• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY

The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 321
The Development of
Phased-Array Radar Technology
Alan J. Fenn, Donald H. Temme, William P. Delaney, and William E. Courtney
s Lincoln Laboratory has been involved in the development of phased-array
radar technology since the late 1950s. Radar research activities have included
theoretical analysis, application studies, hardware design, device fabrication, and
system testing. Early phased-array research was centered on improving the
national capability in phased-array radars. The Laboratory has developed several
test-bed phased arrays, which have been used to demonstrate and evaluate
components, beamforming techniques, calibration, and testing methodologies.
The Laboratory has also contributed significantly in the area of phased-array
antenna radiating elements, phase-shifter technology, solid-state transmit-and-
receive modules, and monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC)
technology. A number of developmental phased-array radar systems have
resulted from this research, as discussed in other articles in this issue. A wide
variety of processing techniques and system components have also been
developed. This article provides an overview of more than forty years of this
phased-array radar research activity.
affordable array radar with thousands of array ele-
ments, all working in tightly orchestrated phase co-
herence, would not be built for a very long time. In
retrospect, both the enthusiasts and the skeptics were
right. The dream of electronic beam movement was
achievable, but it has taken a long time to achieve the
dream, and it is not yet fully realized—we still need to
reduce the cost of phased-array radars. We are cer-
tainly encouraged, however, by the progress in mod-
ern solid state phased arrays.
The Beginning
Lincoln Laboratory started working on phased-array
radar development projects around 1958 in the Spe-
cial Radars group of the Radio Physics division. The
initial application was satellite surveillance, and the
level of national interest in this work was very high
after the Soviet Union’s launch of the first artificial
earth satellite—Sputnik I—in 1957. The Laboratory
had played a key role in the development of the Mill-
stone Hill radar under the leadership of Herbert G.
T
ui coxciir oi aiiay axrixxas was certainly
not new when Lincoln Laboratory’s phased-
array radar development began around 1958.
Early radio transmitters and the early World War II
radars used multiple radiating elements to achieve de-
sired antenna radiation patterns. The Army’s “bed
spring” array, which first bounced radar signals off the
moon in the mid-1940s, is an example of an early ar-
ray radar. A new initiative in the 1950s led to the use
of rapid electronic phasing of the individual array an-
tenna elements to steer the radar beam with the flex-
ibility and speed of electronics rather than with much
slower and less flexible mechanical steering. Many in-
dustrial firms, government laboratories, and aca-
demic institutions were involved in developing meth-
ods for electronic beam steering. In fact, this research
area in the 1950s could be characterized as “one thou-
sand ways to steer a radar beam.” Bert Fowler has
written an entertaining recollection of many of these
efforts from the 1950s to the present [1].
Many skeptics at that time believed a workable and
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
322 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000
Weiss, a radar visionary. At that time, the Millstone
Hill radar was one of the few radar instruments in the
world with satellite detection and tracking capability.
Weiss, along with others in the U.S. Air Force, fore-
saw that the United States would soon need the capa-
bility to detect all satellites passing over its territory.
The volume of radar surveillance needed to accom-
plish this task was clearly enormous, which meant
that radars of great power, antenna aperture, and
beam agility would be required.
One approach to solving this surveillance problem
was to build a large planar array of some five thou-
sand UHF elements. Weiss’s intuition told him the
nation was not yet equipped with the capability to
produce reliable low-cost components that would al-
low engineers to implement a radar with five thou-
sand individual transmitters and receivers. The coun-
try, however, did have some big UHF klystrons in the
Millstone Hill radar transmitter (2.5-MW peak
power, 100-kW average power), and klystrons such as
these could be incorporated into a phased-array radar
of sorts. Thus began a search of a variety of hybrid
mechanically scanned and electronically scanned an-
tenna-array configurations that would use a few of
these big klystrons.
Figure 1 is a drawing of the favored hybrid con-
cept, which featured a cylindrical receiver reflector
140 ft high by 620 ft long [2]. Three rotating vertical
linear arrays formed multiple receive beams in eleva-
tion angle, which were mechanically scanned across
the cylindrical reflector. The klystron transmitters
were coupled to three horizontal linear arrays that did
not use the reflector, nor did they electronically scan.
They formed a fan beam in elevation angle, which
was scanned across a large portion of the sky as a re-
sult of the mechanical drive in a large center hub
(hence this massive machine was given the irreverent
nickname “centrakluge”). Average power output from
a group of 900-MHz klystrons was to be one mega-
watt. This hybrid array concept had great power,
great receiving aperture, and a rapid wide-angle scan
capability. It was configured to survey huge volumes
of space, so that one installation could detect all satel-
lites passing over the United States up to an orbital al-
titude of three thousand nautical miles.
The Laboratory’s focus at the start of this develop-
ment effort was to find efficient ways to build the
long linear phased arrays for the receivers. A variety of
beamforming schemes were investigated, including
beamformers at intermediate frequencies (where high
losses could be tolerated), radio-frequency (RF) di-
ode-switched phase shifters (where losses needed to
be kept very low), and RF multibeam beamformers.
This hybrid electronic-scan/mechanical-scan ap-
proach had critics who argued that it could track sat-
ellites only in a track-while-scan mode, and it could
not track high-interest satellites outside of its some-
what restricted vertical search window. The nation
FIGURE 1. Drawing of a proposed 1950s-era hybrid phased-array radar that combined mechani-
cally scanned and electronically scanned antenna-array configurations.
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 323
seemed to favor the five-thousand-element, full
phased-array approach, an option that was encour-
aged by a significant U.S. Air Force effort on elec-
tronic scanning array radar (ESAR) at the Bendix
Corporation. Also, many engineers in the defense
community of that era really wanted the nation to
build a full planar phased-array radar.
The increase in national interest in ballistic missile
defense shifted everyone’s focus toward planar phased
arrays because the challenges and intricacies of active
missile defense would demand every ounce of radar
beam agility, flexibility, power aperture, and wide-
angle scan that the radar community could muster.
Therefore, interest in linear arrays faded—planar ar-
rays were what was needed—but the nation was still a
long way from achieving the dream of an affordable
planar phased array.
The Early Years
By 1959, a cadre within the Special Radars group at
the Laboratory had formed around a phased-array vi-
sionary, John L. Allen, to push the development of
phased arrays for a wide variety of military missions,
with ballistic missile defense as the mission for which
such radars were most obviously needed. Allen’s goal
was to conduct a broad development effort on arrays,
starting from array theory and extending to practical
hardware developments, in order to improve the na-
tional capability in phased arrays to a point where we
had reliable and reasonable-cost array components, a
variety of beam-scanning techniques, and a sound
understanding of array theory. The work had to have
a practical orientation, and the Laboratory’s effort
had to connect with and influence the wide diversity
of array research going on in industry and govern-
ment laboratories.
Thus in 1959 the Laboratory launched a broad at-
tack on new developments in theory and hardware,
and through the ensuing five years the phased-array
effort functioned very much as an intellectual open
house to share insights with other researchers and as a
clearinghouse to help industry try out its ideas. The
Laboratory developments were chronicled in a series
of yearly reports entitled “Phased-Array Radar Stud-
ies,” which were best-sellers in the array community
[3–6].
The Sixteen-Element Test Array
The strong emphasis on making phased arrays into
practical devices led to the construction of a 900-
MHz, sixteen-element linear-array fixture as an array
test bed, where array components, such as antenna el-
ements, low-noise amplifiers, intermediate-frequency
(IF) amplifiers, mixers, transmitters, and beamform-
ing techniques could be tried, tested, and exercised.
The array test bed was mounted as a feed looking into
a parabolic cylinder reflector, and this whole antenna
structure was mounted on a rotating pedestal and
housed in a radome on the rooftop of Lincoln
Laboratory’s C Building, as shown in Figure 2. A wide
variety of embryonic phased-array receiver and trans-
mitter components were developed and tested in this
sixteen-element array over the first five years of the
Laboratory’s program.
FIGURE 2. Sixteen-element linear-array test-bed facility at
Lincoln Laboratory in 1960. Phased-array components such
as antenna elements, low-noise amplifiers, intermediate-fre-
quency amplifiers, mixers, transmitters, and beamforming
techniques were tested in this facility.
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
324 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000
Phased-Array Components
The initial experimentation with array antenna ele-
ments started with log-periodic structures that were
reported to have a desirable low mutual coupling.
The early experiments, however, showed that dipole
elements were better candidates for arrays, and much
of the ensuing work was on dipole radiators.
Low-noise front-end amplifiers for phased-array
receivers were a substantial area of investigation.
Work started with a complex electronic device called
the electron-beam parametric amplifier, invented by
Robert Adler at Zenith Radio Corporation and Glen
Wade at Stanford University. More conventional di-
ode-based parametric amplifiers were also investi-
gated. The desire for simpler and lower-cost ap-
proaches led to work on tunnel-diode amplifiers; this
effort finally settled on low-noise transistor amplifiers
with the advent of the field-effect transistor.
IF amplifiers, mixers, and transmitters using me-
dium-power tetrodes were also developed and tested
in configurations that would allow them to fit in a
planar-array structure at 900 MHz.
One of the major efforts was in the development of
various ways to steer the radar beam electronically.
Beamformers that worked at IF were one of the earli-
est approaches, and a variety of schemes were built
and tested. Techniques that worked directly at RF
were also investigated. One invention of that time
was the Butler beamforming matrix, which received
early and comprehensive testing at Lincoln Labora-
tory after its invention by Jesse Butler of Sanders As-
sociates around 1960 [7, 8]. An interesting nuance of
the Butler matrix was its microwave wiring diagram,
which was identical to the computational flow graph
of the fast Fourier transform that hit the headlines a
number of years later. In retrospect, this similarity
was no surprise, because the Butler matrix was indeed
a Fourier transformer [9, 10]. In fact, the Laboratory
built a low-frequency version of the Butler matrix to
serve as a Fourier transformer for a radar burst-wave-
form-matched filter.
The search for digital devices that could electroni-
cally scan radar beams led to a major research effort in
digital diode-switched microwave phase shifters. The
Laboratory’s work in this area contributed substan-
tially to the development of workable diode phase
shifters that found their way into a wide variety of
phased-array radars. This diode phase-shifter work
and related ferrite phase-shifter work are described in
a subsequent section of this article.
Retrospective on the Early Years
There were several enduring values to the phased-ar-
ray work in these early years. First, the Laboratory
quickly became “wet all over” in this new technology
of phased arrays. The work covered a broad front, in-
cluding theory, hardware, experimental arrays, and
systems analysis on military problems requiring
phased arrays. Second, the focus on driving for the
practical, low-cost, highly reliable components that
would make phased arrays a viable future option
helped set the appropriate tone for the national re-
search agenda in phased arrays of that era.* Third, the
Lincoln Laboratory group under the leadership of
John Allen was very much an open house and a forum
for industry, academic, and government workers of
that day. In this fashion, the work performed at the
Laboratory had an amplified impact that went well
beyond the efforts of the ten or so researchers in the
Laboratory phased-array radar group.
The Ensuing Years
In subsequent years, Lincoln Laboratory made sig-
nificant contributions to phased-array technology, in-
cluding array-element design, phase shifters, solid-
state transmit-and-receive modules, gallium-arsenide
monolithic microwave integrated circuits, and array
calibration and testing.
* In 1970 Lincoln Laboratory cosponsored a phased-array
symposium [11] in New York City, which brought together
many contributors to the field of phased-array technology.
The symposium covered all the major aspects of phased-ar-
ray theory, design, and manufacturing, including array-ele-
ment design, feed networks and beam-steering methods,
phase-shifter technology, solid state technology, and array-
testing techniques. Carl Blake and Bliss L. Diamond of the
Laboratory were prominent in the organization of this sig-
nificant phased-array meeting, which assessed the state of the
art and provided a comprehensive, up-to-date source of in-
formation on phased-array antennas.
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 325
Array-Element Design
One of the fundamental difficulties in designing a
phased array is that significant portions of the micro-
wave power transmitted by one element of the array
can be received by the surrounding array antenna ele-
ments. This effect, which is known as array mutual
coupling, can result in a substantial or total loss of
transmitted or received radar signal, depending on
the coherent combination of all of the mutual-cou-
pling signals in the array. The amplitudes and phases
of the array mutual-coupling signals depend prima-
rily on the shape of the radiating antenna elements,
the spacing between the array elements, and the num-
ber of radiating elements. There are as many different
design possibilities for phased arrays as there are doz-
ens of different radiating array elements to choose
from, and the spacing and number of radiating ele-
ments can vary widely, depending on the scanning re-
quirements. Naturally, we needed to understand fully
the mutual-coupling aspects of whatever radiated ele-
ment was selected. Thus the Laboratory investigated
many different array-element designs, taking into ac-
count mutual-coupling effects.
The Laboratory’s investigation of the theory of ar-
ray antennas began in 1958 and has continued
through the ensuing years. Allen’s early work contrib-
uted markedly to the understanding of array antennas
in that era [12]. There was a strong focus on under-
standing and modeling array mutual coupling and its
impact on array performance. As described below,
this theoretical and experimental work was continued
at the Laboratory by Diamond [13], Diamond and
George H. Knittel [14], Gerasimos N. Tsandoulas
[15–19], and Alan J. Fenn [20, 21].
A significant challenge in designing phased arrays
is meeting requirements of scan volume and band-
width while avoiding blind spots and maintaining
low sidelobes [11, 22–26]. Figure 3(a) shows the con-
cept of a corporate-fed phased-array antenna that uses
phase shifters to electronically steer the radar beam
over the scan sector. The RF source produces a radar
waveform that is divided up into individual paths
called element channels, each containing a phase
shifter and amplifier.
Figure 3(b) shows an idealized element-radiation
FIGURE 3. General concept of a phased-array antenna that
electronically combines element patterns to point the radar
beam in a particular direction. (a) The antenna uses phase
shifters to steer the radar beam electronically over the scan
sector. The radio-frequency (RF) source produces a radar
waveform that is divided up into individual paths called ele-
ment channels, each containing a phase shifter and ampli-
fier. (b) An idealized radiation pattern from a single antenna
element covers the scan sector, with signal strength drop-
ping outside of the sector. (c) When all the phase shifters of
the array are properly aligned, the array produces a main
beam in the desired pointing direction.
Scan sector
Angle
Power divider
θ
φ φ φ φ φ φ φ
Amplifiers
Phase shifters
Antenna
elements
RF source
(a)
(c)
(b)
. . . . . .
Mutual coupling
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
326 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000
Phased-array radiating elements, primarily for air-
borne applications, were investigated at Lincoln Lab-
oratory during the period from 1968 to 1980.
Waveguide elements of various designs (rectangular,
square, and circular) were studied in great detail, both
theoretically and experimentally [13–19]. Diamond
analyzed waveguide elements [13]; later, with Knittel,
he developed a phased-array-element design proce-
dure [14]. They also showed that small arrays can be
used effectively to design array-radiating elements for
large arrays [33].
A computer program known as RWED (rectangu-
lar waveguide-element design) [34] was developed for
FIGURE 4. Conceptual images of blind-spot occurrence in a
phased-array antenna. These results are typical of an array
designed without regard for array mutual-coupling effects.
A blind spot occurs when either (a) the array element pat-
tern has a null or (b) the element reflection coefficient has
unity magnitude. The blind spot is often caused by array mu-
tual coupling, which tends to direct the radiation in the plane
of the array as a surface wave, rather than as a wave propa-
gating away from the array. Careful design of the array ele-
ment shape, size, and spacing can prevent the occurrence of
blind spots.
0
–10
–20
–30
–40
–90 –60 –30 0 30 60 90
R
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
1
0
Blind spots
Blind spots
Scan sector
Scan sector
Ideal
Ideal
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

g
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
Scan angle (deg)
Blind spots must be
avoided over the
desired scan sector
(a)
(b)
pattern that covers the scan sector, with signal
strength dropping outside of the sector. When all the
phase shifters of the array are properly aligned, the ar-
ray produces a main beam in the desired pointing di-
rection, as shown in Figure 3(c). Generally, the corpo-
rate feed is designed with minimal crosstalk between
channels. Once the signals have reached the radiating
antenna elements, however, a significant amount of
crosstalk (i.e., array mutual coupling) occurs. The
amplitudes and phases of these mutual-coupling sig-
nals can seriously impact the performance of the
phased array.
If the array-element spacing is around one-half-
wavelength, substantial amounts of mutual coupling
can occur. This coupling manifests itself in often del-
eterious changes in the element’s radiation pattern
and its reflection coefficient. Unless care is taken in
the design of the array, blind spots in the radar-scan
sector can occur. These blind spots are angles where
the element pattern has a null and the reflection coef-
ficient of the array has a peak close to unity, as de-
picted in Figure 4. At these blind spots the total radar
signal is significantly reduced in amplitude.
Sometimes we would like to place a blind spot in
directions where it is undesirable to transmit or re-
ceive radar energy. For example, Figure 5 compares a
broadside-peak radiator (dipole or waveguide aper-
ture) and a broadside-null radiator (monopole an-
tenna). The latter element is useful when broadside
radiation is undesirable, such as in reducing broadside
clutter and jamming. As the radar beam is steered
away from 0° (broadside) toward 60°, the conven-
tional broadside-peak-type element radiation pattern
drops off, but the broadside-null-type element radia-
tion pattern increases to a peak at about 45° to 50°.
Early developments of phased-array radiating ele-
ment technology were conducted at Lincoln Labora-
tory during the period from 1959 to 1967. Beginning
in 1959, the Laboratory contributed to the theoreti-
cal understanding of phased arrays, particularly the
effects of array mutual coupling on the performance
of various configurations of dipole arrays; for ex-
ample, the reports by Allen et al. [3–6, 27–32]. Figure
6 shows one of the early L-band dipole-phased-array
test beds used in measuring array-element patterns,
mutual coupling, and array active-scan impedance.
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 327
tenna for a space-based-radar surveillance system in-
tended to detect and track aircraft, ships, armored ve-
hicles, ballistic missiles, and cruise missiles [35]. As a
part of this work, the Laboratory made major contri-
butions to the analysis, design, calibration, and test-
ing of space-based-radar antenna systems. A phased-
array radar orbiting the earth must demonstrate a
number of unique characteristics that require novel
antenna technology if the radar is to satisfy mission
needs. For example, radar clutter is very large when
seen by a space-borne radar looking down at the
earth. In addition, the radar satellite speed is very fast,
and the Doppler shifts of the radar clutter echoes tend
to mask the desired radar-target returns. Thus meth-
ods for canceling radar clutter, as viewed from space,
are necessary. The radar also requires nulling of large
ground-based jammers.
FIGURE 6. An early L-band dipole phased-array test bed de-
veloped by the Sperry Rand Corporation, used in Lincoln
Laboratory array investigations during the 1960s.
FIGURE 5. The radiation patterns of (a) a conventional
broadside-peak radiating element (dipole or waveguide) and
(b) a broadside-null radiating element (monopole). A broad-
side-null element places a blind spot in directions where it is
undesirable to transmit or receive radar energy
phased-array analysis, using the Diamond theoretical
formulation. This software was widely circulated by
the Laboratory to the phased-array industry, where it
has been used extensively for designing waveguide
phased arrays.
In the early 1970s, Tsandoulas at Lincoln Labora-
tory utilized the waveguide-array-analysis software
developed by Diamond to design low-sidelobe wave-
guide phased arrays for airborne application in a dis-
placed-phase-center radar antenna [15]. Figure 7
shows a set of measured low-sidelobe L-band phased-
array beam-scanning patterns for the Multiple-An-
tenna Surveillance Radar (MASR) (see also the article
entitled “Displaced-Phase-Center Antenna Tech-
nique,” by Charles Edward Muehe and Melvin
Labitt, in this issue).
In the mid-1980s, Lincoln Laboratory was heavily
involved in the development of a phased-array an-
φ
60°

θ
Scan sector
(a)
(b)
φ
θ

60°
30°
Scan
sector
Scan
sector
60°
60°
30°
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
328 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000
System aspects of the Lincoln Laboratory–de-
signed space-based radar are described in the previ-
ously mentioned article by Muehe and Labitt in this
issue. The Laboratory’s low-altitude space-based-ra-
dar concept favored monopole-type radiators that
had minimum radiation in the subsatellite (nadir) di-
rection, to reduce radar clutter and jamming. Fenn
investigated this problem both theoretically and ex-
perimentally for vertically polarized monopoles [20]
and for horizontally polarized loops [21]. Figure 8
shows an L-band space-based-radar phased-array an-
tenna test bed with 96 active monopole radiating ele-
ments (resembling a bed of nails). This displaced-
phase-center array achieved a measured clutter
cancellation on the order of 40 dB, as shown in the
graph in Figure 9.
A displaced-phase-center antenna designed for
clutter cancellation normally turns off elements in or-
der to shift the array phase center. Thus the phase
center can be moved only in discrete columns or
rows, dictated by the element spacing. For the space-
based radar, a method utilizing an amplitude taper for
moving the phase center an arbitrary distance (in-
cluding a fraction of a column) was developed [36].
Low-sidelobe antenna patterns and adaptive null-
ing are useful in suppressing both jamming and radar
clutter. An ultralow-sidelobe adaptive-array antenna
at UHF called RSTER (Radar Surveillance Technol-
ogy Experimental Radar) was developed by Westing-
house Corporation for Lincoln Laboratory, with aver-
age sidelobes in azimuth on the order of 60 dB below
the main lobe (see the article entitled “Radars for the
Detection and Tracking of Cruise Missiles,” by Lee
O. Upton and Lewis A. Thurman, in this issue). This
array used a corporate beamformer, with special care
taken to reduce amplitude errors and phase-illumina-
tion errors across the array [37].
Phase Shifters
Lincoln Laboratory worked intensively in the late
1950s and in the 1960s to develop phase shifters for
the electronic beam steering of phased-array radars
desired in that time period. Many of the Laboratory
development efforts in the area of phase shifters and
related programs at that time are described in a book
chapter by William J. Ince and Donald H. Temme
[38].
FIGURE 8. Displaced-phase-center monopole phased-array antenna test bed with 96 active
monopole radiating elements. This L-band antenna was used for space-based-radar clutter-
cancellation measurements.
FIGURE 7. Low-sidelobe radiation patterns from the L-band
Multiple-Antenna Surveillance Radar (MASR) waveguide
phased-array antenna at midband. The beams are scanned
to a maximum of ±45° in azimuth. Typically, the first sidelobe
is at the –36-dB to –38-dB level, with the peaks of all others
below –42 dB (except one shown). The achieved low-side-
lobe levels represent the best performance at the time for
electronically scanned array antennas.
0
–10
–20
–30
–40
–48 –24 0
Scan angle (deg)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
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g
a
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(
d
B
)
24 48 72 –72
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 329
The first fielded phased-array radar, called ESAR
(Electronically Scanned Array Radar), was built by
Bendix and completed in 1960 [39]. ESAR had IF
analog phase shifters and an IF beamformer. This
beamforming technique was bulky and required good
temperature control. One of the Laboratory’s early
initiatives in phased-array beam steering was the de-
velopment of digital IF beam-steering techniques that
emphasized smaller size and simplicity in control.
This approach utilized diode-controlled digital phase
shifters that switched in and out fractional wave-
lengths of transmission line arranged in a binary cas-
cade and placed in each antenna channel to properly
phase the elements of the radiating array.
These phase shifters, an example of which is shown
in Figure 10, were tested in an experimental linear ar-
ray. They tended to have high loss (several dB) at mi-
crowave frequencies, which is certainly a drawback.
Concurrently, new RF positive-intrinsic-negative
(PIN) diodes used in microwave switching studies led
to simpler lower-loss phase shifters. A. Uhlir of Bell
Telephone Laboratories had shown theoretically how
the PIN diode would be ideal for microwave switches,
with a low impedance when DC-forward-biased and
a high impedance when DC-reverse-biased [38]. The
DC-injected carriers in a PIN diode have long life-
times compared to an RF period, but not for an IF
period. Thus, for RF frequencies, the PIN diode does
not rectify but has a low impedance when flooded
with DC-injected carriers and a high impedance (be-
coming a small capacitor) without injected carriers.
Temme at Lincoln Laboratory used these PIN di-
odes to construct the first-ever digital-diode L-band
low-loss phase shifter [5], which is shown in Figure
11. Low-loss diode phase shifters were implemented
in several fielded phased-array radars used in missile
detection, such as HAPDAR (Hard Point Demon-
stration Array Radar), AN/FPS-85, MSR (Missile
Site Radar), Cobra Dane, and the S-band Cobra Judy
[4, 39–41]. MSR used a different circuit configura-
tion, which was devised by J.F. White [42] to achieve
substantially higher RF power capabilities. When two
equal shunt reactances are spaced a quarter-wave-
length apart on a transmission line, a match remains
and a phase shift is introduced. Each shunt reactance
was connected and disconnected across the transmis-
sion line via a PIN-diode switch to obtain a small
variable phase shift, but at a large power level. Sixteen
pairs were used in the MSR phase shifter. The power
FIGURE 9. The displaced-phase-center antenna test-bed ar-
ray shown in Figure 8 achieved a measured clutter-cancella-
tion ratio on the order of 40 dB. The theoretical curves in-
clude only array mutual-coupling effects [80].
FIGURE 10. Early intermediate-frequency six-bit digital phase shifter. Each bit consists of a length
of coaxial cable that can be switched into the signal path to produce the desired phase shift.
70
C
l
u
t
t
e
r
-
c
a
n
c
e
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
i
o

(
d
B
)
60
50
40
Measured at array scan angle
s
= 40°
40°
55°
Theory
30
1 0 2 3 4 5 6
s
= 30°
θ
Phase-center displacement (columns)
θ
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
330 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000
level, the bandwidth, and the RF loss are interrelated
by the reactance and diode parameters.
The L-band HAPDAR phased-array radar [41]
was built by Sperry and was completed in 1965. The
UHF AN/FPS-85 [43] phased-array radar was built
by Bendix and was completed in 1968. The S-band
MSR was built by Raytheon and was completed in
1969. The L-band Cobra Dane phased-array radar,
located in Shemya, Alaska, for observation of Soviet
missile tests, was built by Raytheon and was com-
pleted in 1976. The article in this issue entitled
“Wideband Radar for Ballistic Missile Defense and
Range-Doppler Imaging of Satellites,” by William W.
Camp et al., describes the Cobra Dane radar in more
detail. Four UHF Position and Velocity Extraction
(PAVE) Phased Array Warning System (PAWS) [44]
phased-array radars (all solid state) were built by
Raytheon, and are still used for missile warning and
space surveillance.
Ferrite phase shifters, a development that started
later than diode phase shifters, promised better per-
formance than diode phase shifters (primarily lower
microwave loss) at S-band and higher frequencies.
Early discussions and analyses were done at the Labo-
ratory, which contributed to the early microwave-fer-
rite development [45].
The ferrite phase shifter with a dielectric-loaded
toroid was conceived and analyzed at the Laboratory.
It was the first phase shifter with less than one dB in-
sertion loss that could handle kilowatts of peak power
FIGURE 12. A Westinghouse production model of a four-bit
C-band ferrite phase shifter, with the waveguide cover re-
moved.
in the microwave region [46]. Figure 12 shows a pho-
tograph of a production model of this digital ferrite
phase shifter. The development of improved ferrite
materials was an important aspect of attaining the
good performance promised by ferrite phase shifters.
Understanding the mechanical stress on the ferrite
toroid led to the development of ferrite material com-
positions with less stress sensitivity, as investigated by
Ernest Stern, Temme, and Gerald F. Dionne [47–49].
A lower-cost ferrite material—lithium ferrite—de-
veloped by the Laboratory with the assistance of
Ampex Corporation had less temperature sensitivity
to the magnetization that directly controls the phase
FIGURE 11. A four-bit low-loss hybrid L-band diode phase shifter. The stripline ground planes
have been removed for clarity.
BeO
slabs
Driver
terminal
Cooling fins
90° element
45° element
22.5° element
180° element
Dielectric
separators
Two-section
quarter-wave
transformer
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 331
mit/receive-module development program. The goals
of this program were to utilize monolithic microwave
integrated circuits (MMIC) and gallium-arsenide
digital circuitry to produce low-weight, small-size,
highly radiation resistant, highly efficient, and afford-
able modules that were capable of controlling signal
phase accurately over the anticipated temperature
range, with adequate RF-power generation, low DC-
power consumption, and low-noise operation. Figure
13 illustrates the configuration of the L-band trans-
mit/receive module. Both General Electric and Ray-
theon produced several versions of transmit/receive
modules for this program; Figure 14 shows a General
Electric module.
Lightweight L-band transmit/receive module tech-
nology developed for space-based radar applications
was utilized in the Iridium commercial satellite
communications system, which used phased-array
antennas [53]. Gallium-arsenide MMIC transmit/re-
ceive-module technology is used in the Theater High-
Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) X-band phased-ar-
ray radar system [54] built by Raytheon Corporation.
shift. The use of this material also permitted the ex-
tension of ferrite-phase-shifter operation to millime-
ter-wavelength frequencies [50]. A flux-drive tech-
nique, also developed by the Laboratory, enabled
phase setting of phase shifters with low temperature
sensitivity and five-bit accuracy without the penalty
of complexity in the phase shifter and driver [51].
These ferrite-phase-shifter techniques were used in
the S-band Aegis phased-array radar developed for
the U.S. Navy by RCA in 1974, the C-band Patriot
radar developed for the U.S. Army by Raytheon in
1975, and the X-band Joint Surveillance Target At-
tack Radar System (Joint STARS) developed for the
U.S. Air Force by Grumman in 1988 [52]. Two pro-
totypes of Joint STARS flew forty-nine missions in
Operation Desert Storm in 1991; a Joint STARS ra-
dar surveillance image is shown in Figure 11 in the
article by Muehe and Labitt in this issue.
Solid State Transmit/Receive Modules
From 1982 to 1990, Lincoln Laboratory led a joint
U.S. Air Force/U.S. Navy space-based-radar trans-
FIGURE 13. Diagram for desired L-band transmit/receive module for space-based-radar applications. The module con-
tains switches that select either the transmit or receive paths. The receive path contains two attenuators to illuminate two
displaced phase centers, represented by beamformers A and B. The transmit path contains a phase shifter and a power
amplifier to achieve the desired transmit power level for the radar.
Transmit
signal
• • •
• •
• •
• •
• •
• • •
Phase
shifter
Amplifier Power amplifier
To and from
antenna
Command register
and driver (CR & D)
Attenuator
Attenuator
Command
computation
chip
Power
conditioning
Radar control processor Prime power
CR & D
CR & D
Low-noise
amplifier
Other modules Other modules
CR & D
Beamformer
B
Beamformer
A
Module
Subarray
Circulator
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
332 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000
The Evolution of Solid State Active Elements
for Phased-Array Antennas
The possibility of creating an all-solid-state realiza-
tion of the phased-array concept arose in the late
1960s, notably through an initiative by Mel Vosburg
of the Institute for Defense Analyses, a study and
analysis center sponsored by the Department of De-
fense (DoD). Vosburg and Carl Blake of Lincoln
Laboratory worked together in this venture. Blake
had succeeded John Allen as leader of the Array Ra-
dars group in which the seminal work on phased-ar-
ray theory and development had taken place during
the previous decade, as described earlier in this article.
With support from the U.S. Army’s ballistic-missile-
defense program at the Ballistic Missile Defense
Advanced Technology Center (BMDATC) of Hunts-
ville, Alabama, development of components with this
phased-array objective was initiated at Lincoln Labo-
ratory in the 1970s. The initial focus was on arrays in
the L-band frequency range.
While the earlier generation of phased arrays had
been based on phasers (variable phase shifters) in con-
ductive-tube waveguides and centralized high-power
vacuum tubes, developers envisioned that array de-
signs incorporating solid state integrated circuits
would open the array concept to a wide range of im-
portant applications, which would benefit from the
major advantages of these circuits, especially compact
size, low weight, low cost, and high reliability.
In the 1960s the technology required for mono-
lithic circuits had not yet sufficiently matured. The
limited quality of early materials and the limitations
of processing technology at the time led to poor pro-
duction yields and inadequate performance of mono-
lithic components. Hence the research effort was ini-
tially based on hybrid designs combining integrated
circuits with more conventional components. Hybrid
circuits were composed of discrete packaged transis-
tors, diode phase-shifting circuits and switches, and
passive components, all attached to a common ce-
ramic substrate and connected to intervening planar
circuits by means of wire bonds. Early development
programs based on the hybrid-design concept, in the
late 1960s and early 1970s, were performed primarily
in industrial laboratories, including those at Texas In-
struments, Raytheon, RCA, Westinghouse, General
Electric, and Hughes. In particular, T. Hyltin of Texas
Instruments, with the support of R. Albert and W.
Edwards at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio,
initiated the Molecular Electronics for Radar Applica-
tions (MERA) program to build a solid state airborne
radar.
In the late 1960s, under Blake’s impetus, Lincoln
Laboratory established a microwave integrated-circuit
facility to develop and refine the technology of pre-
paring substrates and applying circuits and devices,
mainly in the hybrid mode, to the required specifica-
tions for microwave use. Planar circuits were fabri-
cated, on steadily improving ceramic substrate mate-
rials—principally aluminum oxide—with the most
refined photolithography materials and techniques
then available. With these improvements, and with
U.S. Army sponsorship of a program called CAMEL
by the U.S. Army’s Fort Monmouth, New Jersey,
laboratory, researchers began developing a 100-ele-
ment L-band (1.0 to 2.0 GHz) test array [55]. A sec-
ond-generation development was the Advanced
Fielded Array Radar (AFAR) at RCA in Moorestown,
New Jersey, with modules produced by Westing-
house. Although AFAR was not carried to comple-
tion, the effort was valuable in demonstrating the
promises and the limits of hybrid technology.
Gallium-Arsenide Monolithic Integrated Circuits
The all-solid-state UHF ground-based radar called
PAVE PAWS was built with hybrid technology, and it
FIGURE 14. General Electric L-band transmit/receive mod-
ule for space-based radar operations.
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 333
performed successfully. The designs of other military
defense radars, such as the Reliable Advanced Solid
State Radar (RASSR) and the Solid State Phased Ar-
ray (SSPA) [56] sponsored by the U.S. Air Force,
were based on similar solid-state hybrid technology.
Eventually, however, researchers realized that a large-
scale, solid-state phased-array radar made with hybrid
circuits would require a very large number of discrete
components and associated wire bonds, which would
lead to excessive cost and inferior reliability compared
to the promise of monolithic technology. Conse-
quently, the phased-array research effort shifted to-
ward the development and deployment of fully inte-
grated circuits composed of devices created on a
common semiconductor substrate [57].
The substrate material recognized as most promis-
ing was gallium arsenide, principally for its character-
istically high carrier mobility, and thus its suitability
for high-frequency systems, specifically in the micro-
wave (1 to 30 GHz) and millimeter-wave (30 to 300
GHz) frequency ranges. The highest available fre-
quencies, and accordingly the shortest wavelengths,
are essential to form narrow beams for high resolution
in target tracking, while lower frequencies, with bet-
ter prospects to fulfill the requirement of high trans-
mitter power, are favored for the associated functions
of surveillance and search. In 1968, in an important
development, E.W. Mehal and R.W. Wacker [58] and
G.D. Vendelin et al. [59], all working at Texas
Instruments, reported an early success in develop-
ment of devices and circuits on gallium arsenide for
microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Another
significant advance in those years was a monolithic
low-noise field-effect transistor (FET) microwave
amplifier on gallium arsenide, reported by W. Bäch-
told et al. at the IBM laboratory in Zurich [60].
In Lincoln Laboratory, Blake and Roger W. Sud-
bury collaborated to advance support for the MMIC
phased array. The Laboratory organized its effort for
these projects by establishing a mutually complemen-
tary relationship between the Microelectronics group
in the Solid State Research division, which contrib-
uted the development and refinement of materials
along with device fabrication and testing, and the Ex-
perimental Systems group, which contributed the cir-
cuit designs for phased-array technology.
Success in these pioneering efforts depended on
the solution of numerous interrelated problems. The
potential advantages of higher microwave or millime-
ter-wave frequencies, suitable for the narrow-beam,
high-resolution tracking function of radars, imposed
stringent requirements on the quality of gallium-ars-
enide materials for monolithic wafers, as well as rigor-
ous demands on the optics, metallurgy, and chemistry
of the photolithography process.
The semi-insulating gallium-arsenide substrate on
whose surface the epitaxial device layers are fabricated
is advantageous for its electrically inert character, per-
mitting low insertion loss and also low coupling loss
between the closely spaced circuit components. This
key dielectric property was confirmed in detailed
measurements of complex permittivity of gallium ars-
enide in the range of 2.5 to 36.0 GHz by William E.
Courtney at Lincoln Laboratory [61]. These mea-
surements showed that, when well processed, the ma-
terial is in fact free of the frequency-dependent loss
characteristics that some researchers had feared. As
device and circuit quality improved, still higher per-
formance of the substrate was required for electrical
isolation of the devices, envisioned as densely posi-
tioned on the semiconductor wafer, against interac-
tion with each other. An early success in this effort,
demonstrated at Lincoln Laboratory [62], was the
process of passivation by means of proton bombard-
ment, to create crystalline defects and thereby impart
near-intrinsic-semiconductor properties. Later, a sim-
pler and less costly isolating technique, which was
widely adopted, involved heavy doping of the inter-
vening areas of the substrate to reduce carrier lifetime.
The early efforts in device development at Texas
Instruments led to both hybrid and monolithic cir-
cuits, including balanced mixers, Gunn-diode oscilla-
tors, and frequency multipliers for receiver applica-
tions at millimeter-wave frequencies. Following these
basic advances, various research groups produced pla-
nar devices showing dramatically improved perfor-
mance. Such advances at the Laboratory and in in-
dustry led to a surge of development, especially of
gallium-arsenide metal-semiconductor field-effect
transistors (MESFET), both in discrete form and as
active devices on monolithic chips. The completely
monolithic microwave amplifier chip with gallium-
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
334 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000
arsenide MESFETs and matching circuits was first re-
ported by R.S. Pengelly and J.A. Turner at Plessey Co.
Ltd. in 1976 [63]; this achievement led to a rapid in-
crease in the involvement of all the leading microwave
research laboratories in further development of
monolithic circuits.
A presentation by Courtney et al. in 1980 [64]
characterized the problems and potential of a mono-
lithic receiver, which is central to the concept of a
solid-state phased array. The Laboratory took on an
advisory role for government agencies that were sup-
porting the new generation of phased-array design. At
the same time the Laboratory continued to conduct
its own research directed toward (1) the development
of technology applicable to the transmit/receive mod-
ule for array antennas in military systems, as well as
(2) the enhancement of its own capability for innova-
tion and consultation.
There was interest in Lincoln Laboratory’s propos-
als for research in solid-state-circuit technology from
the Very High-Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC)
program under Sonny Maynard of the DoD. In the
1980s, major support for the development of mono-
lithic microwave technology came through the efforts
of Elliot Cohen, a DoD associate of Maynard’s and a
major advocate, with Blake, of investigation into
practical uses of gallium arsenide for microwave inte-
grated circuits. Cohen sponsored the Microwave and
Millimeter Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits
(MIMIC) program [65] within the Defense Ad-
vanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The pro-
gram was based on the concept of an “active element”
phased array; i.e., an array with integrated-circuit
phasers and transmit/receive capability as an integral
part of each antenna element, locked to a central
phase and amplitude standard.
The MIMIC program maintained the impetus of
the earlier developments and encouraged the micro-
wave industry to construct the large gallium-arsenide
processing facilities that exist today for the fabrication
of phased-array and telecommunication modules.
The MIMIC program’s objectives included develop-
ment of volume production technology to produce
large-diameter, high-quality substrates suitable for
commercial production of MESFETs optimized for
high power or for low noise; development of com-
puter-aided device and circuit design programs (a
powerful discipline then still in its infancy); and proof
of feasibility to show that monolithic circuits can find
applications in circuits that are suitable and afford-
able for wide use in military systems.
Lincoln Laboratory became deeply involved in this
developing technology, supported by BMDATC. It
was proposed that the Laboratory continue to serve in
its advisory role to the government agencies that were
funding various aspects of the new technologies,
while at the same time enhancing the Laboratory’s
own expertise in the area by developing the technol-
ogy for a millimeter-wave transmit/receive module—
specifically, for a K
a
-band (26.5 to 40 GHz) phased-
array seeker on a missile.
The K
a
-band module proposed for development
at Lincoln Laboratory under the MIMIC program
was a single-polarization transmit/receive module
with average output power on the order of 100 mW
in the millimeter-wave range at 34 GHz. The system
considerations for such a radar and component devel-
opment to that date were reviewed in 1978 by R.W.
Laton et al. [66] and by Sudbury [67] at Lincoln
Laboratory. Figure 15 illustrates the K
a
-band trans-
mit/receive-module configuration and includes illus-
trations of the component chips as of 1985 [68, 57].
The receiver section was based on planar Schottky-
barrier diodes in a balanced-mixer/heterodyne con-
figuration [69]. A novel approach in this circuit was
the dual use of the mixer: in receive mode to produce
an L-band IF signal, and as a switch to protect the re-
ceiver in transmit mode [70]. The mixer output was
followed by a two-stage low-noise IF amplifier, devel-
oped at Lincoln Laboratory, which used a very low-
loss planar coupling capacitor fabricated with high-
dielectric tantalum pentoxide [71].
In addition to fabricating the dual-function mixer
shown in Figure 15, the Laboratory also fabricated a
mixer-preamplifier monolithic chip, successfully
combining for the first time two different active mi-
crowave devices on the same chip. These devices were
a millimeter-wave Schottky-diode mixer followed by
a MESFET IF amplifier operating at 1.0 to 2.0 GHz.
The transmitter chain incorporated a 17-GHz
MESFET driver amplifier, a low-loss phaser using
Schottky diodes, and a 17-GHz FET power amplifier
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 335
driving a doubler to produce output power at 34
GHz [72]. The monolithic doublers [73] were planar
series-connected varactor diodes embedded in match-
ing circuits on a chip. They produced output greater
than 100 milliwatts with 35% efficiency at K
a
-band
frequencies [74]. The strategy of frequency doubling
from 17 GHz (K
u
band, 12.0 to 18.0 GHz) to 34
GHz (K
a
band) was devised, because in the late 1970s
and early 1980s the cutoff frequency of the MESFET
amplifiers was not sufficiently high for operation at
millimeter-wave frequencies.
By 1990, active solid state devices at microwave
frequencies were becoming ubiquitous; MMICs were
routinely developed for commercial applications such
as automobile instrumentation and civilian commu-
nications, and active transmit/receive modules were
being utilized for large phased arrays. Gallium-ars-
enide MMIC transmit/receive-module technology is
used in the X-band (8.0 to 12.0 GHz) theater-mis-
sile-defense phased-array radar system [54] built by
Raytheon Corporation. The decade of the 1990s saw
widespread application of gallium-arsenide mono-
lithic integrated circuits in many fields, including ra-
dar, the Global Positioning System (GPS), direct-sat-
ellite-broadcast receivers, and commercial wireless
telephony.
Array Calibration and Testing
Phased-array antennas require accurate calibration of
their multiplicity of transmit/receive channels, so that
the radar main beam can be pointed in the correct di-
rection and the sidelobe levels of the radar antenna
can be controlled. In practice, the phase shift through
a channel is often affected by temperature and elec-
tronic drift; thus methods for calibration of a fielded
radar system are required. Lincoln Laboratory has
pioneered several phased-array calibration and radia-
tion-pattern measurement techniques [75–80].
FIGURE 15. Module configuration and organization of component chips for a gallium-arsenide active-element trans-
mit/receive circuit. The transmit side includes phase control and field-effect transistor (FET) power amplification at
17 GHz, and a frequency doubler. On the receive side, a dual unit incorporates a transmit/receive switch and a mixer
that produces the intermediate frequency (IF) at 1 to 2 GHz. This dual unit is followed by a low-noise output amplifier.
Frequency doubler
FET power amplifier
Phase shifter
Dual-function mixer
and transmit/receive switch
Low-noise IF amplifier
Local oscillator
From
voltage-controlled
oscillator
(17 GHz)
IF
(1–2 GHz)
To antenna
34 GHz
Transmit/
receive
× 2
Power
amplifier
Low-noise
amplifier
φ
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
336 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000
Airborne and space-based phased arrays contain-
ing thousands of transmit/receive channels require
onboard techniques for in-flight calibration. One
such calibration technique involved the use of the in-
herent array mutual coupling to transmit and receive
signals between pairs of elements in the array, as de-
scribed in a paper by H.M. Aumann et al. (this paper
won the 1990 IEEE Antennas and Propagation
Society’s Best Applications Award) [75]. The mea-
sured signals between all pairs of elements in the array
allow a complete characterization of the relative am-
plitude and phase response of each channel in the ar-
ray beamformer. Thus the channel phase shifters and
attenuators (illustrated in Figure 13) can be calibrated
to generate any desired phase/amplitude distribution
across the aperture of the array. Furthermore, it was
discovered that once the desired phase and amplitude
distributions had been applied to the array, a second
series of mutual-coupling measurements allowed a
measurement of the phased-array radiation patterns.
The mutual-coupling calibration technique was ex-
perimentally verified by using the monopole phased-
array antenna shown in Figure 8. This calibration
technique proved to be a fast and accurate way of
measuring one-dimensional and two-dimensional ar-
ray radiation patterns, compared to conventional far-
field measurement techniques.
The Laboratory explored various other approaches
for calibrating and testing low-sidelobe phased arrays.
For example, adaptive-nulling techniques were used
to calibrate an experimental test array [76]. Methods
for compensating for the effects of variations in the
array radiating-element patterns [77] and failed radi-
ating elements [78] were also developed. The Labora-
tory also explored planar near-field calibration and
testing in the antenna reactive region (extremely close
near field) to accurately measure low-sidelobe radia-
tion patterns [79]. Figure 16 shows a typical low-
sidelobe monopole phased-array radiation pattern
measured with the reactive-region near-field-scan-
ning approach. The measured average sidelobe level
is –50 dB, close to the theoretical value. Space-based
radars or airborne radars can use multiple displaced
phase centers to cancel clutter, as described in the ar-
ticle by Muehe and Labitt in this issue. A near-field
FIGURE 16. Low-sidelobe radiation patterns for an L-band
thirty-two-element monopole phased-array antenna. The av-
erage measured sidelobe level is –50 dB, which is close to
the average theoretical sidelobe level of –52.6 dB.
0
–20
–60
–80
–40
–60
–40
–20
0 Measured
Theory
–90 –60 –30 0
Azimuth (deg)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

g
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

g
a
i
n

(
d
B
i
)
30 60 90
FIGURE 17. (a) Lincoln Laboratory’s ground-test facility for
adaptive phased-array antenna evaluation in space-based-
radar applications. (b) This facility has interior walls covered
with radiation-absorbing material, which enables full-scale
real-time testing of radar capability at a test distance of ap-
proximately one aperture diameter.
(a)
(b)
• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 337
scanning method for measuring the clutter-cancella-
tion performance of displaced-phase-center antennas
was also demonstrated [80].
The above phased-array testing techniques are gen-
erally restricted to non-real-time operation. There are
many instances, however, when it is desirable to test a
radar system, either in the field or prior to deploy-
ment, under simulated real-time conditions that in-
clude radar targets, clutter, and jamming. Some of
these radars can have large apertures, on the order of
five to twenty meters. Normally, radars operate under
far-field conditions in which the radiated wavefront is
approximately planar. Because testing these radar an-
tennas under far-field conditions can require a range
several miles long, alternative shorter-range testing is
desirable. A near-field ground-test facility for phased-
array antenna evaluation in space-based radar applica-
tions was developed by Lincoln Laboratory [81]. This
facility, which consists of a large building with the in-
terior walls covered with radiation-absorbing mate-
rial, enables full-scale real-time testing of phased-ar-
ray radar capability at a test distance of approximately
one aperture diameter. The test facility, shown in Fig-
ure 17, provides the capability of implementing a
number of novel test procedures developed by the
Laboratory for measuring the radar system perfor-
mance for antennas up to about twelve meters in
length.
A focused near-field method to test the real-time
performance of adaptive phased arrays for jammer
suppression was theoretically analyzed for single-
phase-center antennas [82] and multiple-phase-cen-
ter antennas for clutter and jammer suppression and
target detection [83]. The focused near-field nulling
technique for suppressing jammers was experimen-
tally verified for a single-phase-center array antenna
[84]. The focused near-field adaptive-nulling testing
technique was also found to have a medical applica-
tion as well [85].
Summary
The 1950s dream of electronic beam steering is
gradually being realized by a variety of phased arrays
currently being used in many ground-based and air-
borne radars. Phased arrays are increasingly envi-
sioned to be critical components for meeting future
challenges in military and civilian systems. Since
1958 the Laboratory has contributed significantly to
the nation’s phased-array radar capabilities. Technolo-
gies developed at the Laboratory have been imple-
mented in many phased-array radars in field opera-
tions. The Laboratory is continuing to investigate
new phased-array technologies in such areas as photo-
nic beamforming, micro-electromechanical phase
shifters, and advanced space-time adaptive processing
arrays.
We foresee great promise in the combination of the
technologies of low-cost all-solid-state array modules,
wide-bandwidth analog-to-digital converters, and
adaptive digital beamforming to allow a variety of so-
phisticated radar operating modes and radar systems.
During the past forty years, Lincoln Laboratory
was privileged to work in this most interesting area of
radar technology and be part of the extensive national
effort to make the vision of electronic beam steering
become a reality [1]. We can posit that the era of the
phased-array radar is just beginning!
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to acknowledge Jerald A.
Weiss and Roger W. Sudbury of Lincoln Laboratory
for their technical contributions to this article. We
also acknowledge George Knittel and John Allen for
their review of the manuscript, and Chang-Lee Chen,
Leonard J. Mahoney, and Anand Gopinath for fur-
nishing material for the manuscript.
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• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY
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340 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000
wiiiiax r. counrxrs
was born in Lurgan County,
Armagh, Northern Ireland. He
received a B.Sc. degree in
physics and a Ph.D. degree in
electrical engineering from the
Queen’s University of Belfast,
Northern Ireland, in 1959 and
1963, respectively. From 1963
to 1966 he was a Department
of Scientific and Industrial
Research and Ministry of
Aviation postdoctoral research
fellow in the Department of
Electrical Engineering, Univer-
sity of Leeds, England. From
1966 to 1968 he was a
postdoctoral fellow, Division
of Sponsored Research, in the
Center for Materials Science
and Engineering at MIT. He
was a staff member from 1968
to 1995 at Lincoln Laboratory.
noxain n. rrxxr
is a former senior staff member
in the Communications divi-
sion, and at present a consult-
ant to the Analog Device
Technology group. His
current research interest is in
ferrite-superconductor control
devices. Some of the major
Laboratory programs he con-
tributed to were early phase-
shifter developments, tactical
air-surveillance radar
(HOWLS), millimeter homing
radar, and space-borne surveil-
lance radar. He is currently
assisting the Concord Middle
School in increasing the phys-
ics content of the basic science
course. He received a B.S.
degree in electrical engineering
from the University of Ne-
braska, and an S.M. degree in
electrical engineering from
MIT. Before joining Lincoln
Laboratory in 1957 he was in
the U.S. Air Force. He is a life
member of the IEEE and a
member of Sigma Xi.
wiiiiax v. nriaxrs
came to Lincoln Laboratory in
1957 after receiving a B.E.E.
degree from Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute. In 1959 he
received an S.M.E.E. degree
from MIT, where he became
involved in radar with a thesis
on UHF power amplifiers for
phased arrays. His early re-
search at the Laboratory in-
volved phased-array radars. At
Kwajalein Atoll he led the
ALCOR wideband radar
project. Returning to the
Laboratory in 1970, he held
management positions of
increasing responsibility in
missile defense, air defense, air
traffic control, and battlefield
surveillance, all involving radar
systems. From 1973 to 1976
he served in the Office of the
Secretary of Defense, with
responsibilities for R&D in
strategic defense systems. In
1987 he was appointed assis-
tant director of the Laboratory,
and in 1995 he became a
Director’s Office Fellow. He
has served on many govern-
ment committees, including
the Air Force Scientific Advi-
sory Board and the Defense
Science Board. He has been
awarded the Secretary of
Defense Meritorious Civilian
Service Medal and the Air
Force Exceptional Civilian
Service Medal. In 1991 he was
elected a Fellow of the IEEE.
His dominant recreational
pursuit is fly fishing, including
far-flung places such as Christ-
mas Island, Patagonia, or the
Kola Peninsula of Russia,
where he catches fish so large
he doesn’t have to lie about
them!
aiax j. vrxx
is a senior staff member in the
Advanced Electromagnetic
Systems group. He joined
Lincoln Laboratory in 1981
and was a member of the
Space Radar Technology group
from 1982 to 1991, where his
research was in phased-array
antenna design, adaptive-array
near-field testing, and antenna
and radar cross-section mea-
surements. From 1992 to
1999 he was an assistant group
leader in the RF Technology
group, where he managed
programs involving optically
controlled phased-array anten-
nas and the measurement of
atmospheric effects on ra-
domes and satellite communi-
cations. In 2000 he was elected
a Fellow of the IEEE for his
contributions to the theory
and practice of adaptive
phased-array antennas. In
1990 he was a corecipient of
the IEEE Antennas and
Propagation Society’s H.A.
Wheeler Applications Prize
Paper Award for a paper he
coauthored for the IEEE
Transactions on Antennas and
Propagation. He also received
the IEEE/URSI-sponsored
1994 International Sympo-
sium on Antennas (JINA 94)
Award for the best poster
presentation. He has a B.S.
degree from the University of
Illinois in Chicago, and M.S.
and Ph.D. degrees from Ohio
State University, Columbus,
all in electrical engineering.

• FENN, TEMME, DELANEY, AND COURTNEY

The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology

Weiss, a radar visionary. At that time, the Millstone Hill radar was one of the few radar instruments in the world with satellite detection and tracking capability. Weiss, along with others in the U.S. Air Force, foresaw that the United States would soon need the capability to detect all satellites passing over its territory. The volume of radar surveillance needed to accomplish this task was clearly enormous, which meant that radars of great power, antenna aperture, and beam agility would be required. One approach to solving this surveillance problem was to build a large planar array of some five thousand UHF elements. Weiss’s intuition told him the nation was not yet equipped with the capability to produce reliable low-cost components that would allow engineers to implement a radar with five thousand individual transmitters and receivers. The country, however, did have some big UHF klystrons in the Millstone Hill radar transmitter (2.5-MW peak power, 100-kW average power), and klystrons such as these could be incorporated into a phased-array radar of sorts. Thus began a search of a variety of hybrid mechanically scanned and electronically scanned antenna-array configurations that would use a few of these big klystrons. Figure 1 is a drawing of the favored hybrid concept, which featured a cylindrical receiver reflector 140 ft high by 620 ft long [2]. Three rotating vertical linear arrays formed multiple receive beams in eleva-

tion angle, which were mechanically scanned across the cylindrical reflector. The klystron transmitters were coupled to three horizontal linear arrays that did not use the reflector, nor did they electronically scan. They formed a fan beam in elevation angle, which was scanned across a large portion of the sky as a result of the mechanical drive in a large center hub (hence this massive machine was given the irreverent nickname “centrakluge”). Average power output from a group of 900-MHz klystrons was to be one megawatt. This hybrid array concept had great power, great receiving aperture, and a rapid wide-angle scan capability. It was configured to survey huge volumes of space, so that one installation could detect all satellites passing over the United States up to an orbital altitude of three thousand nautical miles. The Laboratory’s focus at the start of this development effort was to find efficient ways to build the long linear phased arrays for the receivers. A variety of beamforming schemes were investigated, including beamformers at intermediate frequencies (where high losses could be tolerated), radio-frequency (RF) diode-switched phase shifters (where losses needed to be kept very low), and RF multibeam beamformers. This hybrid electronic-scan/mechanical-scan approach had critics who argued that it could track satellites only in a track-while-scan mode, and it could not track high-interest satellites outside of its somewhat restricted vertical search window. The nation

FIGURE 1. Drawing of a proposed 1950s-era hybrid phased-array radar that combined mechani-

cally scanned and electronically scanned antenna-array configurations.

322

LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL

VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2, 2000

starting from array theory and extending to practical hardware developments. and this whole antenna structure was mounted on a rotating pedestal and housed in a radome on the rooftop of Lincoln Laboratory’s C Building. mixers. a cadre within the Special Radars group at the Laboratory had formed around a phased-array visionary. Thus in 1959 the Laboratory launched a broad attack on new developments in theory and hardware. and exercised. Allen’s goal was to conduct a broad development effort on arrays. The work had to have a practical orientation. full phased-array approach. 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 323 . power aperture. VOLUME 12. FIGURE 2. interest in linear arrays faded—planar arrays were what was needed—but the nation was still a long way from achieving the dream of an affordable planar phased array. John L. such as antenna elements. low-noise amplifiers.• FENN. a variety of beam-scanning techniques. with ballistic missile defense as the mission for which such radars were most obviously needed. The Early Years By 1959. transmitters. The Laboratory developments were chronicled in a series of yearly reports entitled “Phased-Array Radar Studies. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology seemed to favor the five-thousand-element. Allen. many engineers in the defense community of that era really wanted the nation to build a full planar phased-array radar. TEMME. and beamforming techniques could be tried. an option that was encouraged by a significant U. as shown in Figure 2. Also. DELANEY. sixteen-element linear-array fixture as an array test bed. and through the ensuing five years the phased-array effort functioned very much as an intellectual open house to share insights with other researchers and as a clearinghouse to help industry try out its ideas. tested. Therefore. transmitters. and a sound understanding of array theory. low-noise amplifiers. and wideangle scan that the radar community could muster. Sixteen-element linear-array test-bed facility at Lincoln Laboratory in 1960. in order to improve the national capability in phased arrays to a point where we had reliable and reasonable-cost array components. flexibility. The array test bed was mounted as a feed looking into a parabolic cylinder reflector. The increase in national interest in ballistic missile defense shifted everyone’s focus toward planar phased arrays because the challenges and intricacies of active missile defense would demand every ounce of radar beam agility. The Sixteen-Element Test Array The strong emphasis on making phased arrays into practical devices led to the construction of a 900MHz. NUMBER 2. A wide variety of embryonic phased-array receiver and transmitter components were developed and tested in this sixteen-element array over the first five years of the Laboratory’s program.S.” which were best-sellers in the array community [3–6]. where array components. intermediate-frequency (IF) amplifiers. mixers. Phased-array components such as antenna elements. and the Laboratory’s effort had to connect with and influence the wide diversity of array research going on in industry and government laboratories. intermediate-frequency amplifiers. and beamforming techniques were tested in this facility. Air Force effort on electronic scanning array radar (ESAR) at the Bendix Corporation. to push the development of phased arrays for a wide variety of military missions.

Work started with a complex electronic device called the electron-beam parametric amplifier. the Lincoln Laboratory group under the leadership of John Allen was very much an open house and a forum for industry. More conventional diode-based parametric amplifiers were also investigated. the Laboratory built a low-frequency version of the Butler matrix to serve as a Fourier transformer for a radar burst-waveform-matched filter. highly reliable components that would make phased arrays a viable future option helped set the appropriate tone for the national research agenda in phased arrays of that era. NUMBER 2. the work performed at the Laboratory had an amplified impact that went well beyond the efforts of the ten or so researchers in the Laboratory phased-array radar group. The symposium covered all the major aspects of phased-array theory. Diamond of the Laboratory were prominent in the organization of this significant phased-array meeting. solidstate transmit-and-receive modules. which brought together many contributors to the field of phased-array technology. this effort finally settled on low-noise transistor amplifiers with the advent of the field-effect transistor. which assessed the state of the art and provided a comprehensive. First. In retrospect. which was identical to the computational flow graph of the fast Fourier transform that hit the headlines a number of years later. TEMME. and systems analysis on military problems requiring phased arrays. up-to-date source of information on phased-array antennas. Retrospective on the Early Years There were several enduring values to the phased-array work in these early years. because the Butler matrix was indeed a Fourier transformer [9. The Laboratory’s work in this area contributed substan324 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12.• FENN. * In 1970 Lincoln Laboratory cosponsored a phased-array symposium [11] in New York City. phase-shifter technology. including array-element design. An interesting nuance of the Butler matrix was its microwave wiring diagram. 10]. solid state technology. and arraytesting techniques. This diode phase-shifter work and related ferrite phase-shifter work are described in a subsequent section of this article. design. and transmitters using medium-power tetrodes were also developed and tested in configurations that would allow them to fit in a planar-array structure at 900 MHz. The desire for simpler and lower-cost approaches led to work on tunnel-diode amplifiers. Techniques that worked directly at RF were also investigated. Low-noise front-end amplifiers for phased-array receivers were a substantial area of investigation. including theory. low-cost. In fact. and manufacturing. the focus on driving for the practical. In this fashion. IF amplifiers. showed that dipole elements were better candidates for arrays. invented by Robert Adler at Zenith Radio Corporation and Glen Wade at Stanford University. The Ensuing Years In subsequent years. and much of the ensuing work was on dipole radiators. including array-element design. feed networks and beam-steering methods. Lincoln Laboratory made significant contributions to phased-array technology.* Third. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology Phased-Array Components The initial experimentation with array antenna elements started with log-periodic structures that were reported to have a desirable low mutual coupling. 8]. however. this similarity was no surprise. The early experiments. hardware. The search for digital devices that could electronically scan radar beams led to a major research effort in digital diode-switched microwave phase shifters. and a variety of schemes were built and tested. which received early and comprehensive testing at Lincoln Laboratory after its invention by Jesse Butler of Sanders Associates around 1960 [7. and government workers of that day. phase shifters. Second. mixers. the Laboratory quickly became “wet all over” in this new technology of phased arrays. One of the major efforts was in the development of various ways to steer the radar beam electronically. experimental arrays. One invention of that time was the Butler beamforming matrix. . Carl Blake and Bliss L. academic. 2000 tially to the development of workable diode phase shifters that found their way into a wide variety of phased-array radars. The work covered a broad front. DELANEY. gallium-arsenide monolithic microwave integrated circuits. Beamformers that worked at IF were one of the earliest approaches. and array calibration and testing.

NUMBER 2. the array produces a main beam in the desired pointing direction. Figure 3(a) shows the concept of a corporate-fed phased-array antenna that uses phase shifters to electronically steer the radar beam over the scan sector.. VOLUME 12. and the number of radiating elements. and the spacing and number of radiating elements can vary widely.• FENN. (b) An idealized radiation pattern from a single antenna element covers the scan sector. The amplitudes and phases of the array mutual-coupling signals depend primarily on the shape of the radiating antenna elements. Thus the Laboratory investigated many different array-element designs. Naturally. can result in a substantial or total loss of transmitted or received radar signal. φ φ φ φ φ φ φ . Fenn [20. 22–26]. and Alan J. depending on the scanning requirements. Diamond and George H. . the spacing between the array elements. with signal strength dropping outside of the sector.. . General concept of a phased-array antenna that electronically combines element patterns to point the radar beam in a particular direction. (c) When all the phase shifters of the array are properly aligned. There was a strong focus on understanding and modeling array mutual coupling and its impact on array performance. TEMME. As described below. The Laboratory’s investigation of the theory of array antennas began in 1958 and has continued through the ensuing years. Tsandoulas [15–19]. Antenna elements Amplifiers Phase shifters Power divider RF source (a) Scan sector Angle (b) (c) FIGURE 3. taking into account mutual-coupling effects. this theoretical and experimental work was continued at the Laboratory by Diamond [13]. each containing a phase shifter and amplifier. DELANEY. (a) The antenna uses phase shifters to steer the radar beam electronically over the scan sector. Knittel [14]. The RF source produces a radar waveform that is divided up into individual paths called element channels. 21]. Allen’s early work contributed markedly to the understanding of array antennas in that era [12]. The radio-frequency (RF) source produces a radar waveform that is divided up into individual paths called element channels. This effect. 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 325 . depending on the coherent combination of all of the mutual-coupling signals in the array. Figure 3(b) shows an idealized element-radiation θ Mutual coupling . A significant challenge in designing phased arrays is meeting requirements of scan volume and bandwidth while avoiding blind spots and maintaining low sidelobes [11. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology Array-Element Design One of the fundamental difficulties in designing a phased array is that significant portions of the microwave power transmitted by one element of the array can be received by the surrounding array antenna elements. which is known as array mutual coupling. we needed to understand fully the mutual-coupling aspects of whatever radiated element was selected. Gerasimos N. There are as many different design possibilities for phased arrays as there are dozens of different radiating array elements to choose from. each containing a phase shifter and amplifier.

Phased-array radiating elements.• FENN. Figure 5 compares a broadside-peak radiator (dipole or waveguide aperture) and a broadside-null radiator (monopole antenna). Beginning in 1959. were investigated at Lincoln Laboratory during the period from 1968 to 1980. as shown in Figure 3(c). later. the conventional broadside-peak-type element radiation pattern drops off.e. and array active-scan impedance. 326 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12. These blind spots are angles where the element pattern has a null and the reflection coefficient of the array has a peak close to unity. with signal strength dropping outside of the sector. however. rather than as a wave propagating away from the array. substantial amounts of mutual coupling can occur. They also showed that small arrays can be used effectively to design array-radiating elements for large arrays [33]. but the broadside-null-type element radiation pattern increases to a peak at about 45° to 50°. such as in reducing broadside clutter and jamming. 27–32]. TEMME. size. This coupling manifests itself in often deleterious changes in the element’s radiation pattern and its reflection coefficient. Generally. Sometimes we would like to place a blind spot in directions where it is undesirable to transmit or receive radar energy. the Laboratory contributed to the theoretical understanding of phased arrays. Early developments of phased-array radiating element technology were conducted at Lincoln Laboratory during the period from 1959 to 1967. DELANEY. Waveguide elements of various designs (rectangular. These results are typical of an array designed without regard for array mutual-coupling effects. for example. Unless care is taken in the design of the array. with Knittel. The blind spot is often caused by array mutual coupling. 2000 0 (a) Relative gain (dB) –10 Ideal Blind spots –20 –30 Blind spots must be avoided over the desired scan sector Scan sector –40 1 (b) Reflection coefficient Scan sector Blind spots Ideal 0 –90 –60 –30 0 30 60 90 Scan angle (deg) FIGURE 4. The latter element is useful when broadside radiation is undesirable. as depicted in Figure 4. Diamond analyzed waveguide elements [13]. For example. which tends to direct the radiation in the plane of the array as a surface wave. and circular) were studied in great detail. primarily for airborne applications. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology pattern that covers the scan sector. the reports by Allen et al. [3–6. a significant amount of crosstalk (i.. both theoretically and experimentally [13–19]. and spacing can prevent the occurrence of blind spots. he developed a phased-array-element design procedure [14]. At these blind spots the total radar signal is significantly reduced in amplitude. Conceptual images of blind-spot occurrence in a phased-array antenna. the corporate feed is designed with minimal crosstalk between channels. As the radar beam is steered away from 0° (broadside) toward 60°. array mutual coupling) occurs. mutual coupling. The amplitudes and phases of these mutual-coupling signals can seriously impact the performance of the phased array. Careful design of the array element shape. NUMBER 2. A blind spot occurs when either (a) the array element pattern has a null or (b) the element reflection coefficient has unity magnitude. Figure 6 shows one of the early L-band dipole-phased-array test beds used in measuring array-element patterns. When all the phase shifters of the array are properly aligned. blind spots in the radar-scan sector can occur. A computer program known as RWED (rectangular waveguide-element design) [34] was developed for . particularly the effects of array mutual coupling on the performance of various configurations of dipole arrays. If the array-element spacing is around one-halfwavelength. square. Once the signals have reached the radiating antenna elements. the array produces a main beam in the desired pointing direction.

In the early 1970s. DELANEY. ships. using the Diamond theoretical formulation. The radiation patterns of (a) a conventional broadside-peak radiating element (dipole or waveguide) and (b) a broadside-null radiating element (monopole). For example. the radar satellite speed is very fast. A broadside-null element places a blind spot in directions where it is undesirable to transmit or receive radar energy tenna for a space-based-radar surveillance system intended to detect and track aircraft. Tsandoulas at Lincoln Laboratory utilized the waveguide-array-analysis software developed by Diamond to design low-sidelobe waveguide phased arrays for airborne application in a displaced-phase-center radar antenna [15]. and the Doppler shifts of the radar clutter echoes tend to mask the desired radar-target returns.” by Charles Edward Muehe and Melvin Labitt. In the mid-1980s. and testing of space-based-radar antenna systems. VOLUME 12. (a) 0° 30° Scan sector 60° θ φ 30° Scan sector 60° (b) FIGURE 5. NUMBER 2. TEMME. are necessary. The radar also requires nulling of large ground-based jammers. In addition. A phasedarray radar orbiting the earth must demonstrate a number of unique characteristics that require novel antenna technology if the radar is to satisfy mission needs.• FENN. radar clutter is very large when seen by a space-borne radar looking down at the earth. Figure 7 shows a set of measured low-sidelobe L-band phasedarray beam-scanning patterns for the Multiple-Antenna Surveillance Radar (MASR) (see also the article entitled “Displaced-Phase-Center Antenna Technique. Lincoln Laboratory was heavily involved in the development of a phased-array an0° θ φ 60° Scan sector 60° FIGURE 6. 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 327 . and cruise missiles [35]. where it has been used extensively for designing waveguide phased arrays. ballistic missiles. used in Lincoln Laboratory array investigations during the 1960s. the Laboratory made major contributions to the analysis. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology phased-array analysis. as viewed from space. Thus methods for canceling radar clutter. As a part of this work. armored vehicles. calibration. An early L-band dipole phased-array test bed de- veloped by the Sperry Rand Corporation. in this issue). design. This software was widely circulated by the Laboratory to the phased-array industry.

Ince and Donald H. 328 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12. The beams are scanned to a maximum of ± 45° in azimuth. This L-band antenna was used for space-based-radar cluttercancellation measurements. Fenn investigated this problem both theoretically and experimentally for vertically polarized monopoles [20] and for horizontally polarized loops [21]. This displacedphase-center array achieved a measured clutter cancellation on the order of 40 dB. Many of the Laboratory development efforts in the area of phase shifters and related programs at that time are described in a book chapter by William J. The achieved low-sidelobe levels represent the best performance at the time for electronically scanned array antennas. with average sidelobes in azimuth on the order of 60 dB below the main lobe (see the article entitled “Radars for the Detection and Tracking of Cruise Missiles. a method utilizing an amplitude taper for moving the phase center an arbitrary distance (including a fraction of a column) was developed [36]. Thus the phase center can be moved only in discrete columns or rows. the first sidelobe is at the –36-dB to –38-dB level. System aspects of the Lincoln Laboratory–designed space-based radar are described in the previously mentioned article by Muehe and Labitt in this issue. Relative gain (dB) FIGURE 8. DELANEY. NUMBER 2. Typically. in this issue). The Laboratory’s low-altitude space-based-radar concept favored monopole-type radiators that had minimum radiation in the subsatellite (nadir) direction. Temme [38].” by Lee O. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology 0 –10 –20 –30 –40 –72 –48 –24 0 24 48 72 Scan angle (deg) FIGURE 7. Thurman. dictated by the element spacing. Figure 8 shows an L-band space-based-radar phased-array antenna test bed with 96 active monopole radiating elements (resembling a bed of nails). An ultralow-sidelobe adaptive-array antenna at UHF called RSTER (Radar Surveillance Technology Experimental Radar) was developed by Westinghouse Corporation for Lincoln Laboratory. Upton and Lewis A. to reduce radar clutter and jamming. TEMME. This array used a corporate beamformer. A displaced-phase-center antenna designed for clutter cancellation normally turns off elements in order to shift the array phase center. Displaced-phase-center monopole phased-array antenna test bed with 96 active monopole radiating elements. Low-sidelobe radiation patterns from the L-band Multiple-Antenna Surveillance Radar (MASR) waveguide phased-array antenna at midband. For the spacebased radar.• FENN. Low-sidelobe antenna patterns and adaptive nulling are useful in suppressing both jamming and radar clutter. as shown in the graph in Figure 9. Phase Shifters Lincoln Laboratory worked intensively in the late 1950s and in the 1960s to develop phase shifters for the electronic beam steering of phased-array radars desired in that time period. with special care taken to reduce amplitude errors and phase-illumination errors across the array [37]. with the peaks of all others below –42 dB (except one shown). 2000 .

A. One of the Laboratory’s early initiatives in phased-array beam steering was the development of digital IF beam-steering techniques that emphasized smaller size and simplicity in control. The theoretical curves include only array mutual-coupling effects [80].• FENN. and the S-band Cobra Judy [4. Cobra Dane. but not for an IF period. Low-loss diode phase shifters were implemented in several fielded phased-array radars used in missile detection. DELANEY. AN/FPS-85. VOLUME 12. When two equal shunt reactances are spaced a quarter-wavelength apart on a transmission line. which was devised by J. was built by Bendix and completed in 1960 [39]. This beamforming technique was bulky and required good temperature control. a match remains and a phase shift is introduced. The displaced-phase-center antenna test-bed ar- ray shown in Figure 8 achieved a measured clutter-cancellation ratio on the order of 40 dB. Thus. Uhlir of Bell Telephone Laboratories had shown theoretically how the PIN diode would be ideal for microwave switches. TEMME. which is shown in Figure 11. with a low impedance when DC-forward-biased and a high impedance when DC-reverse-biased [38]. but at a large power level. Temme at Lincoln Laboratory used these PIN diodes to construct the first-ever digital-diode L-band low-loss phase shifter [5]. called ESAR (Electronically Scanned Array Radar). White [42] to achieve substantially higher RF power capabilities. NUMBER 2. They tended to have high loss (several dB) at microwave frequencies. The DC-injected carriers in a PIN diode have long lifetimes compared to an RF period. MSR (Missile Site Radar). an example of which is shown in Figure 10. The power FIGURE 10. This approach utilized diode-controlled digital phase shifters that switched in and out fractional wavelengths of transmission line arranged in a binary cascade and placed in each antenna channel to properly phase the elements of the radiating array. Concurrently. Early intermediate-frequency six-bit digital phase shifter. Sixteen pairs were used in the MSR phase shifter. ESAR had IF analog phase shifters and an IF beamformer. Each shunt reactance was connected and disconnected across the transmission line via a PIN-diode switch to obtain a small variable phase shift. were tested in an experimental linear ar- ray. 39–41]. the PIN diode does not rectify but has a low impedance when flooded with DC-injected carriers and a high impedance (becoming a small capacitor) without injected carriers. MSR used a different circuit configuration. These phase shifters.F. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology 70 Clutter-cancellation ratio (dB) Measured at array scan angle θs = 40° Theory 60 θ = 30° s 50 40° 40 55° 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Phase-center displacement (columns) FIGURE 9. such as HAPDAR (Hard Point Demonstration Array Radar). Each bit consists of a length of coaxial cable that can be switched into the signal path to produce the desired phase shift. 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 329 . The first fielded phased-array radar. new RF positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) diodes used in microwave switching studies led to simpler lower-loss phase shifters. which is certainly a drawback. for RF frequencies.

as investigated by Ernest Stern. Understanding the mechanical stress on the ferrite toroid led to the development of ferrite material compositions with less stress sensitivity. Ferrite phase shifters. a development that started later than diode phase shifters. level. which contributed to the early microwave-ferrite development [45]. NUMBER 2. A four-bit low-loss hybrid L-band diode phase shifter. Dionne [47–49]. Camp et al.” by William W. The ferrite phase shifter with a dielectric-loaded toroid was conceived and analyzed at the Laboratory.• FENN. DELANEY. Figure 12 shows a photograph of a production model of this digital ferrite phase shifter. A Westinghouse production model of a four-bit C-band ferrite phase shifter. with the waveguide cover removed. It was the first phase shifter with less than one dB insertion loss that could handle kilowatts of peak power 330 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12. and Gerald F.. for observation of Soviet missile tests. The article in this issue entitled “Wideband Radar for Ballistic Missile Defense and Range-Doppler Imaging of Satellites. A lower-cost ferrite material—lithium ferrite—developed by the Laboratory with the assistance of Ampex Corporation had less temperature sensitivity to the magnetization that directly controls the phase 180° element Dielectric separators Two-section quarter-wave transformer BeO slabs Driver terminal Cooling fins 90° element 45° element 22. and the RF loss are interrelated by the reactance and diode parameters. located in Shemya. Four UHF Position and Velocity Extraction (PAVE) Phased Array Warning System (PAWS) [44] phased-array radars (all solid state) were built by Raytheon. The L-band HAPDAR phased-array radar [41] was built by Sperry and was completed in 1965. and are still used for missile warning and space surveillance. promised better performance than diode phase shifters (primarily lower microwave loss) at S-band and higher frequencies. The S-band MSR was built by Raytheon and was completed in 1969. Temme. The L-band Cobra Dane phased-array radar. The stripline ground planes have been removed for clarity. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology FIGURE 11. TEMME. Alaska. The development of improved ferrite materials was an important aspect of attaining the good performance promised by ferrite phase shifters. was built by Raytheon and was completed in 1976. Early discussions and analyses were done at the Laboratory.5° element FIGURE 12. the bandwidth. The UHF AN/FPS-85 [43] phased-array radar was built by Bendix and was completed in 1968. . 2000 in the microwave region [46]. describes the Cobra Dane radar in more detail.

Air Force/U. Navy space-based-radar trans- mit/receive-module development program. • • • • Other modules VOLUME 12. Both General Electric and Raytheon produced several versions of transmit/receive modules for this program. also developed by the Laboratory. and the X-band Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) developed for the U. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology shift.S. Two prototypes of Joint STARS flew forty-nine missions in Operation Desert Storm in 1991. Army by Raytheon in 1975. 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 331 . Solid State Transmit/Receive Modules From 1982 to 1990. Gallium-arsenide MMIC transmit/receive-module technology is used in the Theater HighAltitude Area Defense (THAAD) X-band phased-array radar system [54] built by Raytheon Corporation. the C-band Patriot radar developed for the U. Navy by RCA in 1974. A flux-drive technique.S. enabled phase setting of phase shifters with low temperature sensitivity and five-bit accuracy without the penalty of complexity in the phase shifter and driver [51]. highly efficient. Diagram for desired L-band transmit/receive module for space-based-radar applications. a Joint STARS radar surveillance image is shown in Figure 11 in the article by Muehe and Labitt in this issue. DELANEY. Figure 14 shows a General Electric module. The transmit path contains a phase shifter and a power amplifier to achieve the desired transmit power level for the radar. which used phased-array antennas [53]. Lightweight L-band transmit/receive module technology developed for space-based radar applications was utilized in the Iridium commercial satellite communications system. The module contains switches that select either the transmit or receive paths. TEMME. small-size. Air Force by Grumman in 1988 [52].S.• FENN. The use of this material also permitted the extension of ferrite-phase-shifter operation to millimeter-wavelength frequencies [50]. and affordable modules that were capable of controlling signal phase accurately over the anticipated temperature range. These ferrite-phase-shifter techniques were used in the S-band Aegis phased-array radar developed for the U. Lincoln Laboratory led a joint U. Amplifier Power amplifier Circulator Transmit signal Beamformer A Attenuator CR & D • • Command register and driver (CR & D) CR & D Beamformer B Attenuator CR & D Low-noise amplifier • Phase shifter • To and from antenna • • • Other modules Power conditioning Prime power Module • • • Subarray Command computation chip Radar control processor FIGURE 13. represented by beamformers A and B.S. NUMBER 2. highly radiation resistant. and low-noise operation. with adequate RF-power generation.S. low DCpower consumption. The receive path contains two attenuators to illuminate two displaced phase centers. Figure 13 illustrates the configuration of the L-band transmit/receive module. The goals of this program were to utilize monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) and gallium-arsenide digital circuitry to produce low-weight.

T. were performed primarily in industrial laboratories. A second-generation development was the Advanced Fielded Array Radar (AFAR) at RCA in Moorestown. Alabama. in the late 1960s and early 1970s.0 GHz) test array [55]. With these improvements. laboratory. While the earlier generation of phased arrays had been based on phasers (variable phase shifters) in conductive-tube waveguides and centralized high-power vacuum tubes. General Electric L-band transmit/receive mod- ule for space-based radar operations. and it . to the required specifications for microwave use. The limited quality of early materials and the limitations of processing technology at the time led to poor production yields and inadequate performance of monolithic components. Hyltin of Texas Instruments. all attached to a common ceramic substrate and connected to intervening planar circuits by means of wire bonds. initiated the Molecular Electronics for Radar Applications (MERA) program to build a solid state airborne radar. and passive components. In the late 1960s. Raytheon. a study and analysis center sponsored by the Department of Defense (DoD). The initial focus was on arrays in the L-band frequency range. Blake had succeeded John Allen as leader of the Array Radars group in which the seminal work on phased-array theory and development had taken place during the previous decade. DELANEY. NUMBER 2. The Evolution of Solid State Active Elements for Phased-Array Antennas The possibility of creating an all-solid-state realization of the phased-array concept arose in the late 1960s. and Hughes. Edwards at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. researchers began developing a 100-element L-band (1. In the 1960s the technology required for mono332 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12. the effort was valuable in demonstrating the promises and the limits of hybrid technology. Hence the research effort was initially based on hybrid designs combining integrated circuits with more conventional components. notably through an initiative by Mel Vosburg of the Institute for Defense Analyses. TEMME. mainly in the hybrid mode. 2000 lithic circuits had not yet sufficiently matured.0 to 2. Albert and W.S. which would benefit from the major advantages of these circuits. Vosburg and Carl Blake of Lincoln Laboratory worked together in this venture. General Electric. Early development programs based on the hybrid-design concept.S. under Blake’s impetus. Lincoln Laboratory established a microwave integrated-circuit facility to develop and refine the technology of preparing substrates and applying circuits and devices. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology FIGURE 14. In particular. New Jersey. Planar circuits were fabricated. Westinghouse. development of components with this phased-array objective was initiated at Lincoln Laboratory in the 1970s. Although AFAR was not carried to completion. diode phase-shifting circuits and switches. as described earlier in this article. especially compact size.• FENN. on steadily improving ceramic substrate materials—principally aluminum oxide—with the most refined photolithography materials and techniques then available. and high reliability. New Jersey. Gallium-Arsenide Monolithic Integrated Circuits The all-solid-state UHF ground-based radar called PAVE PAWS was built with hybrid technology. RCA. low cost. Army sponsorship of a program called CAMEL by the U. including those at Texas Instruments. with modules produced by Westinghouse. Army’s Fort Monmouth. developers envisioned that array designs incorporating solid state integrated circuits would open the array concept to a wide range of important applications. Hybrid circuits were composed of discrete packaged transistors.S. low weight. and with U. with the support of R. Army’s ballistic-missiledefense program at the Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Technology Center (BMDATC) of Huntsville. With support from the U.

As device and circuit quality improved. The semi-insulating gallium-arsenide substrate on whose surface the epitaxial device layers are fabricated is advantageous for its electrically inert character. when well processed. a simpler and less costly isolating technique. solid-state phased-array radar made with hybrid circuits would require a very large number of discrete components and associated wire bonds. The Laboratory organized its effort for these projects by establishing a mutually complementary relationship between the Microelectronics group in the Solid State Research division. which contributed the circuit designs for phased-array technology. An early success in this effort. at the IBM laboratory in Zurich [60]. all working at Texas Instruments.W. were based on similar solid-state hybrid technology. Following these basic advances. in an important development. 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 333 . Courtney at Lincoln Laboratory [61]. The substrate material recognized as most promising was gallium arsenide. the material is in fact free of the frequency-dependent loss characteristics that some researchers had feared. The potential advantages of higher microwave or millimeter-wave frequencies. Another significant advance in those years was a monolithic low-noise field-effect transistor (FET) microwave amplifier on gallium arsenide. reported by W. DELANEY. Eventually. and accordingly the shortest wavelengths. both in discrete form and as active devices on monolithic chips. permitting low insertion loss and also low coupling loss between the closely spaced circuit components. E. and thus its suitability for high-frequency systems. Success in these pioneering efforts depended on the solution of numerous interrelated problems. Gunn-diode oscillators. against interaction with each other. In 1968. are favored for the associated functions of surveillance and search. Such advances at the Laboratory and in industry led to a surge of development. TEMME. the phased-array research effort shifted toward the development and deployment of fully integrated circuits composed of devices created on a common semiconductor substrate [57]. The highest available frequencies. principally for its characteristically high carrier mobility. Vendelin et al. In Lincoln Laboratory. especially of gallium-arsenide metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFET). while lower frequencies. The completely monolithic microwave amplifier chip with galliumVOLUME 12. to create crystalline defects and thereby impart near-intrinsic-semiconductor properties.5 to 36. reported an early success in development of devices and circuits on gallium arsenide for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Sudbury collaborated to advance support for the MMIC phased array. including balanced mixers. Consequently. are essential to form narrow beams for high resolution in target tracking. researchers realized that a largescale. envisioned as densely positioned on the semiconductor wafer. such as the Reliable Advanced Solid State Radar (RASSR) and the Solid State Phased Array (SSPA) [56] sponsored by the U. demonstrated at Lincoln Laboratory [62]. which contributed the development and refinement of materials along with device fabrication and testing. Mehal and R. specifically in the microwave (1 to 30 GHz) and millimeter-wave (30 to 300 GHz) frequency ranges. This key dielectric property was confirmed in detailed measurements of complex permittivity of gallium arsenide in the range of 2. The designs of other military defense radars. still higher performance of the substrate was required for electrical isolation of the devices.S.D. which would lead to excessive cost and inferior reliability compared to the promise of monolithic technology. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology performed successfully. Bächtold et al. These measurements showed that. Later. various research groups produced planar devices showing dramatically improved performance. imposed stringent requirements on the quality of gallium-arsenide materials for monolithic wafers. metallurgy. with better prospects to fulfill the requirement of high transmitter power. as well as rigorous demands on the optics. Wacker [58] and G. Blake and Roger W.• FENN. and the Experimental Systems group. however. which was widely adopted. and chemistry of the photolithography process. was the process of passivation by means of proton bombardment. and frequency multipliers for receiver applications at millimeter-wave frequencies. involved heavy doping of the intervening areas of the substrate to reduce carrier lifetime. high-resolution tracking function of radars. [59]. The early efforts in device development at Texas Instruments led to both hybrid and monolithic circuits. NUMBER 2. Air Force.W.0 GHz by William E. suitable for the narrow-beam.

an array with integrated-circuit phasers and transmit/receive capability as an integral part of each antenna element. The receiver section was based on planar Schottkybarrier diodes in a balanced-mixer/heterodyne configuration [69]. 2000 puter-aided device and circuit design programs (a powerful discipline then still in its infancy). while at the same time enhancing the Laboratory’s own expertise in the area by developing the technology for a millimeter-wave transmit/receive module— specifically. Pengelly and J. 57].S. NUMBER 2.0 to 2. There was interest in Lincoln Laboratory’s proposals for research in solid-state-circuit technology from the Very High-Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program under Sonny Maynard of the DoD. and a 17-GHz FET power amplifier . The program was based on the concept of an “active element” phased array. In the 1980s. [66] and by Sudbury [67] at Lincoln Laboratory. developed at Lincoln Laboratory. successfully combining for the first time two different active microwave devices on the same chip. These devices were a millimeter-wave Schottky-diode mixer followed by a MESFET IF amplifier operating at 1. The Ka-band module proposed for development at Lincoln Laboratory under the MIMIC program was a single-polarization transmit/receive module with average output power on the order of 100 mW in the millimeter-wave range at 34 GHz.5 to 40 GHz) phasedarray seeker on a missile. a low-loss phaser using Schottky diodes.A. A presentation by Courtney et al. TEMME. Turner at Plessey Co. development of com334 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12. The transmitter chain incorporated a 17-GHz MESFET driver amplifier. of investigation into practical uses of gallium arsenide for microwave integrated circuits.. which used a very lowloss planar coupling capacitor fabricated with highdielectric tantalum pentoxide [71]. It was proposed that the Laboratory continue to serve in its advisory role to the government agencies that were funding various aspects of the new technologies. high-quality substrates suitable for commercial production of MESFETs optimized for high power or for low noise. and proof of feasibility to show that monolithic circuits can find applications in circuits that are suitable and affordable for wide use in military systems. The Laboratory took on an advisory role for government agencies that were supporting the new generation of phased-array design. as well as (2) the enhancement of its own capability for innovation and consultation. i. major support for the development of monolithic microwave technology came through the efforts of Elliot Cohen. this achievement led to a rapid increase in the involvement of all the leading microwave research laboratories in further development of monolithic circuits. At the same time the Laboratory continued to conduct its own research directed toward (1) the development of technology applicable to the transmit/receive module for array antennas in military systems. supported by BMDATC. Laton et al. DELANEY. Cohen sponsored the Microwave and Millimeter Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits (MIMIC) program [65] within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). in 1976 [63].• FENN. locked to a central phase and amplitude standard. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology arsenide MESFETs and matching circuits was first reported by R. in 1980 [64] characterized the problems and potential of a monolithic receiver. for a Ka-band (26.W. the Laboratory also fabricated a mixer-preamplifier monolithic chip. The mixer output was followed by a two-stage low-noise IF amplifier. The system considerations for such a radar and component development to that date were reviewed in 1978 by R. with Blake. a DoD associate of Maynard’s and a major advocate. Figure 15 illustrates the Ka-band transmit/receive-module configuration and includes illustrations of the component chips as of 1985 [68. Ltd. Lincoln Laboratory became deeply involved in this developing technology. The MIMIC program’s objectives included development of volume production technology to produce large-diameter. A novel approach in this circuit was the dual use of the mixer: in receive mode to produce an L-band IF signal.e. and as a switch to protect the receiver in transmit mode [70]. The MIMIC program maintained the impetus of the earlier developments and encouraged the microwave industry to construct the large gallium-arsenide processing facilities that exist today for the fabrication of phased-array and telecommunication modules. which is central to the concept of a solid-state phased array. In addition to fabricating the dual-function mixer shown in Figure 15.0 GHz.

Array Calibration and Testing Phased-array antennas require accurate calibration of their multiplicity of transmit/receive channels.• FENN. TEMME. thus methods for calibration of a fielded radar system are required. The decade of the 1990s saw widespread application of gallium-arsenide monolithic integrated circuits in many fields. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology To antenna 34 GHz Transmit/ receive ×2 Frequency doubler Local oscillator Dual-function mixer and transmit/receive switch Power amplifier Low-noise amplifier FET power amplifier φ IF (1–2 GHz) From voltage-controlled oscillator (17 GHz) Phase shifter Low-noise IF amplifier FIGURE 15. the phase shift through a channel is often affected by temperature and electronic drift. 12. the Global Positioning System (GPS). The transmit side includes phase control and field-effect transistor (FET) power amplification at 17 GHz. and a frequency doubler. By 1990. direct-satellite-broadcast receivers. In practice. and active transmit/receive modules were being utilized for large phased arrays. Module configuration and organization of component chips for a gallium-arsenide active-element trans- mit/receive circuit. 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 335 . NUMBER 2.0 GHz) to 34 GHz (Ka band) was devised.0 GHz) theater-mis- sile-defense phased-array radar system [54] built by Raytheon Corporation. Gallium-arsenide MMIC transmit/receive-module technology is used in the X-band (8.0 to 18.0 to 12. This dual unit is followed by a low-noise output amplifier. because in the late 1970s and early 1980s the cutoff frequency of the MESFET amplifiers was not sufficiently high for operation at millimeter-wave frequencies. The strategy of frequency doubling from 17 GHz (Ku band. They produced output greater than 100 milliwatts with 35% efficiency at Ka-band frequencies [74]. Lincoln Laboratory has pioneered several phased-array calibration and radiation-pattern measurement techniques [75–80]. MMICs were routinely developed for commercial applications such as automobile instrumentation and civilian communications. DELANEY. so that the radar main beam can be pointed in the correct direction and the sidelobe levels of the radar antenna can be controlled. VOLUME 12. On the receive side. a dual unit incorporates a transmit/receive switch and a mixer that produces the intermediate frequency (IF) at 1 to 2 GHz. The monolithic doublers [73] were planar series-connected varactor diodes embedded in matching circuits on a chip. including radar. and commercial wireless telephony. active solid state devices at microwave frequencies were becoming ubiquitous. driving a doubler to produce output power at 34 GHz [72].

Methods for compensating for the effects of variations in the array radiating-element patterns [77] and failed radiating elements [78] were also developed. (a) Lincoln Laboratory’s ground-test facility for adaptive phased-array antenna evaluation in space-basedradar applications. as described in the article by Muehe and Labitt in this issue. (b) This facility has interior walls covered with radiation-absorbing material.6 dB. which is close to the average theoretical sidelobe level of –52. which enables full-scale real-time testing of radar capability at a test distance of approximately one aperture diameter. The Laboratory explored various other approaches for calibrating and testing low-sidelobe phased arrays. This calibration technique proved to be a fast and accurate way of measuring one-dimensional and two-dimensional array radiation patterns. adaptive-nulling techniques were used 336 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12. TEMME. (this paper won the 1990 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society’s Best Applications Award) [75]. it was discovered that once the desired phase and amplitude distributions had been applied to the array. 2000 FIGURE 17.M. A near-field . a second series of mutual-coupling measurements allowed a measurement of the phased-array radiation patterns. NUMBER 2. DELANEY. close to the theoretical value. The measured average sidelobe level is –50 dB. One such calibration technique involved the use of the inherent array mutual coupling to transmit and receive signals between pairs of elements in the array. Furthermore. Figure 16 shows a typical lowsidelobe monopole phased-array radiation pattern measured with the reactive-region near-field-scanning approach. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology 0 (a) –20 –20 –40 –40 –60 –60 –60 –30 0 30 60 90 –80 –90 Azimuth (deg) FIGURE 16. Space-based radars or airborne radars can use multiple displaced phase centers to cancel clutter. Thus the channel phase shifters and attenuators (illustrated in Figure 13) can be calibrated to generate any desired phase/amplitude distribution across the aperture of the array. For example. The average measured sidelobe level is –50 dB. Absolute gain (dBi) Relative gain (dB) Measured Theory 0 (b) Airborne and space-based phased arrays containing thousands of transmit/receive channels require onboard techniques for in-flight calibration. to calibrate an experimental test array [76]. The mutual-coupling calibration technique was experimentally verified by using the monopole phasedarray antenna shown in Figure 8. The measured signals between all pairs of elements in the array allow a complete characterization of the relative amplitude and phase response of each channel in the array beamformer. The Laboratory also explored planar near-field calibration and testing in the antenna reactive region (extremely close near field) to accurately measure low-sidelobe radiation patterns [79]. Low-sidelobe radiation patterns for an L-band thirty-two-element monopole phased-array antenna. Aumann et al.• FENN. as described in a paper by H. compared to conventional farfield measurement techniques.

under simulated real-time conditions that include radar targets.M. which consists of a large building with the interior walls covered with radiation-absorbing material. when it is desirable to test a radar system.P. and L. Fowler.” IEEE Aerosp. Sudbury of Lincoln Laboratory for their technical contributions to this article.• FENN. shown in Figure 17. Bernella. During the past forty years. 13 (9). L. C. F.L. Normally. 6. W. DTIC #AD-417572. Syst. Weiss and Roger W. Private communication. Technologies developed at the Laboratory have been implemented in many phased-array radars in field operations. Carpenter. 1 July 1960 to 1 July 1961.P. and Anand Gopinath for furnishing material for the manuscript. Lincoln Laboratory (20 Feb. 1 July 1963 to 1 July 1964. “Phased Array Radar Studies. and jamming. 4. A near-field ground-test facility for phasedarray antenna evaluation in space-based radar applications was developed by Lincoln Laboratory [81]. Delaney. wide-bandwidth analog-to-digital converters.” Technical Report 236. 1965). pp. There are many instances. Summary The 1950s dream of electronic beam steering is gradually being realized by a variety of phased arrays currently being used in many ground-based and airborne radars. “Phased Array Radar Studies. either in the field or prior to deployment. DTIC #AD-271724. VOLUME 12. A focused near-field method to test the real-time performance of adaptive phased arrays for jammer suppression was theoretically analyzed for singlephase-center antennas [82] and multiple-phase-center antennas for clutter and jammer suppression and target detection [83].” Technical Report 381. alternative shorter-range testing is desirable. J. and adaptive digital beamforming to allow a variety of sophisticated radar operating modes and radar systems. however. Because testing these radar antennas under far-field conditions can require a range several miles long. J. Bernella. REFERENCES 1. D.M. radars operate under far-field conditions in which the radiated wavefront is approximately planar. Since 1958 the Laboratory has contributed significantly to the nation’s phased-array radar capabilities. We can posit that the era of the phased-array radar is just beginning! Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge Jerald A. Lincoln Laboratory (13 Nov. Allen. J. 2. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology scanning method for measuring the clutter-cancellation performance of displaced-phase-center antennas was also demonstrated [80]. and Chang-Lee Chen. DELANEY. Cartledge. We also acknowledge George Knittel and John Allen for their review of the manuscript. Electron. 3. 2000 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 337 . The focused near-field adaptive-nulling testing technique was also found to have a medical application as well [85].L. Phased arrays are increasingly envisioned to be critical components for meeting future challenges in military and civilian systems. 24A–24L. 1998. Lincoln Laboratory (31 Mar.L. provides the capability of implementing a number of novel test procedures developed by the Laboratory for measuring the radar system performance for antennas up to about twelve meters in length. Mahoney. NUMBER 2.W. Allen. Private communication. The Laboratory is continuing to investigate new phased-array technologies in such areas as photonic beamforming. “Old Radar Types Never Die. The test facility. or 55 Years of Trying to Avoid Mechanical Scan. Mag. 1963).” Technical Report 299. TEMME. 5. micro-electromechanical phase shifters. Lincoln Laboratory was privileged to work in this most interesting area of radar technology and be part of the extensive national effort to make the vision of electronic beam steering become a reality [1]. Delaney. Allen. D. W. DTIC #AD629363. 1961). clutter. “Phased Array Radar Studies. They Just Phased Array. enables full-scale real-time testing of phased-array radar capability at a test distance of approximately one aperture diameter. and J.A. on the order of five to twenty meters. Betts. We foresee great promise in the combination of the technologies of low-cost all-solid-state array modules. Leonard J. Dibartolo. The focused near-field nulling technique for suppressing jammers was experimentally verified for a single-phase-center array antenna [84]. and advanced space-time adaptive processing arrays. and W. Cartledge. 1 July 1961 to 1 July 1963. Some of these radars can have large apertures. The above phased-array testing techniques are generally restricted to non-real-time operation. This facility.

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 was born in Lurgan County. NUMBER 2. and M. He joined Lincoln Laboratory in 1981 and was a member of the Space Radar Technology group from 1982 to 1991. where he became involved in radar with a thesis on UHF power amplifiers for phased arrays.  . From 1963 to 1966 he was a Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and Ministry of Aviation postdoctoral research fellow in the Department of Electrical Engineering. He has a B.  came to Lincoln Laboratory in 1957 after receiving a B.  is a senior staff member in the Advanced Electromagnetic Systems group. millimeter homing radar.  is a former senior staff member in the Communications division.S. all involving radar systems. 2000 . and an S. Division of Sponsored Research. degree in electrical engineering from MIT. including far-flung places such as Christmas Island.E. and in 1995 he became a Director’s Office Fellow. degree in electrical engineering from the Queen’s University of Belfast.M. In 1990 he was a corecipient of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society’s H. University of Leeds.S. adaptive-array near-field testing. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Nebraska. His current research interest is in ferrite-superconductor control devices. degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. TEMME.A. In 1959 he received an S.• FENN.M. Air Force. degree from the University of Illinois in Chicago. He has been awarded the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Civilian Service Medal and the Air Force Exceptional Civilian Service Medal. Some of the major Laboratory programs he contributed to were early phaseshifter developments. where he managed programs involving optically controlled phased-array antennas and the measurement of atmospheric effects on radomes and satellite communications.  . From 1973 to 1976 he served in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In 1987 he was appointed assistant director of the Laboratory. all in electrical engineering. 340 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL VOLUME 12. or the Kola Peninsula of Russia. England. including the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and the Defense Science Board. He has served on many government committees. In 2000 he was elected a Fellow of the IEEE for his contributions to the theory and practice of adaptive phased-array antennas. His dominant recreational pursuit is fly fishing. air defense. From 1992 to 1999 he was an assistant group leader in the RF Technology group. From 1966 to 1968 he was a postdoctoral fellow. and battlefield surveillance. He received a B. He is a life member of the IEEE and a member of Sigma Xi. degrees from Ohio State University. He was a staff member from 1968 to 1995 at Lincoln Laboratory. Northern Ireland.D. In 1991 he was elected a Fellow of the IEEE. and Ph. At Kwajalein Atoll he led the ALCOR wideband radar project. Returning to the Laboratory in 1970. where his research was in phased-array antenna design. where he catches fish so large he doesn’t have to lie about them!  .S. Patagonia. He is currently assisting the Concord Middle School in increasing the physics content of the basic science course.E. air traffic control. Columbus. tactical air-surveillance radar (HOWLS). he held management positions of increasing responsibility in missile defense. He also received the IEEE/URSI-sponsored 1994 International Symposium on Antennas (JINA 94) Award for the best poster presentation. and antenna and radar cross-section measurements. His early research at the Laboratory involved phased-array radars. with responsibilities for R&D in strategic defense systems. Wheeler Applications Prize Paper Award for a paper he coauthored for the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. AND COURTNEY The Development of Phased-Array Radar Technology  .D. Before joining Lincoln Laboratory in 1957 he was in the U. Northern Ireland. Armagh. degree from MIT. respectively. and at present a consultant to the Analog Device Technology group.E. DELANEY.E. in 1959 and 1963.S.Sc. and space-borne surveillance radar. degree in physics and a Ph. in the Center for Materials Science and Engineering at MIT. He received a B.

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