The Portuguese got Mozambique and Angola in southern Africa. Belgium took the Congo and France got Senegal the Cameroon’s and several other colonies in the western Sudan and central Africa. The British got the rest including Kenya and Uganda in east Africa the gold coast (new Ghana) and the territory that became Nigeria in West Africa. The British already controlled Egypt which they had occupied in 1882, as well as English speaking cape colony and natal on the southern tip of Africa. The British also dominated southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and northern Rhodesia (new Zambia) through the British South Africa Company under the leadership of Cecil Rhodes. The result was that almost every part of the African continent was a European colony.
42 In the pacific the British the French and the Germans faced competition both from the Americans who tool over Hawaii and the Philippines from the Spaniards and from the Japanese who colonized Korea. The French took Indochina (now Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) and the Germans colonized eastern new guinea in the south pacific. In Asia the British strengthened their hold on Burma (now known as Myanmar) and Malaya. Although china was never formally colonized European powers established individual “spheres of influence.” When the Chinese rioted in shanghai and else where in 1900 in the boxer uprising western powers put down the revolt and imposed a huge indemnity (a fine to cover the cost of losses and damages) on the Chinese. Both Africa and the pacific were areas where trade investment and profits had all been comparatively to low before the late 19th century. These were also areas where western nations with their advanced military technology could easily conquer indigenous states. Imperial nations adopted the attitude that they should control these areas in order to protect what they viewed as weak peoples. In general the citizens of the more powerful nations supported this view especially because with the exception of Japan’s control of Korea the power holders were white and their subjects were people of color. D. mandates and trusts: The victors in World War I (1914-1918) particularly France and Britain took over the colonial possessions of the losers Germany and the Ottoman Empire in Africa the pacific and the Middle East. They managed these called mandates as trustees under direction of the league of nation an international alliance formed in response to world war I. mandated territories were supposed to be managed in the interest of the indigenous peoples as well as in the interests of the world at large. The indigenous peoples were though to be unable to stand by themselves to quote the League of Nations charter. The nation that served as the mandatory power had to submit annual reports to the permanent mandates commission of the league of nation. After the war neither the Germans nor the ottomans were considered to be fit trustees. In general a mandate was a colony under another name. colonialism was not solely a European phenomenon in the 20th century. During this time Japan was growing as a major imperial power. In the early 1940s Japan founded the greater East Asia co-prosperity sphere, claiming to unite Asian nation against western domination. In effect this act brought much of Asia under Japanese control as part of Japan’s political and economic empire. Japanese conquests of the Philippines Indonesia Burma Malaya and Indochina ended western colonial administration in these areas but Japan’s administration during World War II (1939-1945) was more severe than that of the European of American that it replaced. In Korea for example Japan imposed several measures
43 designed to assimilate the Korean population including outlawing Korean language and even Korean family names. Following world war II the united nation (UN) successor to the league of nations replaced the mandates commission with the trusteeship council and the areas that had been known as mandates became labeled as trusts under the old mandate commission the European powers had assumed that a mandate would remain dependent on the administering nation without ever becoming an independent nation. The charter for the trusteeship council however required the administering nation to set a target date for the trust’s independence. Several colonies such as India, Ceylon (now SRI LANKA) and Burma (now known as Myanmar began their struggle against remaining colonial control. After achieving independence and becoming members of the UN general assembly several former colonies led a campaign against colonialism pointing to the provisions of the trusteeship council charter. In this way trusteeship accelerated the movement toward decolonization throughout the world. Motives for colonization: In general strong countries dominated weaker ones to promote their own national self interest out of economic religious cultural or other reasons. It has been said that the three primary motives for establishing colonies were gold, god and glory but the main incentives were usually economic. A. economic motives: The colonizing country could control important markets for its exports (such as cotton products) and deny these markets to its competitors. Colonies were also important as opportunities for investment. A country often also increased its wealth by conquering another civilization and taking its riches or by exploiting the mineral wealth of another land. In the 16th century for example Spain became a rich and powerful country largely by plundering the riches of existing civilizations in the Americas and by seizing the area’s mineral wealth through mining. These practices were promoted by the policy of mercantilism that many European colonial powers adopted. Those who advocated mercantilism believed that exports to foreign countries were preferable both to trade with in a country and to imports because exports brought more money in to the country. They also believed that the wealth of a nation depended primarily on the possession of gold and silver. Mercantilists assumed that the volume of world wealth and trade was relatively static so one country’s gain required another’s loss. According to this view a colonial possession should provide wealth to the country that controlled it. Colonies were not supposed to compete with the mother country’s home industries. Empires were closed systems designed to keep competitors out.
44 To implement mercantilist policy England passed legislation called the navigation acts that restricted its colonies to trading solely with the mother country. The acts also stipulated that goods imported or exported by English colonies in Africa Asia or America had to be shipped on vessels constructed by English shipbuilders and that at least three quarters of the ships crews had to be English. Some times such regulations back fired. During the French and Indian war (17541763) in North America the British parliament sought to increase revenues to pay the costs of defending the American colonies it used the navigation acts to levy heavier duties on the American colonies. American colonists felt oppressed by these taxes which are considered to be one of the causes of the American revolution (1775-1783). In the 18th century a reaction to mercantilism began and the philosophy free trade started to take root economists particularly Scottish economist Adam smith argued against government regulation of the economy. Smith asserted that trade with a colony was no more profitable than with an independent country. He argued that political strategy might justify colonialism but economies could not. By the 19th century tree trade policies were prompting European nations to pursue informal empires or spheres of influence. B. religious and strategic motives: European countries also wanted to spread their religious beliefs and eliminate other religions. Roman Catholic countries particularly Spain set out to convert non Christian native peoples. Protestant countries also used religion as a motive for expansion. Beginning in the 19th century Britain’s missionary movements served as a significant reason for that country’s colonial efforts. The impact of the colonizers religion on native societies varied. In parts of West Africa and southern Africa very large proportions of the population converted to Christianity. In most places the indigenous people combined the new religion with their existing beliefs and culture as in Central America where the Maya people merged their native practices with Christianity. Sometimes colonies were important for strategic reasons for example the cape of goof hope on the southern tip of Africa guarded European sailors southern route to Asia also some countries occupied colonies in order to protect previous investments. In Egypt a nationalist uprising in 1882 threatened the ruling Egyptian powers with whom Britain had an informal agreement regarding the Suez Canal of which the British government had purchased part ownership. When Britain saw its investments in and its control of the canal in jeopardy it occupied Egypt to control the situation. Some European colonizing powers justified their colonial activities on what they called humanitarian motives. In the 19th century Britain cited the African slave
45 trade as a reason to increase its control over areas in Africa. Of course the British gad been leaders in the slave trade at its height in the previous century. Neocolonialism: Neocolonialism is a term used by post colonial critics of developed countries involvement in the developing world. One common argument among postcolonial intellectuals is that it is too simplistic to say that imperialism has ended and that this occurred when the European empires relinquished their colonies during few decades after the Second World War. The use of the term neocolonialism is one such manifestation of this ongoing nature of imperialism. Yet it is in itself extremely contentious because it is multifaceted and loosely used is often used as a synonym for contemporary forms of imperialism and in a polemical way is used in reaction to any unjust and oppressive expression of western political power. Lying underneath all these various meanings of neocolonialism is a tacit understanding that colonialism should be seen as something more than the formal occupation and control of territories by a western metro pole. Hence while formal methods of control like the implementation of administrative structures the stationing of military forces and most importantly the incorporation of the natives as subjects of the metropolitan government neocolonialism suggests an indirect form of control through economic and cultural dependence. In this case neocolonialism describes the continued control of former colonies through ruling native elites compliant with neocolonial powers population that are exploited for their labor and resources in order to feed an insatiable appetite for finished physical or cultural commodities made by the metro pole. There is some theoretical consensus and development of neocolonialism as well. Scholars in postcolonial studies like Robert young bill Ashcroft Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin agree that in spite of the looseness of the term neocolonialism originated with Kwame Nkrumah Ghana’s first post independence president. Part of a burgeoning consciousness developing among post colonial elites in Africa Nkrumah became aware that the gaining if independence and national sovereignty by African states were purely token and in no substantial way altered the relationship between the colonial powers and the colonized state. In effect the formal granting of independence created a more Manichean system of dependency and exploitation. Neo colonialism is the worst form of imperialism for those who practice it mean power without responsibility and for those who suffer from it means exploitation without redress. In the days of old fashioned colonialism the imperial power had at least explain and justify a home the actions it was taking abroad. In the colony those who served the ruling imperia, power could at least
46 look to its protection against any violent move by their opponents with now colonialism neither is the case. In particular Nkrumah makes the following points about neocolonialism in 1965: 1. It continues to actively control the affairs of the newly independent state. 2. In most cases neocolonialism is manifested through economic and monetary measures. For example the neocolonial territories become the target markets for imports from the imperial centre(s). 3. While neocolonialism nay be a form of continuing control by state’s previous formal colonial master these states may also become subjected to imperial power by new actors. These new actors include the united stated or may be international financial and monetary organizations. 4. Because of the nuclear parity between the superpowers the conflict between the two takes place in the form of limited wars. Neocolonial territories are often the places where these limited wars are waged. 5. as the ruling elites pay constant deference to the neocolonial masters the needs of the population are often ignored leaving issues of living conditions like education, development and poverty unresolved. In more recent days there have been attempts to frame such reaction to new forms of colonialism as simply irrational antipathy towards the west as a type of resentment for the disparities between first world and third and also as a way of explaining victimization. However Nkrumah’s views on neocolonialism cannot be so easily explained because they more firmly elaborate historical and possibly deterministic structures on a larger scale. Particularly Nkrumah sought to develop the idea of imperialism advanced by Lenin in imperialism: the highest stage of capitalism. In this case it makes no sense to claim that imperialism sustains itself because if the continued lust for power after power bur that there exists a higher logic driven on by capitalism and the never ending need if accumulation and production now sustained in a global scale. Nkrumah picks up on these Marxist themes by noting how capitalism and its problems like class conflict occurring at the metropolitan centers become transferred onto the peripheries. While Nkrumah does not provide a solution to neocolonialism in neocolonialism: the last stage of imperialism he makes a number tacit suggestions including the need for pan African unity in making the task more difficult for neocolonialism. But it is a number of allusions to Marxism that Nkrumah expose his views on neocolonialism as a potentially self defeating project. In some sense this would come through post colonial resistance and revolt when neocolonialism reaches a culmination in the peripheries but more indirectly destabilizes the neocolonial centre that practices it.
Apart from Nkrumah the idea of neocolonialism has also been used in other context. Robert young for instance sees neocolonialism as being advanced first through development and dependency theory and then through critical development theory. At issue in development and dependency theory is the difficulty for the third world states in escaping from the western notion of development. Classification economic growth the ways economic output is measured and the progressive linear model of development have been so deeply entrenched that neo colonized stated have no other recourse but to be part of that system. Subsequently dependency theorists depict a world made up of developmental inequities noting that metropolitan centers in seeking to be even more developed under develop the peripheries through trade exploitation. More recently critical development theory goes beyond its predecessor because the notion of neocolonial actions in the periphery can not be so easily explained especially with the economic successes of the Asia. In this regard development can no longer be theorized in purely economic terms but has to incorporate other dimension like culture gender society and politics as well. In variations of critical development theory like post development theory young asserts that there has been a movement towards popular development. This is the empowerment of usually non governmental civil actors to address fundamental human needs hence an emphasis in sustainable development self reliance and cultural pluralism and rights. A number of post development theorists have even advocated development outside the framework of the enlightenment logic and by so doing look towards postcolonial politics as the future direction development theory could take. It is at this juncture that young notes the potential convergence between developmental theory and post colonialism.
49 Elements of national power National power: The concept of power in international relations is clouded with two fallacies. First it is often interpreted as military sense. Secondly it is assumed that the power is measurable and quantifiable. The two fallacies are wrong power in international relations consists of many elements. Secondly it is very difficult to quantify and measure power accurately. The right valuation and true judgment regarding power are very difficult because so many intangibles are involved. Prof. William Ebenstein noted that in the field of international relations the central problem of the strength of a nation is essentially national power is more that the sum of totals of population raw materials and qualitative factors. The alliance potential of a nation its civic devotion the flexibility of its institution its technical know how its capacity to endure privations these are but a raw qualitative elements that determine the total strength of a nation. Thus national power consists of several important elements described as a capability of a nation only highlights the state’s political power. Joseph Frankel underlines some factors that should be kept in mind for analyzing the elements if national power. First all power elements are relative to those possessed by other states. Secondly mere quantities do not reveal true picture. Third any single element plays its role in the complex totality of national power and its importance can be assed only against such background. Fourth capabilities may be used more or less efficiently. Fifth in the present era of rapid technological change the relative saliency of different elements is constantly changing. Sixth is comparing capabilities of different nations we must apply statistics and estimates strictly comparable in times. Elements of national power: Different authors have divided elements of national power in different ways. E.H Carr divided it into three categories military power, economic power and power over opinions. Organ ski made a decision between natural determinations of power. The national determinants (geography, resource and populations) are concerned with people the physical environments in which they live and to which they must environments in which they live and to which they must adapt themselves. Social determinants deal with the way in which people of a nation organize themselves and the ways in which they change their environments. Morgenthau distinguishes between two groups of
50 elements those which are relatively stable and those which are subject change. He refers to geography, population, natural resources, raw materials, industrial preparedness, national character, national morality, the quality of society and government and the quality of leadership as elements of national power. 1. geography: Morgenthau describes geography as the most stable element of national power. Some thinkers belonging to the school of geography have attempted to explain foreign policies and foreign relations of nations in aims of their geographical settings. Three factors of geography are: 1. the size of the land 2. location 3. its climate 4. its topology The land area of a state is itself an element of power. Size affects the course of both defensive and effective warfare. A large area increases nation’s power in two ways. First a large land area can contain a large population and a large supply of natural resources. A large area may provide certain military advantages. Size also renders it possible to locate vital elements of industry far from nation’s international frontiers. Finally a large area difficult to conquer and control especially if it is heavily populated. Though size id important it is not always consistently correlated with power. Britain with small land area played a certain role in world politics for a long period of time. 2. Location: The location of a state in the sense of spatial relationship to other areas and other state affects a state’s economic and military power. Location often makes a state a land power or naval power. Location also figures in the diplomacy and strategy of war. Certain regions of the world are inherently strategic. The small nations situated on the borders of a great nation may find their power reduced in consequence. Again a powerful nation surrounded by small and weak nations may find its power increased by such location. Climate: The climate is another geographic feature that influences national power. Climate has a direct eating on a health and energy of a people. Extreme heat or cold has unfavorable effect on energy, productive capacity and national strength. It is not a mere coincidence that the major center of power has flourished in the temperature zone.
Topology: Topology has a direct influence on national power. It determines the density of a population which a region can support. Again very high mountain ranger, ocean, wide rivers and desert may place barriers to political expansion. The existence of any natural barrier demarcating national frontier may enhance nation’s security. Topology has important bearing on a nation’s culture and economy. Population: Population represents another significant element of national power. Both the quantitative components of population must be taken into account. It is obvious that a nation must have a population large enough for full utilization of its natural resources. Both super powers possess vast manpower. But large population can exert negative on national power as it is evident in many over populated developing nations. The population growth in all those countries has exceeded the economic growth rate. Consequently population control is prime requisite for economic development. Economic factors: The economic conditions of a nation are crucial determinant of nation power. Two economic elements can refer natural resources and industrial production. Natural resources being a significant component of national power may be described as gifts f nature of utility. These include food industrial crops raw materials and minerals. A country being self sufficient in food production can more independently formulate and pursue its foreign policy than a country suffering from food scarcity. Food crisis is a source of permanent weakness. Same holds equally good in regard to raw materials necessary for industrial production and for conduction war. The two super powers are nearly self sufficient in the production of raw materials required for industrial production or enjoy access to the source of materials they do not own. ( I fact there is a surprising concentration of basic raw materials in the hands of a few nations.) Frankel enumerates three types of strategically significant raw material fuels (coal, oil, natural, gas and fissile materials) metals (iron, copper, chromium, manganese and nickel, bauxite, lead, zinc, tin, titanium, silver) and agricultural produce. Military preparedness: It is the military preparedness that gives actual importance to geography natural resources and industrial capacity in terms of national power. The
52 correlation between national power and military preparedness is too obvious. The military power of a nation depends on technological innovation leadership and the quantity and quality of the armed forces. Along with timely use of technological innovations the quality of military leadership has a vital bearing on national power. The proportion of national resources employed for military ends signifies the intensity of military effort. The comparison of actual military strength is highly technical. Government organization: The national power of any country is heavily dependent on quality of its government. The national power of a nation depends of efficient utilization of potential elements of power. That depends to a great extent in quality of government. The sudden change of government may bring change in the power position of state. Hans Morgenthau notes that a good government always tries to maintain a distance between material and human resources that contribute to national power and it chooses that objectives and methods of forting policies keeping in view the power available to support them. The government must also bring different elements of national power into balance with each other. The government must secure that approval and support of its people for its foreign as well as domestic policies. It is nit enough for a government to marshal national public opinion in favor of its own policies. It must strive to gain support of public opinions of other countries in favor of its domestic and foreign policies. The power of a nation not only depends on the quality of diplomacy and armed force but also on the attractiveness of other nations of the political particularly with regard to two super powers who represent two different political philosophy system of government way of life and compete with each other for gaining popular support of other nations in favor of its political philosophies and social and economic systems. The quality if civil service is no less important. National character: National character is an intangible element of national power. There in no denying the fact that stereotype views of national character may be highly misleading. But different nations tend to have their own mode of thinking and acting. Many nations have some distinct mental and moral qualities that make their national reality. The improvement of the quality of government is a prime requisite for improving national morale. National prestige:
53 Joseph Frankel refers prestige as an element of national power. It helps the state to secure necessary social response from other. “Prestige is built upon the image formed by others of the state’s qualities.” The qualities enhancing international prestige change from time to time. Military strength, especially nuclear power and economic power is the basis of national prestige in international arena. A state upholding human rights and social justice enjoy greater international reputation. South Africa because of its apartheid policy has faced universal condemnation. The international strategic position of a state is also important in the measurement of national power. All the domestic elements of power may be multiplied with the outside support. Thus international support acts a s a kind of multiplier to domestic support. No state not event the super powers are entirely self supporting. Each state depends upon military allies on friends in diplomacy and on foreign states for market and raw materials supply. Now both Soviet Union and USA compare with each other to secure friendship and good will of third world countries. South Africa and Israel feeling international condemnation has suffered loss of power in global arena. There is no denying and excessive dependence on foreign support may spell danger. Yet in the present age of increasing international value of such support must be calculated carefully. National morale: National morale is more elusive less stable and yet important element of national morale Morgenthau describes national morale as the degree of determination with which a nation morale as the degree of determination with which a nation lends support to its foreign policies. Frankel comments that’s “morale describes the extent to which the people support their leaders believe in the rightness of their cause.” It is dependent on many factions and circumstances as well as quality of national leadership. The national morale is put to a test during national crisis especially during war. National morale is big. When the people closely identify themselves with objectives and activities of government. The national morale of a country torn by severe social and economic conflicts may be precarious state. Thus national unity and solidarity are essential ingredients for high national morale. Chapter: 6 Balance of power Balance of power is the theory and policy of international relations that asserts that the most effective check on the power of a state is the power of other states. In international relations the term state refers to a country with a
54 government and a population. The term balance of power refers to the distribution of power capabilities of rival states or alliances. For example the United States and the Soviet Union maintained equivalent arsenals of nuclear weapons in the 1970s and 1980s which helped sustain a military balance of power. Balance of power is the posture and policy of a nation or group of nations protecting itself against another nation or group of nations by matching its power against the power of the other side. States can pursue a policy of balance of power in two ways by increasing their own power. As when engaging in an armament race or n the competitive acquisition of territory or by adding to their own power that of other states as when embarking upon a policy of alliances. The balance of power theory maintains that when one state or alliance increases its power or applies it more aggressively threatened states will increase their own power in response often by forming a counter balancing coalition. For example the rise of German power before and during words war I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945) triggered the formation of and anti German coalition consisting of the Soviet Union Britain France the United States and other countries. Significance to international relations: As a policy valance of power suggests that states counter any threat to their security by allying with other threatened states and by increasing their own military capabilities. The policy of forming a geographically based coalition of states to surround and block an expansionist power is known as containment. For example the United States followed a containment policy towards the Soviet Union after World War II by building military alliance and bases throughout Europe the Middle East and Asia. As a theory balance of power predicts that rapid changes in international power and status especially attempts by one state to conquer a region will provoke counterbalancing actions. For this reason the balancing process gelpf to maintain the stability of relations between states. A balance of power system can function effectively in two different ways. First multiple states can form a valance of power when alliance are fluid that is when they are easily formed or broken on the basis of expediency regardless of values, religion, history or form of government. Occasionally a single state plays a balancer role shifting its support to oppose whatever state or alliance is strongest. Britain played this role in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries particularly in its relations with France, Russia, and Germany. Second two states can balance against each other by matching their increases
55 in military capability. In the cold war the Soviet Union and United States both expanded their nuclear arsenals to balance against each other. One weakness of the balance of power concept is the difficulty of measuring power. Ultimately a state’s power derives from the size of its land mass, population and its level of technology. But this potential power measured roughly by a states gross domestic product (GDP) translates imperfectly into military capability. The effective use of military force depends on such elements as leadership, morale, geography and luck. Furthermore leaders’ misperceptions can seriously distort the calculation of power. During the Vietnam War (1959-1975) for example US president consistently underestimated the strength of the Vietnamese communists because by conventional measures of power they were much weaker than the United States. Balance of power is a doctrine of equilibrium: In international relations a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. As a tem in international law for a just equilibrium between the members of the family of nations it expresses the doctrine intended to prevent any one nation from becoming sufficiently strong so as to enable it to enforce its will upon the rest. Balance of power is a central concept in neorealist theory. Within a balance of power system a state many chooser to engage in either balancing or bandwagon behavior. In a time of war the decision to balance or to bandwagon may well determine the survival of the state. A doctrine of equilibrium: The basic principle involved in a balancing of political power as David Hume pointed out in his essay on the balance of power is as old as history and was perfectly familiar to ancient both as political theorists and as practical statesmen. In its essence it is no more than a precept of commonsense born of experience and the instinct of self preservation; for as Polybius very clearly puts it. “Nor is such a principle to be despised nor should so great a power be allowed to any one as to make it impossible for you afterwards to dispute with him on equal terms, concerning your manifest rights.” As Professor L. Oppenheim justly points out equilibrium between the various powers which form the family of nations is in fact essential to the very existence of any international law. In the absence of any central authority the only sanction behind the code of rules established by custom or defined in
56 treaties known as international law is the capacity of the powers to hold each other in check. If this system fails nothing prevents any state sufficiently powerful from ignoring the law and acting solely according to its convenience and its interests. Historical perspective: Preserving the balance of power as a conscious goal of forting policy though certainly known in the ancient world resurfaced in post medieval Europe among the Italian city states in the 15th century. Francesco Sforza, duke of Milan was the first ruler to actively pursue such a policy though historians have generally and incorrectly attributed the innovation to the Medici rulers of Florence whose praises were sung by the well known Florentine writers Niccolo Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. Universalism which was the dominant direction of European international relations prior to the peace of Westphalia gave way to the doctrine of the balance of power. The term gained significance after the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, where it was specifically mentioned. It was not until the beginning of the 17th century when the science of international law assumed the discipline of structure in the hands of Grotius and his successors that the theory of the balance of power was formulated as a fundamental principle of diplomacy. In accordance with this new discipline the European states formed a sort of federal community the fundamental condition of which was the preservation of a balance of power i.e. such a disposition of things that no one state or potentate should be able absolutely to predominate and prescribe laws to the rest. And since all were equally interested in this settlement it was held to be the interest the right and the duty of every power to interfere even by force of arms, when any of the conditions of this settlement were infringed upon or assailed by any other member of the community. This balance of power principle once formulated became an axiom upon the young Louis dc de Bourgogne. Frederick the great in his anti Machiavel proclaimed the balance of power principle to the world. In 1806 Friedrich von Gentz re stated it with admirable clarity in fragments on the balance of power. The principle formed the basis of coalitions against Louis XIV and napoleon and the occasion or the excuse for most of the wars which Europe experienced between the Peace of Westphalia 1648 and the congress of Vienna 1814 especially from the British vantage point. The term balance of power came into use to denote the power came into use to denote the power relationships in the European state system from the end of the Napoleonic wars to world war I. within the European balance of power,
57 Great Britain played the role of the “balance” or “holder of the balance.” It was not permanently identified with the policies of nay European nation and it would throw its weight at one time on one side at another time on another side guided largely by one consideration the maintenance of the balance itself. Naval supremacy and its virtual immunity from foreign invasion enabled great Britain to perform this function which made the European balance of power both flexible and stable. The balance of power from the early 20th century onward underwent drastic changes that for all practical purposes destroyed the European power structure as it had existed since the end of the middle ages. Prior to the 20 th century the political world was composed of a number of separate and independent balance of power systems such as the European the American the Chinese and the Indian. But World War I and its attendant political alignments triggered a process that eventually culminated in the integration of most of the world’s nations into a single balance of power system. This integration began with the World War I alliance of Britain, France, Russia and the United States against Germany and Austria Hungary. The integration continued in World War II during which the fascist nations of Germany, Japan and Italy were opposed by a global alliance of the soviet union the United States Britain and china. World War II ended with the major weights in the balance of power having shifted from the traditional players in western and central Europe to just two non European ones the United States and the Soviet Union. The result was a bipolar balance of power across the northern half of the globe that pitted the free market democracies of the west against the communist one party states of Eastern Europe. More specifically the nations of Western Europe sided with the United States in the NATO military alliance, while the Soviet Union’s satellite allies in central and Eastern Europe became unified under soviet leadership in the Warsaw pact. Because the balance of power was now bipolar and because of the great disparity of power between the two superpowers and all other nations the European countries lost that freedom of movement that previously had made for a flexible system. Instead of a series of shifting and basically unpredictable alliances with and against each other the nations of Europe now clustered around the two superpowers and tended to transform themselves into two stable blocs. There were other decisive differences between the postwar balance of power and its predecessor. The fear of mutual destruction in a global nuclear holocaust injected into the foreign policies of the United States and the Soviet Union a marked element of restraint. A direct military confrontation between the two superpowers and their allies on European soil was an almost certain
58 gateway to nuclear war and was therefore to be avoided at almost any cost. So instead direct confrontation was largely replaced by 1. a massive arms race whose lethal products were never used and 2. Political meddling or limited military interventions by the superpowers in various third world nations. During the greater part of the 19th century the series of national upheavals which remodeled the map of Europe obscured the balance of power. Yet it underlay all the efforts of diplomacy to stay or to direct the elemental forces let loose by the French revolution. In the revolution’s aftermath, with the restoration of comparative calm the principle once more emerged as the operative motive for the various political alliances of which the ostensible object was the preservation of peace. In the late 20th century some third world nations resisted the advances of the superpowers and maintained a nonaligned stance in international politics. The breakaway of china from soviet influence and its cultivation of a nonaligned but covertly anti soviet stance lent a further complexity to the bipolar balance of power. The most important shift in the balance of power began in 1989-90 however when the Soviet Union lost control over its eastern European satellites and allowed non communist governments to come to power in those countries. The breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991made the concept of a European balance of power temporarily irrelevant since the government of newly sovereign Russia embraced the political and economic forms favored by the United States and Western Europe. Both Russia and the United States retained their nuclear arsenals however so the balance of nuclear threat between them remained potentially in force. From ancient times to world war II: Historical examples of power balancing are found throughout history in various regions of the world leading some scholars to characterize balance of power as a universal and timeless principle. During the period of the warring states in china (403-221 BC) the development of large cohesive states accompanied the creation of irrigation systems, bureaucracies and large armies equipped with iron weapons. These Chinese states pursued power through a constantly shifting network of alliances. In ancient Greece during the Peloponnesian war (431-404 BC), the rising power of Athens triggered the formation of a coalition of city states that felt threatened by Athenian power. The alliance led by Sparta succeeded in defeating Athens and resorting a balance of power among Greek cities. In the 17th century the Hapsburg dynasty which ruled Austria and Spain threatened to dominate Europe. During the thirty years war (1618-1648) a coalition that included Sweden England France and the Netherlands defeated the rulers of the Hapsburg Empire. Early in the 19 th century French emperor
59 napoleon I repeatedly made efforts to conquer large areas of Europe. A broad coalition a European states including Britain Russia Austria and Prussia defeated France in a series of major battles that climaxed with napoleon’s defeat at the battle of waterloo in 1815. The classical European balance of power system emerged thereafter in an alliance known as the concert of Europe organized in 1815 by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. This loose alliance between Britain Russia Austria Prussia and France ensured that a handful of great powers would coexist with none able to dominate the others. Under this system sand with Britain playing a balancer role peace largely prevailed in Europe during the 19th century. During world war II Germany’s rising power aggressive conquests and alliance with Italy and Japan triggered yet another coalition of opposing states notably the capitalist democracies of Britain and the united states and the communist soviet union. In the nuclear age: The cold war standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union shaped the global balance of power after World War II. Although an actual war between these two superpowers never occurred the balance of power process instead took the form of a massive arms race in which each superpower responded by adding to their military buildup. The possession of large arsenals of nuclear weapons by both the United States and the Soviet Union ensured that any potential war would prove disastrous for both. Because of the threat to human survival posed by nuclear weapons military strategists often referred to the balance of power as a balance of terror. During the cold war the US policy of containment encircled the Soviet Union with military and political alliances in Western Europe the Middle East and Southeast Asia. The major UD and soviet military interventions of the cold war in Korea Vietnam and Afghanistan took place in politically contested regions of the world where both superpowers jockeyed for influence. Small states sometimes benefited from the superpower competition. In the 1960s for example relations soured between Cuba and the United States. At that time Cuba allied itself with the Soviet Union and received large economic and military subsidies. Balance of power today: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world’s sole superpower. Balance of power theory suggests that without the soviet threat the United States as the dominant world power will face difficulties in its relations with such states as china and the European powers. For example key countries such as china Russia France and Germany all opposed the United States invasion of Iraq in 2003 in diplomatic arenas such as the United
60 Nations. Yet this opposition did not stop the United States from acting exposing the significant gap in military capability that now exists between the United States and the rest of the world. Small states that fear the United States are no longer able to join a counterbalancing coalition to protect their security. Instead many are developing nuclear weapons in an attempt to dramatically expand their military capability. For example North Korea claimed in 2003 that it was developing nuclear weapons to balance against US power. The changing nature of power in the contemporary international system further complicates the operation of the global balance of power. Globalization, the internet, weapons of mass destruction and other technological developments have made it possible for small states and even non state groups to acquire significant power. These factors also dilute the relative importance of military power. For example after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the united states assembled a broad coalition to invade Afghanistan using military force to topple the Taliban government and end the Taliban’s support for Alqaeda terrorists. This application of military power did not provoke a balancing coalition of other states but it also did not end the terrorist threat to the United States. In the future the balance of power many continue to operate among states engaged in prolonged disputes bur it is less applicable to conflicts involving terrorists and other non state groups Chapter: 7 Foreign policy Foreign policy: Foreign policy can be defined as relations between sovereign states. It is a reflection of domestic politician interaction among sovereign states. It indicates the principles and preferences on which a country wants to establish relations with another country. No country today can think of a life independent of other nations. Every country has to develop relations with other countries so as to meet its requirements in economical industrial and technological fields. It is thus necessary for every country to formulate a sound foreign policy. Pakistan stage. It also has formulated her foreign policy keeping in mind its geography, politics and economics. Pakistan’s foreign policy in light of QUAID-E-AZAM words The father of the nation QUAID-E-AZAM defined foreign policy towards other countries of the world in 1948as follows: The vase of foreign policy id the friendship and good will for all the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation.
61 We believe in the policy of honesty and fair play in national and international dealings and are prepared to make our utmost contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. Pakistan never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed people of the world and in upholding the principles of the united nations charter. Basic goals of Pakistan's foreign policy The basic goals of paksitan’s forting policy are: 1. Maintenance of territorial integrity. 2. Maintenance of its political independence. 3. Acceleration of social and economic development. 4. Strengthening its place on the globe. 5. Keeping cordial and friendly relations with all countries. Guiding principles of paksitan’s foreign policy Following are the basic principles of Pakistan’s forting policy: 1. protection of freedom and sovereignty: Pakistan came into being after great sacrifices of millions of Muslims like any other country it also considers with deep regard the need for preservation of its independence and does not allow any country to harm its freedom. Therefore the principle of protection of independence and sovereignty is the corner stone of paksitan’s foreign policy. 2. Better relations with super powers: Pakistan has keen interested in keeping the congenial and better relations with all the big powers of the world as far as passive. But it also wants to keep itself away from the politics of super powers. Experience shows that involvement in the ideological and military conflicts between super powers has been always proved harmful for developing countries. 3. Cordial relations with Muslim countries: Pakistan has always tried to establish cordial and friendly relation with Muslim countries. It had regarded the problems of the Muslim world as its own problems and has always offered help and co-operation to solve them. It has always moved its concern against Israel, India and USSR capturing Palestine, Kashmir and Afghanistan respectively. It has shouldered high responsibilities and used its influence for safeguarding the rights of the Muslims. Pakistan is also active member of the organization of Islamic conference. 4. Kashmir issue: Pakistan in accordance with its foreign policy has been supporting the freedom struggle in Kashmir due to which Pakistan has been facing the enmity of India persistently. Pakistan has been supporting the right of self determination for Kashmiris and will continue to support.
62 5. Non interference: Pakistan has sought to establish normal and friendly relations with all countries especially acknowledge the principle of national sovereignty, nonuse of force, non interference in the internal affairs of states. 6. Implementation of UN charter: Paksitan’s policy is to act upon UN charter and to support all moves by the UN to implement it. Pakistan has been the member of UN since the year of its birth. 7. promotion of world peace: Pakistan policy is to promote peace among nations. It has no aggressive designs against any country. Neither does it support any such action. Pakistan has always held that the international disputes should be settled through negotiations rather than non battle field. 8. promotion of human rights: Foreign policy of Pakistan is based on the principles that whatsoever human rights are condemned an effective voice must be raised in high tone. For instance Pakistan openly supported Afghanistan against Russian aggression. 9. non alignment: Pakistan follows the policy of non alignment i.e. to keep away from alignment with any big power bloc, and avoids taking sides any of them in the cold war. It has also given up its association with CENTO and has joined non aligned movement in 1979. 10. support for self determination and condemnation of racial discrimination: Pakistan is a staunch supporter of the right of self determination and has been in the fore front efforts to eliminate colonialism and racism. For instance it extended unconditional assistance to the course of liberation and self determination in Asia, Africa and Latin America. 11. regional cooperation: IT has been Pakistan’s endeavor to establish peaceful and mutually beneficial relations with its neighboring countries. The country is firmly committed to the south Asian association for regional cooperation (SAARC) and economic regional cooperation (ECO) and has contributed meaningfully to the establishment, institutionalization, and progress of these associations. 12. nuclear non proliferation and disarmament: Pakistan is deeply conscious of the fact that international peace and security can not be achieved and sustained in the world with arms. Disarmament is the imperative condition for truly durable peace in the world. Pakistan has a vital stake in promotion of disarmament both in the nuclear and conventional fields. It is included in the principles of its foreign policy that a collective endeavor by counties at the regional level to promote disarmament and enhance security at the
63 lowest possible level of armaments its an indispensable result to their advocacy of global disarmament. 13. member of international organizations: Pakistan had become the member of the British common wealth with the time of its establishment. In addition it is the member of United Nation(UN), non aligned movement (NAM), organization of Islamic conference (OIC), economic cooperation organization(ECO), south Asian association for regional cooperation (SAARC), association of south east Asian nations (ASEAN)and D-eight. Being a member of international organizations the objectives of Pakistan are to struggle for world peace, to unify the Muslim countries and to promote regional cooperation. 14. global economic system: One of the basic principles of foreign policy of Pakistan is to establish a global economic system so that the developed countries could not exploit the developing world. Conclusion: The guiding principles of Pakistan’s foreign policy are rooted in the country’s Islamic ideology its rich cultural heritage and historical experience. As an Islamic and non aligned country, Pakistan supports Islamic causes and firmly upholds the above mentioned principles which hold out the promise of a just and equitable world order in which nations can lice in peace and security. Factors determining the foreign policy of Pakistan: Some factors play important role to determine the foreign policy of country. Following are those important factors. 1. Pakistan’s ideology: Pakistan has an ideological basis. Pakistan was established with the sole objective of providing the south Asian Muslims with a homeland where the could live with dignity and honor. Thus the Pakistan ideology demands that Pakistan should establish friendly relations with all neighboring countries. 2. regional factors: It is a natural factor that strategic importance of location of a country enhances its role in international economy and politics. For example Pakistan is the most important country of the region. Fall of the soviet empire brought about far reaching changes in the world politics but even this change did not affect’s Pakistan’s position. 3. Islamic identity: Islamic ideology is identity of Pakistan. As a part of global Muslim community Pakistan occupies a central place in the chain of Muslim countries stretching from Africa to Far East. QUAID-E-AZAM attached great importance to Pakistan’s
64 relations with the Muslim countries. On the other side all Muslim countries of the world, Arab and non Arab alike, look forward to Pakistan for guidance in their cherished cause of establishing international Muslim brotherhood. 4. national benefits: Foreign policy is determined considering national benefits. Pakistan also brings changes in its foreign policy according to its national benefits. LIAQUALT ALI KHAN’S visit in May 1950, close relations with western countries and membership of SEATO and CENTO reveal that Pakistan’s main concern was its security. Pakistan also became member of non aligned movement in September 1979 and maintained good relations with all super powers keeping national benefits in its mind. 5. history: History of the nation contributes much in framing the foreign policy of the country. Similarly Pakistan’s relations with India are based on the history of sub continent. It is the history of Pakistan movement which proves India as our worst enemy. The general public thinks the same even though government policies are being set to maintain good relations. 6. economy: Economically independent countries are free to frame their foreign policy. They have no pressures and black mailing of super powers. On the other hand economically weak countries are dictated by the USA to frame their foreign policy. 7. county politics: Foreign policy depends upon the policy of the ruling party in democratic countries. Usually all political parties frame foreign policy of Pakistan keeping in view the interest of nation. 8. international politics: These days this world has become global village. International politics, pacts, alliances, pressures, attitude of super powers are important factors of determining foreign policy.
Chapter: 8 Diplomacy Diplomacy practices and institutions by which nations conduct their relations with one another. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the
65 conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace making, trade, war, economics and culture. International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. The word stems from the Greek word “diploma”, which literally means “folded in two”. In ancient Greece, a diploma was certificate certifying completion of a course of study typically folded in two. In the days of Roman Empire the word diploma was used to describe official travel documents, such as passports and passes for imperial roads that were stamped on double metal plates. Later the meaning was extended to covert other official documents such as treaties with foreign tribes. In the 1700s the French called their body of officials attached to foreign legations the corps “diplomatique”. The word “diplomacy” was first introduced into the English language by Edmund burke in 1796, based on the French word “diplomatie”. In an informal or social sense, diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non confrontational or polite manner. Diplomats and diplomatic missions: A diplomat is some one involved in diplomacy; the collective term for a group of diplomats from a single country who are resident in another country is a diplomatic mission. Ambassador ids the most senior diplomatic rank; a diplomatic mission headed by an ambassador is known as an embassy. The collective body of all diplomats of particular country is called that country’s diplomatic service. The collective body of all diplomats assigned to a particular country is the diplomatic corps. Nature and purpose of diplomacy: Diplomacy id the established method of influencing the decisions and behavior of foreign governments and peoples through dialogue, negotiation, and other measures short of war or violence. Modern diplomatic practices are a product of the post renaissance European state system. Historically diplomacy meant the conduct of official (usually bilateral) relations between sovereign states. By the 20th century, however the diplomatic practices pioneered in Europe had been adopted throughout the world, and diplomacy had expanded to cover summit meetings and other international conferences, parliamentary diplomacy, the international activities of supranational and sub national entities, unofficial diplomacy by non governmental elements and the work of international civil servants. The term diplomacy is derived via French from the ancient Greek “diploma” composed of -diplo meaning folded in two, and the suffix –ma, meaning “an object”. The folded document conferred a privilege often a permit to travel on the
66 bearer and the term came to denote documents through which princes granted such favors. Later is applied to all solemn documents issued by chancelleries especially those containing agreements between sovereigns. Diplomacy later became identified with international relations, and the direct tie to documents lapsed (except in diplomatics which is the science of authenticating old official documents). In the 18th century the French term diplomate (diplomat or diplomatist) came to refer to a person authorized to negotiate on behalf of a state. Nature and purpose: Diplomacy is often confused with foreign policy but the terms are not synonymous. Diplomacy is the chief but not the only instrument of foreign policy which is set by political leaders, though diplomats (in addition to military and intelligence officers) may advise them. Foreign policy establishes goals, prescribes strategies and sets the broad tactics to be used in their accomplishment. It may employ secret agents, subversion, war or other forms of violence as well as diplomacy to achieve its objectives. Diplomacy is the principal substitute for the use of force or underhanded means in statecraft; it is how comprehensive national power is applied to the peaceful adjustment of differences between states. It may be coercive (i.e. backed by the threat to apply punitive measures or to use force) but is overly nonviolent. Its primary tools are international dialogue and negotiation, primarily conducted by accredited envoys (a term derived from the French envoy meaning “meaning one who is sent”) and other political leaders. Unlike foreign policy which generally is enunciated publicly most diplomacy is conducted in confidence though both the fact that it is in progress and its results are almost always made public in contemporary international relations. The purpose of foreign policy is to further a state’s interests, which are derived which are derived from geography, history, economics and the distribution of international power. Safeguarding national independence, security and integrityterritorial, political, economic and moral is viewed as a country’s primary obligation followed preserving a wide freedom of action for the state. The political leaders, traditionally of sovereign states, who devise foreign policy, pursue what they perceive to be the national interest, adjusting national policies to changes in external conditions and technology. Primary responsibility for supervising the execution of policy may lie with head of state or government, a cabinet or a nominally non governmental collective leadership the staff of the country’s leader, or a minister, who presides over the foreign ministry, directs policy execution, supervises the ministry’s officials and instructs the country’s diplomats abroad. The purpose of diplomacy is to strengthen the state, nation, or organization it serves in relation to others by advancing the interests in its charge. To this end, diplomatic activity endeavors to maximize a group’s advantages without the risk
67 and expense of using force and preferably without causing resentment. It habitually but not invariably strives to preserve peace’ diplomacy is strongly inclined towards negotiation to achieve agreements and resolve issues between states. Even in times of peace, diplomacy may involve coercive threats of economic or other punitive measure or demonstrations of the capability to impose unilateral solutions to disputes by the application of military power. However diplomacy normally seeks to develop goodwill toward the state it represents nurturing relations with foreign states and peoples that will ensure their cooperation or failing that their neutrality. When diplomacy fails war may ensue’ however diplomacy is useful even during war. It conducts the passages from protest to menace, dialogue to negotiation, ultimatum to reprisal and war to peace and reconciliation with other states. Diplomacy builds and tends the coalitions that deter or make war. It disrupts the alliances of enemies and sustains the passivity of potentially hostile powers. It contrives war’s termination and it forms strengthens and sustains the peace that follows conflict. Over the long term diplomacy strives to build an international order conducive to nonviolent resolution of disputes and expanded cooperation between states. Diplomacy is the best means preserving peace which a society of sovereign nations has offer but especially under the conditions of contemporary world politics and of contemporary war, it is not good enough. It is only when nations have surrendered to a higher authority the means of destruction which modern technology has put in their hands destruction when they have given up their sovereignty that international peace can be made as secure as domestic peace. Diplomacy can make peace more secure than it is today and the world state can make peace more secure than it would be it nations were to abide by the rules of diplomacy. Yet as there can be no permanent peace without a world state there can be no permanent peace without a world state without the peace preserving and community building processes of diplomacy. For the world state to be more than a dim vision the accommodating processes of diplomacy mitigating and minimizing conflicts, must be revived. Whatever one’s conception of the ultimate state of international affairs may be in the recognition of that need and in the demand that it be met all men of good will can join. Diplomats are the primary bur far from the only practitioners of diplomacy. They are specialists in caring messages and negotiating adjustments in relations and the resolution of quarrels between states and peoples. Their weapons are words backed by the power of the state or organization they represent. Diplomats help leaders to understand the attitudes and actions of foreigners and to develop strategies and tactics that will shape the behavior of foreigners, especially foreign governments. The wise use of diplomats is a key to successful foreign policy.
Four tasks of diplomacy: Diplomacy is an element of national power. The importance of diplomacy for the preservation of international peace is but a particular aspect of that general function. For a diplomacy that ends in war has failed in its primary objective: the promotion of the national interest by peaceful means. This has always been so and is particularly so in view of the destructive potentialities of total war. Taken in its widest meaning, comprising the whole range of foreign policy, the task of diplomacy is fourfold: 1. Diplomacy must determine its objectives in the light of the power actually and potentially available for the pursuit of these objectives. 2. Diplomacy must assess the objectives of other nations and the power actually and potentially available for the pursuit of these objectives. 3. Diplomacy must determine to what extent these different objectives are compatible with each other. 4. Diplomacy must employ the means suited to the pursuit of its objectives. Failure in any one of these tasks may jeopardize the success of foreign policy and with it the peace of the world. A nation that sets itself goals which it has not the power to attain may have to face the risk of war on two counts. Such a nation is likely to dissipate its strength and not to be strong enough at all points of friction to deter a hostile nation from challenging it beyond endurance. The failure of its foreign policy may force the nation to retrace its steps and to redefine its objectives in view of its actual strength. Yet it is more likely that, under the pressure of an inflamed public opinion such a nation will go forward on the road toward an unattainable goal, strain all its resources to achieve it, and finally confounding the national interest with that goal seek in war the solution to a problem that cannot be solved by peaceful means. A nation will also invite war if its diplomacy wrongly assesses the objectives of other nations and the power at their disposal. A nation that mistakes a policy of the status quo will be the other nation’s policy entails. Its weakness will invite attack and may make war inevitable. A nation that mistake a policy of the status quo for a policy of imperialism will evoke through its disproportionate reaction the very danger of war which it is trying to avoid. For as A mistakes Bs policy imperialism, so B might mistake A’s defensive reaction for imperialism. Thus both nations each intent upon forestalling imaginary aggression from the other side, will rush to arms. Similarly the confusion of one type of imperialism with another may call for disproportionate reaction and thus evoke the risk of war. As for the assessment of the power of other nations, either to overrate to underrate it may be equally fatal to the cause of peace. By overrating the power of B, A may
69 prefer to yield to B’s demands until finally A is forced to fight for its very existence under the most unfavorable conditions. By underrating the power of B ,a may become overconfident in its assumed superiority. A may advance demands and impose conditions upon B which the latter is supposedly too weak to resist. Unsuspecting B’s actual power of resistance, A may be faced with the alternative of either retreating or conceding defeat of advancing and risking war. A nation that seeks to pursue and intelligent and peaceful foreign policy cannot cease comparing its own objectives and the objectives of other nations in the light of their compatibility. If they are compatible no problem arises. If they are not compatible nation A must determine whether its objectives are so vital to itself that they must be pursued despite that incompatibility with the objectives of B. if it is found that A’s vital interests can be safeguarded without the attainment of these objectives, they ought to be abandoned. On the other hand if A finds that these objectives are essential for its vital interests, a must then ask itself whether B’s objectives, incompatible with its own are essential for B’s vital interests. If the answer seems to be in the negative, A must try to induce B to abandon its objectives offering B equivalents not vital to A. in other words through diplomatic bargaining the give and take of compromise a way must be sought by which the interests of A and B con be reconciled. Finally, if the incompatible objectives of A and B should prove to be vital to either side a way might still be sought in which the vital interests of A and B might be redefined, reconciled and their objectives thus made compatible with each other. Here however even provided that both sides pursue intelligent and peaceful policies A and B are moving dangerously close to the brink of war. It is the final task of an intelligent diplomacy intent upon preserving peace to choose the appropriate means for pursuing its objectives. The means at the disposal of diplomacy are three: persuasion, compromise, and threat of force. No diplomacy relying only upon the threat of force can claim to be both intelligent and peaceful. No diplomacy that would stake everything on persuasion and compromise deserves to be called intelligent. Rarely if ever in the conduct of the foreign policy of a great power is there justification for using only one method to the exclusion of the others. Generally the diplomatic representative of a great power in order to be able to serve both the interests of his country and the interests of peace must at the same time use persuasion hold out the advantages of a compromise and impress the other side with the military strength of his country. The art of diplomacy consists in putting the right emphasis at any particular moment on each of these three means at its disposal. A diplomacy that has been successfully discharged in its other function may well fail in advancing the national interest and preserving peace if it stresses persuasion when the give and take of compromise is primarily required by the circumstances of the case. A
70 diplomacy that puts most of its eggs in the basket of compromise when the military might of the nation should be predominantly displayed, or stresses military might when the political situation calls for persuasion and compromise, will like wise fail. History of diplomacy: As soon as people organized themselves into separate social groups the necessity of regularizing contacts with representatives of other groups became apparent. Event the earliest civilizations had rules for interaction. A. Early development: The first civilization to develop an orderly system of diplomacy was ancient Greece. Ambassadors and special missions were sent from city to city to deliver messages and warnings to transfer gifts and to plead the cases of their own people before the rules of other city states. These diplomatic missions however were occasional and sporadic. With the decline of Greece and the rise of the Roman Empire the Greek system of diplomacy disappeared. As Rome expanded its diplomacy served the purposes of conquest and annexation. The Romans were not inclined to coexist with other states on the basis of mutual interests. Rome issued commands; it did not negotiate. For almost a thousand years after the fall of Rome, Europeans thought of themselves not as member of separate nations but rather as members of smaller groups vaguely bound to some feudal overlord. Although localities had relations from time to time, no record exists of any formal diplomatic practices during the middle ages. B. Renaissance diplomacy: Modern diplomacy had its origins during the Italian renaissance. Early in the 15th century a group of city states developed in Italy, but none could dominate the rest and all feared conquest by the others. The rulers of most of the city states gained their positions through force and cunning. Because they could not count on the loyalty of their subjects, these rulers hoped to maintain allegiance by seeking foreign conquest and treasure. They sought opportunities to increase their power and expand their domain and were always concerned about the balance of power on the Italian peninsula. Although renaissance diplomacy was especially vicious and amoral the Italian city states developed a number of institutions and practices that still exist: 1. They introduced a system of permanent ambassadors who represented the interests of their stated by observing, reporting and negotiating. 2. Each state created a foreign office that evaluated the written reports of the ambassadors, sent instructions helped to formulate policies, and kept vast records.
71 3. Together they developed an elaborate system of protocol, privileges and immunities for diplomats. Ambassadors and their staffs were granted freedom of access, transit and exit at all times. Local laws could not be used to impede an ambassador in carrying out duties, but ambassadors could be held accountable if they actually committed crimes such as theft or murder. 4. The concept of extraterritoriality was established. Under this principle an embassy in any state stood on the soil of its own homeland and anyone or any thing with in the embassy compound was subject only to the laws of its own country. C. diplomacy in the European state system: The rise of nation states in 17th century Europe led to the development of the concepts of national interest and the balance of power. The former concept meant that the diplomatic objectives of nations should be based on state interests and not on personal ambition, rivalries, sentiment, religious doctrine or prejudice. For example gaining access to raw materials was in the national interest. The balance of power theory was based on a general interest in maintaining the state system by seeking an equilibrium power among the most powerful nations. That diplomacy could be used to pursue both sets of interests was soon apparent. Increasingly the presence of the major powers became a staple in international politics. Although small countries might disappear as Poland did when it was partitioned in the 18the century the great powers sought to manage their relations without threatening one another’s survival. At the same time European diplomats were becoming increasingly professional and learned. The seamier side diplomacy the bribing, lying and deceiving was gradually replaced by a code of expected and acceptable conduct. The European system of diplomacy suffered its first shock when napoleon attempted to conquer Europe in the early 19th century. After napoleon’s defeat the European system was restored and no major wars occurred for the next hundred years. D. the new diplomacy: in 1914 the countries of Europe were thrust into another violent confrontation. The carnage of World War I brought the European system of diplomacy into disrepute. US president Woodrow Wilson was the chief critic of the European diplomatic system and the proponent of a new type of open diplomacy and collective security. Wilson’s primary targets were the theory and practice of the balance of power, the distinction between great and small powers, the pursuit of national interests, secret agreements and treaties and professional diplomats. In place of the old system Wilson offered a “new diplomacy” in his fourteen points. Open covenants would be drafted in international conferences with great
72 and small countries participating on an equal basis. Peace would be maintained by making national boundaries coincide with ethnic boundaries. All members of the international community would pledge to fight for these boundaries against any nation that used force to change them. Countries would pursue community interests instead of national interests and submit their disputes with each other to international arbitration for peaceful resolution. Many of Wilson’s ideas were incorporated in to the 1919 treaty of Versailles (see treat of Versailles) and the League of Nations. After the United States rejected the league and returned to a policy of isolationism, however, the European stated reverted to the balance of power system and the pursuit of national interests through professional diplomats. During world war II, the US president Franklin D. Roosevelt again sought to establish a new type of diplomacy, but he and the British prime minister Winston Churchill built the postwar international order on the basis of agreements with the soviet leader Joseph Stalin that conformed more to the old European system than to the new ideas embodied in the Atlantic charter and the united nations. Although the United Nations remains a symbol of what a new diplomatic system might be international politics since the end of World War II has adhered closely to the European model and has in part returned to some of the worst aspects of renaissance diplomacy. Diplomatic machinery: The conduct of relations with other countries has three requirements: 1. An establishment in the home country to formulate policy and instruct personnel sent. 2. An establishment abroad from which contact are made in the foreign country. 3. And personnel to make the system work. Over the centuries these three requisites for diplomacy became increasingly professional and bureaucratic. By the 17th and 18th centuries domestic foreign affairs establishments were fairly well developed. In the 19th century corps of diplomats increasingly were chosen by competitive examinations. Although ambassadors were often selected on a political basis they found highy professional staffs waiting for them at their embassies abroad and they dealt with other skilled staffs when they reported to their home offices. A. departments of foreign affairs: Government agencies that deal with foreign affairs are usually called the ministry or department of foreign or external affairs. In the US foreign affairs if handled by the department of state. Such department is headed by the foreign secretary (or in the US by the secretary of state). In democracies the foreign secretary is always a
73 political appointee who is selected by the nation’s leaders. Drawing on the expertise with the department and its establishments abroad, the secretary advises the head of state on matters of foreign policy helps formulate and coordinate policy and administers the agency over which he or she presides. At times the foreign secretary is also directly involved in negotiations with other nations. A small number of politically appointed undersecretaries and assistant secretaries aid in running the department. Departments of foreign affairs usually are divided into geographic and functional divisions. The former consists of bureaus for major geographic areas that are then broken down into smaller division and ultimately into country desks. Desks officers are career diplomats who specialize in various aspects of the country to which they are assigned. Instructions to and reports from embassies abroad are handled first by the country desks. The functional division deals with problems or issues that do no appropriately fall under the domain of any one country: trade, international organization, human rights, intelligence, public information, international law and passports and visas. Coordination of policy between geographic and functional divisions is a continually perplexing problem. Departments of foreign affairs also have an administrative section that is in charge of running the agency. This section deals with internal matters such as budget allocations, personnel recruitment and management, training and logistics. In an age of interdependence and total diplomacy foreign affairs departments must coordinate their activities with the foreign activities of other government agencies. Treasury departments for example increasingly involved in negotiations over trade and money. Agricultural departments are concerned with foreign trade and world food problems. Defense establishments are involved in supporting foreign governments abroad and training their armed forces. Intelligence agencies provide head of state with alternate sources of information about other countries. In some cases a foreign minister has trouble merely keeping informed of all the activities the nation is engaged in abroad. B. foreign missions: The embassy abroad or foreign mission is headed by an ambassador assisted by a career diplomat who serves as deputy or first secretary. The deputy secretary oversees and subordinates the work of the staff and assumes the responsibilities of the mission as charge d’affaires when ever the ambassador is away or incapacitated or is between ambassadorial assignments. A mission is organized in to a series of functional sections that observe report and deal with issues in their respective areas. Mist missions contain section for political affairs, economic and commercial affairs, information and culture affairs, consular affairs and administrative matters. In addition a mission usually includes a number of attaches from other government departments. Military, air and naval
74 attaches have traditionally been assigned to forting missions but agricultural commercial labor and cultural attaches are becoming increasingly common. Missions are staffed largely b Foreign Service officers with the exception of the attaches who are drawn from their respective agencies back home. The secretaries and clerical staff come from a separate civil service corps. Citizens of the host country may be hired as translators or for non sensitive jobs. The activities of a diplomatic mission are extremely varied. They range from such serious tasks as negotiating issues of great political significance and reporting and commenting on important events in the foreign country to meeting with foreign students, arranging itineraries of exhibits about life in the home country and issuing visas. In addition to their diplomatic and political chores missions are also in charge of the consular work of the home government. Consular operations are concerned with the economic and commercial relations between the nations; originally diplomatic and consular chores were kept strictly separate because early theorists felt that national matters. Thus two separate services diplomatic and combined these two services and a single corps of professional civil servants serves in both areas. Consular work involves a variety of activities. Consuls issue birth, death and marriage certificates to citizens residing or traveling in the foreign country. Consular officers also regulate shipping, aid their country’s citizens when they travel on business or as tourists, and report on economic and business conditions abroad. Activities are often carried out in consulates located in major trading and commercial cities as well as in the capital city. C. the foreign service: Today most nations staff their foreign services with career civil servants who are selected on the basis of competitive examinations. Until recent times however Foreign Service personnel were political appointees often from noble or wealthy families who could afford the considerable expense that a life of diplomatic activity entailed. In the 1850s Britain and France instituted competitive examinations for posts in the diplomatic corps but low salaries restricted the number of persons who could afford to enter the service. In Britain all candidates had to guarantee a personal income of ₤ 400 for at least the first two years. The examinations employed by the European powers were extremely difficult requiring fluency in at least two foreign languages. Since World War II salaries and allowances have been increased so that persons of all means may enter the diplomatic service. The spoils system dominated the US Foreign Service until 1924, when the Rogers act combined the consular and diplomatic service, established difficult completive examinations for entry into the Foreign Service and instituted a system of promotion on merit. Each year approximately 25,000 people take the Foreign
75 Service examination about 250, 1percent pass it and are accepted in the service. About 10,000 persons are in the Foreign Service some 2000 work in the US and 8000 serve in foreign countries or international organizations. Although career officers dominate the diplomatic corps, there is usually room for some non career personnel. In the united stated for example highly skilled specialists may be recruited as Foreign Service reserve officers, although their tenure may be limited to five or ten years. Many nations appoint distinguished citizens who are not career officers to serve as ambassadors. American administrations have long used ambassadorships in leading countries as political rewards. Usually however ambassadors are distinguished men and women from business, law, politics or academic life. Career officers predominate numerically; in the US about two thirds of all ambassadors are career diplomats. Diplomatic conventions: The modes and conventions of diplomacy are highly stylized and formal. Language always tends toward understatement and emotion charged words are taboo. The etiquette and manners of diplomatic meetings are carefully prescribed. The privileges and immunities of diplomats are found in conventions and treaties that have evolved over a long period. Whenever etiquette is breached a diplomatic rebuff occurs. Although this formality and ceremony has an air of make believe it server a practical purpose: it allows diplomats to deal with issues of war and peace in a calm and unemotional manner. In the tense hours of crisis, a cool head tact and good humor are necessary. A. protocol: Detailed and universally accepted conventions exist concerning most of the formal ways in which countries interact. In the early days of the nation state system the departure of an ambassador was a ceremonial event as was the ambassador’s reception by a head of state. Because ambassadors personally represent the heads of their governments the relations among ambassadors with in a country have always involved issues of prestige. Thus such details as where an ambassador rode in a procession or which ambassador entered a room first assumed great significance. Such issues plagued European courts until they were resolved at the congress of Vienna in 1815 and the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818 and more recently at the Vienna meetings to draft a convention on diplomatic relations in 1961. as a result of these meetings diplomats were divided into three classes: 1. Ambassadors, legates and papal nuncios who are always accredited to heads of state. 2. envoys, ministers and other persons accredited to heads of the state and 3. Charges d affairs who are accredited to ministers of foreign affairs.
76 Only members of the first class represent their nation’s leader. Precedence among representatives in a capital is now based on seniority with in its diplomatic corps. The most senior member of that corps is designated the doyen or dean. The doyen usually represents the entire diplomatic corps at ceremonial functions and in matters of diplomatic privileges and immunities. The most concise digest of the protocol of the diplomacy is the Vienna convention on diplomatic relations, consisting of 53 short articles completed under UN auspices. B. privileges and immunities: From the earliest times, privileges, and courtesies were extended to visiting heralds and envoys. Currently the privileges and immunities of diplomats are highly developed and universally accepted. For centuries the territory on which a foreign mission stood was considered an island of sovereignty of the home state. Under the Vienna convention of 1961 this is no longer the case. The premises of missions are inviolable, however and host states must accord full facilities to enable diplomatic missions to perform their functions. Citizens of the host state may not enter a mission without the consent of its senior official. Missions are immune from search, requisition and attachment and nations have a special duty to protect any mission against intrusion or damage. This long accepted principle was violated in Iran in November 1979, when a group of Iranians invaded the US embassy and held some 50 staff members hostage for 14 months. Free communication between the mission and the host government must be permitted. Diplomatic couriers may not be detained and diplomatic bags may not be opened or detained. Host government must also secure these rights against their own citizens if necessary. Diplomatic agents and their staffs are not liable to any form of arrest or detention; diplomats are immune from criminal laws and in most cases from civil and administrative jurisdictions well. They are exempt from all direct taxes in the host state. Immunity from the laws of a host state does not exempt diplomats from the laws and jurisdiction of their home states, however. Those who commit crimes are almost always sent home as personae-non-gratae. Diplomats enjoying their privileges and immunities are duty bound to respect the laws and regulations of the host state and to refrain from interfering in its internal affairs. In the event of war the host state must grant facilities to enable diplomats from belligerent nations to leave the country. If diplomatic relations broken off with another nation the host state must still respect and protect the mission premises. When relations are broken of the countries in question usually entrust the custody of their missions and interest to some third party acceptable to both. C. language of diplomacy:
77 Until the 17th century Latin was the language of diplomacy because it was the universal language of all educated Europeans. From the 17th century on however, French increasingly became the language of diplomacy because of the preeminence of France in Europe the precision of the language and its use as the country language throughout Europe. The US entry into World War I marked the rise of English as a second language of diplomacy. During the interwar period the records of the League of Nations were kept in English and French. After World War II the framers of the UN sought to create a five language system. Simultaneous translations of French, English, Russian, Spanish and Chinese take place at all meetings. Most UN documents however are published only in French, English and Spanish. When treaties or conventions are drafted the parties designate one language usually French or English as the basis for any discussions about meanings or interpretations. D. diplomatic negotiations: Although negotiations have traditionally been left to professional diplomats, very important negotiations are increasingly being undertaken by specially selected envoys or foreign ministers and by heads of state. Recent examples of this trend were the shuttle diplomacy of the US secretary of state Henry Kissinger in the Middle East and president jimmy carter’s personal involvement in negotiating a peace treaty between the Egyptian president Anwar-al-Sadat and the Israeli Prime Minister Menachem begin. Resident diplomats however still do almost all the day to day negotiating and interacting with leaders of others states. The problem of deciding with practices and tactics are most effective in negotiating is difficult. The German-American political scientist Hans. J Morgenthau is his book politics among nations (1948) perhaps best summed up ideal of modern diplomacy: 1. Diplomacy must be divested of its crusading spirit. 2. The objectives of foreign policy must be defined in terms of the national interest and must supported with adequate power. 3. Diplomacy must look at the situation from the point of view of other nation. 4. Nations must be willing to compromise on all issues that are not vital to them. 5. The armed forces are the instrument of foreign policy not its master. 6. The government is the leader of public opinion not its slave. Diplomacy and espionage: Diplomacy is closely linked to espionage or gathering of intelligence. Embassies are bases for both diplomats and spies and some diplomats are essentially openly acknowledged spies. For instance the job of military attaches includes learning as
78 much as possible about the military of the nation to which they are assigned. They do not try to hide this role and as such are only invited to events allowed by their hosts such as military parades or air shows. There are also deep cover spies operating in many embassies. These individuals are given fake positions at the embassy but their main task is to illegally gather intelligence usually by coordinating spy rings of locals or other spies. For the most part spies operating out of embassies gather little intelligence themselves and their identities tend to be known by the opposition. If discovered these diplomats can be expelled from an embassy but for the most part counter intelligence agencies prefer to keep these agents in situ and under close monitoring. The information gathered b spies plays an increasingly important role in diplomacy. Arms control treaties would be impossible without the power of reconnaissance satellites and agents to monitor compliance. Information gleaned from espionage is useful in almost all forms of diplomacy everything from trade agreements to border disputes. Diplomatic resolutions of problems: Various processes and procedures have evolved over time for handling diplomatic issues and disputes. A. arbitration and mediations: Nations sometimes resort to international arbitration when faced with a specific questions or point of contention in need of resolution. For most of history there were no official or formal procedures for such proceedings. They were generally accepted to abide by general principles and protocols related to international law and justice. Some times these took the form of formal arbitration and mediation. In such cases a commission of diplomats might be convened to hear all sides of an issue and to come some sort of ruling based on international law. In the modern era much of this work is often carried out by the international court of justice at The Hague or other formal commissions’ agencies and tribunals working under the United Nations. Below are some examples. B. conferences: other times resolutions were sought through the convening of international conferences. In such cases there are fewer ground rules, and fewer formal applications of international law. However participants are expected to guide themselves through principles of international fairness, logic and protocol. Some examples of these formal conferences are: A. Congress of Vienna (1815) after napoleon was defeated there were many diplomatic questions waiting to be resolved. This included the shape of the map of Europe, the disposition of political and nationalist claims of various ethnic groups and nationalities
79 wishing to have some political autonomy and the resolution of various claims by various European powers. B. The congress of Berlin (June 13-july 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European great powers and the Ottoman Empire’s leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. in the wake of the Russo Turkish war 1877-78 the meeting’s aim was to reorganize conditions in the Balkans. C. Sometimes nations convene official negotiation processes to settle an issue or dispute between several nations which are parties to a dispute. These are similar to the conferences mentioned above as there are technically no established rules or procedures. However there are general principles and precedents which help define a course for such proceedings. Some examples are. A. Camp David accord convened in 1978 by president jimmy carter of the United States at Camp David to reach an agreement between Prime Minister Mecheem begin of Israel and president Anwar Sadat of Egypt. After weeks of negotiation agreement was reached and accords were signed later leading directly to the Israel Egypt peace treaty of 1979. B. Treaty of Portsmouth enacted after President Theodore Roosevelt brought together the delegates from Russia and Japan to settle the Russo Japanese war. Informal diplomacy: Informal diplomacy (sometimes called track II diplomacy) has been used for centuries to communicate between powers. Most diplomats work to recruit figures in other nations who might be able to give informal access to a country’s leadership. In some situations such as between the United States and the people’s republic of china a large amount of diplomacy is done through semi formal channels using interlocutors such as academic members of think tanks. This occurs in situations where governments wish to express intentions or to suggest methods of resolving a diplomatic situation but do not wish to express a formal position. Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy in which non official (academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, social activists) engage in dialogue with the aim of conflict resolution or confidence building. Some times governments may fund such track II exchanges. Sometimes the exchanges may have no connection at all with governments or may even act in defiance of governments; such exchanges are called track III. Para Diplomacy:
80 Para diplomacy refers to the international relations conducted by sub national, regional, local or non central governments. The most ordinary case of Para diplomatic relation refers to cooperation between bordering political entities. However interest of federal states, provinces regions etc., may extend over to different regions or to issues gathering local governments world wide. Some non central governments may be allowed to negotiate and enter into agreement with forting central states. Cultural diplomacy: Cultural diplomacy is a part of diplomacy. It alludes to governmental and non professional actors in the making of diplomacy. In the frame of globalization, culture plays a major role in the definition of identity and in the relation between people. Joseph Nye points out the importance of having a soft power besides a hard power. When classical diplomacy fails a better knowledge can help bridging the gap between different cultures. Cultural diplomacy becomes a subject of academic studies based on historical essays on the United States, Europe and the cold war. Chapter: 9 International law: nature, origin and development International law: International law is basically principles rules and standards that govern nations and other participants in international affairs in their relations with one another. International affairs in their relations with one another. International law is the law of the international community. Mostly international law consists of long standing customs, provisions agreed to in treaties and generally accepted principles of law recognized by nations. Some international law is also created by the rulings of international courts and organizations. The purpose of international law: The purposes of international law include resolution of problems of a regional or global scope such as environmental pollution or global warming. Regulations of areas outside the control of any one nation such as outer space or the high seas and adaptation of common rules for multinational activities such as air transport or postal international relations when possible and resolve international tensions peacefully when they develop to prevent needless suffering during wars and to improve the human condition during peacetime. Enforcement of international law: Enforcement of international law is often difficult because nations are sovereign independent powers that may put their own interests ahead of those of the international community. In addition the mechanisms of enforcement are young
81 and not well developed. Enforcement may be effectively achieved however through the actions of individual nation’s agencies or international organizations such as the United Nations UN and international courts. The United Nations security council can authorize economic sanctions restore international peace and security. International law began as a system governing the relations among sovereign states and states have always been the primary legal entities affected by international law. As the global system has become more complex however international law has come to recognize and regulate international organization, business, non profit entities and individuals. The emergence of international human rights law and more recently international criminal law reflects the fact that individuals today are direct subjects of international law in certain respects. Origin of international law: The need for rules of conduct between independent political entities developed along with the government in ancient times. Early civilizations established rules governing the conduct of hostilities the making and observance of treaties and the treatment of foreign traders’ travelers and diplomats. These rules were often based on ritual and custom. The oldest known treaty preserved in an inscription on a stone monument is a peace treaty between two city states of summer dating from about 2500 BC. The empires of the ancient Middle East concluded a concerning topics still debated today such as the extradition of fugitives and the creation of military alliances. Later civilization further developed tenets of international law. Jewish law as set forth in the Old Testament in the book of Deuteronomy contains prescriptions for the mitigation of warfare notable prohibition against the killing of women and children. The Greek city states had an elaborate treaty system governing many aspects of their mutual relations. In Asia the political units of ancient India and china during certain periods also developed and applied international law. Beginning with the era of the roman republic (509 to 27 BC) the Romans made significant contributions to the evolution of international law. They developed the idea of a Jus-Gentium a body of laws designed to govern the treatment of aliens non citizens subject to roman rule and the relations between roman citizens and aliens. They recognized in principle the duty of a nation to refrain from engaging in warfare without a just cause and originated the idea of a just war. Modern international law began to develop with the rise of national states in Europe after the 15th century when the basic ideas of national territory and jurisdictions were established. In 1625 building on the work of previous legal writers the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius published his celebrated treatise de jure Belli ac Pacis on the law of war and peace. Grotius argued that existing customs
82 governing the relation between nations had the force of law and were binding unless contrary to natural justice or the law of nature natural law an immutable higher law governing all human conduct. Grotius’s influence on international affairs and t he settlement of wars was great and he is sometimes called the father of modern international system as established by the peace of Westphalia (1648) a treaty that ended the thirty years war. Other scholars and statesmen further described and developed the basic rules of international law; among them the dutch jurist cornelis van Bynkershoek and the swiss diplomat emmerich de vattel. Vattel’s book, le droit des gens (1758 law of nations) greatly influrnced the framers of the constitutiohn of the united stats with its ideas of natural law governing the behavior of states. Over time scholars gave increasing emphasis to the ideas of state sovereignty so that by the end of the 19 th century the theorietical foundation of international law had shifted from natural law to a strictly consensual approach known as natural law to a strictly consensual approach known as positivism. Positivism claims that each nation is bound only by the international rules that it freely accepts to limit its otherwise unlimited freedom of action. The clash between positivists and adherents of natural law continues today. Conflicts is mos proounced over the issue of whether there are fundamental higher norms of international law a principle called jus cogens that sovereign states are obliged to respect. Modern international law: Modern international law stems from three main sources: treaties, customs and the generally accepted principles of law derived from national legal systems throughout the world. International organization plays an important role in the formation of international law. A. treaties: Treaties are written agreements between two or more sovereign states. International organization may also be given the capacity to make treaties either with sovereign states or other international organizations. Treaties may be known by other names for example: agreements, convention, protocol, pact and covenant but the name chosen generally does not affect the legal status of the agreement. As long as the parties intend the text to be binding it is a treaty. Treaties may incorporate rules of custom or develop new law. The present system of international law remains largely consensual and centered on the sovereign state. It is with in the discretion of each state to participate in the negotiation of or to sign or ratify any international treaty. Like wise each member
83 state of an international organization such as the UN is free to ratify any convention adopted by that organization. Treaty law thus is created by the express will of states. Treaties and conventions were until 20th century usually bilateral between two nations but some multilateral treaties resulted from international conferences held in the 19th century before permanent international organizations were created. Such conferences played an important part in the development of the international legal system. Noteworthy examples include the congress of Vienna which through its final act of 1815 reorganized Europe after the defeat of napoleon and also contributed to the body of international law. It established rules for diplomatic procedure and the treatment of diplomatic envoys. On the urging of Britain it also included a general condemnation of the slave trade. The conference of Paris 1856 was convened to terminate the Crimean war. It also adopted the declaration of maritime law that abolished privateering the use of private ships during war and the letters of marquee licenses given to private citizen to arm ships and attack enemy merchants modernized the rights of neutrals during maritime war and required blockades to be effective. The declaration of Paris also initiated the practice of allowing nations other than the original signatories to accede become a party to an agreement. In 1864 a conference convened in Geneva Switzerland at the invitation of the Swiss government. The conference approved a convention for the proper treatment of wounded soldiers on the battlefield and the protection of medical personnel; many nations subsequently accede to this convention the first Geneva Convention. The peace conferences held in 1899 and 1907 in The Hague the Netherlands resulted in a number of conventions designed to avoid or mitigate the rigors of war. The 1899 conference adopted a convention for the pacific settlement of international disputes which created the permanent court of arbitration in The Hague to settle disputes between nations. B. customary law: Customary international law is unwritten and derives from the actual practices of nations over time. To be accepted as the actual practices of nation over time. To be accepted as law the custom must be long standing. Widespread and practiced in a uniform and consistent way among nations. One example of customary international law is a nation’s right to use the high seas for fishing, navigation, over flight, and submarines. Treaties represent another source of customary law. Although treaties generally bind only those countries that ratify them customs may be deduced from the rules
84 and statements contained in treaties. These new customs may be considered binding even on those states that did not sign and ratify the original treaty. Whether or not they are embodied in a written treaty, customs become part of international law because of continued acceptance by the great majority of nations. Some customary international law has been codified in recent years. For example the Vienna convention on the law of treaties which was approved in 1969 and took effect on 1980 codified the customary law that treaties between sovereign states are binding on their signatories and must be followed in good faith. C. general principles: The phrase general principles of law appeared in the statute of the permanent court of international justice established in 1921 three years after the end of world war I (1914-1918). The court was directed to decide disputes broughy before it on the basis of existing treaty law and customary international law. Some of the iplomats and lawyers drafting the statute of the court feared however the disputes might arise over new international issues for which there would be no settled custom or applicable treaty. They decided and the nations voting for the statute agreed to add a third source of law “ general principles of law recognized by civilized nations.” To allow the court to draw upon widely recognized legal principles in national law. In this way the court would not have to refuse to settle a dispute because of the absence of international law. General principles that have been applied by the court and its successor the united nations international court of justice include the clean hands doctrine it is improper to accuse someone of misconduct that the accuser has also engages in the principle that individuals should not be a judge in their own dispute and the principle of res judicata a case that is decided can not be tried again. D. international courts and organizations: Judicial decisions rendered by international courts are important elements in identifying and confirming international legal rules. The most important international courts are the UN international court of justice which mainly handles legal disputes between nations and the international criminal court which prosecutes individuals for genocide war crimes and other serious crimes of international concern. Resolutions and decisions of the UN and other international organizations now also have a great impact on the views and practices of sovereign states, sometimes leading to rapid formation of customary international law. States have given a very few international organizations such as the
85 European Union and the UN Security Council the power to enacts directly binding measures. The first international organizations emerged in the 19th century. Technological advances such as the telegraph and the telephone, together with a rise in international trade created a need for permanent international institutions to regulate problems that exceeded national boundaries. The earliest organizations of this type were specialized bodies such as the international telegraphic union (1865) and the universal postal union (1874). After world war I, European countries created the league of nations an organization with a general mandate to maintain peace and prevent ear. The league’s covenant was part of the treaty of Versailles signed in 1919 to officially end the war. Pursuant to provisions in the covenant the permanent court of justice was established in 1921 as the world’s first international court. Its role was to decide international disputes that were voluntarily submitted to the court by the nations involved, and to issue advisory opinions s on disputes referred to it by the league. Although the court helped to develop international law its judges were hampered by the lack of universal agreement on many aspects of international law. The onset of World War II in 1939 proved the league of nation ineffective in preventing hostilities. Equally unsuccessful was the pact of Paris also called the Kellogg Briand pact, a multilateral treaty renouncing the use of war that had been signed in 1928 and ultimately ratified by more than 60 nations including Germany and Japan. After World War II ended in 1945 the United Nations replaced the League of Nations and the international court of justice succeeded the permanent court of international justice. The United Nations charter created elaborate machinery for maintaining peace and security and for solving disputes among nations. It also specifically directed the general assembly to encourage the progressive development and codification of international law. To carry out this task the general assembly created two subsidiary organs: the international law commission (1947) and the commission on international trade law (1966). Over the years the international law commission has prepared drafts of treaties codifying and modernizing a number of important topics of international law, including the law of the sea diplomatic relations consular relations law of treaties between nations, succession of states in respect to treaties, law of treaties between nations and international organizations immunity of states from the jurisdiction of other states and the law of international fresh waters. The commission on international trade law drafts texts on laws concerning international commerce and economic development. Upon
86 acceptance by the general assembly drafts from the commissions usually are submitted to international conferences called by the UN for adoption of the respective conventions. In some instances the UN has organized conferences to discuss major international issues or to negotiate treaties without prior proposal by the international law commission the most important example was the third UN conference on the law of the sea, which terminated its work in 1982. The conference adopted a convention which came into force in 1994 governing all aspects of the peaceful use of the oceans including territorial boundaries navigational rights and economic jurisdiction see freedom of the seas. Another example is the 1992 UN conference of environment and development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and informally known as the earth summit. The conference produced two major treaties the convention on biological diversity which seeks to preserve the world’s biological diversity and promote the sustainable use of its components and the frame work convention on climate change which seeks to limit industrial emission of gases leading to global warming. Sometimes the UN convenes major conferences to assess progress and problems concerning a specific topic without adopting a new agreement. Such conferences have been held on human rights and on the status of women world wide. A landmark in the development of international law occurred in 1998 at a UN diplomatic conference in Rome, Italy when 120 centuries adopted a treaty to establish the world’s first permanent international criminal court. Officially established in 2002, the international criminal court ICC operates independently of the United Nations and has the power to initiate investigations and prosecutions of war criminals including those accused of genocide crimes against humanity and other serious crimes. Unlike previous war crimes tribunals such as those created in response to atrocities in former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda the ICC’s jurisdiction is not limited to specific conflicts. International & national law: Every nation is expected to obey international law. Some nations make international law automatically part of the law of their land. The US constitution designates ratified treaties along with the constitution itself and federal statutes the supreme law of the land (article VI) and empowers congress to define and punish offences against the law of nations (article I section 8). Customary international law is automatically incorporated in to the IS legal system as federal common or unwritten law.
87 In cases involving international law US state and federal courts presume that US law conforms to international law; such an attitude has been urged consistently by the supreme court of the United States. In some countries such as the United Kingdom treaties do not become effective in national law until they are enacted by parliament. In other countries a treaty or customary international law is given constitutional status superior to national legislation. How a sovereign state adopts and applies international law is generally left to its discretion so long as it conforms to the law in the end. Whatever the constitution or legal system of a nation it cannot use its domestic law as an excuse to breach an international agreement or violate an international rule. This was made clear during the war crimes trials held in Nurnberg, Germany, following World War II. The Nurnburg tribunals rejected the defense that certain acts such as the killing of prisoners of war were permitted under the domestic laws of Nazi Germany. The tribunals held that such laws were null and void because they contravened the generally valid rules of warfare. It also held that the individuals responsible for issuing and executing such laws were criminally responsible for grave breaches of international law. Today international human rights courts often declare national laws incompatible with international rules and may award compensation to those whose rights have been violated. Scope of international law: The scope of international law is vast. Nearly every matter of legal regulation with in a nation has some international counterpart. Over the last century advances in communications, technology, growth in global trade and travel and the advent of weapons of mass destruction have led to an enormous expansion in the range of topics regulated by international law. In addition to the classic matters of diplomacy war and peace trade and territorial boundaries international law now covers matters as diverse as environmental protection human rights nuclear testing war crimes outer space child custody recognition of wills and testaments exchange of prisoners and protection of archeological sites and arts treasures. This section discusses several major areas of international law, including peace and security human rights the environment and the global commons. A. peace and security: Among the central aims of the UN are the maintenance of peace and security and the suppression of acts of aggression. The principles of UN charter prohibit the use of force to settle disputes and bar intervention by a nation into the domestic affairs of another nation. The charter also expressly includes among its objectives
88 the maintenance of respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law. International law provides methods for the settlement of disputes by means other than war. The UN charter directs disputants to engage in negotiation, conciliation, arbitration or recourse to the international court of justice. When conflicts do arise the UN Security Council may determine that there exists a threat to the peace or a breach of the peace or that an act of aggression has been committed. The Security Council may vote to deploy UN peacekeeping forces military personnel and civilians volunteered by UN member governments to help implement peace agreements monitor ceasefires provide emergency relief and perform other functions essential to maintain peace. Over time the decisions of the Security Council have created a body of law and policy on issues of peace and security including the development of international criminal law to hold individuals accountable for the most serious illegal acts of violence. B. human rights: since world war II the international community has become increasingly concerned with the protection of human rights. Although concern for human rights is expressed in the UN charter, the development of specific norms related to human rights began in 1948 with the passage of two nonbinding declaration: the American declaration of the rights and duties of man approved the organization of American states and the universal declaration of human rights approved by the UN. The universal declaration of human rights described a variety of person’ to freedom from slavery to freedom of conscience religion opinion expression association and assemble to freedom from arbitrary arrest to a fair and impartial trial: to privacy and to education. This document remains the cornerstone of international human rights law and has been the basis of bills of rights in nearly 100 countries. Other important international treaties related to human rights include the convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide (1948); the international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination (1965); the UN covenant on civil and political rights (1966) and its companion the covenant on economic social and cultural rights (1966); the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (1979); the convention against torture and other cruel inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (1984) and the convention on the rights of child (1989). These treaties have been widely ratified the convention on the rights of the child for example has been accepted by every country in the world except the united states and Somalia. The treaties have been supplemented by three regional human rights agreements the
89 European convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms (1950); the American convention on human rights (1969), and the African charter on human and peoples rights. The regional agreements and many of the UN treaties allow individuals to bring petitions to regional or global human rights organizations for protection against acts by their governments that violate their rights. C. the environment: in the late 1960s concern either the state of the world’s environment emerged as an international issue. This occurred largely in response to several disastrous spills by oil tankers that brought attention to high pollution levels and the threats they pose to human health and biological diversity. The UN convened its first environmental conference in 1972 in Stockholm, Sweden from which emerged the declaration contains several legal principles that have become the foundation for a vast network of international agreements. The most importantly principle directs that each state has the sovereign rights to use its natural resource s but also has the corresponding duty to ensure that its activities do not cause harm outside its boundaries. Other principles link environmental protection with human rights and emphasize the duty of each person to safeguard the environment. Many modern environmental agreements regulate specific areas (the Baltic Sea, Antarctica), specific species whales migratory birds or specific hazards nuclear energy toxic wastes. In each case the legal obligation that emerges is to protect and preserve components of the environment of foster sustainable development. D. the global commons: Large areas of the globe and beyond do not and legally can not belong to any nation most of the oceans and their resources Antarctica earth’s atmosphere outer space and the moon and other natural objects in space. These areas are known collectively as the global commons. The absence of political sovereignty for these areas means that international regulation is required to avoid conflict over them and to protect them from overuse, pollution and other harm. International agreements for these areas are generally accepted as providing the legal frame work for all those who conduct activities in them. See aviation law; maritime law; freedom of the seas. E. other issues: International law has no fixed content. New threats that can not be addressed or resolved by a single nation constantly call for new international responses. For
90 example recent international agreements aim to combat terrorism the distribution of illicit drugs across national boundaries and the spread of infectious disease. The developments of new technologies such as the internet can also lead to the creation to new international legal frameworks. Chapter: 10 Economic aspects of international relations: Political economy: Political economy is the branch of social science that studies the relationships between individuals and society and between markets and the state, using a diverse set of tools and methods drawn largely from economics, political secience and sociology. The term political economy is derived from the greek polis meaning city or state and oikonomos meaning one who manages a household or estate. Political economy thus can be understood as the study of how a country the public’s household is managed or governed taking into account both political and economic factors. Economics and political economy: The relationship between political economy and the contemporary discipline of economics is particularly interesting is part because both disciplines claim to be the descendants of the ideas of smith Hume and john Stuart mill. Whereas political economy which was rooted in moral philosophy was from the beginning very much a normative field of study economics sought become objective and value free. Indeed under the influence of Marshall economists endeavored to make their discipline like the 17th century physics of sir Isaac Newton (16421727); formal precise and elegant and the foundation of a broader intellectual enterprise. With the publication in 1947 of foundations of economic analysis by Paul Samuel son, who brought complex mathematical tools to the study of economics the bifurcation of political economy and economics was complete. Mainstream political economy had evolved into economic science, leaving its broader concerns far behind. The distinction between economics and political economy can be illustrated by their differing treatments of issues related to international trade. The economic analysis of tariff policies for example focuses on the impact of tariffs on the efficient use of scare resources under a variety of competition several small suppliers monopoly one supplier monospony on buyer and oligopoly few suppliers. Different analytic frameworks examine the direct effects of tariffs as well as the effects on economic choices in related markets. Such a methodology is
91 generally mathematical and is based on the assumption that an actor’s economic behavior is rational and is aimed at maximizing benefits for himself although ostensibly a value free exercise such economic analysis often implicitly assumes that policies that maximize the benefits accruing to economic actors are also preferable from a social point of view. In contrast to the pure economic analysis of tariff policies, political economic analysis examines the social political and economic pressures an interest that affect tariff policies and how these pressures influence the political process, taking into account a range of social priorities international negotiating environments, development, strategies and philosophical perspectives. In particular political economic analysis might take into account how tariffs can be used as a strategy to influence the pattern of national economic growth neo colonialism or biases in the global system of international trade that may favour developed countries over developing ones neo Marxist analysis. Although political economy lacks a rigorous scientific method and an objective analytic framework its broad perspective affords a deeper understanding of the many aspects of tariff policy that are not purely economic in nature. International political economy: International political economy studies problems that arise from or are affected by the interaction of international from or are affected by the interaction of international politics, international economics and different social systems (e.g. capitalism and socialism) and societal groups (e.g. farmers at the local level different ethnic groups in a country immigrants in a region such as the European union and the poor who exist transnationally in all countries). It explores a set of related questions problematique that arise form issues such as international trade, international trade, international finance, relations between wealthier and poorer countries the role of multinational corporations and the problems of hegemony the dominance either physical or cultural of one country over part or all the world along with the consequences of economic globalization. International political economy has a major role in determining international relations. Analytic approaches to international political economy tend to vary with the problem being examined. Issues can be viewed from several different theoretical perspectives, including the mercantilist, liberal and structuralist (Marxist or neo Marxist) perspectives. Mercantilists are closely related to realists focusing on competing interests and capabilities of nation states in a competitive struggle to achieve power and security. Liberals are optimistic about the ability of humans and states to construct peaceful relations and world order. Economic liberals in particular would limit the role of the state in the economy in order to let
92 market forces decide political and social outcomes. Structuralist ideas are rooted din Marxist analysis and focus on how the dominant economic structures of society affect (i.e. exploit) class interests and relations. Each of these perspectives is often applied to problems at several different levels of analysis that point to complex root causes of conflict traced to human nature (the individual level), national interests (the national level) and the structure of the international system which lacks a single sovereign to prevent war. For example analysis of U.S policy regarding migrants from Mexico must take into consideration pattern of trade and investment between the two countries and the domestic interests on both sides of the border. Similarly domestic and international interests are linked by trade, finance, and other factors in the case of financial crises in developing countries such as Thailand and Argentina. The distinction between foreign and domestic becomes as uncertain as the distinction between economics and politics in a world where foreign economic crises affect domestic political and economic interests through trade and financial linkages or through changes in security arrangements or migrant flows. Contemporary international political economy appeared as a subfield of the study of international relations during the era of cold war rivalry between the soviet union and the on international security but later came to include economic security and the role of market actors including multinational corporations, international banks, cartels (e.g. OPEC) and international organizations (e.g. the IMF) in national and international security strategies. International political economy grew in importance as a result of various dramatic international economic events, such as the collapse of the Brettom woods international monetary system in 1971 and the oil crisis of 1973-74. During the early period of the cold war political scientists emphasized the realist or power politics dimension of US soviet relation, while economists tended to focus on the Bretton woods system of the international economy that is the institution and rules that beginning in 1945 governed much of the international economy. During the Vietnam War, however a growing decrease in the value of the US dollar and large deficits for the United States in its balance of trade and payments weakened the ability of the united stats to conduct and pay for the war, which thereby undermined its relationship to its north Atlantic treaty organization allies. During the OPEC oil crisis the realist oriented US secretary of state henry A Kissinger found himself unable to understand the issues without the assistance of an economist. These events led to a search for a multidisciplinary approach or outlook that borrowed different theories concepts and ideas from political science and international relations as well as from economics and sociology to explain a variety of complicated international problems and issues. It didi not so much
93 result in the development of a new school of political economy as emphasize the continued relevance of the older more intergrated type of analysis which explicitly sought to trace the connections between political and economic factors. Following the end of the cold war international political economy became focused on issues raised by economic globalization including the viability of the state in an increasingly globalized international economy the role of multinational corporations in generating conflict as well as growth in the new global econmomy and various problems related to equity justice and fairness (e.g. low wage rates in developing countries and the dependency of these countries on markets in wealthier countries). In the 1950s and 60s American economists development made popular the argument that after a period of tension disorder and even chaos with a developing country that had been exposed to the west the country world eventually take off and development would occur. In the late 196s and continuing into the 1990s many development experts from a structuralist point of view including many Marxists and neo Marxists posited a variety of explanations as to why many developing countries did not seem to develop or change much. For example the German born economist andre gunder frank made popular idea that when developing countries connect to the west, they become underdeveloped. Social theorist and economist Immanuel wallerstein whose works have made a ladting impact on the study of the historical development of the world capitalist system argued that development does occur but only for a small number of semiperipheral states and not for those peripheral states that reamin the providers of natural resources and raw materials to the developed industrial core states. Such themes were evident in the 1990s and the early 21st century when a number of politically and economically powerful and mostly western multinational corporations were accused of exploiting women and children in unsanitary and unsafe working conditions in their factories in developing countries. These cases and other like them were seen by some structuralists as evidence of a race to the bottom in which in order to attract investment by international businesses many developing countries relaxed or eliminated worker protection laws and environmental standards. Main characteristics of the economy of Pakistan: Islamic republic of Pakistan is a developing country. The characteristics of the economy of Pakistan are almost the same of the economy of any developing country. The main characteristics of the economy of Pakistan are as follows. 1. burden of international debt:
94 Most of the developing countries are dependent on foreign economic assistance to meet the short fall in domestic savings and for quickening the pace of economic development as the year pass the amount of foreign loans increase. The liability of debt servicing has increase manifold. In Pakistan debt service payments amount to 42 billion dollars in 2007 which is a heavy burden. 2. low per capita income: Major the people living in developing countries are poverty ridden. Poverty is reflected in low per capita income. People live in unsanitary conditions. Services like health, education, expand very slowly. In short mostly the people in LDCs less developed countries are ill fed, ill clothed, ill hosed and ill educated. People here are involved n misery go round. In Pakistan the per capita income at current market prices in rs.18320 in 1996-97,470 dollars. 3. agriculture the main occupation: The developing countries two third or even more of the people e live in rural areas. Their main occupation is agriculture which is in a backward stage. The average land holding and the yield per acre is low. The peasants mostly live at a subsistence level. As far as Pakistan is concerned agriculture contributes 25% of GDP. 4. dualistic economy: the economies of developing countries are characterized by dualism. Dualism refers to economic and social division in the economy. For instance, in the developing countries one is the market economy ad the other is the subsistence economy. Both the economies exist side by side. In and around the city there is a market economy which is well developed. Ultra modern facilities of life are available here. But in rural areas the economy is primitive backward and agricultural oriented similarly industrial sector uses capital intensive techniques and produces variety of capital goods. The rural sector produces commodities mainly with traditional techniques. The standard of living of the people living in market economy is high but that of their brothers living in subsistence sector is low. The dualistic nature of the economy is not conductive to healthy economic progress. 5. under utilization of natural resources: An important characteristic of the developing countries is that their natural resources either main un-utilized or under utilized or mis-utilized. Most of the countries are rich in resources but they remain unutilized or under utilized due to
95 lack capital, primitive techniques of production, limited size of the market and sluggish nature of the people. 6. high rates of population growth: Almost all the developing countries are having a high population growth rate and a declining death. The development made with low per capita incomes and low rates of capital formation here is swallowed up by increased population. As a result there is no or very slow improved in the living standards of the people. In Pakistan the rate of increase in populations estimated about 2.77% per annum. This high growth rate is offsetting all achievements of developments. 7. Unemployment and disguised unemployment: Another notable feature of developing countries is vast unemployment and disguised unemployment both in the rural and in the urban areas. The unemployment in increasing with the spread of education and urbanization. 8. low level of productivity: In developing countries people are economically backward. The main causes of backwardness are low labor efficiency, immobility of labor due to joint family system cultural and psychological factors leading to low level of productivity. 9. lack of enterprise and initiative: the less developed countries LDCs lack dynamic leadership. The enterprise and initiative of entrepreneurs is hampered due to multiple factors such as small size of the market lack of capital lack of infrastructural facilities, technological backwardness etc. 10. deficiency of capital: deficiency of capital is another common sign in all the developing countries of the word. The capital deficiency is mainly due to: 1. low per capita income. 2. low rate of saving. 3. low rate of investment. 4. inequalities of wealth. 5. adoption of consumption pattern of advanced countries. 6. higher level expenditure on consumption etc.
96 11. backward state of technology: All the developing countries are in the backward state of technology. The technological backwardness is due higher cost of production despite low money wages, deficiency of capital, predominance of unskilled and untrained workers, dualism and misallocation of resources etc. these are the major hurdles in the spread of techniques in the LDC’s. 12. low capital formation: the underdeveloped countries are capital poor economies. These countries are not only capital deficient but the current rate of capital formation is also vary low. The low level of capital formation is due to both the weakness of i. ii. inducement to invest and to low propensity and capacity to save.
13. dependence on export of primary products: The LDC’s are still relying on the 19th century pattern of external trade. They are mainly producing and exporting primary commodities to the developed countries and importing finished goods and machinery from them. 14. influence of feudal lords: in Pakistan like many other developing countries the poor are under the hard grip of feudal lords an d tribal heads. It is in the interest of the feudal lords that the poor should remain poor. 15. low self esteem and limited freedom: the under developed countries are mostly influenced from external influence and dominance. They have limited freedom of choice in trade technology education etc. the people in these countries have low esteem. They are used by others for their own ends.
Chapter: 11 The concept of war and peace in international relations: War: War, in international law is an armed conflict between two or more governments or states. When such conflicts assume global proportion they are known as world wars. War between different parts or factions of the same nation is called civil war. War is in the popular sense a conflict among political group involving hostilities of considerable duration and magnitude. In the usage of social science certain qualifications are added. Sociologists usually apply the term to such conflicts only if they are initiated and conducted in accordance with socially recognized forms. They treat war as an institution recognized in custom or in law. Military writers usually confine the term to hostilities in which the contending groups are sufficiently equal power to render the outcome uncertain for a time. Armed conflicts of powerful states with primaitve peoples are usually called pacifications military expeditions or explorations; with small states they are called interventions or reprisals; and with internal groups rebellions or insurrections. Such incidents if the resisitance is sufficiently strong or protracted may achieve a magnitude that entitles them to the name war. A rebellion is not legally considered a war to entitle the armed forces of the rebels to the rights and privileges of belligerents the government they serve must be organized so as to be in a position to meet duties resting on belligerents that is they must have the power to maintain law and order within the regions occupied by them and to carry on war on a large scale by land sea or air.
98 International hostilities sometimes continue for long periods of time without being acknowledged as wars. The Korean war was regarded by the US government as a police action. Conflicts or wars in which major powers purposely refrain from employing all their armed strength ore often known as limited wars. Short of peace, such limited wars are now recognized as a preferable alternative to the specter of nuclear war. International wars are generally terminated by treaty and civil wars by a peace proclamation. The usages customs and treaties of nations have formed a system of laws of war. In all ages war has been important topic of analysis. In the latter part of the 20 th century in aftermath of two world’s wars and in the shadow of nuclear biological and chemical holocaust more has been written on the subject than ever before. The various schools of theorists are generally aware of the profound influence they can exercise upon life and their writings usually include a strong normative element for when accepted by politicians their ideas can assume the characteristics of self fulfilling prophecies. The analysis of war may be divided into several categories. Philosophical, political, economic, technological, legal, sociological and psychological approaches are frequently distinguished. These distinctions indicate the varying focuses of indicate the varying focuses of interest and the different analytical categories employed by the theoretician but most of the actual theories are mixed because war is an extremely complex social phenomenon that cannot be explained by any single factor or through any single approach. Evolution of theories of war: Reflecting changes in the international system theories of war have passed through several phases in the course of the past three centuries. After the ending of the wars of religion about the middle of the 17th century wars were fought for the interests of individual sovereign and were limited both in their objectives and in their scope. The art of maneuver became decisive and analysis of war was couched accordingly in terms of strategies. The situation changed fundamentally with the outbreak of the French revolution, which increased the size of forces from small professional to large conscript armies and broadened the objectives of war to the ideals of the revolution ideals that appealed to the masses who were subject to conscription. In the relative order of post Napoleonic Europe the mainstream of theory returned to the idea of war as a rational limited instrument of national policy. This approach was best articulated by the Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz in his famous classic on war (1832-37).
99 World War I which was total in character because it resulted in the mobilization of entire population and economies for a prolonged period of time did not fir into the Clausewitzian pattern of limited conflict and it led to a renewal of other theories. These no longer regarded war as a rational instrument of state policy. The theorists held that war in its modern total form if still conceived as a national state instrument should be undertaken only if the most vital interests of the state touching upon its very survival are concerned. Otherwise warfare serves broad ideologies and not the more narrowly defined interests of a sovereign or a nation. Like the religious wars of the 17th century war becomes part of grand designs such as the rising of the proletariat in communist eschatology or the Nazi doctrine of a master race. Some theoreticians have gone even further denying war any rational character whatsoever. To them war is a calamity and a social disaster, whether it is afflicted by one nation upon another or conceived of as affliction humanity as a whole. The idea is not new in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars it was articulated for example by Tolstoy in the concluding chapter of war and peace (1865-69). In the second half of the 20th century it gained new currency in peace research a contemporary form of theorizing that combines analysis of the origins of warfare with a strong normative element aiming at its prevention. Peace research concentrates on two areas: the analysis of the international system and the empirical study of the phenomenon of war. World War II and the subsequent evolution of weapons of mass destruction made the task of understanding the nature of war even more urgent. On the one hand war has become an intractable social phenomenon the elimination of which seems to be an essential precondition for the survival of mankind. On the other hand the use of war as an instrument of policy in calculated in an unprecedented manner by the nuclear superpowers the United States and the Soviet Union. War also remains a stark but rational instrumentality in certain more limited conflicts such as those between Israel and the Arab nations. Thinking about war is consequently becoming increasingly more differentiated because it has to answer questions related to very different types of conflict. Clausewitz cogently defines war as a rational instrument of foreign policy an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will. Modern definitions of war such as armed conflict between political units generally disregarded the narrow legalistic definitions characteristic of the 19th century which limited the concept to formally declared war between states. Such a definition includes civil wars but at the same time excludes such phenomena as insurrections, banditry or piracy. Finally war is generally understood to embrace
100 only armed conflicts on a fairly large scale usually excluding conflicts in which fewer than 50,000 combatants are involved. The causes of war: War arises because of the changing relations of numerous variables technological, psychic, social, and intellectual. There is no single cause of war. Peace is equilibrium among many forces. Change in any particular force trend movement or policy may at one time make for war but under other conditions a similar change may make for peace. A state may at one time promote peace by armament at another time by disarmament at one time by insistence on its rights at another time by spirit conciliation. To estimate the probability of war at any time involves, therefore an appraisal of the effect of current changes upon the complex of inter group relationships throughout the world. Wright 1965:1284 For war to occur between two states they must have some contact and salience, some awareness of each other. They must also have some opposing interests, something to fight about and capabilities to fight. 1. disturbed balance of power: There can be no security without balance of power. Henry Kissinger Balance of power is the stability of political system in a particular area. Disturbance is balance of power is one of the objective or cause of war. To show strength of any state to her rivalry can lead to war. For example the balance of power was disturbed after the disintegration of Russia. Now USA is the only super power left and is supposed to be the leader of the world. 2. national and separatism: Nationalism is the emotional feelings that exist in nation and separatism in the final stage of nationalism i.e. formation or independence of a state. These two factors greatly affect people’s life and this is one of the main causes of war. For example in the 1930’s Hitler based many of his claims on the right of Germans to live together in one state. The wars in Korea the middle east, Bangladesh and Cyprus had strong national components.
101 3. communication failure: Lack of communication between rival groups may lead to war. This usually happens when none of the states compromises for a talk. By this tension increases to its peak and chances of war become more visible. If this state just solves their problem through communication other than war rare of mankind can be saved from war’s destruction. For example USA and USSR the tension between these two super powers reached to height but was solved by opening hot line services through out the two states. 4. military industrial complex: these complexes become threat to their own government as well their rivals. They become threat to their own government by selling it to their rivals on that amount which its own state is not willing to give. They just want to have a market for their products. 5. human nature: it drives to live, to propagate and to dominate are common to all men. The causes of war are to be found in human nature. The problem is aggression that is that human beings fight after all animals do too. The problem is that human beings gift to the death. They kill their own species and most animals do not. It is not our lacto of humanity bur our lack of Animality that causes our troubles. 6. troublemakers: Power groups, merchant of death, wicked states are trouble makers. Throughout recorded human history initiators of war were individuals and groups who held powers. Theodore Abel That specific individual and power groups which are the main cause of this approach is Adolph Hitler, entitled one his chapter, “Hitler’s war, 1939”in the 1930’s. many in the manufacturers were responsible for US participations in the world war I. they were responsible for US participations in the world war I. they were popularly known as the merchants of death and sometimes the trouble maker is identified as an entire state. 7. loss of control:
102 according to this approach operation which has been carried out with the fair calculation but due to untoward and unfavorable circumstances things start running against which causes loss of control over the situation. For example America sent its forces to Vietnam for capture the Vietnam but with the time they loss control and were defeated. 8. misperception: The misperception between two states is to be favored in the cause of war. If a state is overestimated about his power and underestimated about the power of the rival state the war could start. In my point of view Kargil war is an example of misperception. 9. political issues: due to some political issues war could be started because sometimes government diverts attention from serious political issues to international border to save his own government. For example Clinton did missile attack on Iraq to divert the attention of government from Monica’s issues. 10. If you want peace, prepare for war. States may engage in arms reasons that have little do with the objective of preventing war but unfortunately it is difficult to answer the question. Do arms races make war less or more likely? One scholar claims that of 84 wards ending between 1820 and 1929 only 10 were preceded by arms race. This suggests that arm races are not the only cause of wards. On the other hand on investigation of serious international disputed between major powers from 1815 to 1965 found that in 28 cases where disputes was accomplished by an arms race, war resulted 23 times in 71 cases where only 3 times. This research suggests that arms races are more likely to promote war than likely to promote war than inhabit it. Types of war: There seven types of wars which are as follows: 1. total war: armed forces:
103 Modern war is called the total war. War today is not limited only to armed forces, but the total population of the state is affected. According to Prof Morgenthau the modern war is a total war is in the sense of being: A. War of total populations. B. War by total populations. C. War against total populations. D. War for total stakes. Modern war is a war of total population in the sense that is emotionally involves the total population and they identify themselves fully in its emotions and convictions with the war of its nation. It is war by total populations because it mobilized total populations and the participations of the populations and the participations of the populations in the war is correspondingly enlarged. Not only able bodied men are conscripted but in totalitarian countries women’s and children as well. All the productive forces and the entire manpower of the nation are put to the purposes to war. Every section of the population in whatever positions it is placed has to make its contributions to war efforts. The government can also acquire the private property by law for the war purposes. Total war is also war against total population, because every body is prospective victim of the war. The older distinction between the combatants and non combatants has disappeared. The modern war in snot aimed at destroying the enemy’s armed forces alone but also attacking the civilian population and this destroying the nations will the resist. Every body by some way or the other is affected by the war. Total war is also fought for total stakes. Older wards were fought only for limited purpose and limited objectives. 2. unlimited nuclear war: Nuclear war may be both limited and unlimited. The purpose of the unlimited war is to inflict utmost loses on the enemy. Besides military installations, civil populations and non military installations are also made the target of attack. The purpose of the war is direct towards the complete disruption of the civilian life of the enemy nation. It aims at infliction maximum of the loses in the minimum of the time so that the nations will to resist is destroyed and the enemy nation yields without prolonging the war further. 3. limited nuclear war:
104 The purpose of the limited nuclear war is only to destroy the military power of the enemy by means of nuclear weapon. The military installations along are made the target of attack and not the civilian population and the non military installation. But it becomes difficult to distinguish between military and non military installations, during the actual operation. Any limited nuclear war can therefore turn into unlimited nuclear war. 4. limited war: The purpose to the limited war is to inflict calculated loses on the enemy. It has limit purpose and is confined to limited objectives. Limited war is possible only if the war is kept confined to the conventional weapons. Incase of the use of nuclear weapons the loses caused to the enemy can not be kept. In practice however it is difficult to draw a dividing line whether or not a particular war is a limited war. 5. pre-emptive war: If in the anticipation of an attack by the enemy the other party without being attacked takes itself the initiative of war the war is called as pre emptive war. The purpose of such war is to deprive the enemy of such gains which it could have in the event of attacking first. It aims to frustrate the war intentions of the enemy. Israel waged a pre emptive war against Egypt in 1967. 6. guerilla war: guerilla war is an armed conflict which is carried out by the persons who do not form part of an organized army due to inadequacy of military power and weapons, guerillas conduct there warfare in the secret manner and avoid open battles. They adopt hit and run tactics and when they themselves are attacked the retreat. 7. civil war: a civil war is a war with in a state between two or more groups. In such a war one of the groups is the lawful government of the country and another group consists of those who try to wrest power from the legitimate government. A situation under which a large part of the population of a country stands in revolt against the legitimate government can also be called a civil war. Control of war: The international environment with in which states and the people with in them operate is regarded by many theorists as the major factor determining the occurrence and the nature of wars. War remains possible as long as individual states seek to ensure self preservation and to promoters their individual interests
105 and tin the absence of a reliable international agency to control the actors of other states rely on their own efforts. It is no accident threat reforms of the international system figure prominently in many prescriptions for the prevention of war. Whereas the reform of human propensities or of the state is bound to be a long drawn out affair, if it is at all possible relatively straightforward partial reforms of the international system may produce significant restraints upon resorting to war, and a thorough reform could make war impossible. Some theorists , being more optimistic about the nature of states concentrate upon the removal of the fear and suspicion of other states which is characteristic of the present as well as of all historical political systems; others restraints upon the behavior of states. The underlying reasoning of both parties is generally similar. If individual states in competitive situation are governed by a short term conception of their interests’ acute conflicts between them will occur and will show a strong tendency to escalate. Thus one state erects a tariff barrier to protect its industry against the competition of a trade partner, and the partner retaliates the retaliatory interaction being repeated until the two countries find themselves in a trade war. Armaments races show a similar tendency to escalate particularly so in an age of rapid technological change. The economic and the scientific efforts necessary to avoid falling behind rivals in the invention and development of rapidly improving weapons of mass destruction have already reached unprecedented heights. And yet neither trade wars nor arms races necessarily end in violent conflict there seem to be operating some restraining and inhibiting factors that prevent an automatic escalation. Much of the theory of war concerns itself with the identification, improvement, and development of these restraining factors. Diplomacy: The outcome of starkly competitive behavior leading to wars is clearly against the interests of states and it is rational for them to seek more desirable outcomes. If competitive behavior is dangerous theorists seek for alternative methods of cooperative behavior that world not jeopardize the interests of the state through exposing it to the possible less cooperative behavior of others. Some theorists concentrate upon improving the rationality of the decision making of individual states through a better understanding of the international environment though eliminating misperception and irrational fears and through making clear the full possible costs of engaging in war and the full destructiveness of an all out war, possible in our age. The relative paucity of wars and their limited nature throughout the century following the Napoleonic wars (1815-1914) have stirred great theoretical interest
106 in the nature of the balance of power system of that period that is in the process by which the power of competing groups of states tended toward a condition of equilibrium. Contribution to the successful operation of the balance of power system of 19th century were relatively slow technological change great diversionary opportunities for industrial and colonial expansion and the ideological and cultural homogeneity of Europe. Pursuit of a balance of power is a wary of conducting foreign policy that is perhaps less prone to war than other types of policy because, instead of indiscriminately increasing their power, states increase it only moderately so as not to provoke others and instead of joining the strongest they join the weaker side in order to ensure balance. States in a balance of power system must however be ready to abide by constrainers upon their behavior in order to ensure stability of the system. The application to international relations of a branch of mathematics game theory that analyzes the strategy of conflict situations has provided a new tool of analysis. In state interaction as in any game situation one side’s strategy generally depends upon that side’s expectations of the other side’s strategy. If all sides in a game are to maximize their chances of a satisfactory outcome, it is necessary that some rational rules of behavior be conceptualized and agreed upon and this idea of a set of rational rules can be applied to cooperating states in the international system. Game theorists distinguish antagonistic situation called zero sum games in which one state’s gain can be only at the expense of another states because the payoff is fixed. Even then a mutually acceptable distribution of gains can be rationally reached on the basis of the minimax principle the party in a position of advantage satisfies itself with the minimum acceptable gain because it realizes that the other parties in a position of disadvantage wouold yield on the basis of its distribution even more to its detriment. In other situations called non zero sum games, the payoff is not constant but can be increased by a cooperative approach the gain of one participant is not at the cost of another. The contestants however have to agree about the distribution of the gain which is the product of their cooperation. The theory of games is the foundation of theories of bargaining that analyze the behavior of individual states in interaction. Diplomacy based upon such theories is less likely to lead to war. Policymakers pursuing such strategies will conduct conflicts of the zero sum type so that war is avoided. More than that with some skill such situations introducing additional benefits accruing from cooperation in other interactions and also more generally by eliminating the likelihood of war and consequently by reducing the costs of preparing for one. Regional integration:
107 Because wars within states have been eliminated through the establishment of suitable political structures such as central governments that hold a monopoly of coercive power many theories concentrate upon the establishment of parallel structures with in the international context. Regional integration cooperation in economic social and political affairs and for example with in the European economic community did the establishment of security communities such as the north Atlantic treaty organization have made much greater advances than attempts at the reform of the entire global intentional system. Because conflicts among neighbors tend to be frequent regional integration is an important advance toward reducing the incidence of war. Even if it were to become generally successful however regional integration would simply shift the problem of war to a different level there would be fewer possibilities of war because intraregional conflicts would be contained but interregional conflicts could still give rise to wars of much greater scope and severity. The phenomenon of war must therefore be analyzed at the universal level. International law: Some of the most influential thinking about war and the international system has come from specialists in international law. All of them postulate that there exists an international society of states that accepts the binding force of some norms of international behavior. These norms are referred to as international law, although they differ fundamentally from municipal law because no sovereign exists who can enforce them. Most international lawyers realistically accept that international law is consequently among rather than above stats. If is according to legal doctrine binding on states but unenforceable. International law concerns itself largely with two aspects of war: its legality and its regulation. For the regulation of warfare, see war law of. As far as the legality of war is concerned, there has arisen in the 20th century a general consensus among states, expressed in several international treaties, including the covenant of the league of nations, the Kellogg-Briand pact of 1928 and the charter of the united nations that resort to armed force, except in certain circumstances, such as self defense is illegal. Such a legalistic approach to the prevention of war however remains futile in the absence of a means of enforcement. The enforcement provisions of the covenant of the League of Nations and those of the United Nations charter which entail the application of military and economic sanctions have never been applied successfully, owing to political disagreement among the major powers. This underlines the fact that legal norms to be effective norms to be effective must reflect an underlying political reality.
108 The United Nations: The United Nations is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. The several approaches to peace outlined in its charter and developed in its practice are based upon and clearly reflect the cumulative development of the relevant theories of war. Drawing heavily upon the experience of the league of nations, the charter develops three interrelated approaches; first pacific settlement of disputes which would leave nations with nothing to fight about; second collective security which would confront aggressors with too much to fight against and third disarmament which would deprive them of anything substantial with which to fight. Pacific settlement of disputes: Is based upon the assumption that war is primarily a technique for settling purposes, such as allaying fears and seeking status. Further assumptions are that war frequently comes about because of the unawareness of decision makers of the possibility of settling disputes peacefully to the mutual advantages of both sides unawareness due to mere ignorance, pride, lack of imagination or selfish and cynical leadership. It is thus the prevention of wars by devising and institutionalizing alternative, peaceful techniques for the settlement of disputes and by persuading the states to use them. The scope of this approach is limited for states are notoriously reluctant to abide by impartial findings on matters they regard as being of vital importance. Hence what the procedures really offer is a means of slowing down the progression of a dispute toward war, giving reason a chance to prevail. Collective security: Is an approach to peace involving an agreement by which states agree to take collective action against any state defined as an aggressor. Leaving aside the problems of settling disputes or enforcing law or satisfying justice, it concentrates upon forestalling violence by bringing to bear an overwhelmingly superior international force against any aggressor. Although collective security in some what different forms played a prominent part in the League of Nations covenant and is embodied in the United Nations charter it has completely failed in both cases. Failing an international government capable of ultimately determining the issues nations have not managed to agree on an unequivocal definition of aggression have not in practice accepted the principle that aggression must be acted against independently of the identity of the perpetrator, and therefore have not established the international collective security force envisaged in the charter.
109 Disarmament: Disarmament and limitation of armaments are based upon the theory that states are inclined to strive for dominance in arms over any potential rivals and that this leads to arms races that tend to end in war. The major besetting sin of this theory is that it often tends to confuse cause with effect. Although arms races develop momentum of their own they are themselves the result of political tensions leading to war. In short it is the tension that causes war, not the arms races. To hold otherwise is to mistake a symptom for a cause. Hence, reducing the levels of armaments does not necessarily reduce these tensions furthermore it is the instability of strategic balances rather than their level that leads to war; agreements about disarmament of limitation of armaments may easily disturb the existing precarious balance and therefore be actually conducive to war. As these major approaches to peace envisaged in its charter have not proved very fruitful the United Nations has developed two new procedures aiming at the limitation of wars. First preventive diplomacy largely comprising the diplomatic initiatives of the secretary general and the stationing of peacekeeping forces has served to contain local conflicts and to prevent escalation especially the involvement of the super powers. Second although the general assembly’s recommendations have no legal binding force, they have become increasingly influential, for by the mid 1970’s the assembly was becoming an important agency for what has been called the collective legitimization of state policies. Resort to war becomes more costly when a state is faced with the prospects of a collective condemnation. This new restraint upon war does not however act upon conflicts that the assembly may favorably regard as wars of colonial liberation. Nor could the assembly’s disapproval be relied upon to deter states from waging ear in pursuit o fan interest they deemed to be truly vital. World government: Both the shortcomings and the limited practicability of all the approaches to the elimination of war through the reform of the international system have driven many thinkers to accept the idea that war can only be abolished by a full scale world government. No midway solution between the relative anarchy of independent individual states and a world government with the full paraphernalia of legislative powers and of an overwhelming military force would provide a sufficiently stable international framework for the nations to feel that wars would not break out and thus stop them from behavior that is often conducive to wars. In an age faced with the danger of a war escalating into a general extermination of mankind, the central importance of preserving peace is obvious and is generally
110 accepted. But here the thinkers divide. Some press on from this analysis to the logical conclusion that mankind must and therefore will establish a world government and they advance ideas how best to proceed in this direction. Others regard the world government as completely utopian, no matter how logical and desirable it may be. Yet in terms of actual policies the adherents of the two schools do not agree that the complex phenomenon of war represents a potential calamity of such a magnitude that all theorists must endeavor to understand it and to apply their understanding to prevention and mitigation of war with all the means at their disposal.
Chapter: 12 New phenomenon and concepts in international relations General assembly: The only body in which all UN members are represented the general assembly exercises deliberative supervisory financial and elective functions relating to any matter within the scope of the UN charter. Its primary role however, is to discuss issues and make recommendations, though it has no power to enforce its resolutions or to compel state action. Other functions include admitting new members; selecting members of the economic and social council the non permanent members of the Security Council and the trusteeship council; supervising the activities of the other UN organs from which the assembly receives repots; and participating in the election of judges to the international court of justice and the selection of the secretary general. Decisions usually are reached by a simple majority vote. On important questions however such as the admission of new members’ budgetary matters, and peace and security issues a two thirds majority is required. The assembly convenes annually and in special sessions electing a new president each year from among five regional groups of states. At the beginning of each regular session the assembly also holds a general debate in which all members may participate and raise any issue of international concern. Most work however is delegated to six main committees:
112 1. Disarmament and international security. 2. Economic and financial. 3. Social, humanitarian and cultural. 4. Special political and decolonization. 5. Administrative and budgetary. 6. Legal. The general assembly has debated issues that other organs of the UN have either overlooked or avoided including decolonization the independence of Namibia, apartheid in South Africa, terrorism and the aids epidemic. The number of resolutions passed by the assembly each year has climbed to more than 350 and many resolutions are adopted without opposition. Nevertheless there have been sharp disagreements among members on several issues such as those relating to the cold war, the Arab Israeli drawn public attention to major issues, thereby forcing member governments to develop positions on them and it deal with important global problems. The large size of the assembly and the diversity of the issues it discusses contributed to the emergence of regionally based voting blocs in the 1960’s. During the cold war the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe formed on e of the most cohesive blocs and another bloc comprised the United States and its western allies. The admission of new countries of the southern hemisphere in the 1960’s and 70’s and the dissipation of cold war tensions after 1989 contributed to formation of blocs based on north south economic issues i.e. issues of disagreement between the more prosperous industrialized countries of the northern hemispheres and the poorer less industrialized developing countries of the southern hemisphere. Other issues have been incorporated into the north south divide including northern economic and political domination economic development the proliferation of nuclear weapons and support for Israel. Security Council: The un charter assigns to the security council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Security Council originally consisted of 11 members five permanent and six non permanent elected by the general assembly for two year terms. From the beginning, non permanent members of the Security Council were elected to give representation to certain regions or groups of states. As membership increased however this practice ran into difficulty. An amendment to the un charter in 1965 increased the council’s
113 membership to 15 including the original five permanent members plus 10 nonpermanent members. Among the permanent members the people’s republic of china replaced the republic of china (Taiwan) in 1971, and the Russian federation succeeded the Soviet Union in 1991. After the unification of Germany debate over the council’s composition again arose and Germany, India and Japan each applied for permanent council seats. The non permanent members are chosen to achieve equitable regional representation five members coming from Africa or Asia one from Eastern Europe two from Latin America and two from Western Europe or other areas. Five of the 10 permanent members are elected each year by the general assembly for two year terms and five retire each year. The presidency is held by each member in rotation for a period of one month. Each Security Council member is entitles to one vote. On all procedural matters the definition of which is sometimes in dispute decision by the council are made by an affirmative vote of any nine of its members. Substantive matters such as the investigation of a dispute or the application of sanctions also require nine affirmative votes, including those of the five permanent members holding veto power. In practice however a permanent member may abstain without impairing the validity of the decision. A vote on whether a matter is procedural or substantive is itself a substantive question. Because the Security Council is required to function continuously each member is represented at all times at the UN’S headquarters in New York City. Any countries even if it is not a member of the UN ay bring a dispute to which It is a party to the attention of the security council. When there is a complaint the council first explores the possibility of a peaceful resolution. International peacekeeping forces may be authorized to keep warring parties apart pending further negotiations. If the council finds that there is a real threat to the peace a breach of the peace or an act of aggression as defined by article 39 of the un charter it may call upon un members to apply diplomatic or economic sanctions. If these methods prove inadequate the UN charter allows the Security Council to take military action against the offending country. During the cold war continual disagreement agreement between the united states and the soviet union coupled with the veto power of the security council’s permanent members made the security council an ineffective institution. Since the late 1980’s however the council’s power the prestige have grown. Between 1987 and 2000 it authorized more peacekeeping operations than at any previous time. The use of the veto has declined dramatically though disagreements among permanent members of the Security Council most notable in 2003 over the use of
114 military force against Iraq have occasionally undermined the council’s effectiveness. To achieve consensus comparatively informal meetings are held in private among the council’s permanent members a practice that has been criticized by nonpermanent members of the Security Council. In addition to several standing and ad hoc committees the work of the council is facilitated by the military staff, committee, sanctions committees for each of the countries under sanctions, peacekeeping forces committees and an international tribunals committee. Secretariat: The secretary general the principal administrative officer of the united nation is elected for a five year renewable term by a two thirds vote of the general assembly and by the recommendation of the Security Council and the approval of its permanent members. Secretaries general usually have come from small neutral countries. The organs entrust to the secretariat he also oversees the preparation of the UN’S budget. The secretary general has important political functions, being charged wit h bringing before the organization any matter that threatens intentional peace and security. Both the chief spokesperson for the UN and the UN’S most visible and authoritative figure in world affairs the secretary general often serves as a high level negotiator. Attesting to the importance of the post two secretaries general has been awarded the noble prize of peace: dag hmmarskjold in 1961 and Kofi Annan, co recipient with the un in 2001. The secretariat influences the work of the united nations to a much greater degree than indicated in the un charter. It is responsible for preparing numerous reports, studies and investigations in addition to the major tasks of translating, interpreting, providing services for large numbers of meetings and other work. Under the charter the staff is to be recruited mainly on the basis of merit through there has been a conscious effort to recruit individuals from different geographic regions. Some members of the secretariat are engaged on permanent contracts but others serve on temporary assignment from their national governments. In both cases they must take an oath of loyalty to the United Nations and are not permitted to receive instructions from member government. The influence of the secretariat can be attributed to the fact that the some 9000 people on its staff are permanent experts and international civil servants rather than political appointees of member states. The secretariat is based in New York, Geneva, Vienna, Nairobi Kenya and other locals. It has been criticized frequently for poor administrative practices though it
115 has made persistent efforts to increase the efficiency of its organization and administration>> subsidiary organs. The United Nations network also includes subsidiary organs created by the general assembly and autonomous specialized agencies. The subsidiary organs report to the general assembly or ECOSOC or both. Some of these organs are funded directly by the UN others are financed by the voluntary contributions of governments or private citizens. In addition ECOSOC has consultative relationships with NGO’S operating in economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields. Ngo’s have played an increasingly important role in the work of the peacekeeping refugee issues and human rights. Organization and administration>> specialized agencies The specialized agencies report annually to ECOSOC and often cooperate with echo the rand with various UN organs. However they also have their own principles, goals and rules which at times may conflict with those of other UN organs and agencies. The specialized agencies are autonomous insofar as they control their own budgets and have their own boards of directors who appoint agency heads independently of the general assembly or secretary general. Major specialized agencies and related organs of the UN include the international labor organization. ILO, the food and agriculture organization of the United Nations FAO the United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization UNESCO and the world health organization WHO. Two of the most powerful specialized agencies, which also are the most independent with respect UN decision making are the world’s bank and the intentional monetary fund IMF. The United Nations along with its specialized agencies is often referred to collectively as the United Nations system. Economic and social council: Economic and social council ECOSOC one of the six principal organs of the United Nations composed of representatives of 54 countries. Each year 18 members are elected by the un general assembly for 3 years terms. ECOSOC’S early activities were directed toward providing aid to war ravaged countries of Europe and Asia. Today the problems of developing nations are its major concern. The council carries out studies on international economic, social, humanitarian, cultural, educational and related matters an d coordinates the activities of the UN’S specialized agencies in these areas. ECOSOC operates mainly through its various standing committee’s functional commissions and regional commissions.
116 The decisions reached at council meetings, where each member has one vote and a simple majority rules are sent as recommendations to the general assembly. Designed to be the UN’S main venue for the discussion of international economic and social issues the economic and social council ECOSOC directs and coordinates the economic social humanitarian and cultural activities of the UN and its specialized agencies. Established by the UN charter EOSOC is empowered to recommend international action on economic and social issues promote universal respect for human rights and work for global cooperation on health, education and cultural and related areas. ECOSOC conducts studies; formulates resolutions, recommendations and conventions for consideration by the general assembly and coordinates the activities of various un programs and specialized agencies. Most of ECOSOC’S work is performed in functional commissions on topics such as human rights, narcotics, population, social development, statistics, the status of women and science and technology the council also oversee regional commission for Europe Asia and the pacific western Asia Latin America and Africa. The six functional commissions deal with problems relating to social development, human rights the status of women narcotic drugs population d national and international statistics. There are also five standing committees and assorted expert bodies that deal with such matters as natural resources development of science and technology and crime prevention. Five regional commissions are currently in operation within the council. They are modeled after the parent body and reflect the geographic diversity of resources and needs. Each one is headed by an executive secretary. The economic commission for Europe headquartered in Geneva has 42 members and the economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific headquartered in Bangkok has 45 full members and 8 associate members; both were established 1947. The economic commission for Latin America and the Caribbean with 41 full members and 6 associate members was set up in 1948 in Santiago, Chile. In 1958 the economic commission for Africa was established at Addis Ababa Ethiopia it has 52 participating member nations and 2 associate members. The economic commission for western Asia with 13 members was organized in 1973 in Beirut Lebanon its headquarters was subsequently moved to Baghdad Iraq, because of the war in Lebanon. A regional commission may make recommendations to any member government but can act only with the consent of that government. Regional cooperation has stimulated progress in agriculture, industry, education, housing, electric power, trade, transportation and environmental protection issues.
117 Trusteeship council: The trusteeship council was designed to supervise the government of trust territories and to lead them to self government or independence. The trusteeship system like the mandate system under the leaguer of nations, was established on the premise that colonial territories taken from countries defeated in war should not be annexed by the victorious powers bur should be administered by a trust country under international supervision until their future status was determined. Unlike the mandate system the trusteeship system invited petitions from trust territories on their independence and required periodic international missions to the territories. 1945 only 12 league of nations mandates remained: Nauru, New Guinea, Ruanda Urundi, Togo land and Cameroon (French administered) Togo land and Cameroon (British administrated) the pacific islands (Caroline, Marshall and Marianas) Western Samoa, south West Africa, Tanganyika and Palestine. All these mandates became trust territories except south West Africa now Namibia, which South Africa refused to enter into the trusteeship system. The trusteeship council which met once each year consisted of states administering trust territories, permanent member s of the security council that did not administer trust territories and other un member selected by the general assembly. Each member had one voter and decisions were taken by a simple majority of those present. With the independence of Palau the last remaining trust territory in 1994 the council terminated its operations. No longer required to meet annually the council may meet on the decision of its president or on a request by a majority o fits members, by the general assembly or by the Security Council. Since 1994 new role for the council have been proposed including administering the global commons (e.g. the seabed and outer space) and serving as a forum for minority and indigenous peoples. International court of justice: International court of justice also known as world court principal judicial organ of the United Nations UN. It was created in 1945 under the un charter as the successor to the permanent court of international justice under the league of nations. The court functions in accordance with its won statute, which forms an integral part of the un charter. The tasks of the court are to decide legal cases between nations and to provide advisory opinions to the UN and its agencies on questions of international law. Neither private individuals nor international organizations may bring cases before the court. The curt has its headquarters in The Hague, the Netherlands.
118 All members of the UN are automatically parties to the court’s statute. A nation that is not a un member may become a party to the stature or use the court if it accepts conditions set by the un and agrees to contribute the expenses of the court. Activities: Disputes may be brought before the court in two ways. The first is by a special agreement between the parties in which they consent to submit the matter to the court. The second is by a unilateral application by one party in the dispute; this can occur for example if the applicant believes that its adversary is obliged by the terms of a particular treaty to accept the jurisdiction of the court in case of a dispute. Alternatively, nations that parties to the statute may declare in a chance their automatic acceptance of the courts jurisdiction for certain or all types of legal disputes. This declaration is known as accepting compulsory jurisdiction. If the parties to a dispute have filed such declarations and if the dispute between them falls with in the bounds of the declaration then either party may bring the case before the court. In 1985 United States President Ronald Reagan formally with drew the long standing un declaration accepting the compulsory jurisdiction of the court. The United States remains a party to the statute however and continues to participate in cases submitted by special agreement or brought pursuant to a treaty to which it is a party. The court renders judgments by applying international law as derived from treaties, wide spread practices accepted as law customs and the general principle is of law found in the major legal systems of the world. The court may also refer to past judicial decisions and the writings of experts in international law. The judgment of the court which must contain the reasons for the decision is final and binding and no appeal may be made. The UN Security Council is empowered to take measurers to enforce the decisions of the escort if the parties to the dispute fail to enforce it themselves. The Security Council has never been asked to enforce a judgment however because states generally comply either judgments although not always quickly or wholeheartedly. The court gives advisory opinions on legal questions to the un general assembly the security council and other un organs and specialized agencies that have been authorized by the general assembly to ask for such opinions or whose constitutions so permit. An example is the judgment of the court in 1962 that peacekeeping expenses in the republic of the Congo now the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Middle East constitutes expenses of the organization to be paid by member states as apportioned by the general assembly.
119 The judges: The court has 15 judges each elected by an absolute majority of the security council and the general assembly voting independently of each other .the judges are elected for nine years and may be reelected no two may be nationals of the same country. A judge may be removed from the court only by unanimous vote of the other judges. They do not represent their countries but are elected on the basis of their knowledge of international law. The composition of the court is supposed at all times to reflect the main forms of civilization and the principal legal systems of the world. In any dispute if no judge is of the nationality of a party the case, that counts may choose a judge to sit on the case. Nine judges constitute a quorum the minimum number necessary to decide a case and question before the court are decided by a majority of judges present. The court elects its own officers and appoints it registrar and other officials. Specialized agencies: The specialized agencies report annually to ECOSOC and often cooperate with each other and with various UN organs. However they also have their own principles goals and rules which at times may conflict with those of other un organs and agencies. The specialized agencies are autonomous insofar as they control their own budgets and have their own board of directors who appoint agency heads independently of the general assembly or secretary general. Major specialized agencies are related organs of the UN include the intentional labor organization ILO. The food and agriculture organization of the United Nations FAO the United Nations educational scientific and cultural organization and the world health organization UNESCO. Two of the most powerful specialized agencies which also are the most independent with respect to un decision making are world bank and the international monetary fund. The United Nations along either its specialized agencies ifs often referred to collectively as the United Nations system. United nation as a peace maker organization: United nation is an international organization established on October 24, 1945. The United Nations was the second multipurpose international organization established in the 20th century that was worldwide in scope and membership. Its processor the League of Nations was created by the treaty of Versailles in 1919 and disbanded in 1946. Headquartered in New York City, the UN also language are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. According to its charter the un aims:
120 To save succeeding generation from the scourge of war the reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintain and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. However the main function of the united nation is to preserve international peace and security. Chapter 6 of the charter provides for the pacific settlement of disputes, through the intervention of the Security Council by means such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and judicial decisions. The Security Council may investigate any dispute or situation to determine whether it is likely to endanger international peace and security. At any stage of the disputer the council may recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment and if the parties fail to settle the dispute by peaceful means the council may recommend terms of settlement. The goal of collective security whereby aggression against one member is met with resistance by all underlies chapter 7 of the charter, which grants the security council the power to order coercive measures ranging from diplomatic, economic, and military sanctions to the use of armed force in cases where attempts at a peaceful settlement have failed. Such measures were seldom applied during the cold war, however because tension between the United States and the Soviet Union prevented the Security Council from agreeing on the instigators of aggression. Instead actions to maintain peace and security often took the form of preventive diplomacy and often took the form of preventive diplomacy and peacekeeping. In the post cold war period appeals to the UN for peacekeeping and related activities increased dramatically and new threats to international peace and security were confronted, including aids and international terrorism. Notwithstanding the primary role of the Security Council, the UN charter provides for the participation of the general assemble and non member states in security issues. Any state whether it is a member of the UN or or not may bring any dispute or situation that endangers international peace and security to the attention of the Security Council or the general assembly. The charter authorized the general assembly to discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of intentional peace and security and to make recommendation with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. This authorization is restricted by the provision that while the security council is exercising in respect of any in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the present charter the general assembly shall not make any recommendation with regard to that dispute or situation unless the security council so requests. By the uniting for
121 peace resolution of November 1950, however the general assembly granted to itself the power to deal with threats to the peace if the Security Council fails to act after a veto by a permanent member. Although these provisions grant the general assembly a broad secondary role the Security Council ca n make decisions that bind all members, whereas the general assembly can make only recommendations. Peacekeeping, peacemaking and peace building: International armed forces were first used in 1948 to observe cease fires in Kashmir and Palestine. Although not specifically mentioned in the un charter, the use of such forces as a buffer between warring parties pending troop withdrawals and negotiations a practice known as peacekeeping missions have taken many forms, though they have in common the fact that they are designed to be peaceful, that they involve military troops from several countries and that the troops serve under the authority of the un security council. In 1988 the un peacekeeping forces were awarded the Nobel prize for peace. During the cold war, so-called first generation or classic peacekeeping was used in conflicts in the Middle East and Africa and in conflicts stemming from decolonization in Asia. Between in 1948 and 1988 the UN undertook 13 peacekeeping missions involving generally lightly armed troops from neutral countries other than the permanent members of the Security Council most often Canada, Sweden, Norway, Finland, India, Ireland, and Italy. Troops in these missions the so called value helmets were allowed to use force only in self defense. The missions were given and enjoyed the consent of the parties to the conflict and the support of the Security Council and the troop contributing countries. With the end ot the cold war the challenges of peacekeeping became more complex. In order to respond to situations in which internal order had broken down and the civilian population was suffering, second generation peacekeeping was developed to achieve multiple political and social objectives. Unlike first generation peacekeeping, second generation peacekeeping often involves civilian’s experts and relief specialists as well as soldiers. Another difference between second generation and first generation peacekeeping is that soldiers in some second generation missions are authorized to employ force for reasons other than self defense. Because the goals of second generation peacekeeping can be variable and difficult to define however much controversy has accompanied the use of troops in such missions.
122 In the 1990’s second generation peacekeeping missions were undertaken in Cambodia (1992-93), the former Yugoslavia (1992-95), Somalia (1992-95) and elsewhere and included troops from the permanent members of the security council as well as form the developed and developing world (e.g. Australia, Pakistan, Ghana, Nigeria, Fiji, India). In the former Yugoslav province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the security council created safe areas to protect the predominantly bosniac (Bosnian Muslim) population from Serbian attacks and un troops were authorized defend the areas with force. In each of these cades the un reacted to threats to peace and security with in states sometimes taking sides in domestic disputes and thus jeopardizing its own neutrality. Between 1988 and 2000 more than 30 peacekeeping efforts were authorized, troops representing 77 countries were deployed on missions throughout the world. In the first years of the 21st century annual un expenditures on peacekeeping operations exceeded $2 billion. In the addition to traditional peacekeeping and preventive diplomacy in the post cold war ere the functions of the un forces were expanded considerably to include peacemaking and peace building. For example since 1990 UN forces have supervised elections in many parts of the world, including Nicaragua, Eritrean and Cambodia: encouraged peace negotiations in EI Salvador, Angola and western shares; and distributed food in Somalia. The presence of un troops in Yugoslavia during the violent and protracted disintegration of that country renewed discussion about the role of un troops in refugee resettlement. In 1992 the un created the department of peacekeeping operations DPKO which provides administered and technical support for political and humanitarian missions and coordinates all mine clearing activities conducted under un auspices. The UN’S peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peace building activities have suffered from serious logistical and financial difficulties. As more missions are undertaken the costs and controversies associated with reimburses countries for the use of equipment these payments have been limited because of the failure of many member states to pay their un dues. Sanctions and military action: By subscribing to the charter all members undertake to place at the disposal of the Security Council armed forces and facilities for military sanctions against aggressors or disturbers of the peace. During the cold war, however no agreements to give this measure effect were concluded. Following the end of the cold war the possibility of creating permanent un forces was revived.
123 During the cold war the provisions of chapter 7 of the un charter were invoked only twice with the support of all for permanent security. Council members against southern Rhodesia in 1966 and against south Africa in 1977. after fighting broke out between north and south Korea in June 1950, the united states obtained a security council resolution authorizing the use of force to support its ally, south Korea and turn back north Korean forces. Because the soviet union was at the time boycotting the security council over its refusal to seat the people’s republic of china, there was no veto of the US measure. As a result a us led multinational fore fought under the un banner until a cease fire was reached on July 27, 1953. The security council again voted to use un armed forces to repel an aggressor following the august 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. After condemning the aggression and imposing economic sanctions on Iraq, the council authorized member states to use all necessary means to restore peace and security to Kuwait. The resulting Persian gulf war lasted six weeks, until Iraq agreed to comply with un resolutions and withdraw from Kuwait. The un continued to monitor Iraq’s compliance with its resolutions, which included the demand that Iraq eliminated its weapons of mass destruction. In accordance with this resolution the Security Council established a UN special mission UNSCOM to inspect and verify Iraq’s implementation of cease fire terms. The United States however continued to bomb Iraqi weapons installation from time to time citing Iraqi violations of no fly zones in the northern and southern regions of the country the targeting of us military aircraft by aircraft by Iraqi radar and the obstruction of inspection efforts undertaken by UNSCOM. The preponderant role of the united states in initiating and commanding un actions in Korea in 1950 and the Persian gulf in 1990-91 prompted debate over whether the requirements and spirit of collective security could ever be achieved apart form the interests of the most powerful countries and without us control. The continued US bombing of Iraq subsequent to the gulf war created further controversy about whether the raids were justified under withdraw her tribesmen. But Pakistan held that the accession of Kashmir had been brought about by force. The government requested the security council to arrange a ceasefire and asked both the tribesmen and the Indian troops to withdraw so that a free and impartial plebiscite could be held to ascertain the wishes of the people of Kashmir. Indo-Pakistan war 1948 and United Nations involvement: While the Kashmir issue was still on the table the Indian troops launched a full scale attack and drove the tribesmen right back to the Pakistani border.
124 Pakistan rushed her regular troops into Kashmir and a full scale war with India ensued. She took control of the Azad Kashmir army but the security council on august 13, 1948, called for an immediate ceasefire, the withdrawal of all Pakistani and Indian troops and holding of plebiscite under united nations supervisions. Both the Indian and Pakistani governments accepted the resolution. In January 1949, the resolution began to be implemented. In July 1949 the ceasefire line was demarcated. Pakistan’s side of Kashmir consisted of some parts of Jammu, Poonch, some areas of western Kashmir, Gilgit and a great chunk of Ladakh territory near the Chinese border in the north India kept the valley of Kashmir, Jammu and the remainder of Ladakh territory near the Tibet border. The cease fire has remained in existence since 1949. no plebiscite has been held and thus the Kashmir issue still remains disputed unresolved. The 1965 war: In April 1965, a lash between border patrols erupted into fighting in the Rann of Kutch, a sparsely inhabited region along the south western indo Pakistani border. When the Indians withdrew, Pakistan claimed victory. Later full scale hostilities erupted in September 1965, when India alleged that insurgents trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in India controlled Kashmir. Hostilities ceased three weeks later, following mediation efforts by the un and interested countries. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, USSR and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences. The 1971 war: Indo Pakistani relations deteriorated again when civil war erupted in Pakistan army against east Pakistanis demanding autonomy and independence. In December India invaded East Pakistan in support of the east Pakistani people. The Pakistani army surrendered at Dhaka and its army of more than 90,000 became Indian prisoners of war. East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh on 6th December 1971 indo Pakistan conflict, president zulfiqar ali Bhutto and Indian prime minister indira Gandhi met in the mountain town of shimla, India, in July 1972. They agreed to aline of control in Kashmir resulting from the December 17, 1971 ceasefire and endorsed the principle of settlement of bilateral disputes through peaceful means. Indian troops and siachen glacier 1984:
125 India’s nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development program. In 1983 the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e. shikhs in India’s Punjab state and sidhis in Pakistan’s sindh province. In April 1984 tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the siachen glacier, a high altitude desolate ceasefire agreement (Karachi agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949. Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became prime ministering November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, president zia and Prime Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other’s nuclear facilities. In early 1986 the Indian and Pakistani governments began high level talks to resolve the siachen glacier border dispute and to improve trade. Kashmir insurgency 1990: Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri militants began a campaign of violence against Indian government authority in Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequent high level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between India and Pakistan, but relations worsened again after the destruction of the ayodhya mosque by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorist bombings in Bombay in March 1993. Talks and terrorist between the foreign secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock. Diplomatic push 1996-97: In the last several years the indo Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz sharif moved to resume official dialog with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and prime ministerial level took place with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. In a speech at the UN the Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz sharif offered to open talks on a non aggression pact with India proposing that both nations strike a deal to restrain their nuclear and missile capabilities. Effects on 9/11 on Kashmir: If the world and the United States changed after September 11 the center of that change is the region where Pakistan is located. When it came to begin the war against terrorism Pakistan did not hesitate to do whatever it takes to fight against terrorism. United States of America appreciated the efforts of Pakistan which did not please India. So India blamed Pakistan based groups for the December 13,
126 2001 attack on the Indian parliament. In reply general pervez mushrraf’ s speech of January 12, 2002 which even India’s hawkish home minister lal Krishna advani termed four days later as path breaking India was caught on the back foot. National Kashmir committee: It is in this context that Pakistan launched a new political initiative on Kashmir to reaffirm its ling standing policy of supporting the right of self determination for the people of Kashmir that is enshrined in India. Musharraf announce the formation of a national Kashmir committee headed by a veteran Kashmiri politician and its charter made clear the purposes behind the initiative. The challenge before the government is to promote confidence among the people in Pakistan and Kashmir regarding Pakistan’s efforts to project the Kashmir cause as a popular and indigenous struggle internationally. Having addressed international concerns regarding terrorism and extremism in mushrraf’s January 12 speech the united states in now more receptive to Pakistan’s plea and ins anxious to see a dialogue on al the issues of Kashmir. Peace in south Asia and the Kashmir dispute: Pakistan believes that the establishment of durable peace in south Asia hinges on the resolution of the Kashmir dispute in light of the Security Council resolutions and the wishes of Kashmiri people. On March 17, 2004 Prime Minister Mir zafarullah khan jamali said the Kashmir dispute remains the core issue between India and Pakistan. The two south Asian nations have fought three wars, two of which were over the disputed Kashmir region. In January this year the two leaderships made a decision to open the dialogue process in a bid to resolve all disputes between the two sides. The dialogue process: Pakistan always showed seriousness and sincerity towards resolution of the core issue of Kashmir by adopting several confidence building measures CBMs. World community time and again has advised India to decrease the number of its forces in occupied Kashmir and release illegally detained Kashmiri leadership. India never hesitated from leveling baseless allegation against Pakistan of infiltration and also did not stop massive human rights violation in Kashmir. The need is to initiate vigorous efforts from both sides in resolving the Kashmir issue. The basic important dispute between the two countries is Kashmir issue and with its resolution all the other outstanding issues would be settled very easily. Prime Minister Mir zafarullah khan jamali said the Kashmir dispute should be resolved
127 according to the united nation s resolutions and with active participation of the Kashmiris. Year 2005 toad to peace: The prime minister said that there were many difficulties on the road to peace but emphasized the need to take measures to promote mutual trust and fund new avenues for a peaceful resolution of the lingering Kashmir dispute. The first formal visit of a faction of the separatist all parties hurriayat conference APHC and the jammu and Kashmir liberation front JKLF to Pakistan occupied Kashmir PoK and subsequently though unsanctioned by Indian authorities to Pakistan between June 2-16, 2005 was thus projected as a major event and development on the process of solving the Kashmir issue. Indeed the visit strongly reiterated the fact that the APHC contends to be a faithful Pakistani proxy. After his meeting with the president musharaf, mirqaiz umar farooq declared that, “we want Kashmir to be divided on geographical grounds we don’t want Kashmir to lose its identity we support his president musharraf approach.” During their meeting with president musharraf the APHC leaders once again were assured full political diplomatic and moral support. This tour has been helpful in understanding the viewpoint of Kashmiri leaders. Their quest for a free hand to decide their future is valid. They have been living under brutal Indian occupation since 1948. Despite promised justice by the UN 57 years ago, they have been denied their right of self determination. It was in fact the denial of justice and unabated Indian state terrorism perpetrated against Kashmir. The recent visit of the APHC leader s was a significant development which can be termed as a milestone in the process of resolving the core disputer of Kashmir between Pakistan and India peacefully. We wish both the governments to show courage boldness and flexibility in settling the issue.
Multinational cooperation: Multinational cooperation is any corporation that is registered and operated in more than one country at a time. Generally the corporation has its headquarters in one country and operates wholly or partially owned subsidiaries in other countries. Its subsidiaries report to the corporation’s central headquarters. Multinational Corporation MNCs sometimes called transnational corporation or International Corporation, business that produces or distributes products or
128 services in one or more foreign countries by establishing a branch or affiliate there. A branch is a part of a company that is located in another country. An affiliate is a company partially or entirely owned by another company. MNCs engage in foreign direct investment FDI that is investment in one country by citizens of another. Sometimes such investment involves acquiring an existing company. In other cases MNCs undertake what is known as green field investment by creating new facilities or activities. In economic terms a firm advantages in establishing a multinational corporation include both vertical and horizontal economies of scale (i.e. reduction in cost that result from and expanded level of output and a consolidation of management) and increased market share. Although cultural barriers can create unpredictable obstacles as companies establish offices and production plants around the world a form’s technical expertise, experiences personnel and proven strategies usually can be transferred form country to country. Critics of the multinational corporation usually view it as an economic and often political means of foreign domination. Developing countries with a narrow range of exports (often of primary goods) as their economic base are particularly vulnerable to economic exploitation. Monopolistic practices, human right abuses, and disruption of more traditional means of economic growth are among the risks that face host countries. Before world war II (1939-1945), most MNCs established foreign operations to secure sources of raw materials and developing countries were the largest recants of world wide FDI. After World War II the foreign activities of large corporations increased significantly. In the 1950s and 1960s large numbers of United States corporations began investing in Europe mainly in manufacturing. Investment in other nations by European and Japanese businesses soon followed. During the 1980s and 1990s investment in the service sector by MNCs rose considerably. These postwar changes in the nature of MNCs investment have changed where MNCs operate. Before World War II the share of FDI going into developing countries was around 60 percent. In the 1970s and 1980s it dropped to around 25 percent. By the mod 1990s it had risen to about 40 percent due to improving economic conditions in some developing countries. Most MNCs are very large corporations based in developed countries. About half of the 600 largest MNCs have headquarters in the United States; about a sixth is based in Japan and about a tenth is in the United Kingdom. In the 1980s and 1990s a decreasing number of smaller corporations expanded their production activities abroad. Similarly and increasing number of MNCs now originate form the newly industrialized developing areas, including Hong Kong and South
129 Korea. These developments have been aided by technological improvements in transportation, communications and production processes. The tremendous growth and spread of MNCs has sparked controversy. Some people believe that MNCs contribute to unemployment in the country where they are based by hiring foreign workers for overseas branches or affiliate. Some people also believe MNCs exploit the people and resources of other countries. However others argue that MNCs create more jobs than they eliminate and what MNCs bring capital and technology to areas that need it.
Pollution: Pollution is contamination of earth’s environment with materials that interfere with human health, the quality of life or the natural functioning of ecosystems (living organisms and their physical surroundings). Although some environmental pollution is a result of natural causes such as volcanic eruptions most is caused by human activities. There are two main categories of polluting materials, or pollutants. Biodegradable pollutants are materials such as sewage that rapidly decompose by natural processes. These pollutants become a problem when added to the environment faster than they can decompose. Non degradable pollutants are materials that either don’t decompose or decompose slowly in the natural environment. Once contamination occurs it is difficult or impossible to remove these pollutants from the environment. Non degradable compounds such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radioactive materials can reach dangerous levels of accumulation as they are passed up the food chain in the bodies of progressively larger animals. For example, molecules of toxic compounds may collect on the surface of aquatic plants without doing much damage to the plants. A small fish that grazes on these plants accumulates a high concentration of the toxin. Larger fish or other carnivores that eat the small fish will accumulate even great possibly life threatening concentrations of the compound. This process is known as bioaccumulation. Impacts of pollution: Because humans are at the top of the food chain, they are particularly vulnerable to the effect of non degradable pollutants. This was clearly illustrated in the 1950s and 1960s when residents living near mina Mata bay, Japan developed nervous
130 disorders, tremors and paralysis in a mysterious epidemic. More then 400 people died before authorities discovered that a local industry had released mercury into mina Mata bay. This highly toxic element accumulated in the bodies of local fish and eventually in bodies of people who consumed the fish. More recently research has revealed that many chemical pollutants such as DDT and PCBs mimic sex hormones and interfere with the human body’s reproductive and developmental functions. These substances are known as endocrine disrupters. Pollution also has a dramatic effect on natural resources. Ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, coral reefs and rivers perform many important services for earth’s environment. They enhance water and air quality; provide habitat for plants and animals and provide food and medicines. Any or all of these ecosystem function s may be impaired or destroyed by pollution. Moreover, because of the complex relationships among the many types of organisms and ecosystems, environmental contamination may have far reaching consequences that are not immediately obvious or that are difficult to predict. For instance, scientists can only speculate on some of the potential impacts of the depletion of the ozone layer, the protective layer in the atmosphere that shields earth from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. Another major effect of pollution is the tremendous cost of pollution cleanup and prevention. The global effort to control emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas produced from the combustion of fossil fuel such as coal or oil, or o other organic materials like wood, is one such example. The cost of maintaining annual national carbon dioxide gross domestic product for developed countries. In addition to its effects on the economy, health and natural resources, pollution has social implications. Research has shown that low income populations and minorities do not receive the same protection from environmental contamination as do higher income communities. Toxic waste incinerators, chemical plants and solid waste dumps are often located in low income communities because of a lack of organized, informed community involvement in municipal decision making processes.
Types of pollution: Pollution exists in many forms and affects many different aspects of earth’s environment. Point source pollution comes from specific, localized and identifiable sources such as sewage pipelines or industrial smokestacks. Non-
131 point sources pollution comes from dispersed or uncontained sources such as contaminated water runoff from urban areas or automobile emissions. The effects of these pollutants may be immediate or delayed. Primary effects of pollution occur immediately after contamination occurs, such as the death of marine plants and wildlife after an oil spool at sea. Secondary effects may be delayed or may persist in the environment into the future. Perhaps going unnoticed for many years. DDT, a non degradable compound seldom poisons birds immediately but gradually accumulates in their bodies. Birds with high concentrations of this pesticide lay thin shelled eggs that fail to hatch or produce deformed offspring. These secondary effects, publicized by Rachel Carson in her 1962 book, silent spring threatened the survival of species such as the bald eagle and peregrine falcon and aroused public concern over the hidden effects of non degradable chemical compounds. A. air pollution: Human contamination of earth’s atmosphere can take many forms and has existed since humans first began to use fire for agriculture, heating, and cooking. During the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, however, air pollution became a major problem. As early as 1661 British author and founding member of the British royal society john Evelyn reported of London in his treatise fumifugium, “…… the weary traveler, at many miles distance, sooner smells, than sees the city to which he repairs. This is that pernicious smoke which full yes all her glory, super inducing a sooty crust of fur upon all that its lights……” Urban air pollution is commonly known as smog. The dark London smog that Evelyn wrote of is generally a smoky mixture of carbon monoxide and organic compounds from incomplete combustion (burning) of fossil fuels such as coal, and sulfur dioxide from imputities in the fuels. As the smog ages and reacts with oxygen, organic and sulfuric acids condense as droplets, increasing the haze. Smog developed into a major health hazard by the 20 th century. In 1948, 19 people died and thousand were sickened by smog in the small us steel mill town of Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1952, about 4,000 Londoners died of its effects. A second type of smog, photochemical smog, began reducing air quality over large cities like loss Angeles in the 1930s. this smog is caused by combustion in car, truck and airplane engines, which produce nitrogen oxides and release hydrogen from unburned fuels. Sunlight causes the nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons to combine and turn oxygen into ozone, a chemical agent that
132 attacks rubber, oxidized into materials that condense and form a visible, pungent haze. Eventually most pollutants are washed out of the air by rain, snow, fog or mist but only after traveling large distances,, sometimes across continents. As pollutants build up in the atmosphere, sulfur and nitrogen oxides are converted into acids that mix with rain. This acid rain falls in lakes and on forests, where it can lead to the death of fish and plants, and damage entire ecosystems. Eventually the contaminated lakes and forests may become lifeless. Regions that are downwind of heavily industrialized areas, such as Europe and the eastern united states and Canada are the hardest hit by acid rain. Acid rain can also affect human health and man made objects; it is slowly dissolving historic stone statues and building facades in London, Athens and Rome. One of the greatest challenges caused by air pollution is global warming an increase in earth’s temperature due to the buildup of certain atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide. With the heavy use of fossil fuels in the 20th century atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide have risen dramatically. Carbon dioxide and other gases, known as green hose gases, reduce the escape of heat form the planet without blocking radiation coming from the sun. Because of this green house effect, average global temperatures are expected to rise 1.4 to 5.8 Celsius degrees (2.5 to 10.4 Fahrenheit degrees) by the year 2100. although this trend appears to be a small change the increase would make the earth warmer than it has been in the last 125,000 years, possibly changing climate patterns, affecting crop production, disrupting wild life distributions and raising the sea level. Air pollution can also damage the upper atmospheric region known as the stratosphere. Excessive production of chlorine containing compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons CFCs (compounds formerly used in refrigerators, air conditioners and in the manufacture of polystyrene products) has depleted the stratospheric ozone layer, creating a hole above Antarctica that lasts for several rays has damaged aquatic and terrestrial wild life and threatens human health in high latitude regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. B. water pollution: The demand for fresh water rises continuously as the world’s population grows. From 1940 to 1990 with drawls of fresh water Form Rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and other sources increased fourfold. Of the water consumed in the United States in 1995, 39 percent was used for irrigation, 39 percent was used of electric power generation and 12 percent was used for other utilities; industry and mining used 7 percent and the rest was used for agricultural livestock and commercial purposes.
133 Sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides are the main causes of water pollution. The us environmental protection agency EPA reports that about 37 percent of the country’s lakes and estuaries and 36 percent of its rivers are too polluted for basic used such as fishing or swimming during all or part of the year. In developing nations, more than 95 percent of urban sewage is discharged untreated into rivers and bays creating a major human health hazard. Water runoff a non point source of pollution carries fertilizing chemicals such as phosphates and nitrates from agricultural fields and yards into lakes, steams and rivers. These combine with the phosphates and nitrates form sewage to speed the growth of algae, a type of plantlike organism. The water body may then become choked with decaying algae, which severely depletes the oxygen supply. This process called eutrophication can cause the death of fish and other aquatic life. Can cause of death of fish and other aquatic life. Agricultural runoff may be to blame for the growth of a toxic form of algae called pfiesteria piscicida, which was responsible for killing large amounts of fish in bodies of water from the Delaware bay to the gulf of Mexico in the late 1990s. Runoff also carries toxic pesticides and urban and industrial wastes into lakes and streams. Erosion the wearing away of topsoil by wind and rain also contributes to water pollution. Soil and silt (a fine sediment) washed from logged hillsides, plowed fields or construction sites can clog water ways and kill aquatic vegetation. Even small amounts of silt can eliminate desirable fish species. For example when logging removes the protective plant cover form hillsides, rain may wash soil and silt into streams covering the gravel beds that trout or salmon use of spawning. The marine fisheries supported by ocean ecosystems are an essential source of protein, particularly for people in developing countries. Yet pollution in coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands threatens fish stocks already depleted by over fishing. In 1989, 26,000 barrels of oil spilled form the soil tanker Exxon Valdez into Alaska’s Prince William Sound a pristine and rich fishing ground. In 1999 there were 8,539 reported spills in and around us waters involving 4.4 billion liters (1.2 billion gallons) of oil. C. soil pollution: Soil is a mixture of mineral plant and animal materials that forms during a long process that may take thousands of years. It is necessary for most plant growth and is essential for all agricultural production. Soil pollution is a buildup of toxic chemical compounds, salts, pathogens (disease causing organisms), or radio active materials that can affect plant and animal life.
134 Unhealthy soil management methods have seriously degraded soil quality caused soil pollution and enhances erosion. Treating the soil with chemical fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides interferes with the natural processes occurring with in the soil and destroys useful organisms such as bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. For instance, strawberry farmers in California fumigate the soil with methyl bromide to destroy organisms that may harm young strawberry plants. This process indiscriminately kills even beneficial microorganisms and leaves the soil sterile and dependent upon fertilizer to support plant growth. This result in heavy fertilizer use and increases polluted runoff into lakes and streams. Improper irrigation practices in areas with poorly drained soil may result in salt deposits that inhibit plant growth and may lead to crop failure. In 2000 B.C the ancient Sumerian Mesopotamia depended in thriving agriculture. By 1500 B.C these cities had collapsed largely because of crop failure due to high soil salinity. The same soil pollution problem exists today in the Indus valley in Pakistan, the Nile valley in Egypt, and the Imperial Valley in California. D. solid waste: Solid wastes are unwanted solid materials such as garbage, paper, plastics and other synthetic materials, and wood. Billions of tons of solid waste are thrown out annually. The United States alone produces about 200 millions metric tons of municipal solid waste each year. A typical American generates and average of 2 kg (4 lb) of solid waste each day. Cities in economically developed countries produce far more solid waste per capita than those in developing countries. Moreover, waster from developed countries typically contains a high percentage of synthetic materials that take longer to decompose than the primarily biodegradable waste materials of developing countries. Areas where wastes are buries, called landfills are the cheapest and most common disposal methods for solid wastes word wide. But landfills quickly become overfilled and may contaminate air, soil, and water. Incineration or burning of waste reduces the volume of solid waste but produces dense ashen wastes (some of which become airborne) that often contain dangerous concentrations of hazardous materials such as heavy metals and toxic compounds. Composting, using natural biological processes to speed the decomposition of organic garbage and produces a material that can be used as a natural fertilizer. Recycling, extracting and reusing certain waste materials, has become and important part of municipal solid waste strategies in developed countries. According to EPA, more than one fourth of the municipal solid waste produces in the United States I s now recycled or composted. Recycling also plays a significant, informal role in solid waste management for many Asian countries such as India, where organized
135 waste pickers comb streets and dumps for items such as plastics which they use or resell. Expanding recycling programs world wide can help reduce solid waste pollution but the key to solving severe solid waste problems lies in reducing the amount of waste generated. Waste prevention or source reduction such as altering the way products are designed or manufactured to make them easier to reuse, reduces the high costs associated with environmental pollution. E. hazardous waste: Hazardous wastes are solid, liquid or gas waste that may be deadly or harmful to people or the environment and tend to be persistent or non degradable in nature. Such wastes include toxic chemicals and flammable or radioactive substances, including industrial wastes from chemical plants or nuclear reactors, agricultural wastes such as pesticides and fertilizers, medical wastes, and household hazardous wastes such as toxic paints and solvents. About 400 millions metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year. The United States alone produces about 250 millions metric tons- 70 percent from the chemical industry. The use, storage, transportation, and disposal of these substances pose serious environmental and health risks. Even brief exposure to some of these materials can cause cancer, birth defects, nervous system, disorders and deaths. Large scale releases of hazardous materials may cause thousands of deaths and contaminate air, water and soil for many years. The world’s worst nuclear reactor accident tool place near Chernobyl, Ukraine in 1986. the accident killed at least 31 people, forced the evacuation and relocation of more than 200,000 more and sent a plume of radioactive material into the atmosphere that contaminated areas as for way as Norway and the united kingdom. Until the mina Mata bay contamination was discovered in Japan in the 1960s and 1970s most hazardous wastes were legally dumped in solid waste landfills, buried or dumped into lakes, rivers and oceans. Legal regulations now restrict how such material s may be used or disposed, but such laws are difficult to enforce and often contested by industry. It is not uncommon for industrial firms in shipments of solid and hazardous wastes, a practice that has become known as the waste trade. Moreover cleaning up the careless dumping of the mid 20th century is costing billions of dollars and progressing very slowly, if at all. The United States has an estimated 217,000 hazardous waste dumps that need immediate action. Cleaning them up could take more than 30 years and cost $187 billions.
136 Hazardous wastes of particular concern are the radioactive wastes form the nuclear power and weapons industries. To date there is no safe method for permanent disposal of old fuel elements form nuclear reactors. Most are kept in storage facilities at the original reactor sites where they were generated. with the end of the cold war, nuclear warheads that are decommissioned, or no longer in use also pose storage and disposal problems. F. noise pollution: Unwanted sound or noise such as that produces by air planes, traffic or industrial machinery is considered a form of pollution. Noise pollution is at its worst in densely populated areas. It can cause hearing loss, stress, high blood pressure, sleep loss, distraction and lost productivity. Sounds are produce by objects that vibrate at a rate that the ear4 can detect. This rate is called frequency and is measured in hertz or vibrations per second. Most humans can hear sounds between 20 and 20,000 hertz, while dogs can hear high pitched sounds up to 50,000 hertz. While high frequency sounds tends to be more hazardous and more annoying to hearing than low frequency sounds most noise pollution damage is related to the intensity of the sound or the amount of energy it has. Measured in decibels noise intensity can range form zero the quietest sound the human ear can detect to over 160 decibels, Conversation takes place at around 40 decibels a subway train is about 80 decibels and a rock concert is from 80 to 100 decibels. The intensity of nearby jet taking off is about 100 decibels. The threshold for pain tissue damage and potential hearing loss in human is 120 decibels. Long lasting, high intensity sounds are the most damaging to hearing the produce the most stress in humans. Solutions to noise pollution include adding insulation and sound proofing to doors, walls, and ceiling; using ear protection, particularly in industrial working areas; planting vegetation to absorb and screen out noise pollution; and zoning urban areas to maintain a separation between residential areas and zones of excessive noise. History: Much of what we know of ancient civilizations comes from the wastes they left behind. Refuse such as animal skeletons and implements from Stone Age cave dwellings in Europe, china and the Middle East helps reveal hunting techniques, diet, clothing, tool usage and the use of fire for by archaeologists in coastal areas of north America reveal information about the shellfish diet and eating habits of native Americans who lived more than 10,000 years ago.
137 As humans developed new technologies, the magnitude and severity of pollution increased. Many historians speculate that the extensive use of lead plumbing for drinking water in Rome caused chronic lead poisoning in those who could afford such plumbing. The mining and smelting or ores that accompanied the transition from the Stone Age to the metal age resulted in piles of mining wastes that spread potentially toxic elements such as mercury, copper, lead and nickel throughout the environment. Evidence of pollution during the early industrial revolution is widespread. Sample of hair from historical figures such as Newton and napoleon show the presence of toxic elements such as antimony and mercury. By the 1800s certain trades were associated with characteristic occupational diseases; chimney sweeps contracted cancer of the scrotum the external sac of skin enclosing the testes, of reproductive glands form hydrocarbons in chimney soot; hatters became disoriented, or mad form nerve destroying mercury salts used to treat felt fabric and bootblacks suffered liver damage form boot polish solvents. By the 21st century, pollution had evolved form a mainly localized problem to one of global consequences in which pollutants not only persisted in the environment, but changed atmospheric and climatic conditions. The mina Mata bay disaster was the first major indication that human would need to pay more attention to their waste products and waste disposal practices, in particular hazardous waste disposal. In the years that followed, many more instances of neglect or carelessness resulted in dangerous levels of contamination. In 1976 an explosion at chemical factory in sereso, Italy, released clouds of toxic dioxin into the area, exposing hundreds of residents and killing thousands of animals that ate exposed food. In 1978 if was discovered that the love canal housing development in New York State was built on a former chemical waste dump. The development was declared uninhabitable. The world’s worst industrial accident occurred in Bhopal, India in 1984. a deadly gas leaked from American chemical plant, killing more than 3800 people and injuring more than 200,000. The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident demonstrated the dangerous contamination effects of large, uncontained disasters. In an unprecedented action, pollution was used as a military tactic in 1991 during the confliction the Persian Gulf. The Iraqi military internationally released as much as 1 billion liters (336 million gallons) of crude oil into the Persian Gulf and set fire to more than 700 oil wells, sending thick, black smoke into the atmosphere overt the Middle East.
138 Controlling pollution: Because of the many environmental tragedies of the mid 20th century many nations instituted comprehensive regulations designed to repair the past damage of uncontrolled pollution and prevent future environmental contamination. In the United States, the clean air 1970 and its amendments significantly reduced certain types of air pollution such as sulfur dioxide emission. The clean water act 1977 and safe drinking water act 1974 regulated pollution discharges and set water quality standards. The toxic substances control act 1976 and the resources conservation and recovery act 1976 provided for the testing g and control of toxic and hazardous wastes. In 1980 congress passed the comprehensive environmental response, compensation and liability act CERCLA also known as superfund, to provide funds to cleanup the most severely contaminated hazardous waste sites. These and several other federal and state laws helped limit uncontrolled pollution but progress has been slow and many severe contamination problems remain due to lack of funds for cleanup and enforcement. International agreements have also played a role in reducing global pollution. The Montréal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer 1987 set international target dates of reducing the manufacture and emission of chemicals, such as cfcs, known to deplete the ozone layer. The Basel convention on the control of Tran boundary movements of hazardous wasted and their disposal 1989 serves as a framework for the international regulation of hazardous waste transport and disposal. Since 1992 representatives from more than 160 nations have met regularly to discuss methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 1997 the Kyoto protocol was devised, calling for industrialized countries to reduce their gas emissions by 2012 an average 5 percent below 1990 levels. The Kyoto protocol went into force in February 2005 with more than 130 countries having ratified it. Under the administration of President George W. Bush, however the United States a major producer of greenhouse gases, refused to submit the treaty for ratification. In 2006 the global carbon project reported that carbon dioxide emissions were increasing at an annual rate of 2.5 percent in the first five years of the 21st century compared with an annual increase of 1 percent in the 1990s. Regulations and legislations have led to considerable progress in cleaning up some air and water pollution in developed countries. Vehicles in 21st century emit fewer nitrogen oxides than those in the 1970s did; power plants now burn low sulfur fuels; industrial stacks have scrubbers to reduce emissions; and lead has been removed from gasoline. Developing countries however continue to struggle with pollution control because they lack clean technologies and desperately need
139 to improve economic strength, often at the cost of environmental quality. The problem is compounded by developing countries attracting foreign investments and industry by offering cheaper labor, cheaper raw materials, and fewer environmental restrictions. The maquiladoras, assemble plants along the Mexican side of Mexico us border, provide jobs and industry of Mexico but are generally owned by non Mexican corporations attracted to low wage labor and including the Rio Grande, Is one of the most heavily disaster and increased poverty, developing countries will require aid and technology form outside nations and corporations, community participation in developments initiatives and strong environmental regulations. Nongovernmental citizen groups have formed at the local, national and international level to combat pollution problems world wide. Many of these organizations provide information and support for people or organizations traditionally not involved in the decision making process. The pesticide action network provides technical information about the effects of pesticides on farm workers. The citizen’s clearing house of or hazardous waste, established by veterans of love canal controversy provides support for communities targeted for hazardous waste installations. A well organized, grassroots, environmental justice movement has arisen to advocate equitable environmental protections. Greenpeace is and activist organization that focuses international attention on industries and governments known to contaminate land, sea, or atmosphere with toxic or solid wastes. “Friends of the Earth International” is a federation of international organizations that fight environmental pollution around the world.
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