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1taos/a/ct`sȑ1tŘc·:ǟ
At/ȑ ao4ȑI:atĀǟ aƖǟ to/tc4a:/tcoȑ
ːohnࢅļrmiĀagcࢅ
ļࢅ Ƭiࢅtilcssࢅ džߎtࢅ
Silcnccࢅ onࢅ Jrlal
Řc/:sȑ
Lt//tcvǙa]Ƒȑ
Io4:Đȑ
ÀÍÍ
?O
b1
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ÍÜO
ÍÜ'
1ra/s/a/)r s 1rºa:º
ImmcJlatclyࢅaۀcrࢅScptcmbcrࢅ l l ࢅ anࢅcɞcnĀࢅt hat ࢅJlJࢅ
notࢅ taƎcࢅ hlmࢅ b࡯ࢅ surpriscࢅ pcoplcࢅ whoࢅ haJࢅ alwaĠsࢅ
JismlsscJࢅ \lriliĸࢅ asࢅ aࢅ pٳsslmistࢅsĀartcJࢅ plaguingࢅ himࢅ
|orࢅ intcrŔicws ˄ࢅ טhcnࢅ Iࢅ spoƎcࢅ toࢅ himࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ Ālmcࢅ lnࢅ
ƬarlsĻ ࢅ whcrcࢅ aࢅ planࢅ Āoࢅ bȶowࢅ upࢅ thcࢅ Amcricanࢅ
ͬmb؈ssyࢅ haJࢅĪࠧs tࢅ bccnࢅ Jis̱antlcJ. ࢅ hcࢅ saiJƞࢅ ąƗhcrcࢅ
arcࢅ noࢅ pcssimlstsɌ ࢅ thcrcࢅ arcࢅ onlyࢅ rcalistsࢅ anJࢅ llars . Ƀ ࢅ
Aࢅ rcalistࢅ t oࢅ Ұhcࢅ corc. ࢅ \i njilloࢅ willࢅ alwa͉sࢅ bcࢅ thcࢅ
˛rstࢅ toࢅ Χakcࢅ ɔٴrtalnࢅ conȁcctlons .ࢅ Ćorࢅ cx;mplc. ࢅ
othcrsࢅ bc|orcࢅ thΞsࢅ haŔcࢅ atĀaɖ̯cJࢅ moJcrnࢅ artģ sࢅJanccࢅ
o|ࢅĀhcࢅ scŔcnࢅ ɞcils. ࢅ thcࢅstrippingࢅ olࢅarĀɃ sࢅ subź cɖtsࢅ anJࢅ
matcrialsࢅJownࢅtoࢅ thcࢅbarcࢅboncsࢅolࢅanࢅinsubstantlalࢅ
rcprcscnĀation. ࢅ 8utࢅ i tࢅ isࢅ \lrilioࢅ whoࢅ namcsࢅ thcࢅ
proccssࢅ ɞiolcncc͒ࢅ plnpol ntsࢅ thcࢅ lcarࢅ thatࢅ subࢅtcnJsࢅ i t ࢅ
anJࢅmaƾٵsࢅ thcࢅconncctlonࢅbctwccnࢅthisࢅɞiolcnccࢅanJࢅ
thcࢅŔlolcnccࢅ oƘࢅt۲cࢅbattlcƢclЫsࢅ oƹࢅthcࢅ ƅrcatࢅıar.ࢅ |orࢅ
cxamplc. ࢅ whcnࢅ thcࢅ ŰrsĀࢅ abs tractࢅ canɞascsࢅ appcarcJࢅ
\1|
HǓ/ȑ c»4ȑ !:atȑ
anJࢅ thcࢅ hȾɿanࢅ ˛gȾrcࢅ ࡒasࢅ lltcrallyࢅ anJࢅ ˛guratlvclyࢅ
blastcJࢅ toࢅ ΂i tsՐࢅ oʄࢅ thcࢅ horrlŰcࢅ rctu̻nࢅ toࢅ aࢅ ѻitcralࢅ
˙ܙguratܘvcӵࢅ withࢅ լrࢅ ƛonࢅ ēagcnsƂ ࢅ ʄcalࢅ˝Ⱦmanࢅ corpscsࢅ
o|ࢅunknoࡓnࢅorlglnࢅ ŰllcJࢅwithࢅplasticࢅprcscʄƦatl࠽cࢅ
anJࢅ cxposcJࢅ asࢅ anatoɿlcalࢅ art. ࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ vcryࢅ ɿomcntࢅ
thcࢅ sɖi cntl ˙ܚcࢅ commȾnl tyࢅ lsࢅ bayl ngࢅ |orࢅ humanࢅ
cmbryosࢅ toࢅ ӛcnginccrϓ Ăࢅ ֦oࢅ oncࢅ clscࢅ ۳asࢅ traccJࢅ thlsࢅ
twinࢅ gcncalogyࢅ olࢅartࢅ anJࢅ scicnccࢅ thatࢅ hasࢅ hadࢅ soࢅ
muchࢅ toࢅ Joࢅ withࢅ thcࢅ ' roȾti ncࢅ horrorsӜࢅ o|ࢅ t۴cࢅ las tࢅ
hunJߏcJࢅ yзars Ăࢅ
Somcࢅ pcoplcࢅ rcactࢅ baJlyࢅ notࢅ onlyࢅ ࠐoࢅ \irilloƂ sࢅ
homcࢅ ҭru˪hs. ࢅ bȾt ࢅ toࢅ thcࢅgustoࢅƁi thࢅƁhichࢅ thcyࢅarcࢅ
uttcrcJĂࢅ Ʒʫcnࢅ Laȑ Itc:Ÿat:ȑ Dzt/:»::ȑ camcࢅ outࢅ inࢅ
Ćranccࢅ atࢅ tǨcࢅ cnJࢅ o|ࢅįġġġ, ࢅ \lriѻioࢅ rccclvcJࢅ thrcatsࢅ
o|ࢅŔiolcnccࢅ againstࢅ hisࢅ pcrsonŪ ࢅ Hcࢅ ˛clJcJࢅ қucstlonsࢅ
onࢅ talƎ-baاܩࢅ raJioࢅ |romࢅ ӝ؉rtࢅ loŔcrsƂࢅ ࡔhoࢅ showcrcJࢅ
himࢅwithࢅ riɷhtcousࢅspi tcĂ ࢅ Ɨhatࢅ іakࢅ aloncࢅ constitutcsࢅ
proo|ࢅi|ࢅproo|ࢅwcrcࢅ nccdcJࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ pcrti nࢄnccࢅo|ࢅwhatࢅ
hcࢅ hasࢅ toࢅ sayࢅ hcʄcࢅ about ࢅ contcmporaryࢅ artࢅ anJࢅ
tcrrorism. ࢅsilcnclngࢅanJࢅnoisc˄ࢅ \irllloࢅضocsࢅnotࢅmlnccࢅ
worJs. ࢅ whcĀhcrࢅ inࢅ convcrsatlonࢅ orࢅ cssayࢅ andࢅ thcscࢅ
papcrsࢅ arcࢅ ΂othĂ ࢅ Soࢅ i tࢅ isࢅ impossiblcࢅ notࢅ toࢅ takcࢅ aࢅ
stanJ. ࢅ whatcŔcrࢅ thatࢅ mightࢅ bcŪ ࢅ
Òncࢅ piŔotalࢅ Jichotomyࢅ inࢅ whatࢅ |ollowsࢅ nccŵsࢅ
cxplainingࢅ ǨcrcĂ ࢅ Ȫouࢅ willࢅ sccࢅ Iࢅ uscࢅ ' pi ti˙ࠨlɃࢅ anJࢅ
' pi tilcss ǃࢅ throughout. ࢅ asࢅ
ב
irllioࢅ Jocs. ࢅ anJࢅ havcࢅ kcptࢅ
thoscࢅ tcrmsࢅ cŔcnࢅ whcrcࢅaࢅ morcࢅsympathcticࢅͬnglishࢅ
\1I|
Ttaos/a/ct`sǟ1tsa·:ǟ
worJࢅ mightࢅsccmࢅ callcJࢅ |orࢅ bccauscࢅ i tࢅisࢅ not. ࢅ ʞhcࢅ
oppositionࢅ bct˲ccnࢅ bcinķࢅ|ullࢅ o|ࢅpi tyࢅ piοi|ulࢅ anJࢅ
bci ȁۋࢅ absolu˭clvࢅ wi thoutࢅ i t.ࢅ isࢅ crucialࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ
argumcnt ࢅ AnJࢅ bcingࢅ|ullࢅ o|ࢅpityࢅ canࢅ alsoࢅ havcࢅ thcࢅ
pcĪorativcࢅ scn̾cࢅ oƹࢅ bcinķࢅ pathctic. ࢅ somcwhХŝࢅ conӉ
t cmpti bl c. ࢅ asࢅ opposcdࢅ toࢅ i tsࢅ positivcࢅ scȁscࢅ o|ࢅ
compassionatc. ࢅ So.ࢅ apoĬoɷicsࢅ toࢅ 8obࢅ ʐylanࢅ |an̾ࢅ
whcnࢅ hcࢅ poҚsࢅ upࢅ asࢅ Ņ aࢅ pi t i |ul ࢅ musicianࢅ Қarࢅ
cxccllcncc' čࢅ 8ࡰࢅ thcࢅ timcࢅ youࢅ comcࢅ toࢅ thaοࢅ phrasc. ࢅ
youࢅknoƁࢅthaĺࢅ ' pi ti|ulƂ ࢅ mcansࢅ ' human' ࢅ inࢅ ourࢅ|onJࢅ
cxprcssion. ࢅ asࢅࡕcllࢅas.ࢅ ycs.ࢅ Ņ pathctiب' Ūࢅ JhcࢅshorthanJࢅ
isࢅtrucࢅtoࢅ|ormࢅanJࢅhopc|ullyࢅƁorksࢅinࢅthcࢅͬnglish.ࢅasࢅ
inࢅthcࢅĆrcȁch. ࢅtoࢅcovcrࢅaࢅ lotࢅo|ࢅtcrri toryࢅi nࢅĪu̾ t ࢅaࢅ|cƁࢅ
s trokcsĂ ࢅ
¡7
ȉulicࢅ Roscࢅ
įԢġįࢅ
.r/ an1 1ºar.
an tn/r)da:/t)n
Iaulࢅ ͻirilioࢅ isࢅ nowࢅ rccogniŕcdࢅ lorࢅ hisࢅ thcoriŕingࢅ olࢅ
acsthcticsࢅ aȁdࢅ politicsࢅ thro˯ghout ࢅ thcࢅ Lnglish˵
ηҙcakingࢅ ƁorѶdƩࢅ ɐhcࢅ translationࢅ anʦࢅpublicationࢅ olࢅ
At/ǟ aoJǟ I:atǟ ؇dʦsࢅ considcraĐlyࢅ toࢅ hisࢅ discussionsࢅ oхࢅ
contempoǙar࡬ࢅ artࢅanʦࢅ thcࢅ po̰iticsࢅolࢅhumanࢅ silcncc.ࢅ
Ɩhcscࢅ arcࢅ bothࢅ subʯcctsࢅ thatࢅ \i rilioࢅ isࢅ incrcasinglyࢅ
anxiousࢅ aboࠦt. ࢅ Inࢅ divcrscࢅ rٰspcctsࢅ \i rilioࢅ lcclsࢅ
alicnatedࢅ ćεoˣࢅ thcࢅ Ʊ pi tilcss' ࢅ wayࢅ inࢅ whichࢅ twcnty-
Ķrst͓ccnt˯εyࢅ ˕rtists. ࢅ unlikcࢅ Ĺwenticth-ccnturyࢅ mod-
crnࢅ artis ts. ࢅ sccmࢅ incapablcࢅ ci thcrࢅ olࢅundcrstandingࢅ
thcࢅ lullࢅ horҢorࢅ olࢅ humanࢅ violenccࢅ ̶rࢅ remainingࢅ
silcnt. ࢅ Creatl࡭ࢅ i ntcrcs tcʦࢅ i nࢅ cvcryࢅ kindࢅ olࢅcrcativcࢅ
depaεturc.ࢅ i nࢅthescࢅtwoࢅcssaysࢅ onࢅąAࢅIitilcssࢅArt͍ ࢅ andࢅ
Ʌ Si l cnccࢅ onࢅ Ɩri al' ࢅ \i rilioࢅ broadcnsࢅ hisࢅ carli crࢅ
ʦeli bcrati onsࢅ onࢅ t hcࢅ Ʌacsthcticsࢅ olࢅdisappcarancc' . ࢅ
I nࢅ ޮarti cul anjϛ ࢅ hcࢅ isࢅ i ntercstcdࢅ inࢅ rٱǡЭvaluatingࢅ
twcnti cth- ceǮt˯ryࢅ thcoriesࢅ olࢅ moʦcrnࢅ artࢅ andࢅ
At/ǟ aoJǟ I:atǟ
duration. ࢅ thcࢅ spokcnࢅ wordࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ rightࢅ toࢅ stavࢅ
siəcntࢅ inࢅ anࢅ craࢅ thatࢅ Ŀsࢅ incrcasi ngəvࢅ shapcdࢅ bvࢅ thcࢅ
shrillࢅ sonoritvࢅ olࢅcontcmporarvࢅ art. ࢅ
Ŭvcnࢅ s o, ࢅ ͻi riəܕo' s ࢅ DZucsti oni ngࢅ o|ࢅ twcnti cthǟ
ccnturvࢅ t hcoricsࢅ oфࢅ modcrnࢅ art, ࢅ thcࢅ rcmoωalࢅ o|ࢅ
silcnccࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ contcmporarvࢅ artࢅ thatࢅ hasࢅ issucdࢅ
|romࢅ suchࢅ prcmiζcsࢅ andࢅ practiccsࢅ cannotࢅ bcࢅ undɳrǟ
stoodࢅ asࢅ aࢅ post͓structǜralis tࢅ rcʯcctionࢅ olࢅhuɚanismࢅ
orࢅ thcࢅ rcaəࢅ hǜmanࢅ bodvϫ ࢅ ֵaࠏhcr. ࢅ i t ࢅ mustࢅ bcࢅ
intcrprctcdࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ scanjchࢅ |orࢅ aࢅ humanismࢅ thatࢅ canࢅ
|accࢅupࢅ toࢅ thcࢅconʷcmptࢅshownࢅ towardsࢅ thcࢅ bodvࢅinࢅ
thcࢅtimcࢅo|ࢅwhatࢅ\iriəioࢅlabcəsࢅthcࢅŅ sonoriŕationϒ ࢅ ƃ thcࢅ
artܖs tܗcࢅ productionࢅ o|ࢅ rcsonantࢅ andࢅ noisvࢅ soundǟ
scapcsĭ ࢅ olࢅ allࢅ ωi sualࢅ andࢅ virtualࢅ rcprcscntations .ࢅ
ͻirilioࢅ clucidatcdࢅ thisࢅ rcccntlvࢅ conccrningࢅ Òrəanࢅ
andࢅStcəarc, ࢅ bothࢅ Ɓorldϣߍٲnowncdࢅmultimcdiaࢅbodvࢅ
artis ts DŽࢅ Spcakingࢅ inࢅ anࢅ intcrvicwࢅ cnti tlcdࢅ Ņ HvpcrƧ
violcnccࢅ andࢅ Hvpcrscxuali tv' . ࢅ \irilioࢅ casti gatcsࢅ
thcscࢅ lcadingࢅ mcmbcrsࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ contcmporarvࢅ Ņ multiǟ
mcdiaࢅ acadcmv' ࢅ whilcࢅ discussingࢅ hisࢅ i ncrcasingࢅ
constcrnaʷionࢅ bc|orcࢅ thcirࢅpitilcssࢅ acadcmicࢅ artࢅ thaĹࢅ
alsoࢅi nvolvcsࢅ thcࢅ condcmnationࢅo|ࢅaࢅ silcnccࢅ thatࢅhasࢅ
bccoɚcࢅ aࢅ kindࢅ o|ࢅ Ņ mutism
Ϛ
Ʃ
Ԯࢅ
Asࢅ hcࢅ putࢅ i t. ࢅ antiǟ
humanࢅ bodvࢅ artࢅ Ņ contributcsࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ wavࢅ i nࢅ whichࢅ
thcࢅ rcalࢅ bodv. ࢅ andࢅ i tsࢅ rcalࢅprcscncc, ࢅ arcࢅmcnaccdࢅbvࢅ
vari ousࢅ kindsࢅ o|ࢅvirtualࢅ prcscncc' ˼ࢅ
ļsࢅ anࢅ cldcrࢅȤrcnchࢅthcoristࢅbornࢅinࢅ Iarisࢅ inࢅ ˇ 9Գį, ࢅ
2
Io/tcJe·//coǟ
\iriğioࢅ isࢅ inJcbƣcJࢅ toࢅ ĩisࢅ cxδcȻicnccࢅ o|ࢅ ƣĩcࢅ ScconJࢅ
ŭoȻldࢅ ŭarŌ ࢅ ДcscǬblingࢅ thcࢅ \Ƽ cnncscࢅ ɩctionis tsࢅ o|ࢅ
thcࢅ Ϯ9ʎġsࢅ hcࢅ Щannotࢅ Jcƣacĩࢅ hisࢅ tǿoughtࢅ lromࢅ thcࢅ
cvcntࢅ o|ࢅ ɩŞschwit zŌ ࢅ \irilioࢅ isࢅ thcnࢅ coݲti nuağğyࢅ
rcsponsivcࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ mostࢅ |rigǩtcningࢅ anŶࢅ cxtrcmclyࢅ
horriƢcࢅ Ȱcaƣužcsࢅ oȱࢅ ouȻࢅ cpochĂࢅ I t ࢅ was.ࢅ tĩoċgĩɆ ࢅ ƣhcࢅ
ĕccondࢅ ŭorlijࢅ ŭar.ࢅ anJӳࢅ i nࢅpaȻticular, ࢅ tʬcࢅ tragcijyࢅ
o|ࢅthcࢅ NazƼࢅ cҔnccntraƣionࢅ anJࢅ cƝtcrmi҈ationࢅ caǬpsࢅ
tۮatࢅ cJucatcijࢅ \irilioࢅ about ࢅ thcࢅ Jcpthsࢅ o|ࢅ humanࢅ
vƼolcncc. ࢅ Òr. ࢅ morcࢅ prcciscly.ࢅ thcࢅ catastȻophcࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
Naziࢅ Jcathࢅ camδsࢅ cncoǎragcJࢅ ĩiNjࢅ ƣoࢅ rcspccƣࢅ ƣhcࢅ
humanࢅbodyࢅanJࢅitsࢅcapaci Āyࢅ|orࢅsilcnccč ࢅ ֈnࢅdi ƺcrcnƣࢅ
ways.ࢅ thcn. ࢅ ׎irƼlƼoࢅ isࢅ |orgingࢅ andࢅ traʁsΌormѪ ngࢅ ourࢅ
unJcȻs tanJingࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ cthicalࢅ Jilcmʱasࢅ associatcJࢅ
witǩࢅ silcnccࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ sċbscoƚcntࢅ acsthΆtƼ cࢅ conڷi ɔtsࢅ
ği nkcJࢅ toࢅ tĩcࢅsonori zationࢅo|ࢅʸǿcࢅ auJioˀvisualࢅǞith˟nࢅ
tʬcࢅsδhcrcࢅ oćࢅcontcmporaryࢅ art ࢅ
Jhroughࢅ oъcringࢅ hisࢅ Christianࢅ assistanccࢅ toࢅ tۯcࢅ
hoǬclcssࢅ o|ࢅ pos tࢅ ĕcconJࢅ ŭorlJࢅ ŭarࢅ IaȻƍs. ࢅ whĈѺcࢅ
simul tancouslyࢅproJucingࢅthcorcticalࢅcri tioucsࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ
Jchumanizin
љࢅ
cǿaractcristicsࢅ oȱࢅ totaưࢅ wa˨. ࢅ \iriğioࢅ
gȻaJualğyࢅ Jisɔovcrcdࢅ hisࢅ huʱanismĂ ࢅ ōrucialࢅ toࢅ thisࢅ
Jiscovcryࢅ isࢅ anࢅ asscssmcntࢅ o|ࢅ tǿcࢅ acs tĩcticsࢅ anJࢅ
cthicsࢅ o|ࢅ hſmanࢅ pcrccptio҅.ࢅ anࢅ asscssmcnρࢅ thatࢅ
\irilioࢅ bcgaŒࢅ toࢅ picccࢅ togctǿcr. ࢅ Ėctࢅ noࢅ simplcࢅ
appcascmcntࢅwithࢅ ƣhcࢅ ninctccnthϢccnturyࢅ sitċaƣionࢅ
o|ࢅinJustriağiŕcdࢅ Ǭodcrnizationࢅwasࢅ possiblcĂࢅ Jhisࢅisࢅ
ó
At/ȑ c»Jȑ ō:ctȑ
bccaċsc. ࢅ lorࢅ \irilio, ࢅ itࢅ waҫࢅ throſghࢅ thcࢅ carnagcࢅ olࢅ
thcࢅ Ćirstࢅ andࢅ ĕcconJࢅ ࠼׏orldࢅ ŭarsࢅ t˞atࢅ moJcrnࢅ art. ࢅ
ćromࢅ ոcrmanࢅ LƝprcssĈonisǬࢅ andࢅ Ðadaࢅ toࢅ I talĈanࢅ
Ćċt uri s m. ࢅ Ćrcnchࢅ ĕċrrcal i s mࢅ anŶࢅ Amcri canࢅ
Abstract ࢅ LƝprcssionis m, ࢅ haJࢅ dcvcl opcdࢅ Γrs tࢅ aࢅ
rcactionࢅ toࢅ alicnaȼionࢅ andࢅ scconJࢅ aࢅ tastcࢅ lorࢅ anti -
hċmanࢅ crucl tyĂ ࢅ
Ŗ Joࢅ writcࢅ poctryࢅ altcrࢅ Aσschwitʽࢅ isࢅ ba˨baricț.ࢅ
wrotcࢅ Jhcodorࢅ AŶorno. ࢅ aࢅ statcmcntࢅ thatࢅ \irĈlioࢅ
bclicvcsࢅ cvcnࢅ Adornoࢅ woċldࢅ nowࢅ havcࢅ toࢅ acknow-
lcJgcࢅ asࢅ anࢅ ċnJcrcstimation. ࢅ givcnࢅ thcࢅ incrcasĈngࢅ
paccࢅ oΌࢅ artisticࢅ dcspcration.ࢅ thcࢅ catastrophcsࢅ olࢅ
Njodcrnityࢅandࢅ Ĺ˞cࢅcrisisࢅi nࢅmodcrnࢅartč
ϰࢅ
ĕpcllboundࢅ
byࢅ hċmanࢅ vioğcncc. ࢅ \irilioࢅ considcrsࢅ thatࢅ contcm-
poraryࢅ artistsࢅ havcࢅ abandoncdࢅ thcirࢅ ćċnctionࢅ olࢅ
conti nſallyࢅ rcasscssingࢅ ࠎhcࢅ crcativcࢅ practiccsࢅ andࢅ
scnsibili tics .ࢅ imaginationࢅ anJࢅ cſl turalࢅ mcaningࢅ olࢅ
thcࢅ aJvanccŶࢅ socicticsԜࢅ Inࢅ contrastࢅ IO Nictʽschc.ࢅ
ĕartrcࢅorࢅɪamċҫĻ ࢅ \Ƽ rƼѺΟoࢅcğaimsࢅthatࢅhcࢅisࢅ anƝioċsࢅtoࢅ
studyࢅ thcࢅ varicticsࢅ olࢅlilcࢅ anJࢅ thcࢅ contcmporaryࢅ artࢅ
olࢅ thcࢅ crisisࢅ olࢅ mcaningࢅ thatࢅ ni nctccnth- andࢅ
twcnti ct h- ccnt ċryࢅ artistsࢅ havcࢅ sh؆pcdࢅ anJࢅ thcࢅ
gcnoci Ŷcࢅ thatࢅ homicidalࢅ rċlcrsࢅ havcࢅ inࢅ rcalityࢅ
commi ttcd.ࢅ ɪonncctingࢅ aࢅ mċltiplicityࢅ oڕࢅ artistic.ࢅ
phiğosophicalࢅ andࢅ politicalࢅ rcsoċrccs.ࢅ \irilioࢅ isࢅ
crċciallyࢅcngrosscdࢅinࢅcƝaminingࢅthcࢅrcvolċtionࢅthatࢅ
contcmporaryࢅ artࢅ isࢅ prcscntlyࢅ ċndcrtakingࢅ throughࢅ
1
Io/ƶcJ«·//coǟ
i tsࢅ cspousalࢅ o|ࢅ tcrroris tlcࢅ acsthcticࢅ proccJurcsࢅ anJࢅ
thcࢅ prcmeŶl ˬatcJࢅ tcrminationࢅ o|ࢅtΛcࢅ cnċnciationࢅ oɶࢅ
sllcnccĮ ࢅ
Jhcࢅ assauưȼsࢅ onࢅ slgnsࢅ anJࢅ slğcnccࢅ thatࢅ \i riğioࢅ
obscrvcsࢅlnࢅcontcǬporaryࢅartࢅwcrcࢅ alrcaJyࢅJcaJlyࢅlnࢅ
i ntcntࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ l 9ǓǢsԝࢅ ʑoȻࢅ himࢅ l tࢅ l sࢅ notࢅ aࢅ matterࢅ o|ࢅ
wi tncsslngࢅ aࢅ rcağࢅ murJcrࢅ Ɵutࢅ morcࢅ cxactlyࢅ thcࢅ
murJcrࢅ o|ࢅ slgnsࢅ o|ࢅ artlsticࢅ pltyࢅ inࢅ thcࢅ namcࢅ o|ࢅ
|rccdomࢅ o|ࢅ artlstlcࢅ rcprcscntation͗ ࢅ ōontмǬplatiʳgࢅ
thcࢅ ċnǞrlt tcnࢅ anJࢅ nlg˞tmarishࢅ ǿağğuclnationsࢅ o|ࢅ
ninctccntʬ- anJࢅ twcntlcthϤccnturyࢅ arςࢅ anJࢅ tcrror,ࢅ
\irlğloࢅ isࢅ appžehcnsivcࢅ notࢅ toࢅ ovcrlookࢅ thatࢅ ȼhlsࢅ Ǟasࢅ
aࢅ ǿlsςoricağࢅ cβochࢅ thatࢅ simultaneousğyࢅ adminis tcrcJࢅ
tǿcࢅ l ǬplosioŒࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ avantšgarJcࢅ anJࢅ tʬcࢅ mono-
chroǬaticࢅ anصࢅ thcࢅ cxpğoslonࢅ o|ࢅnċcğcaʵࢅ wcaponsࢅ lnࢅ
gğorioċsࢅ ʝcchnicolor. ࢅ
Жirlğloࢅ thl̲ks ,ࢅ |orࢅ cxamplc, ࢅ tǿatࢅ thcࢅ nlhlğls tlcࢅ
scnsibiği tlcsࢅ oцࢅninctccnth-ccntċryࢅ Russlanࢅ lntclğecƧ
tualsࢅ cannotࢅЧcࢅdlvorccJࢅ |roűࢅ thcࢅ gravcࢅJlsarrayࢅ toࢅ
bcࢅ |ounJࢅ todayࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ aJvanccJࢅ Jcmocracl csŌ ࢅ
Ȥurthcrmorc, ࢅ twcntlcth-ccntċryࢅ art, ࢅ throughࢅ itsࢅ
cxpcctationࢅ o|ࢅ ȼhcࢅ contcmporaryࢅ poli ticsࢅ o|ࢅ hatc, ࢅ
hasࢅ aJJeJࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ Ŷown|alğࢅ o|ࢅpltl|ulࢅ artࢅ anŶࢅ toࢅ ȼhcࢅ
riscࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ pl tilǦssࢅ artࢅ thatࢅ priviğcgcsࢅ hotࢅ coloursࢅ oŔcrࢅ
colJࢅ anJࢅ tǿcࢅ sonorlzatlonࢅ o|ࢅ alğࢅ carğl crࢅ sllcnȼ ࢅ
l magcryčࢅ \lrilioࢅl s ࢅalsoࢅ critlcalࢅo|ࢅtǿcࢅ contcǬporaryࢅ
worğJࢅ o|ࢅ revuğslonࢅ rcprcscnࢅtcJࢅ i nࢅ ֥cwࢅ ǻcrmanࢅ
b
¹t/ȑ co4ȑ I:ctȑ
Iai̲ti̲gࢅanJࢅNjanagcJࢅ byࢅ anࢅ artࢅ marѯctࢅcaptiŔatcJࢅ
b࡫ࢅ annihilation. ࢅ ÐctcrNji ningࢅ thcࢅ scnsitiŔiticsࢅ oɶࢅ
toJayțsࢅ artistsࢅ i nࢅthcࢅ Njanncrࢅo|ࢅǻcrűanࢅ Lxprcssionʇ
ismɆ ࢅ contcNjporaryࢅ artࢅ JisJainsࢅ tĩcࢅ silcntࢅ pityࢅ oɶࢅ
ninctccntĩϦ anJࢅ twcnticth-ccnturyࢅ iNjagcsࢅ oɶࢅ tĩcࢅ
bư ooJsĩcJࢅ oɶࢅ battl cĂ ࢅ Inࢅ i tsࢅ placcӴࢅ accorJingࢅ toࢅ
אiriư io, ࢅ asࢅ wcࢅ shallࢅ sccࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ ncxtࢅ scction.ࢅ pi ti l cssࢅ
artࢅ cmbraccsࢅ scJuctiŔcࢅ J\ࢅiNjagcsࢅ oɶࢅcarnagcĮࢅ
. ÍtIt/c·· ZrI
։nࢅ cxplainingࢅ thcࢅ acsthcticsࢅ o|ࢅ Jisappcaranccࢅ i nࢅ
NjoJcrnࢅ rcprcscntatiŔcࢅ art, ࢅ \iriưioࢅ charactcrizcdࢅ i tsࢅ
thcoricsࢅ asࢅ abstract, ࢅ bcingࢅ conccrncJࢅ toࢅ acknowƧ
lcJgcࢅ thatࢅ i tࢅ isࢅ Ŕanis۰ing.
ҩࢅ
JoJay, ࢅ Jcscribingࢅ Ŗ aࢅ
pi tilcssࢅ artț, ࢅ ĩcࢅ illustratٯsࢅ itsࢅ prcNjiscߥࢅ asࢅ Ŗ prcscntaʇ
tiŔcț. ࢅ aࢅ rccogni tionࢅ thatࢅ rcprcscnt atiŔcࢅ artࢅ isࢅ
ƊnisĩcJĂࢅ 8utࢅwhcrcࢅdoࢅ\irilioțsࢅrathcrࢅԞ cxtraorJinaryࢅ
accoσntsࢅ dcŔclopƔࢅ Ʒhatࢅ Joࢅ sǵchࢅ asscrtionsࢅ dcnotcƔࢅ
Inࢅcъcct, ࢅĩcࢅisࢅŔoicingࢅaࢅ JoubtࢅprcŔiouslyࢅ|cl t ࢅbyࢅĩimࢅ
inࢅ 1|:ȑ At/ȑ c( /|:ȑ Ac/ctȑ anJࢅ ţ|:ȑ Ioƃ·tæa/tc»ȑ Bcæ/ľȑ
that, ࢅ unJcrࢅ thcࢅ i nڸucnccࢅ oɶࢅ ncwࢅ inơޝrNjationࢅ anJࢅ
communicationsࢅ tcchnologics, ࢅ Jcmoئraticࢅ instituʇ
tionsࢅ arcࢅ Jisappcaringࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ kcyࢅ locationsࢅ wĩcrcࢅ
poưi ticalࢅ rcprcscntationࢅ opcratcsĮ
Թࢅ
ɮirilioࢅ writcsࢅ o|ࢅ
thcࢅ cmcrgcnccࢅo|ࢅpubğicࢅopinionࢅanJࢅthcࢅappcaranccࢅ
o|ࢅaࢅ Ŗ Ŕirtualțࢅ orࢅ Ŗ mǵl timcJiaࢅ JcNjocracyțࢅ tĩatࢅ isࢅ notࢅ
i
Io/tc4a:/tcrȑ
Īustࢅobli tcratingࢅJcmocracyࢅbutࢅ alsoࢅthcࢅscnscsࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
humanࢅ body.ࢅ ϋithࢅ thcࢅ growthࢅo|ࢅhypcrviolcnccࢅ anJࢅ
aȓࢅ eȄccssivclyࢅ andࢅ pccČli arlyࢅ scxlcssࢅ pornography. ࢅ
ēcࢅ argucsࢅ thà ࢅinstcadࢅ o|ࢅprodČcingࢅ aࢅ mcrcilcssࢅ artࢅ
o|ࢅprescntatioɛ. ࢅ wi thࢅ i tsࢅ livcࢅ ɭ\ࢅ imagcsࢅ o|ࢅgcnuincࢅ
torment ࢅ andࢅ aggrcssi on. ࢅ i tsࢅ wrctchcJncss. ࢅ scl|-
JcstrČction. ࢅ disĶgurcmcnt.ࢅ cxtinctionࢅ anJࢅ aŮhor-
rcncc. ࢅ contcʀporaryࢅ artistsࢅ shoulJࢅ rcclaimࢅ thcࢅ
cvacŞatcdࢅ spaccࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ artࢅ o|ࢅ rcprcscntation.ࢅ thcࢅ
spaccࢅ o|ࢅsymŮolĿcࢅ yctࢅ crČci aŻlyࢅ sympaүhcticࢅ imagcsࢅ
o|ࢅviolcncc.ࢅ
I nࢅconsiJcringࢅ thcࢅ artࢅ o|ࢅrcުrcscntation. ࢅ \injilioࢅ isࢅ
scckingࢅaࢅdcŇaĺcࢅovcrࢅthcࢅstatusࢅOÍ ̴cgaˮionismࢅinࢅart. ࢅ
Jhcࢅ associationsࢅ bctwccnࢅ cożtcmporaryࢅ acsthcticsࢅ
andࢅ modcrnࢅ ٢ĺhicsࢅ alsoࢅ pcrmĿtࢅhimࢅ toࢅ introJČccࢅ thcࢅ
proŮlcmࢅo|ࢅcoɽpassionĮ ࢅ !orࢅ\i߆ilio.ࢅ thisࢅentrustsࢅ theࢅ
acstheticsࢅ o|ࢅ|carࢅ withࢅ thcࢅ tasƏࢅoڋࢅdctcctingࢅaࢅ typcࢅo|ࢅ
immeJiacyࢅ aݭdࢅ aࢅ systcmࢅ o|ࢅrcprcscntationࢅ totallyࢅ
Jissimilarࢅ toࢅ ǰrcs٣ntationalࢅ art Ʃࢅ Jhisࢅ i nJicatcsࢅ thatࢅ
contemporaryࢅ artistsࢅ oČghtࢅ notࢅ toࢅ maintainࢅ thcirࢅ
conccntrationࢅ onࢅ aࢅ chaoticࢅ andࢅ hcartlcssࢅ |ormࢅ o|ࢅ
pcrceptioně ࢅ Jhcࢅ artisticࢅ sČޫprcssionࢅ o|ࢅ sympath͊. ࢅ
prcĪČJiccJࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ attacīࢅ o|ࢅǭcdicȫlࢅ scicnccࢅ onࢅ theࢅ
ǽodyࢅ andࢅ itsࢅ sČbscoucntࢅ prcscntation. ࢅ presupposcsࢅ
thatࢅ thcࢅ Jcaijࢅ arcࢅ o|ࢅ conccrnࢅ onlyࢅ whcnࢅ cithcrࢅ
vi olatingࢅ soʀcࢅ cxi sti ngࢅ pnjohi bi ti onࢅ orࢅ o˚Ύcringࢅ
thcmsclvcsࢅ ċpࢅ asࢅ imagesࢅ o|ࢅ łorturcǸ ࢅ Indiڝcrcntࢅ toࢅ
J
At/ǟ co4ȑ I:ctȑ
thcࢅ scnsi tivcࢅ attitudcࢅtoࢅ thcࢅ body.ࢅ µrcscntationalࢅartࢅ
opcnsࢅ upࢅ acsthcti cࢅ |orŲsࢅ thatࢅ |orࢅ \irilioࢅ arcࢅ
dissiɽilarࢅ toࢅ thoscࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ \icnncscࢅ ActiޕȓistsĻ ࢅ cvcnࢅ
ѫ|ࢅ soǭctȴingࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ Actionists' ࢅ scl|ɤsacriĶcialࢅ andࢅ
ψiolcntࢅ arĹisticࢅ µracticcsࢅ cndurcsƪ ࢅ Jakingࢅ thcࢅ pocti cࢅ
truthࢅo|ࢅbrutalࢅ rcalityࢅoutࢅo|ࢅthcࢅloopĻࢅ today' sࢅl cthalࢅ
prcsc҉ࢅtaࢅtionalࢅartࢅo|ࢅscicnࢅtiĶcࢅvoycurismࢅisࢅpowcrlcssࢅ
ĺoࢅ cʅprcssࢅ thcࢅ actualࢅ cxtcntࢅo|ࢅhumanࢅ crucl ty.ࢅ
Ȫct. ࢅ asࢅ \irilioࢅ µroµoscs. ࢅ thcࢅ acsthcticsࢅ o|ࢅ dis-
apµcaranccࢅ alsoࢅ oΒcrsࢅ aࢅ Ųaskࢅ Ĺoࢅ thoscࢅ artistsࢅ whoࢅ
rc|uscࢅtoࢅrccognizcࢅi Ĺsࢅ transgrcssions. ࢅēcࢅѬustiڮcsࢅ thisࢅ
ψitalࢅ conccptionࢅ byࢅ wayࢅ o|ࢅhisࢅ contcntionࢅ thatࢅ thcࢅ
dиµravi t yࢅ o|ࢅ conˮcmµoraryࢅ artࢅ commcnccdࢅ inࢅ
advcrtisingࢅ bc|orcࢅ trans|crringࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ cvcrydayࢅ
cravingࢅ |orࢅ Ųurdcrࢅ thatࢅ alsoࢅ bringsࢅ intoࢅ bcingࢅ thcࢅ
totalitarianisŲࢅ oчࢅunoucߠtioningࢅ bclicڌ. ࢅ Asࢅ aࢅ rcsult. ࢅ
contcmµoraryࢅ artࢅ docsࢅ notࢅ chcckࢅ massࢅ mcdiatcdࢅ
nihilismࢅ butࢅ rathcrࢅ assumcsࢅ thatࢅ th٤ࢅ rcµrcscntaʾ
tionalࢅ tcchniouc̿ࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ acs thcticsࢅ o|ࢅdisappcaranccࢅ
willࢅ pcrsis tࢅ i nࢅ |urthcrࢅ dcbasingࢅ ourࢅ cntircࢅ ą hypcr-
modcrn' ࢅ orࢅ Ņ cxccssivc' ࢅ i dcaࢅ o|ࢅ humanity.
̀ࢅ
Ёorࢅ hisࢅ
part. ࢅ \irilioࢅ rc|uscsࢅ toࢅ tolcratcࢅ anࢅ acsthcticߡࢅ thatࢅ
i mµlicsࢅthcࢅdi saµµcaranccࢅo|ࢅcvcryࢅtyµcࢅo|ࢅartࢅcxccptࢅ
prcscntationalࢅ art. ࢅ I nࢅ insistingࢅ onࢅ i tsࢅ dcccµtivcࢅ
closcncss.ࢅ \i rilioࢅ isࢅ obĪcctingࢅ toࢅ aࢅ µrcscntationalࢅ
artࢅ thatࢅ sccksࢅ outࢅ thcࢅ totalࢅ dcstructionࢅ o|ࢅ carc|ulࢅ
vicwcrࢅ contcmplationā ࢅ Challcngingࢅ thcࢅ thcori csࢅ o|ࢅ
U
Io/t:Je·//:oǟ
theࢅ Canadianࢅ mediaࢅ mysticࢅ ֞arshallࢅ ĔcŴČhan.ࢅ
aȓJࢅpartĈ cularlʼࢅĔcL˯han' sࢅcoҀceptࢅ o|ࢅ؃nࢅą aĐsolČŦeࢅ
presenň' Ļࢅ \i rĈܸi oࢅ advancesࢅ tĘeࢅ Ĉ deaࢅ ňhaňࢅ iňࢅ isࢅ
impossibl eࢅ toࢅ Ƈradicateࢅ theࢅ comµarati࠶eࢅ anJࢅ theࢅ
momenňaryࢅ i nࢅ ŽČestĈonsࢅ concerningࢅ theࢅ analogicalࢅ
experienceࢅ o|ࢅe࠷entsā ࢅ Inࢅ otherࢅ ࡏords.ࢅ \iri lioࢅ hasࢅ noࢅ
plaȓsࢅ ňoࢅ ĐecoΩeࢅ aࢅ theoristࢅ wĘoࢅ surrenJersࢅ toࢅ theࢅ
lureࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ liơ٥ࢅ lĈveJࢅ iȓࢅ theࢅ imŀediacyࢅ o|ࢅ massࢅ
mediaࠄedࢅ despairࢅ
ēeȓceĻ ࢅ wheǮࢅ \irĈlioࢅ coȓsiJersࢅ theࢅ aestheticsࢅ o|ࢅ
disapµearance. ࢅheࢅ assumesࢅ thatࢅ theࢅresponsibilityࢅo|ࢅ
a߇tisňsࢅisࢅ toࢅ recĸverࢅratherࢅňhanࢅ discardࢅ theࢅ materĈalࢅ
thaĹࢅisࢅabsentࢅażdࢅtoࢅbrĈngࢅtoࢅlĈ̪htࢅ thoseࢅsecretࢅcodesࢅ
thatࢅ hi deࢅ |roΩࢅ viewࢅ insideࢅ tĘeࢅ silentࢅ circui tsࢅ o|ࢅ
Jigi talࢅ andࢅ geݮeticࢅ technologi esā ࢅ I t ࢅ isࢅ throughࢅ theࢅ
ideaࢅ o|ࢅňĘeࢅ deѿiseࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ kĿnJࢅ o|ࢅtransiňorࡧࢅ imaginaryࢅ
thatࢅ \irilioࢅ exǰounJsࢅ hĈsࢅ perceµtionࢅ o|ࢅŦheࢅ nihilĈsmࢅ
o|ࢅcurrentࢅ techǮology͖ࢅ ʓeࢅĪudges. ࢅ |orࢅ example. ࢅ thaࠅࢅ
sinceࢅ geneticsࢅ ѣasࢅ nowࢅ Đecomeࢅ cultČreĻࢅ artisňsࢅ alsoࢅ
haveࢅ starteJࢅ Ŧĸࢅ coȓverseࢅ iȓࢅ ŦĘeࢅ idiomࢅ o|ࢅ Ŗ counterࢅ
natureɂ . ࢅbut ࢅ|onjࢅňheࢅ beneюtࢅo|ࢅŦheࢅperơҍrݐati࠸eࢅgoalsࢅ
o|ࢅeugenics ͖ࢅ Inࢅ soࢅ Joing.ࢅ \irilioࢅ argČesࢅ ňĘaňࢅ artĈstsࢅ
criticaưlyࢅ|ailࢅtoࢅaµpreciaŦeࢅwhatࢅetĘicalࢅconcernsࢅareࢅ
atࢅ riskࢅ i nࢅ theࢅ gene˪icࢅ |actoriesࢅ o|ࢅ|ear ࢅ \irilioࢅ meetsࢅ
suchࢅ ethicalࢅ dĈlemmasࢅ headɤonࢅ whenࢅ heࢅ descriĐesࢅ
hisࢅ aesthetĈ csࢅ ol disappearanceࢅ asࢅ aࢅ conceµtĈonࢅ thatࢅ
caȓࢅ Đeࢅ cĘaractƇrizeJࢅ asࢅ Ŗpureࢅ nature' .ࢅ Jőisࢅ isࢅ owingࢅ
J
At/ȑ c»4ȑ Ȑctȑ
toࢅ thcࢅ |actࢅ that.ࢅ inࢅ hisࢅ vicw.ࢅ andࢅ cspcciallyࢅ |ollowingࢅ
tȴcࢅ tǙansшormatioʂsࢅ litcrallyࢅ takingࢅshapcࢅinࢅ gcnctics.ࢅ
cČltŞrcࢅażdࢅ scicnccࢅ arcࢅnowࢅ|rccࢅo|ࢅalmostࢅallࢅhumanࢅ
scruplcs āࢅ ƅivcʂࢅ thatࢅ acsthcticsࢅ andࢅ cthicsࢅ arcࢅ ailing.ࢅ
\irilioࢅ adviscsࢅ thatࢅ artistζࢅ showࢅ mcrcyࢅ oʂࢅ Ůoth. ࢅ
whilcࢅ comĐatingࢅ thcࢅ globalizationࢅ o|ࢅ ࠆhcࢅ tcءhno-
scicntiяcࢅ propagandaࢅ o|ࢅcloning.ࢅ thcࢅ ncwࢅscicnccࢅo|ࢅ
humanࢅ disappcaranccě ࢅ
Ćorࢅȴim. ࢅnoࢅcthicalࢅ|orccsࢅorࢅcvcnࢅthcࢅacsthcticsࢅo|ࢅ
disappcaranccࢅ canࢅ Ǚationalizcࢅ aࢅ tcchnosci cnccࢅ thatࢅ
hasࢅbccomcࢅthcatrcࢅ a|tcrࢅ thcࢅ timcࢅo|ࢅtotalࢅ warࢅorࢅinࢅ
tȴcࢅ µrcscntࢅ pcriodࢅ whcrcࢅ thcࢅ willࢅ toࢅ cxtcrmiʂatcࢅ
rcignsࢅ sČprcmcŌࢅ SČchࢅ occurrcnccs.ࢅ contcndsࢅ \irilio. ࢅ
ʂcccssitatcࢅ thcࢅ JcnČnciationࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ pitilcssncssࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ
contcmporaryࢅ artࢅ thatࢅ آombincsࢅ withࢅ cČgcnicsࢅ andࢅ
cloningࢅ whilcࢅ inconǍid٦ratclyࢅ andࢅ scl|͕c̶nsɕi˦Čslyࢅ
conncctingࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ rcpČlsionࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ Nazis'ࢅ cxpcri-
mcntationࢅŰrstࢅonࢅanimalsࢅandࢅ thcnࢅonࢅ۩Čmans ࢅJhcࢅ
signi Űcanccࢅ o|ࢅthcscࢅ cpisodcsࢅ isࢅ cstaŮlishcdࢅ throČghࢅ
thcࢅ |act ࢅ thatࢅ thcyࢅ scrvcࢅ toࢅ corroĐoratcࢅ thatࢅ Naziࢅ
critcriaࢅ arcࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ prcscntࢅ timcࢅ thcࢅ |oČndationࢅ onࢅ
whichࢅ scicntistsࢅ andࢅ artistsࢅ scckࢅ toࢅ cstaŮlisȴࢅ aࢅ ncwࢅ
humanityĂ ࢅAsࢅ \irilioࢅ maiʂt ains. ࢅ thcࢅscicntiگcࢅ|orma-
tionࢅo|ࢅhČmansࢅisࢅ todayࢅ aࢅ ccrtaiʂtyࢅ whoscࢅ mcaningsࢅ
arcࢅ tcchnologicallyࢅ dctcǙmincdĻࢅ callingࢅ toࢅ mindࢅ notࢅ
thcࢅ naturalࢅ laĐoČrࢅ o|ࢅprocǙcationࢅ ĐČtࢅ thcࢅ artiŰcialࢅ
workࢅ o|ࢅscicntiуˠcࢅ crcationࢅ inࢅ whichࢅthcࢅdcvclopmcntࢅ
ÌÛ
I»/tcJc:/tc»ȑ
o|ࢅ eugenicsࢅ wiҰhoutࢅ |rontiersࢅ isࢅ wellࢅ underࢅ wayěࢅ
Inĺenselyࢅ atteҊtiveࢅ ĺoࢅ post-humanࢅ developmenĺs.ࢅ
\irilioࢅ hasࢅ nonethelessࢅ realizedࢅ thatࢅ anyࢅ culturalࢅ
poli ticsࢅ thatࢅ seǦksࢅ outࢅ restrictionsࢅ toࢅ aࢅ |reedoǭࢅ o|ࢅ
aestheĺicࢅrepresǦntationࢅdevoidࢅo| |rontiersࢅcon|rontsࢅ
aࢅ di̧cultࢅ taskā ࢅ Asࢅ heࢅ explainsࢅ itࢅ inࢅ ąAࢅ Iitilessࢅ Art' . ࢅ
aΗerࢅ violatingࢅ theࢅ ' /a/ccsȑ o|ࢅ suΒocatingࢅ Đourgeoisࢅ
cul ture. ࢅ weࢅ areࢅ nowࢅ supposedࢅ toࢅ /t-a/ȑ //-ȑ /-/»g,ȑ ĺheࢅ
unicityࢅ o|ࢅhuǭankind' . ࢅ I nࢅ\irili o' sࢅ terŀs .ࢅ then. ࢅ andࢅ
owѫngࢅ Ŧoࢅ theࢅ ϗi ǭpendingࢅ eࡘplosionࢅ o|ࢅ Ò geneticࢅ
bomb' ࢅ o|ࢅ scienĺiڰcࢅ excess.ࢅ theࢅ ą counterࢅ culture'ࢅ o|ࢅ
natureࢅ ą willࢅ beࢅ toࢅ biologyࢅ whatࢅ theࢅ atomicࢅ boǭbࢅ
wasࢅ toࢅ physics' ěࢅ
\irilioࢅ isࢅ alsoࢅ anxiousࢅ toࢅ deterǭineࢅ howࢅ eʅtreǭeࢅ
artistsࢅ andࢅ scientistsࢅ areࢅ willingࢅ toࢅ thinkࢅ andࢅ actࢅ
be|oreࢅ ǭakingࢅ anࢅ obĪ ectΟ Ғn.ࢅ |Ҙrࢅ example.ࢅ toࢅ ą snŧڞࢅ
li terature.ࢅ Jhisࢅ isࢅ becauseࢅ |orࢅ himࢅ theࢅ i mµulseࢅ toࢅ
tαrtureࢅ i maginǦsࢅ aࢅ readi nessࢅ toࢅ ruinࢅ theࢅ evaluationࢅ
o|ࢅ theࢅ artࢅ lovǦr.ࢅ toࢅ ą derealizeɂ ࢅ contemporarࡨࢅ art.ࢅ
theatreࢅandࢅ dance. ࢅ \irilioࢅ thinksࢅ thatࢅ today' sࢅartistsࢅ
a߈eࢅ noࢅ l ongerࢅ abl eࢅ toࢅ as certai nࢅ theࢅ genuineࢅ
cȴaracterࢅ o|ࢅ їawedࢅ andࢅ shatteredࢅ bޖJi esࢅ orࢅ theࢅ
Jegreeࢅ o|ࢅsel|-ǩatredࢅ at ࢅ workࢅ i nࢅ theirࢅ creations. ࢅ Inࢅ
hisࢅ view. ࢅ snu˚ڍࢅ literatureࢅ isࢅ theࢅ gatewayࢅ ࠇoࢅ snuƺࢅ
videosࢅ andࢅ snuȲࢅdance. ࢅ givenࢅ thatࢅ pi tyࢅ isࢅ eȄcludedࢅ
|romࢅ theࢅ outset . ࢅ \irilioࢅ is. ࢅ however.ࢅ unconcernedࢅ
withࢅinsti tutinќࢅanࢅalternativeࢅdeclarationࢅtoࢅ thatࢅ o|ࢅ
JJ
At/ȑ aoJȑ!:atȑ
AJorno' sࢅ conccrningࢅ thcࢅ writingࢅo|ࢅǰoctryࢅ thatࢅwillࢅ
stanJࢅ upࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ barbarismࢅ moviżgࢅ wi thinࢅ thcࢅ
aJvanccdࢅ socicticsࢅ aјcrࢅ Auschwi tŕ. ࢅ ɭoࢅ bcࢅ morcࢅ
µrccisc. ࢅ hcࢅ isࢅ aµµrchcnsivcࢅ toࢅ sayࢅ thcࢅ lcastࢅ aboutࢅ aࢅ
|r٧cJomࢅo|ࢅcxǰrcssionࢅthaĹࢅ|caturcsࢅaࢅ callࢅ toࢅmurJcrč ࢅ
ConscŽucntly, ࢅ \irilioࢅ oucsti onsࢅ aࢅ poli ticalࢅ corrcct-
ncssࢅ thatࢅǰrcsuµposcsࢅ aࢅ tcrroristi c. ࢅsuiciJalࢅ anJࢅscl|Ӊ
mutilaĹingࢅ thcoryࢅ o|ࢅ arĹ ͘ࢅ Makinџࢅ linksࢅ bctwccnࢅ
contcmpoĢaryࢅ artࢅ anJࢅ gcncticallyࢅ ȒoJiƋcJࢅ sccJsࢅ
bcaringࢅ thcࢅ laؖclࢅ Ŗ tcrminator' .ࢅ hcࢅ isࢅ tryingࢅ toࢅ ̦܍nJࢅ
anࢅ imagcࢅ olࢅ piti|ulࢅ artࢅ thatࢅ cxistsࢅ oſtsiJcࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ
conJi ti onsࢅ o|ࢅ bio- orࢅ Ŗ nccro- tcchnoloǾy' . ࢅ Rc|usingࢅ
tcchnoscicntiƋcࢅ Ŗ succcss' ࢅ atࢅ anyࢅ ǰri cc, ࢅ\irilioࢅinsistsࢅ
onࢅ aࢅ cul Ŧ uralࢅ cri tiŽucࢅ o|ࢅ sci cntiĶcࢅ cxµcri mcnt. ࢅ
tcchnologicaưࢅ i nhumani tyࢅ anJࢅ Jc|orȒity. ࢅ
Suchࢅ moralࢅ anJࢅ ar

܎ߢticࢅ rc|usalsࢅ ʡirilioࢅ unJcrʆ
stanJsࢅ asࢅ aࢅ thought- provoki ngࢅ ̡nŽuiryࢅ i ntoࢅ aࢅ
lrccdomࢅ o|ࢅscicntiĶcࢅ cxprcssionࢅ thatࢅi
ߣࢅ
atࢅ µrcscntࢅ asࢅ
l i mi tlcssࢅ asࢅ |rccJomࢅ o|ࢅ arti sti cࢅ cxǰrcssi on. ࢅ ēcࢅ
Jcclarcsࢅ hisࢅ unŽualiĶcJࢅ oµµosi tionࢅ t oࢅ thcࢅ aµpcarʾ
anccࢅ OÍ aࢅ Ŗ transgcnicࢅ art'ࢅ thatࢅ isࢅ tolcraŇlcࢅ ncithcrࢅ
withinࢅ i tsࢅ ownࢅ scl|ǑJcsignationࢅ norࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ startinџࢅ
ǰoint ࢅ |orࢅ aࢅ contcmǰlativcࢅ rclationshipࢅ bctwccnࢅ thcࢅ
sǰccics .ࢅ Lʅǰloringࢅ thcࢅ hyµcrmoJcrnࢅ Ŗcultࢅ o|ࢅpcr|orʾ
mancc' ࢅ inࢅ aࢅ gcnuincࢅ humanࢅ raccࢅ JircctcJࢅ Ňyࢅ thcࢅ
globalࢅ magnatcsࢅ o|ࢅ sǰort. ࢅ Ķnanccࢅ anJࢅ thcࢅ mcJia. ࢅ
\irilioࢅi sࢅ aJaʲantࢅonࢅ thcࢅ subȵcctࢅo|ࢅhisࢅoucstioningࢅ
l2
I»ĉtc4c:/tc»ȑ
o|ࢅaࢅ biologicallyࢅcontrivcdࢅ ą supcr-humani tyƂࢅ l ackingࢅ
aJcouaňcࢅ cňhicaȐࢅ proccJurcsࢅ orࢅ limiňatioŒsɥ ࢅ Ɩoࢅ bcࢅ
surcĻ ࢅ hcࢅ wantsࢅ ňoࢅ turnࢅ hisࢅ backࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ |ashionablcࢅ
scicnňiŰcࢅ anJࢅ ar̀isticࢅ idcaࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ humanࢅ boJyࢅ asࢅ aࢅ
tcchnoȐogicallyࢅ assis tcJࢅ sŞrvivalࢅ Čnitࢅ thatࢅ hasࢅ out-
lastcdࢅ i tsࢅ usc|ulȁcsǍ .ࢅ RcĪcctingࢅ whatࢅ Arcndtࢅ i Jcnti-
Ķcdࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ Ʌbanalityࢅ o|ࢅcviĬ' ࢅ aňࢅ workࢅ inࢅ Naŕis mࢅandࢅ
ŀorcࢅ latclyࢅ i nࢅ ̐olࢅ IotƂ sࢅ Cambodi aࢅ anJࢅ clscwhcrc. ࢅ
\iri lioࢅ concl udcsࢅ ɅAࢅ Iitilcssࢅ Art' ࢅ withࢅ d plcaࢅ toࢅ
condcŀnࢅ thcࢅ transgrcssionsࢅ o|ࢅ conňcmporaryࢅ art.ࢅ
Inࢅ ą ̒ilcnccࢅonࢅ Jžial Ƃ . ࢅthoŞgh. ࢅ hcࢅ challcŒgcsࢅwhcthcrࢅ
aĬlࢅ thatࢅ staysࢅ silcȁtࢅ isࢅ ĪŞdgcJࢅ toࢅ conscntĻ ࢅ toࢅ allowࢅ
withoutࢅ aࢅ murɽurࢅ o|ࢅcomplaintࢅ thcࢅ contcmporaryࢅ
conditionsࢅ o|ࢅaudio-visualࢅ ovcrload˂ࢅ
òtÌcurc ou 1rta/
Inࢅ thisࢅ cssayࢅ \irilioࢅ isࢅ |orࢅ thcࢅ mostࢅ partࢅ involvcJࢅ
ҷithࢅ cxposingࢅ aࢅ silcnccࢅ thatࢅ haҪࢅ los tࢅ ܏ňsࢅ aĐilityࢅ tȹࢅ
Ʌspcak' . ࢅ withࢅ aࢅ Ȓuňismࢅ thatࢅ takcsࢅ thcࢅ Ώormࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ
ccnsorshipࢅ o|ࢅ ηilcnccࢅ inࢅ anࢅ agcࢅ awashࢅ withࢅ thcࢅ
obsccni tyࢅ o|ࢅ noΞscɥࢅ ͺnrcstricňcdࢅ ą Sonࢅ ctࢅ Њumi٨rcƂ ࢅ
cvcntsࢅ andࢅ ą lișc' ࢅ artࢅ cxhi bi ti ons. ࢅ |orࢅ i nstancc. ࢅ
currcntlyࢅ Ζoodࢅ manyࢅ s ocialࢅ andࢅ culturalࢅ spaccsĮ ࢅ
\irilioࢅ rccogniɁcsࢅ suchࢅ occasionsࢅ asࢅ illŞstrationsࢅ o|ࢅ
thcࢅ disappcaranccࢅ o|ࢅrcprcscntationࢅ anJࢅthcࢅmoňor-
iɁcdࢅ rcgimcࢅ o|ࢅ spccdࢅ i nࢅ contcmpoĢaryࢅ artࢅ thaňࢅ
Ì´
At/ǟ coJǟ I:atǟ
conѐrmsࢅ thcࢅ s ǝƮsti t uti onࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ acs t hcti csࢅ oĵࢅ
appcaranccࢅ Đyࢅ thcࢅ acsthcti csࢅ o|ࢅ di saެpcaranccȜ ࢅ
AssČmingࢅ aࢅ historicalࢅ pcrspcctivcĻ ࢅ ǩcࢅ poi ntsࢅ t oࢅ thcࢅ
prcviouslyࢅncglcctcdࢅ signi Ƌcanccࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ appcaranccࢅ
andࢅ imposi tionࢅ o|ࢅtalkingࢅpictČrcsࢅ oҢࢅ ą talkics' ࢅ inࢅ Ĺhcࢅ
ĥ 9ƒĤs. ࢅ Inࢅ чact, ࢅ i nࢅ \irili o' sࢅ opi nion, ࢅ i tࢅ wasࢅ inࢅ thisࢅ
pcriodࢅ thatࢅcitiɁcnsࢅwhoࢅ indicatcdࢅ siưcnccࢅasࢅ aࢅʀodcࢅ
o|ࢅ articul ati onࢅ wcrcࢅ Ƌrstࢅ Ī udgcdࢅ tȺࢅ asscntࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ
di mi nisħingࢅ powcrࢅ o|ࢅ si lcntࢅ oŮscrφationࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ
incrcasingࢅ suprcmacyࢅ oшࢅ thcࢅ aǝdio͕visualĮ ࢅ I nࢅ ourࢅ
day. ࢅ howcvcr. ࢅ thcࢅ oucsti onࢅ accordingࢅ toࢅ \irilioࢅ isࢅ
whctħcrࢅthcࢅworkࢅo|ࢅartࢅisࢅtoࢅƮcࢅ considcrcdࢅ anࢅoƮĪcct ࢅ
ˮhat ࢅ mǝs t ࢅ Ʈcࢅ l ookcdࢅ at ࢅ or ࢅ l i s Ŧ cncdࢅ to.ࢅ Òr , ࢅ
altcrnaDzivcly. ࢅ givcnࢅ thcࢅ rcducti onࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ posi tionࢅ oĵࢅ
thcࢅ artࢅ lovcrࢅ toࢅ thatࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ componcnt ࢅ i nࢅ tḥࢅ
multimcdiaࢅacadcmy' sࢅࠉyƮcrncticࢅmachinc.ࢅwhcthΊrࢅ
thcࢅ acsthcticࢅ andࢅ cthicalࢅ silcncԛ cࢅ o|ࢅartࢅ canࢅ conti nucࢅ
toࢅ Ůcࢅ uphcldāࢅ
\idcoࢅ andࢅ conccptuРlࢅ artࢅ havcࢅŮccnࢅincrcasinglyࢅ
importantࢅ conccptsࢅ o|ࢅ\irili o' sࢅ workࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ audio˵
visual ࢅ torrcntࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ ʀassࢅ mcdi aࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ digitalࢅ
contaminationࢅo|ࢅthcࢅimagcࢅ cvcrࢅ sinccࢅ T/:ǟAt/ǟ cŢǟ//:ǟ
ġc/cƷǟ Ď l 99ϲɢ .ࢅ Ncvcrthclcss.ࢅ itࢅ appcarsࢅ inࢅą Silcnccࢅonࢅ
Jri al ' ࢅ thatࢅ \iri l i o' sࢅ i ntcrprctationࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ ncwࢅ
in|ormationࢅ andࢅ comʀunicationsࢅ tcchnologicsࢅ o|ࢅ
ą hypcrɤaŮstraction' . ࢅsuchࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ Intcrnct. ࢅ i sࢅshapingࢅ
ncwࢅ |ormsࢅ o|ࢅ thcorcticalࢅ cȄplorationࢅ thatࢅ arcࢅ
Ì+
I»/ǖc4c://c»ȑ
ncccssiłałingࢅanࢅaltcrnativcࢅaµµroachࢅłoࢅhisࢅ µrcviousࢅ
writi ngsࢅ ޗnࢅ thcࢅ spccdࢅ olࢅ lĿght . ࢅ Ćorࢅ inࢅ thisࢅ cssayࢅ
\irilioࢅ alsoࢅ contcmplatcsࢅ thcࢅ spccJࢅ o|ࢅsoundĮࢅ Asࢅ hcࢅ
Jcscribcsࢅi t . ࢅłhcࢅcontcmporaңyࢅ tcchnioucࢅo|ࢅµai nłingࢅ
withࢅ sound. ࢅl acɻingࢅƢgurcsࢅ orࢅ i magcs.ࢅ ŰrstࢅcmcrgcJࢅ
inࢅ łhcࢅl ał̡ࢅ ninctccnłhࢅ andࢅ carlyࢅ twcnticłhࢅ ccnturicsࢅ
Ŀ nࢅ łhcࢅwo߉ksࢅ olࢅחagncrࢅandࢅ Ĝandinsky. ࢅ Schwittcrs. ࢅ
ʹondri aȀࢅ anJࢅ ʹoholyɤNagyĂࢅ 8ut. ࢅ |orࢅ \i rilio. ࢅ
µrcscnłɤdayࢅ sounJࢅ artࢅ oblitcratcsࢅ thcࢅ characłcrࢅ o|ࢅ
visualࢅ arłࢅ whilcࢅ concurrcntlyࢅ advanciɛgࢅ thcࢅ comࡸ
municati onࢅ µracticcsࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ globalࢅ aJvcrtisingࢅ
industry.ࢅ whichࢅ havcࢅ assaultcdࢅ thcࢅ artࢅ worlJࢅ toࢅ
suchࢅ aࢅdc̪rccࢅłhatࢅi ĺ ࢅisࢅatࢅprcsΉntࢅt˜cࢅ΄cnˮralࢅdogmaࢅ
o|ࢅ thcࢅ mul ti ȒƇdiaࢅ acaJcmyĮ ࢅ Icoµlcࢅ łoJay. ࢅ |orࢅ
cxamµl c. ࢅ hav٩ࢅ łoࢅ cndurcࢅ t hcࢅ µrcssurcࢅ o|ࢅ łhcࢅ
ą ambi c҉t ࢅ murȒuringɂࢅ o|ࢅ inccssanłࢅ muɁakࢅ at ࢅ thcࢅ
aңtࢅ gall cry. ࢅ atࢅ workࢅ orࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ shoµµingࢅ ccntrcĮࢅ
Ȥurthcrmorc. ࢅ thcirࢅ silcnccࢅ onࢅ suchࢅ małtcrsࢅ is. ࢅ inࢅ
\irili o' sࢅ tcrms. ࢅ cҐnncctcdࢅ wĞ łʬࢅ thcࢅ أlosĿngࢅ µhascࢅ o|ࢅ
thcࢅ acs tĘcticsࢅ o|ࢅ Jisapµcaranccࢅ thatࢅ isࢅ al soࢅ thcࢅ
gatcwayࢅ t oࢅaࢅ nc˲ࢅą acsthcticsࢅo|ࢅabscncc' . ࢅanࢅ abscnccࢅ
whcrcࢅ łhcࢅ silcnccࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ visibl cࢅ isࢅ abolishcdࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ
soundࢅ o|ࢅ auJiȺɤvisualࢅ multi m٪JiaĮ ࢅ ēowcvcr. ࢅ asࢅ
\irilioࢅ makcsࢅ clcar. ࢅ i nࢅ s trČgglingࢅ agai ns t ࢅ thcࢅ
acs thcłicsࢅ o|ࢅabscnccࢅ i nࢅ łhcࢅ namcࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ silcnccࢅ o|ࢅ
łhcࢅvisibl c. ࢅ i ł ࢅi sࢅimµortanłࢅnotࢅ toࢅovcrcȒµhasizcࢅthcࢅ
si gnĿ Űcanccࢅ oڎࢅ thcࢅ vi sual ࢅ ci ncmati cࢅ i magcࢅ i nࢅ

At/ȑ c»Jȑ I-ctȑ
µarticʹlarࢅ asࢅ aࢅ methoJࢅ o|ࢅ examiningࢅ theࢅ µowcrࢅ o|ࢅ
sounJƪࢅ Ȥ˩omࢅ Ęisࢅ µcrsµectiveĻ ࢅ thisࢅ isࢅ Jucࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ |actࢅ
thatࢅcinemati cࢅimagesࢅsatu˩ateࢅhumażࢅ΃o҂̿ciousncssࢅ
anJࢅ arcࢅ moreࢅ Jamagingࢅ thażࢅ oھcnࢅ recognizeJĮࢅ
\irilioࢅµlacesࢅhisࢅhoµesࢅinࢅtheࢅą ɰcciJentࢅo|ࢅthcࢅvisi bl c' ࢅ
anJࢅ tĘeࢅanniĘilationࢅo|ࢅtheࢅauJio-visualࢅbyࢅaࢅµoli ticsࢅ
o|ࢅ silenccĂ ࢅ Ðatingࢅ theࢅ contcmµoraryࢅ crisisࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ
µlasticࢅ a˩tsࢅ |romࢅ theࢅ inventionࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ talkies. ࢅ heࢅ
i nsi st sࢅ t hat ࢅ tĘisࢅ isࢅ theࢅ basisࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ resʹl t i ngࢅ
conJcmnationࢅo|ࢅĘumanࢅJca|żcssࢅanJࢅt hcࢅmarketingࢅ
o|ࢅsounJࢅ Ĺhatࢅ hasࢅ givenࢅ riseࢅ toࢅ tĘeࢅ Ņ traumaࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ
car' Įࢅ Loual lyࢅ signiƢcantly. ࢅ \iri l i oࢅ isࢅ esµeciallyࢅ
sceµticalࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ insertionࢅ o|ࢅsµcecĘࢅ intoࢅ ĺĘcࢅ i magc. ࢅ
owingࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ |actࢅ thatࢅ tĘeࢅ artࢅloverࢅraµiJlyࢅ bccomesࢅ
aࢅcasʹaltyࢅo|ࢅthcࢅsµccJࢅޘ|ࢅsounJࢅanJࢅ aࢅµ˩isonerࢅo|ࢅtheࢅ
noiseࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ visible. ࢅ Iࢅtәӎܐsࢅ alsoࢅ imµ֬tantࢅ toࢅ Əeeµࢅ inࢅ
minJࢅ thatࢅ |orࢅ hi mࢅ thcࢅ artsࢅ areࢅ µrescżĹlyࢅ trażsĶxeJࢅ
byࢅ aࢅ willࢅ toࢅnoise.ࢅ aࢅ µĘenomenonࢅ w۪oseࢅobĪectivcࢅisࢅ
theࢅ µurgingࢅ o|ࢅsilcżcc. ࢅ Ȥorࢅ thcscࢅ rcasons .ࢅ asࢅ \irilioࢅ
unJerstanJsࢅ it.ࢅ theࢅ turmoilࢅ i nࢅ contemµoraryࢅ visŞalࢅ
artࢅ isࢅ notࢅ tĘeࢅ conseouenceࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ Jcveloµmentࢅ o|ࢅ
µhoұograµhyࢅ orࢅ thcࢅ cinemaࢅ butࢅ theࢅ outcomeࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ
creationࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ talkies .ࢅ ̒uchࢅ aࢅ dcclarationࢅ inࢅ
aJJi tionࢅ rel atesࢅ toࢅ hisࢅ Žuestioningࢅ oǧࢅtheࢅ waningࢅ o|ࢅ
oralࢅ traJitionsࢅ thatࢅunsurµrisi nglyࢅ |orࢅ\irilioࢅentailsࢅ
theࢅ everࢅ ą tclepresent'ࢅ talkingࢅ imageࢅ anJࢅ theࢅ evcrࢅ
Ɖainterࢅ µresenceࢅ o|ࢅ silentࢅ ṛality. ࢅ Joࢅ sayࢅ żothing.ࢅ
Ìi
I»/tcJe://c»ȑ
Jcclarcsࢅ \irilio.ࢅ isࢅ notࢅ simplyࢅ anࢅ actࢅ thatࢅ lcaJsࢅ toࢅ
|car.ࢅ toࢅ pitilcssࢅ artࢅ anJࢅ toࢅ pi Ĺilcssࢅ timcsĻ ࢅ Ůutࢅ alsoࢅ toࢅ
thcࢅ شomi natioȁࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ immcJiacyࢅ o|ࢅcontcmporaryࢅ
visualࢅ artࢅ Ůyࢅ tѢcࢅ sonori tyࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ auJio-visual .ࢅ
I mpl i catcJࢅ inࢅ \i rili oƐ s ࢅ ёnalࢅ thoughtsࢅ aŮoutࢅ
contcmporaryࢅ artƐ sࢅ losingࢅ grounJࢅ toࢅ sonorityࢅ onࢅ
accountࢅolࢅi tsࢅiݑmcdiacࡩࢅisࢅȴi sࢅonǑgoingࢅrcsis tanccࢅtoࢅ
thcࢅcnJࢅo|ࢅsponĺancoŞsࢅrcactionsࢅ toࢅworksࢅo|ࢅartࢅanJࢅ
˪hcࢅ continuingࢅimposi tionࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ conJitioncJࢅ rcѕcxࢅ
actioҊ. ࢅ \irili o' sࢅpurposcࢅatࢅ tȴisࢅĪuncturcࢅisࢅ toࢅ JisrupĹࢅ
t˜oscࢅ graphicࢅ artsࢅ thatࢅ ŞnrcscrvcJlyࢅ rclyࢅ oݯࢅ thcࢅ
spɗcJࢅ o|ࢅsounJ. ࢅ Jhisࢅ s tratcgyࢅ isࢅ typicalࢅ o|ࢅ\irilio' sࢅ
Ŗ pi ti|ul' ࢅ artisticࢅ stanccࢅ anJࢅ o|ࢅhisࢅ prcccJingࢅ raJicalࢅ
culturaưࢅ analyscs .ࢅ Inࢅ 1|:ȑ At/ȑ c( /|:ȑ ŗcĉctȑ andࢅ inࢅ
ϘSilcnccࢅ onࢅ Jߊʭal Ɛ . ࢅ |orࢅ ins tanccĻ ࢅ \irilioࢅ rcĪ cctsࢅ thcࢅ
scrcamingࢅ andࢅ strcamingࢅ multimcJiaࢅ pcr|ormanccsࢅ
o|ࢅĺhcࢅ Ňodyࢅ ar̀is tĻ ࢅ StclarcĮࢅ Asࢅ \irilioࢅ notcsĻ ࢅ itࢅ isࢅ o|ࢅ
|unJamcntalࢅiΩportanccࢅthatࢅthcࢅhypcrviolcnccࢅandࢅ
hypcrscxualityࢅ thatࢅ atࢅ prcscntࢅ rulcࢅ thcࢅ scrccnsࢅ o|ࢅ
hypcrŀoJcrni tࡪࢅ arcࢅ challcngcJࢅ givcnࢅ thatࢅ thcyࢅ arcࢅ
thcࢅ suprcmcࢅ instigatorsࢅ o|ࢅsocialࢅ i nsccurityࢅ anJࢅ thcࢅ
crisisࢅi nࢅĶguratʭvcࢅart .ࢅ ēcࢅunJcrstanJsࢅthcࢅartࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ
massࢅ mcdiaࢅ coҋscŽucntlyࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ mostࢅpcrilousࢅ cơڏortࢅ
yctࢅtoࢅmanagcࢅࠊhcࢅsilcnt ࢅmaĪ ori tyࢅ thҡoughࢅaࢅspuriousࢅ
voiccࢅ cȹnvcyǦJࢅ t hrougȴࢅ puŮl i cࢅ opi ni onࢅ pol l s. ࢅ
corporatcࢅ sponsorshipࢅ anJࢅ aJvcrtising. ࢅ \iߋilioࢅ ࠋhusࢅ
lУʲcntsࢅ thcࢅ crОJicationࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ moJcrnࢅ Ϙmanࢅ o|ࢅartƐࢅ
̲
At/ȑ c»4ȑ I:ctȑ
byࢅ hypcrmoJcrnࢅ contcmporaryࢅ arʸistsࢅ suchࢅ asࢅ
Stclarc. ࢅ Suchࢅ aࢅ lossࢅ toࢅ hi mࢅ isࢅ alsҘࢅ anࢅ i nĪuryࢅ toࢅ allࢅ
thoscࢅ whoࢅ stillࢅ ycarnࢅ toࢅ spcakࢅ cvcnࢅ whcnࢅ thcyࢅ
rcmainࢅ siŻcnt Ǹ ࢅ \irilioࢅ isࢅ accorJinglyࢅ lookingࢅ toࢅ
unco࠹crࢅ withinࢅ thcࢅ ѐcŻJࢅ o|ࢅ contcmporaryࢅ artࢅ thcࢅ
|orccsࢅ i nvolvcJࢅ i nࢅʸhcࢅ systcmaticࢅ tcrminationࢅ o|ࢅĹhcࢅ
siŻcnccࢅo|ࢅthcࢅvisſaŻࢅanJ
ࡿࢅ
thcࢅ g٫s tſrcࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ artistā ࢅ 8yࢅ
cʅplainingࢅinࢅ ą SilcnccࢅonࢅJrial 'ࢅ thatࢅsuchࢅ |orccsࢅ pŻanࢅ
toࢅcʅtcnJࢅthcࢅmotorizationࢅo|ࢅartࢅ whilcࢅ rcmovingࢅthcࢅ
scnsationsࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ humanࢅ subĪcct. ࢅ \irilƽoࢅ concŻuJcҤࢅ
that. ࢅ |orࢅ hi mࢅ atࢅ Żcas t. ࢅ cybcrncticࢅ artࢅ anJࢅ poŻiticsࢅ
havcࢅ Żi mi tsࢅ thatࢅ Joࢅ notࢅ incluJcࢅ murJcr. ࢅ
1/c ac·I/cItt· Zu·t/ot|:
Commcntatorsࢅ onࢅ \iriliޙ' sࢅAt/ȑ a»4ȑI:ctȑ mightࢅ clai̱ࢅ
thatࢅ hisࢅ powcr|ul ࢅ spcculationsࢅ onࢅ ůontcmporaryࢅ
mcJiaࢅ arcࢅ thcࢅ conĪ ccturcsࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ cri ticࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ artࢅ o|ࢅ
tcchnologyࢅ whoࢅ hasࢅ lostࢅ hopcࢅ inࢅ thcࢅ aŮilityࢅ o|ࢅ
moJcrnܑsmࢅ anJࢅ hypcrmoJcrnisŀࢅ toࢅ cƺcctivclyࢅ |accࢅ
upࢅ toࢅ risingࢅ hypcrviolcnccࢅ anJࢅ hypcrscʅuality.ࢅ ʓisࢅ
worksࢅ anJࢅ i ntcrvicwsࢅ asࢅ ɰࢅ rulcࢅ arc. ࢅ howcvcr,ࢅ vcryࢅ
muchࢅ conccrncJࢅ withࢅ circumvcntingࢅ thcࢅJangcrsࢅ o|ࢅ
anࢅ inJiscriminatcࢅ acsthcticࢅ pcssimisŀ. ࢅ Ȏctࢅ itࢅ Jocsࢅ
appcarࢅinࢅ Ʉ AࢅIitilcssࢅ Art'ࢅ anJࢅ ą SilcnccࢅonࢅJrial' ࢅ asࢅ i|ࢅ
hcࢅisࢅ atࢅ timcsࢅ pcrhapsࢅ cʅccssivclyࢅ Jisparagingࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ
trcnJsࢅ anJࢅ thcoricsࢅ associatcJࢅ withࢅ contcmporaryࢅ
ÌÙ
I»/tcJc:/tcrȑ
artࢅ anJࢅ юl m, ࢅ poưiticsࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ accclcrationࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ
massࢅ mcdia. ࢅ Inࢅ condcmningࢅ pitilcssࢅ artࢅ anJࢅ tΝcࢅ
rcccnt ࢅorJcalࢅcȄpƇricnccdࢅbyࢅtʫoseࢅ̿cckingࢅaࢅrigĘtࢅtoࢅ
silcnccࢅ withoutࢅiѿplicdࢅ asscntũ ࢅ hcࢅ isࢅ possiblyࢅ ratĘcrࢅ
tooࢅ cautiousࢅ withࢅ rcgardࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ practi ccsࢅ o|ࢅ
contcmporaryࢅ art. ࢅAsࢅi nࢅ tĘcࢅcascࢅo|ࢅthcࢅboJyࢅartist, ࢅ
Stclarc.ࢅ \irilio' sࢅ criticismࢅ oڐࢅ hisࢅ workࢅ tcndsࢅ toࢅ
ovcrlookࢅ thcࢅ rcʀarkaؗlcࢅ andࢅ rcvolutionaryࢅ oſcsƧ
tioningࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ convcntional ࢅ principl csࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ
|unctioningࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ humanࢅ bodyࢅ thatࢅ Stcl arcʉ sࢅ
mcJicalࢅ opcratioҁsࢅ andࢅ tcchnologicalࢅ pcr|ormanccsࢅ
signi|y. ࢅ Ȥorࢅ\irilio.ࢅ howcvcr, ࢅ thcࢅ Ęumiliationࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
artࢅ lovcrࢅ throughࢅ t۫cࢅ impositionࢅ o|ࢅpitilcssࢅ i magcsࢅ
anJࢅ carɤspli ttingࢅ soČndࢅ systcݒsࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ artࢅ gallcryࢅ
anJࢅ clscwhcrcࢅ isࢅ notࢅ soࢅ mucʫࢅ thcࢅ bcginningࢅ o|ࢅ anࢅ
acs thcticࢅ JΉbaȔcࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ bcginningࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ cndࢅ o|ࢅ
humanityā ࢅ
Inࢅ thcࢅ samcࢅ ࡐay. ࢅ thcࢅ thinkingࢅ bchinJࢅ \irilioɂ sࢅ
rcccntࢅ wri tingsࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ iJcaࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ contcmporaryࢅ
mſltimcJiaࢅacaJƇmyࢅonlyࢅaddsࢅtoࢅthcࢅ|cclingࢅthatࢅhcࢅ
incrcasi nglyࢅ pro̷oscsࢅ aࢅ typcࢅ o|ࢅ cri ticismࢅ thatࢅ isࢅ
antagonisticࢅ tҕҽardsࢅ acaJcmiaࢅ gcncrallvĮࢅ Òncࢅ
diڧcul tyࢅ withࢅ thisࢅ sortࢅ o|ࢅs tratcgyࢅ isࢅ thatࢅ i nࢅ orJcrࢅ
toࢅ opposcࢅ acccptǦdࢅ thcorcti calࢅ Jialogucsࢅonࢅartࢅ anJࢅ
poli ticsࢅ\irilioࢅisࢅ ȺbȐigcdࢅ toࢅignorcࢅ orࢅtoࢅcngagcࢅwithࢅ
thcmࢅ andࢅ inࢅ botΝࢅ instanccsࢅ thcrcbyࢅ Jrawࢅ attcnĹionࢅ
toࢅthcࢅ|actࢅthaŦࢅΝĿsࢅȚorkࢅcannotࢅsus tainࢅi tscl|ࢅwithoƚt ࢅ
l9
At/ǟ aoJǟ I:atǟ
suchࢅ iji scourscs .ࢅ \irili o' sࢅ Ji lcmma. ࢅ o|ࢅcoursc. ࢅ thcnࢅ
ijcvclopsࢅi nĺoࢅ ĺhatࢅo|ࢅbothࢅ bcingࢅccnsurcJࢅ|orࢅhisࢅŻackࢅ
o|ࢅ˚؊ili ari ĺyࢅ withࢅ th˘ࢅ ΃ontcmporaryࢅ acsthcŦicࢅ anJࢅ
politicalࢅ Jiscussionsࢅ thatࢅ hcࢅ Ji sapµrovcsࢅ o|ࢅanJࢅ |orࢅ
ĺryinɷࢅ toࢅ placcࢅ hisࢅ workࢅ outsiJcࢅ oƉࢅ ǍǝcĘࢅ JcŻibcra-
tionsě ࢅ Inࢅ othcrࢅ worJs. ࢅ\irilioࢅisࢅ|romࢅĺimcࢅ ĺoࢅ Ŧimcࢅ inࢅ
ijangcrࢅ oڑࢅ s ĺagingࢅ aࢅ Jcbatcࢅ wi thࢅ onlyࢅ himscl|ࢅ inࢅ
aŦtcnJanccƪ ࢅ !orcvcrࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ lookࢅ outࢅ |orࢅ innovativcࢅ
boJyࢅ artistsࢅ anJࢅ othcrࢅ multimcJiaࢅ proʯccĺsࢅ thaˬࢅ
cxpos cࢅ ĺ hcࢅ hypcrŲoJcrnࢅ conJi ti on. ࢅ \i ri l i oࢅ ƽsࢅ
pcrhapsࢅ wontࢅ toࢅ un|airlyࢅ accuscࢅ thcmࢅ o|ࢅsurrcnJcr-
ingࢅ toࢅ aࢅ stylcࢅ o|ࢅ˯ncriticalࢅmulұimcJiaࢅ acaJ٬micismĮ ࢅ
Inࢅ soࢅ Joingࢅ hcࢅ canࢅ occasionaŻŻyࢅ Ůcࢅ rcaJࢅ asࢅ i|ࢅhcࢅ isࢅ
unaǂarcࢅ thatࢅ aࢅ boJyࢅ artistࢅ likcࢅ Stclarcࢅalsoࢅcriticizcsࢅ
mƚl ti Ųciji aࢅ acaJcmicismࢅ asࢅ wcllࢅ asࢅ traJi Ŧi onalࢅ
conccptionsࢅ o|ࢅi Jcnti tםŌ ࢅ
Stclarc' sࢅ thcorcticalࢅ anJࢅ appŻicJࢅ tcchnoŻogicaŻࢅ
rcvolutionsࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ яcŻJࢅ o|ࢅ contcŲporaryࢅ arŦࢅ alsoࢅ
|unctionࢅ ĺoࢅ trans|ormࢅ oucstionsࢅ conccrningࢅ art' sࢅ
µowcrࢅ o|ࢅ cрڒcctࢅ ࢅ ࢅ ࢅ ࢅ ࢅ
conccivingࢅ o|ࢅpiĺilcssࢅ artࢅ anJࢅ i tsࢅ Jca|cningࢅ mani|cs-
tati onࢅ asࢅ crucialࢅ charactcri sticsࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ prcscntࢅ
hypcrŲodcrnࢅ orJcr ࢅ ēcࢅ i s. ࢅ i nࢅ short, ࢅ Jcvclopingࢅ aࢅ
s ti mulatingࢅ moJcࢅ o|ࢅ thcorizingࢅ inࢅ thcscࢅ cssays.ࢅ
whichࢅ ɚovcsࢅ awayࢅ |romࢅ thatࢅ typicallyࢅ |ounJࢅ inࢅ
contcmporaryࢅ artŌ ࢅ ıhatࢅ isࢅ absoŻutclyࢅ vi talࢅ |orࢅ
\irilioࢅ isࢅ thcࢅ tcchnoŻogicalࢅ mcansࢅ byࢅ whichࢅ con-

I»/tc4e:/tc»ȑ
temœorar͊ࢅartࢅ ǩasࢅ abandonedࢅitsࢅpassionࢅanJࢅ sexualࢅ
|orce͛ࢅ ˋonverseѷy.ࢅ itࢅisࢅ importantࢅ toࢅs tressࢅ thatࢅ heࢅisࢅ
undoࠤbteЫlyࢅ cĸncernedࢅ notࢅ toࢅ characteriŕeࢅ con-
temœorar͊ࢅ artࢅ ʭnࢅ opposi tionࢅ toࢅ theoryࢅ orࢅ aes theticࢅ
|ervour. ࢅ Ʈut ࢅ tĸࢅ dĈstinguishࢅ i tࢅ asࢅ aࢅ pi tilessࢅ anJࢅ
emotionlessࢅ reaؤtioɛࢅ toࢅ theࢅ disastroࠥsࢅ circumstancesࢅ
o|ࢅ hyperǬoderżity. ࢅ Asࢅ aࢅ resultࢅ o|ࢅ suchࢅ heartơ٭l tࢅ
aestheticࢅ Jecl aratioɛs. ࢅ \irilioࢅ isࢅ ouicīࢅ toࢅ si ɛgleࢅ outࢅ
theࢅhyperseȄuali tyࢅo|ࢅcontemporaryࢅpornographyࢅasࢅ
t˞eࢅ mostࢅrecentࢅsounjceࢅo|ࢅpitilessࢅrepresentati onsࢅanijࢅ
saJistܒcࢅ iJeas ࢅ
ƅivenࢅthatࢅcĸntemœoraryࢅaĢtistsࢅ andࢅ specialistsࢅinࢅ
pornographyࢅhaveࢅtwisteJࢅpi tilessnessࢅanJࢅ noiseࢅintoࢅ
t˞eࢅ rallyingࢅ callࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ totallyࢅ des t ructiveࢅ anJࢅ
increasinglyࢅ ݰon-representationalࢅ regi me, ࢅ itࢅ isࢅ
hardlyࢅ surprisiҋgࢅ thatࢅ \irilioࢅ sensesࢅ thatࢅ h˘ࢅ muҪtࢅ
dissoci aĹeࢅ hisࢅ worīࢅ |romࢅ whatࢅ mightࢅ beࢅ calleJࢅ theࢅ
ą aestheticsࢅ o|ࢅ ͩuschwitzƐ ࢅ ēere.ࢅ \irilioࢅ isࢅ inࢅ |acࠌࢅ
payinΚࢅ attentiożࢅ toࢅ theࢅ reޭroJuctionࢅanJࢅ Κlobaliza-
tionࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ aes˭heticsࢅ o|ࢅ Auschwitzࢅ i nࢅ theࢅ presentࢅ
day.ࢅ ēeࢅthusࢅnĸtࢅonlyࢅ re|usesࢅ theࢅ collectiveࢅJelusioɛࢅ
thatࢅ Auschwitzࢅ wasࢅ aࢅ singularࢅ historicalࢅ eventࢅ butࢅ
alsoࢅAdornoƐ sࢅaҧsertionࢅthatࢅtoࢅwriteࢅpoetryࢅa|Ĺerࢅi t ࢅisࢅ
barbaric. ࢅ ʡirilioࢅ wantsࢅ toࢅ recognizeࢅ thatࢅ inࢅ videoࢅ
andࢅ Űlm. ࢅ J\ࢅ anJࢅ onࢅ theࢅ Internet. ࢅ Auschwi tŕࢅ
inhabi tsࢅ usࢅ allࢅ asࢅ aࢅ |undamentalࢅ i|ࢅ o|tenࢅ represseJࢅ
componentࢅ o|ࢅ contemporaryࢅ processesࢅ o|ࢅ culturalࢅ
2l
At/ȑ a»4ȑI:atȑ
globali zationĂ ࢅ JoJay. ࢅ asࢅ aࢅ rcsult. ࢅ Цrt͒ࢅ accorJingࢅ toࢅ
̗irilio. ࢅ con|rontsࢅ thcࢅ prcJicamcntࢅړܓrstࢅiJcntiƋcdࢅ Đyࢅ
Ʒaltcrࢅ8cnѬamin. ࢅ thatࢅis. ࢅ o|ࢅi maginingࢅ thatࢅbarbar-
i smࢅanJࢅwaߌ|arcࢅwillࢅɅsupplyࢅүhcࢅartisticࢅgratiŰcati onࢅ
o|ࢅ aࢅ scnscࢅ pcrccptionࢅ thatࢅ hasࢅ Đccnࢅ changcJࢅ Đyࢅ
tcchnologyƐ ࢅ InࢅĪcoparJyࢅ o|ࢅprcoccČpyingࢅi tscl|ࢅwi thࢅ
virtualizcJࢅ scl|-aĐsorption.ࢅ contcǭporaryࢅ art.ࢅ ̗irilioࢅ
argucs. ࢅ asࢅ wcllࢅ asࢅ humani ty. ࢅ hasࢅ attaincJࢅ suchࢅ aࢅ
lcvclࢅ oڔą sclơՎalicnationƐࢅ thatࢅ i t ࢅ canࢅ nowࢅ ɅcȄpcricnccࢅ
itsࢅ ownࢅ dcstructionࢅ asࢅ anࢅ acs thctiإࢅ plcasurcࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
ёrstࢅorJcrӲě
Մࢅ
Asࢅ ̗i rilioࢅ i ntcrprctsࢅ i t ࢅ inࢅ At/ȑ a·4ȑ I:at.ȑ thcࢅ
outcomcࢅ o|ࢅ contcmporaryࢅ acsthcʸicࢅ anJࢅ poli ticalࢅ
thcoricsࢅ ̝nJࢅ practiccsࢅ isࢅ thatࢅ thcࢅ ࠺icwcrࢅ o|ࢅartࢅ hasࢅ
bccnࢅconvcrtcJࢅintoࢅaࢅ casualtyࢅo|ࢅaࢅ pi tilcssࢅacsthcticsࢅ
bcntࢅonࢅthcࢅsonorizatioݱࢅo|ࢅcvcryt۬iֱgĂࢅ InࢅąAࢅIi tilcssࢅ
ArtƐ ࢅ andࢅ ą Silcnccࢅ onࢅ Jri al Ɛ . ࢅ howc࠻cr͒ࢅ i tࢅ isࢅ notࢅ soࢅ
muchࢅ\i rilioƐ sࢅacsthcticsࢅo|ࢅJi sap̷cЦr؄nccࢅ thatࢅtaƎcsࢅ
ccntrcࢅ s tagcࢅ but ࢅ rathcrࢅ hisࢅ rcconsiJcrati onࢅ o|ࢅ
twcntictȏǡccnturyࢅ artࢅ anJࢅ cspcciallyࢅ itsࢅ associ ationsࢅ
wi thࢅtȏcࢅrulingࢅauJio-visualࢅrcgiʀcࢅo|ࢅcontcmporaryࢅ
artĂ ࢅ RcĪ cctionࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ humanࢅ ĐoJyࢅ orࢅ i tsࢅ virtuali zaࡹ
tion.ࢅ Jcclarcsࢅ \irilio. ࢅ arcࢅ thcࢅ onlyࢅ altcrnativcsࢅ
prcscntcdࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ artࢅ lovcrࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ multi mcdi aࢅ
acaJcmyࢅ lcJࢅ byࢅ boJyࢅ artistsࢅ suc˝ࢅ as ࢅ Òrlanࢅ anJࢅ
Stclarc. ࢅ !orࢅ him. ࢅ tȏcscࢅ anJࢅ othcrࢅ artistsࢅ anJࢅ thcࢅ
multi mcdi aࢅcvcntsࢅ thcyࢅ pcr|ormࢅ Ji scloscࢅ thci rࢅanti-
22
I·/tcJc://c»ȑ
humanismࢅ anJࢅ lackࢅ oĵࢅrcsɝcct ࢅĵoĢࢅ theࢅ bodyā ࢅ \irilioࢅ
conJcmnsࢅ pitilcĄĄࢅ artࢅ ȫnJࢅ theࢅ JcĄtĢČctionࢅ oĵࢅsilcnceࢅ
asࢅ aࢅ conscҝuenccࢅ oĵࢅ hisࢅ belicĵࢅ thȫtࢅ thcࢅ mutismࢅ
intri ȂĄicࢅtoࢅcontcݓɝoraryࢅ boJyࢅartࢅĄ howĄࢅt˜cࢅwayࢅtoࢅ
theࢅ tcrrorizati onࢅ oĵࢅ ˪hcࢅ rcalࢅ ŇoJyࢅ byࢅ tĘcࢅ virtualࢅ
boJy. ࢅ \i rilio' sࢅ ࡑorJsࢅ oĵࢅwarningࢅ toࢅ contcmɝoraryࢅ
artiĄtsࢅ ȫrcࢅ thatࢅ tޚࢅ Ą toɝࢅ thinkingࢅ aboutࢅ thcࢅ Se΄ޜnJࢅ
ŭorlJࢅ ƷaĢࢅanJࢅ ՠuschwitzࢅ isࢅ toࢅ ĵoĢgetࢅtheࢅ realityࢅoĵࢅ
thcࢅhoĢrorࢅoĵࢅwarࢅandࢅ thcࢅviolenccࢅo|ࢅcxtcrminati onǸ ࢅ
Itࢅ iߤࢅ ࠍoࢅ i g̴orcࢅ thcࢅ reĄponĄi Ňܔli tyࢅ tȺࢅ v̚lucࢅ thcࢅ boJyࢅ
anJࢅi tĄࢅ alternatingࢅ attachmcnʸsࢅtoࢅsil cnccࢅanJࢅnoise͚ࢅ
Inࢅ cvokingࢅ tĘiĄࢅreĄɝonsibility. ࢅ \irilioࢅexplainsࢅ thatࢅ
hcࢅ cmɝloyĄࢅ hisࢅ ˌhristianࢅ humanistࢅ ̠ritiҝČcࢅ oĵࢅwar.ࢅ
alicnationࢅ andࢅ cĢucl tyࢅ inࢅ anࢅ artiĄticࢅ anJࢅ poli ticalࢅ
ĄcnĄc.ࢅ ɝerhapĄࢅ ÔC anࢅ at4:ģæíæc/t:ȑ oĵࢅaࢅ ĵurtĘcrࢅpreciseࢅ
ҏbligati onࢅ toࢅ pޛctryࢅ ̶rࢅ asࢅ anࢅ aƁarcneĄsࢅ oĵࢅ tۭٮࢅ
acsthcticsࢅ oĵࢅ AuĄchwitzࢅ ēypcrmoJcrnࢅ artࢅ isࢅ ĵorࢅ
\i rilioࢅ ȫࢅ maniĵes˭؅tionࢅ oĵࢅd contcmporaryࢅ acsthcticsࢅ
thatࢅ asɝircsࢅ toࢅ cƇlcbrȫteࢅ Nictӄschcanࢅ violenccࢅ whilcࢅ
JiĄcountingࢅ aࢅ cĢisisࢅ oĵࢅmcaningࢅ thȫt ࢅ iĄࢅ soࢅ proĵoundࢅ
thatࢅ itࢅ isࢅ |astࢅ bccomingࢅ inJistinguis˜ablcࢅ ĵromࢅ whatࢅ
hcࢅJcscribcsࢅ inࢅ ƨ ͩࢅIitilessࢅArt'ࢅ asࢅ Ʌtheࢅ calưࢅ toࢅ murJerࢅ
anJࢅ tortČrc'˅ࢅ Rcˣember. ࢅ aĄksࢅ \Ŀrilio. ࢅ theࢅ ӚmcJiaࢅ oĵࢅ
hatcࢅ inࢅ thcࢅ cx-Ȫτgoslaƛiaࢅ oĵࢅƭloŇoJanࢅ ĔiloĄovic'ࢅ orࢅ
thcࢅ ą ą ą JhouĄanJࢅ ēillsࢅ RaJioϏࢅ oĵࢅ thcࢅ ƅrcatࢅ ŴaΤesࢅ
rcgionࢅ oĵࢅ Aĵricaࢅ callinћࢅ RwȫnJanĄࢅ ŝoࢅ i nter-cĹhnicࢅ
genociJcȡ' ࢅ Ćacedࢅ withࢅ suchࢅ ą eȄpnjcssi onistࢅ cvcntĄ' .ࢅ hcࢅ
23
At/ȑ cǂ4ȑ I:ctȑ
Ǥnswcrs,ࢅ ǐ surclyࢅwcࢅ canࢅ sccࢅwhatࢅcomcsࢅncxt, ࢅloomingࢅ
ĸvcrࢅ usࢅ asࢅ i tࢅ is ǹࢅ anࢅ ǜ:/c/Ƶȑ /:Ǘtct/s/ȑ ct/ȑ prcachingࢅ
sƀicidcࢅ andࢅ scĬ|Ϧmȗtilationࢅ thcrcbyࢅ cxtcndingࢅ thcࢅ
ɲȗrrcnt ࢅ inlatȗationࢅ wŹthࢅ scarringࢅ andࢅ picrcingģ .ࢅ
ˌontcmporaryࢅ artࢅ isࢅ dzhcnࢅ thcࢅ cxprcssi onࢅ o|ࢅallࢅ thoscࢅ
artis tsࢅ whoࢅ takcࢅ |orࢅ grantcdࢅ tha̓ࢅ todayģ sࢅ trans|orma-
͂ionࢅ olࢅthcࢅ Ƌcldࢅ o|ࢅacsthc߼i΄sࢅ intoࢅ aࢅ ɼindࢅ olࢅtcrroristŹcࢅ
pcrƉormanccࢅ alsoࢅ implicsࢅ thcࢅ climinationࢅ o|ࢅsilcnccĂࢅ
ͩsࢅ aࢅ constantࢅ criticࢅ oƉࢅthcࢅ artࢅ o|ࢅŁcchnologĠࢅ Ǥndࢅ thcࢅ
؞urrcnt ࢅ attacŊࢅ onࢅ rcprcscntation,ࢅ \irŹlioࢅ isࢅ intcnsclĠࢅ
uncasyࢅ aŮoutࢅ thcࢅ dcvcƿopmcntࢅ o|ࢅ pitilcssࢅ artĂ ࢅ Řcࢅ
challcngcsࢅ i tsࢅ claiΨࢅ toࢅ aࢅ |rccdomࢅ olࢅcxprcssionࢅ thatࢅ
dcmandsࢅ thcࢅimplosionࢅo|ࢅacs thctics.ࢅ thcࢅ cxҙȐosionࢅo|ࢅ
ȭrcadࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ unlcashingࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ worldǂidcࢅ artࢅ o|ࢅ
ݫihilisΨࢅ andࢅ aࢅ politicsࢅ o|ࢅhatcȜ ࢅ ɮirilioࢅ thusࢅ looksࢅ toࢅ
rcclaimࢅ aࢅ poignantࢅ OI piti|ul ࢅ artࢅ andࢅ tėcࢅ politicsࢅ o|ࢅ
silcnccࢅ |romࢅ anࢅ artࢅ worldࢅ cnchantcdࢅ bĠࢅ itsࢅ ownࢅ
cxtinctionࢅ bccauscࢅ toࢅ rc|uscࢅ pitĠ ࢅ ࢅ ࢅ ࢅ ࢅ
continǴationࢅo|ࢅwarƪࢅ 8ut,ࢅ morcࢅthaߐࢅthis.ࢅ inࢅ thcࢅpagcsࢅ
thatࢅ |ollow,ࢅ hcࢅsccƎsࢅ toࢅgoࢅ ŮcĠondࢅ thcࢅgatcsࢅo|ࢅpi tilcssࢅ
artࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ prosccutionࢅo|ࢅsilcnccࢅ lnࢅordcrࢅtoࢅ cxplorcࢅ
thcࢅ acs thcticsࢅ o|ࢅ Auschwitŕ. ࢅ thcࢅ soȗrccࢅ o|ࢅ allࢅ ourࢅ
cғntcmporarĠࢅ artࢅ andࢅ |cars.ࢅ
21
̎oėnࢅArmitagcࢅ
įġġįࢅ
H 1t/t|ºss Hr/
1t/t/ºss .r/
J˝isࢅ pitilcssࢅ ɲcntƀrv,ࢅ thcࢅ twcntŹcthŌࢅ
Albcrtࢅ Camƀsࢅ
ʞhŹsࢅ cvcni ngࢅwٚࢅ arcࢅ notࢅ goŹngࢅ toࢅ talkࢅ aboƀtࢅpictyࢅorࢅ
ĈmpŹctyࢅ but ࢅ abĸࠟtࢅ pŹty,ࢅ Ǜhcࢅ pi ti|ulࢅ orࢅ pŹtilcssࢅ natƀrcࢅ
o|ࢅ ǐ ɲontcmpora߁vࢅ artģ ƪࢅ Soࢅ wcࢅ willࢅ notࢅ ʢcࢅ t alkingࢅ
aboƀtࢅproǧancࢅartࢅvcrsusࢅsaɲrcdࢅ artࢅ bƀtࢅwcࢅmavࢅwcllࢅ
tacklcࢅ thcࢅ œro|anationࢅ oхࢅlormsࢅ andࢅ bodicsࢅ ovcrࢅ Ǜhcࢅ
ɲoƀrscࢅo|ࢅthcࢅtwƸnticthࢅɲcnturvĂ ࢅ!orࢅthcscࢅdaysࢅwhcnࢅ
pcoplcࢅ gctࢅ downࢅ toࢅ Jcbat cࢅ thcࢅ rcl cvanccࢅ orࢅ
aw|ƀlncssࢅo|ࢅɲoέtcmporarvࢅ art,ࢅ thcvࢅgcncrallvࢅ|orgctࢅ
toࢅ askࢅ oncࢅ vŹtaѶࢅ oucstionˊࢅ ņc·/:æ]ctctȑ at/,ȑ sĎt:,ȑ |ĎĊȑ
:Lj·Ċ:o]ctƹȈȑ Ȅ//Əȑ a|a/?ȑ
Inࢅ anࢅ ƀnpࠠbl i shcdࢅ ŹnǛcrvi cwࢅ wi t hࢅ !ranӊoisࢅ
Roƀan.ࢅɎacҜucѷi ncࢅ ̏ichtcnstcinࢅ rcccntlvࢅ rccountcdࢅ
h˘rࢅ cxpcrŹcnccȇ ࢅ
27
At/ȑ a»Jȑ I:atȑ
ıhcnࢅ Iࢅ visi ́cdࢅ thcࢅ řuscumࢅ atࢅ ďǣSōHıIJɯ, ࢅ Iࢅ
stooŶࢅ inࢅ lront ࢅ olࢅ ŝhcࢅ disœlayࢅ cascs͜ࢅ ıhatࢅ Iࢅ sawࢅ
thcrcࢅ wcrcࢅ imagcsࢅ |romࢅ contcmporaryࢅ artࢅ anŶࢅ Iࢅ
چounȭࢅ thatࢅ absolutclyࢅ tcrri|ying˅ࢅ Ŵookingࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ
cxhiؔi tsࢅ olࢅsui tcascs, ࢅ œrosthctics, ࢅ childrcnģ sࢅ ŝoys ,ࢅ Iࢅ
di dnƐ tࢅ |cclࢅ |ri ghtcncd˅ ࢅ Iࢅ di dn' t ࢅcollapsc. ࢅ Iࢅ wasnģ tࢅ
co݉ިl˗tɵlyࢅovcrcomcࢅthɵࢅwayࢅIࢅ Λadࢅ bccnࢅwaƿkingࢅ
arouʳdࢅ thcࢅcamp͜ࢅNo. ࢅI»ȑ /|:ȑAas:ao,ȑIȑsaJJ:»|ȑ|aJȑ
/|:ȑ /ƺāt:ss/·»ȑIȑaasȑ /»ȑaȑ oas:aæȑƣȑ:·»/:o]·taǥȑat/İȑ Iࢅ
tooŊࢅ ŝhcࢅ trainࢅ bacŊ,ࢅ ߽cllingࢅ ŀysclڇࢅthatࢅ thcyࢅ hadࢅ
wonʈ ࢅ Jhcyࢅhadࢅwonࢅsinccࢅ tǖcy' dࢅ proŶuccdࢅlormsࢅ
olࢅpcrccptionࢅ thatࢅarcࢅallࢅo| aࢅpicccࢅwithࢅ thcࢅmodcࢅ
o|ࢅdcstructionࢅ thcyࢅ ݊׼Ŷɵࢅ tǖcirࢅown.ࢅ
ıhatࢅwcࢅ willࢅ bcࢅ asƎingࢅthisࢅcvcni̵gࢅwillࢅthusࢅtaƎcࢅ
upࢅ whcrcࢅ ̎acDZucli ncࢅ Lichtcns ŝcinࢅ lcltࢅ oΒɨࢅ didࢅ thcࢅ
ʜaziࢅ tcrrorࢅ loscࢅ thcࢅ

ɰrࢅ but, ࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ cnd, ࢅ winࢅ thcࢅ
pcaccȠࢅ ׂhisࢅ pcaccࢅ bascŶࢅ onࢅ Ē thcࢅ balanccࢅ o|ࢅtcrrorģ ࢅ
notࢅ onlyࢅ bctwccnࢅ Lastࢅ andࢅ ıcstࢅ bࠡtࢅ alsoࢅ bctwccnࢅ
thcࢅ |orʱsࢅ andࢅ ڬgurcsࢅ olࢅanࢅ acsth̢ticsࢅ o|ࢅŶisappмar-
anccࢅ th׽tࢅwouldࢅ coŀcࢅ toࢅ charactٛrizcࢅ thcࢅ wholcࢅ Ķnࢅ
dcࢅsiʧcle͜ࢅ
'Ťcȑ Ɛcoa»/z:ȑ c»:s:Ƴȑ /sȑ /·ȑ a»/ď:tsc//z:ȑ ·»:s:ƴȑ(tcæȑ
ȅt//t»`,ȑ ŝhcyࢅ sayŌ
Ȟࢅ
Řasnģ t ࢅ thcࢅ uniƦcrsalityࢅ o|ࢅ ŝhcࢅ
cxtcrminationࢅ o|ࢅboŶicsࢅ asࢅ wcllࢅ asࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ cnviron-
݋cnt , ࢅ lĢomࢅ ďŎSōHıIJɯࢅ toࢅ ōŘLRNņ8ȎL, ࢅ
s ƙccccŶcdࢅ i nࢅJ:/aæa»tȏ/»gȑ asȑ(t·oȑa//|·a/ȑbyࢅshattcrǡ
2H
Aȑ I////:ssȑ At/ȑ
ingࢅ ourࢅ cthicࢅ andࢅ acsthcticࢅ bcarings, ࢅ ourࢅ vcrĠࢅ
œcrccptionࢅ olࢅoҳrࢅ sur߂oundi ngsͨࢅ
ďtࢅ thcࢅ dawnࢅ oƉࢅi ndustriaƿࢅ űodcrni ty, ࢅ 8audclaircࢅ
dcclarcd,ࢅ `1 cæȑ //:ȑ Ȇce»4ȑ co4ȑ//:ȑ/oƤ: ` ȑ Řowࢅ canࢅ wcࢅ
lai l ࢅ toࢅ sccࢅ that.ࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ wakcࢅ oƉࢅthcࢅ ėccatombࢅ ɜ|ࢅthcࢅ
ǻrcatࢅ ıanj. ࢅ whcnࢅ 8raoucࢅ andࢅ ņׇoࢅ Ðixࢅ |oundࢅ
thcmscƿvcsࢅ onࢅ ĸœœosi tcࢅ sidcsࢅ ɜ|ࢅthcࢅ trcnchcsࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ
mudࢅ oƉࢅthcࢅ Sommc. ࢅ modcrnࢅ artࢅ lorࢅ itsࢅ œartࢅ |orgɜtࢅ
aboƤtࢅ thcࢅ woundࢅ andࢅ conccntratcdࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ kni|cࢅ
thгࢅ baĠonctࢅ withࢅ thcࢅ likcsࢅ ɜƉࢅ ˒skaĢࢅ ĜoŊoschŊa. ࢅ
'//:ȑ s:c/]:/-ȇ/:/4t»gȑ cǘ//s/` ,ȑ bclorcࢅ movingࢅ onࢅ throughࢅ
thcࢅ ǻcrmanࢅ Lxœrcssi onismࢅ olࢅ Ŋ:tȑ S/etæȑ tɜࢅ thcࢅ
\i cnncscࢅ ďctionismࢅ oƉࢅ RudolƉࢅSchwarŕŊɜglcrࢅ andࢅ
hisࢅ cohonjtsࢅinࢅ thcࢅ l 9ƓĤsࢅ Į ࢅ
ďRJࢅMţŎիIɐࢅorࢅArtistࢅMauditȡࢅıhatࢅcanࢅࡥouࢅ
say,ࢅ mcanwhilc,ࢅ aboutࢅ thcࢅ likcsࢅ olࢅRi cėardࢅ Ř܊܋lscn-
bcck. ࢅoncࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ|oſndingࢅƉathcrsࢅ olࢅÐada. ࢅ whoࢅ toldࢅ
aࢅ 8crƿinࢅ aࠢdicnccࢅ inࢅ l 9 l Ħ,ࢅ atࢅ aࢅ conƉcrcnccࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ
ncwࢅtĢcndsࢅi nࢅažt,ࢅ ' ıcࢅwcrcࢅƉorࢅ thcࢅwar.ࢅ Ðadaࢅ todaĠࢅ
isࢅ stillࢅ lorࢅ Țarƪ ࢅ Ċi|cࢅ shouldࢅ hurtȜ ࢅ ť/:t:ȑ /sȑ oc/ȑ :»cev/ȑ
:te:/ǻı`
Šȑ
Jhcࢅ rcstࢅ isࢅ historv. ࢅ JǏcntĠࢅ Ġcarsࢅ latcrࢅ thcࢅ
' 1/:c/t:ȑ c(ȑ Ňte:/Ǽ`ȑ wouldࢅ notࢅ bcࢅ thcࢅ oncࢅ dc̨ncdࢅ bĠࢅ
ďntoninࢅ ďrtaudࢅ butࢅ bĠࢅ Ĝaєa, ࢅ thatࢅ œroœhctࢅ o|ࢅ
doomࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ mctamorœhosisࢅ cngi nccrcdࢅ bĠࢅ thcࢅ
camœǍ, ࢅ thcࢅ smashinўࢅ toࢅ smithcrccnsࢅ ɜlࢅhҳmanism. ࢅ
Jhcࢅsloganࢅolࢅthcࢅ!irstࢅ!uturistࢅʙaniƉcs toࢅo|ࢅl 9ɉ9ࢅ
'Ũctȑ/sȑ//·ȑact/4`sȑco|ȑ/jv/:o:`ȑ lcJࢅdircctly, ࢅ thoughࢅ
zJ
¹t/ȑ c»JȑI:ctȑ
thirtyࢅ Ġcarsࢅ latcrࢅ thisࢅ timc. ࢅ toࢅ tėcࢅ shoǏcrࢅ blockࢅ o|ࢅ
ţuschǏitz-8i rkcήauĂ ࢅ ţndࢅ 8rctޏnģ s ࢅ ϔ Surrкal i sm' .ࢅ
|olloࡍingࢅ hotࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ hcclsࢅ o|ࢅ ÐaسaϠࢅ cmcrgcJࢅ lullyࢅ
armcȬࢅ с߃omࢅ thcࢅ ŰrcǏor̯sࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ ɫrcatࢅ ıarࢅ Ǐhcrcࢅ
commonࢅ rcali tyࢅ Ǐasࢅ suddcnlyࢅ transڭgurcdࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ
magicࢅ o|ࢅcxplosivcsࢅ andࢅ poisonࢅ ̪ascsࢅ atࢅ Ȏprcsࢅ andࢅ
\crdunĂ ࢅ
A|tcrࢅ tΛat. ࢅ Ǐhatࢅ i sࢅ lc|tࢅ o|ࢅ ȢJornoģ sࢅ pompousࢅ
pronounccmcntࢅ aboutࢅ /|:ȑ tæ]csǰt|///Ǧȑ ƥȑ att/t»gȑ Û
]c:mȑ aΙcrࢅ ţŎİCʕıIJɯȠࢅ Notࢅ muchࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ cnJࢅ o|ࢅ
thcࢅday. ࢅ|orࢅ cvcrĠthing.ࢅorࢅalmostࢅcvcrĠthing. ࢅkickcdࢅ
oƺࢅatࢅthcࢅturnࢅ o|ࢅaࢅpi tilcssࢅandࢅcndlcsslĠࢅcatastrophicࢅ
ccnturyࢅ lromࢅ thcࢅ JIJţNI ōࢅ iȀࢅ Ϯ϶l į ࢅ toࢅ ōHLRǟ
Nņ8ȎĊࢅinࢅ l ϶ĦƓ. ࢅviaࢅthcࢅcrimcsࢅa̪ainstࢅhumanityࢅo|ࢅ
ēI RņSʕI řţࢅ andࢅNAɫţSţĜI . ࢅǏhcrcࢅ oncࢅ o|ࢅtėcࢅ
painti ngsࢅ i nࢅ vanࢅ ɫoۈhģ s ࢅ ƨ Starryࢅ Nightģ ࢅ scri˗sࢅ wcntࢅ
upࢅ Źnࢅ thcࢅnucĬ carࢅ blas t ƪ ࢅ
Ƭcrhapsࢅ atࢅ thisࢅΡuncturcࢅi tࢅi s ࢅǏor߾ėࢅ rcmcmbcringࢅ
Ƭaulࢅ Cclan. ࢅ thcࢅ ɫcrmanࢅ poctࢅ Ǐhoࢅ committcdࢅ
suicidcࢅ inࢅ Ƭarisࢅi nࢅ l 9ʏĤ. ࢅ thcࢅ samcࢅ ycarࢅ thatࢅpaintcrࢅ
řarkࢅ Rothkoࢅ didࢅ i nࢅ ʼncǏࢅ Ȏorkࢅ Ȝ ˆ.ࢅ 8utࢅ Ǐhyࢅ stopࢅ
thcrcࢅ i nࢅ artģ sࢅ dcathࢅ roll. ࢅ |caturingࢅ asࢅ i t ࢅ Jocsࢅ aࢅ
constantࢅ suicidcࢅ ratcࢅ |romࢅ thcࢅ scl|ǡdcstructionࢅ o|ࢅ
ɮinccnt ࢅvanࢅ ɫogh. ࢅ ƨ thcࢅmanࢅǏi tėࢅ thcࢅ missingࢅ carģ Ƞࢅ
Ėouࢅ Ǐouldࢅ thinkࢅ thcࢅ drŹvcࢅ toࢅ cxti nۉuŹshࢅ thcࢅ
suƺocati ngࢅ cul turcࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ bourgcoisicࢅ consistcdࢅ
spccŹĶcallyࢅi nࢅcxtcrmŹnatingࢅoncscl|ࢅi ntoࢅ Dzhcࢅbargainࢅ
30
Aǟ I///Ʊ:ssȑ At/ȑ
thcࢅ dubiousࢅ ʢargainࢅ oȱࢅ tėcࢅ artࢅ markctࢅ thusࢅ
givingࢅ idcas, ࢅ Ɖorࢅwan߿ࢅolࢅcȗƿ turalࢅ idcals, ࢅ toࢅ tėcࢅgrcatࢅ
cxtcĢʲĿnatorsࢅ oцࢅthcࢅ twʨnticthࢅ ccntury͌ࢅ
Rcŀʨmbcrࢅ ࡎėatࢅ !ricdrichࢅ Nictŕschcࢅ ad࠵iscdɨ ࢅ
ĘS/o]/Ʃȑjcctȑ /Ʀ·.ȑ 4/:Ĕ'ȑ Jhi sࢅ cxtrcmis tࢅ simpliƋcationࢅ
inࢅ whicΜࢅ ƨ ornaNJcntࢅisࢅ aࢅ cri mc' ࢅ,´ hasࢅs taycdࢅ wiŝhࢅ usࢅ
tΜroȗgѥout ࢅ tėcࢅ historyࢅ olࢅ tėcࢅ twcntictѥࢅ ccntury, ࢅ
lroʲࢅthcࢅ pointƿcsslyࢅrcpcatcdࢅ assaultࢅonࢅthcࢅpcaksࢅ o|ࢅ
ŝhcࢅ ˌhcminࢅ dcsࢅ Ðamcsࢅ i nࢅ l 9 l ϴࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ gcnocidcࢅ
pc߄pʨtratcdࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ ĜhmcĢࢅ Rougcࢅ i nࢅ ˌamŮoJiaࢅ inࢅ
thcࢅ ԫ9ϴɉs . ࢅ
ďvantǷgardcࢅartists, ࢅ likcࢅmanyࢅpoli ticalࢅ agitators,ࢅ
propagandistsࢅ andࢅ dcmagogucs, ࢅ havcࢅ longࢅ undcr-
stooJࢅ whatࢅ JLДRÒRI İͳࢅ wouldࢅ soonࢅ populari ŕcˊ ࢅ
i |ࢅ youࢅwantࢅaࢅplaccࢅi nࢅɄ rcvoƿutionaryࢅėistory' ࢅ thcrcࢅisࢅ
nސtΜi ngࢅ casicrࢅ thanࢅ provoŊingࢅ aࢅ ri ot, ࢅ anࢅ assauƿtࢅ onࢅ
propricty, ࢅ i nࢅthcࢅ guiscࢅ olࢅartĂ ࢅ
İhortࢅ o|ࢅ coѼmittingࢅ aࢅ rʨalࢅ crimcࢅ bӃࢅ Ŋiƿlingࢅ
Ŀnnoccnt ࢅ passcrsǷbyࢅ withࢅ aࢅ bom΂, ࢅ tėcࢅ pi tilcssࢅ
contcmporaryࢅ authorࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ twcnticthࢅ ccnturyࢅ
attacŊsࢅ symbols,ࢅ thcࢅ vcryࢅ mcaningࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ ' pi ti |ul' ࢅ artࢅ
hcࢅ assi miƿ atcsࢅ toࢅ Ē acadcmicismț.ࢅ JaŊcࢅ ǻuyࢅÐcbord,ࢅ
thcࢅ !rcncėࢅ İi tτationist, ࢅ asࢅ anࢅ cxampƿ c. ࢅ Inࢅ l 9ˈį, ࢅ
spcaŊingࢅ aboutࢅ hi s ࢅ I//oȑ U//|cc/ȑ Iæcv:s,ȑ whicėࢅ
ʲoȗntcdࢅaࢅ dʨlcnccࢅo|ࢅtėcࢅʙarҜuisࢅ dcࢅ İadc, ࢅ ÐcboĢdࢅ
cƿaimcdࢅ ėcࢅ wantcdࢅ toࢅ killࢅ thcࢅ cincmaࢅ '/::acs:ȑ //ȑ acsȑ
:cs/:tȑ/|coȑ /////oƋȑ Û ]css:t-|ȉ`.ȑ
3 l
Ņt/ȑ ao4ȑ I:atȑ
Aࢅ ɟcarࢅ latcrɆ ࢅ inࢅ l 9ˈ͠.ࢅ thcࢅ SIƗŎAJIÒNI SƗSࢅ
ǂouldࢅ notࢅ hcsitatcࢅ toࢅcxtٜndࢅ thisࢅattacīࢅbyࢅtrashingࢅ
Charlicࢅ ōhapli n. ࢅ ]//Ƨc/ȑ a:/ctȑ]atȑ :Đ:://:o::ğȑ vili|yingࢅ
himࢅ asࢅ aࢅ scntimcntalࢅ |raud. ࢅ ŀastcrŀindࢅ o|ࢅŀiscrɟ.ࢅ
cvcnࢅ aࢅātc/cĤas:/s/ĕȑ
Allࢅ thisࢅ vcrbalࢅ dcliri umࢅ sccmsࢅ soࢅ obliviousࢅ o|ࢅitsࢅ
oǂnࢅ ccndzuryࢅ andࢅ yctࢅ condcsccndsࢅ toࢅ prcachࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ
rcstࢅ o|ࢅπhcࢅ worldࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ namcࢅ o|ࢅ|rccdomࢅ o|ࢅartisticࢅ
cxprcssion. ࢅ cvcnࢅ duringࢅ aࢅ his toricaѸࢅ pcriodࢅ thatࢅ
ovcrsawࢅ thcࢅ scttingࢅ upࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ /a/ar::ȑ cȑ/:ttctȑ alongࢅ
ǂithࢅthcࢅopcningࢅo|ࢅthcࢅlaboratoricĄࢅo|ࢅaࢅscicnccࢅthatࢅ
ǂasࢅ gcari ngࢅupࢅtoࢅprogrammcࢅthcࢅcndࢅo|ࢅthcࢅworld
notablyࢅ withࢅ thcࢅ invcntiޑn.ࢅ inࢅ l 9ǓԬ.ࢅ o|ࢅ thcrŀo˵
nuclcarࢅwcaponsƪ ࢅ I t ࢅcorrcspondsࢅ couallyࢅ toࢅ //:ȑ ac/cē
J/ssc/c//crȑ Āȑ //:ȑ aďao/-gatJ:s.ȑ dzhcࢅ cndࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ grandࢅ
illusionࢅo|ࢅaࢅæcJ:to// ƞȑDZa:ao/:. ȑ Ȏouࢅ ˲ouldࢅ thinīࢅ itࢅwasࢅ
notࢅ soࢅ muchࢅ /æ]t:ss/cr/sæȑ thatࢅ l aidࢅ thcࢅ |oundationsࢅ
Ȱorࢅ thcࢅ lattcrࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ o/////sæȑ oڈࢅ ࠀhcࢅ caѸamitousࢅ
i ntclligcntsiaࢅ o|ࢅ ninctccntۦǷccnturyࢅ Russia.ࢅ withࢅ
mcnࢅliīcࢅʜcdzchaӞcvࢅdccrccingࢅthatࢅoncࢅhadࢅ toࢅ ' |orgcࢅ
|ullࢅ stcaŀࢅ ahcadࢅ i ntoࢅ thcࢅ mircϑࢅ . DŽ Ă ࢅAndࢅ hcࢅ wasࢅ notࢅ
talƎingࢅ aboutࢅ Jurncr' sࢅ Ka/o,ȑ S/:cæȑ ar4ȑ S]::Jȑ Ě1/:ȑ
Ct:a/ȑ ũ:s/:trȑ Şa//aaj) .ȑ thcࢅ pai ntingࢅ thatࢅ pavcdࢅ thcࢅ
ǂayࢅ |orࢅ řonct' sࢅ I mprcssionisŀƪࢅ
I nscparablcࢅ |romࢅ thcࢅ suicidalࢅ s dzatcࢅ o|ࢅrcprcscnta-
tivcࢅdcŀocracics.ࢅ thcࢅ artࢅo|ࢅthcࢅtǂcnticthࢅccnturɟࢅ hasࢅ
ncvcrࢅ ccascdࢅ dangcrouslyࢅ anticipatingࢅ orࢅ atࢅ lcastࢅ
Jz
Aǟ I////:ssǟ At/ǟ
salutingࢅ ƈromࢅ ǤƈǤrࢅ thcࢅ abomi nationࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ dcsolǤǟ
Łionࢅ olࢅ modcrżࢅ timcsࢅ withࢅ thcirࢅ cardboardࢅ cƤŁ-oƤŁࢅ
dictaŁorࢅ thatࢅkƸcpsࢅ poppingࢅƤpϠࢅ whcthcrࢅ itࢅbcࢅ ʕi ŁlƸrࢅ
ožࢅ thcࢅ ϗĆƀtƤrisŁ ģ . ࢅ řƀssolini. ࢅ Stalinࢅ orࢅ řaoࢅ ɯcdong ࢅ
Andࢅ soࢅ thcࢅ cmblcmaticࢅ ̨gurcࢅ cmcrgcsࢅ notࢅ Ąoࢅ
muůhࢅ olࢅ řarʣclࢅ Ðuch׾mpࢅ asࢅ ChǤrlicࢅ ƕhaplinࢅ orࢅ
8onnard. ࢅ pi tilulࢅ paintcrࢅ parࢅ cxccllcncc. ࢅ asࢅ wǤsࢅ
ōlaudcࢅ řoncŁ. ࢅ thatࢅ miraclcˀworkcrࢅ oƈࢅ Ǥࢅ B/s/egǟ
Ss»,ȑ whichࢅ isࢅ notࢅ ouitcࢅ thcࢅ samcࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ oncࢅ risingࢅ
oșcrࢅ thcࢅ laborǤtoricsࢅ oƈࢅ̏ņSࢅ AȋAřņS. ࢅ
JhcࢅncwࢅCƸrmanࢅ painting.ࢅ naturally.ࢅ rcprcsƸntsࢅ
cƀrrƸntࢅ scnsibili tyࢅ inࢅ ǻcrmanyࢅ andࢅ itࢅ rcalĬyࢅ
lrighŁcnsࢅ mƸ.ࢅ Jhcࢅ AnciƸntsࢅ invcntcdࢅ andࢅ rcprƸӈ
scntƸdࢅ thcࢅҹorldࢅoƈࢅwi tchƸs.ࢅ butࢅ thcࢅworldࢅo|ࢅŘácࢅ
isࢅ aࢅ modcrnࢅinvcntion. ࢅ thcࢅinvcntionࢅolࢅCcrmany,ࢅ
sprcǤdࢅ outࢅovcrࢅthcࢅůanvas ࢅ Jhcࢅdcmonsࢅoƈࢅgothicࢅ
pictƀrcsࢅ arcࢅ childģ sࢅ playࢅ whcnࢅ itࢅ comcsࢅ toࢅ Łhcࢅ
hƤman.ࢅor.ࢅnjathcr. ࢅinhuman. ࢅhcadsࢅol aࢅhumani Łyࢅ
bcntࢅ onࢅ dƸsŁruction ࢅ !urioƤs. ࢅ murdcrous.ࢅ dcmoǟ
niacǤlࢅ hcadĄࢅ notࢅinࢅ thcࢅ stylcࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ oldࢅ mastcrsࢅ
butࢅ inࢅ ůo݌plƸtclyࢅ modƸrnࢅ manncrɨ ࢅ scicntįc,ࢅ
chokingࢅwithࢅpoisonࢅgas ࢅ Jhcyࢅwouldࢅlikcࢅtoࢅcarșcࢅ
thcࢅ ǻcrmansࢅolࢅ tomorrowࢅ oƤt ࢅoƈࢅlrcshࢅ mcaŁࢅ . ͚ . ࢅ
Soࢅ wrotcࢅ thcࢅ ۊrcatࢅ artࢅ dcalcr.ࢅ RcnĴࢅ Cimpcl. ࢅ inࢅ hisࢅ
diaryࢅ o|ࢅ Í'?¨.´ Cimpclࢅ wasࢅ toࢅ disappcarࢅ inࢅ Łhcࢅ
ĝLŎLĝǻAřřLࢅ campࢅ twcntyࢅyƸarsࢅ latcrࢅonࢅĝcwࢅ
33
Ht/ȑ a»4ȑ I:atȑ
Ėcarģ sࢅ ժay,ࢅ l 9ԴԶࢅ . . . ǟJhoroughlyࢅ convinccdࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
lcthalࢅ Ơharactcrࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ worksࢅ olࢅ ɏskarࢅ Ĝokoschka, ࢅ
Lmilࢅ Noldcࢅ orࢅ thcࢅ sculptorϡࢅ Ċchmbruckϡࢅ Cimpclࢅ
gocsࢅonࢅtoࢅtcllࢅusࢅ thatࢅǛhcrcࢅncvcrࢅhasࢅbccnࢅanyࢅsuchࢅ
thingࢅasࢅoldǡmastcrࢅartࢅ orࢅmodcrnࢅorࢅcontcmporaryࢅ
art,ࢅ butࢅ thatࢅtėcࢅĒ oldࢅ mastcrģࢅ shapcdࢅ us, ࢅwhcrcasࢅthcࢅ
Ē contcmporaryģࢅ arti stࢅ shapcsࢅ thcࢅ pcrccptionࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ
ncxtࢅgcncrati on, ࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ pointࢅ whcrcࢅ noࢅoncࢅ isࢅ ' a|:a4ȑ
c(//:/tȑċ/ƻ:ȑ¡ctȑ //żȑat:ȑ /|:ttȑ//æ:,ȑ:a:/ȑac4ȑ:::ąȑ 4av`Īȑ
Řoǂࢅcanࢅ wcࢅ notࢅsubscribcࢅtoࢅ thisࢅstatcmcntࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ
blccdingࢅobviousࢅi|ࢅwcࢅcomparcࢅ thcࢅĶ|tccnth-ccnturyࢅ
Il11Hȑ ĤIǟ HllC^C^ȑ withࢅ thcࢅ sixdzccnth-ccnturyࢅ
Ưss:»/:/Ʒȑ Ń//at]/:::ȑ o|ࢅ řaDzˮۧisࢅ Crࠣncwaldࢅ bothࢅ
pi tilulࢅ ϊorksࢅ thcࢅ Ē cxprcssѨonismģ ࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ Ccrmanࢅ
mast˖rࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ polyptࡦchࢅ illustratingࢅ thcࢅ atrocityࢅ olࢅ
dzhcࢅ ؕattlcsࢅ Фndࢅ cpidcࠑicsࢅ o|ࢅhisࢅ timcࢅ i nࢅ th̢ࢅ manncrࢅ
o|ࢅ ːcroNjcࢅ 8oschͨࢅ

Jodayࢅwcࢅcouldࢅapplyࢅthisࢅobscrationࢅaboutࢅlackࢅ
o|ࢅanticipationࢅ toࢅ Ē issucs' ࢅ suchࢅ aǍࢅ thcࢅ Ē contaminaDzcdࢅ
bloodࢅ aƺair' ࢅ inࢅ Ćranccࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ Ƕ allcgcdĭࢅ nonǟ
culpabi lityࢅo|ࢅthcࢅpoli ticiansࢅi nࢅchargcࢅatࢅthcࢅtimcࢅ Ă ࢅ
ǔi thoutࢅ harkingࢅ backࢅ toࢅːacoucsࢅ ōallotࢅ orࢅ cvcnࢅ
Ćranciscoࢅ dcࢅ ȥoyaࢅ andࢅ Ē thcࢅ miscricsࢅ o|ࢅwar'ࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
ʜapolconicࢅ cra, ࢅ wcࢅ mightࢅ rcmcmbcrࢅ whadzࢅ Ƭicassoࢅ
saidࢅ wɘcnࢅ aࢅ Ccrmanࢅ i ntcrrogatcdࢅ himࢅ inࢅ l 9ɋDžࢅ
about ࢅ ɘisࢅ mastcrwork, ࢅ CL1ŝ^ICHļȑ ŀ1/a/`sȑ vcctȑ
Jc/og,ȑ »cċȑ o/e:!`ǟ
´¬
Aȑ Ŝt/t/:ssȑ At/ȑ
IȱࢅsoǷcallcdࢅ ҖldǷmastcrࢅ artࢅ rcmaincdࢅ 4-æ·»s/tc/t::ȑ
rĿghtࢅ upࢅ unṱlࢅ Łhcࢅ ninctccnthࢅ ccnturyࢅ w̭thࢅ ĉŀpĢcsǟ
sionĿsŀ.ࢅ thcࢅ aĢŁࢅ o|ࢅ Łhcࢅ twcnŁ̭cthࢅ ccnŁ uryࢅ bΊcaŀcࢅ
ęo·»s/tc/t::`ȑinࢅ thcࢅ scnscࢅ thatࢅ itࢅ isࢅcontcmpޒraryࢅwithࢅ
thcࢅ s|c//:tt»vȑ ŹƄ-:/ȑ o|ࢅmassࢅ socictĿcs. ࢅ subĪ ccŁ ࢅ asࢅ thcyࢅ
aĢcࢅ toࢅ ࠁhcࢅ cĸnditioningࢅ ɜ|ࢅ opinionࢅ anȬࢅ řţSSࢅ
řͫÐIţࢅ prop˕gandaࢅ andࢅ this .ࢅ witħࢅ thcࢅ saŀcࢅ
æ·c·/t»vȑ -đ/t:ætsæȑ cvidcntࢅ inࢅ tcrrorismࢅ orࢅ totalࢅ war ࢅ
ďtࢅ thcࢅ cndࢅ o|ࢅ tɘcࢅ millcnni um. ࢅ whatࢅ abstract܌onࢅ
onccࢅ tricdࢅ toࢅ βullࢅ oڜࢅisࢅ i nࢅ |acŁ ࢅ bcingࢅ accomplishcdࢅ
bcډorcࢅ ourࢅ vcryࢅ cycsϸࢅ thcࢅ cndࢅ o|ࢅ RLƬRLƆLʜƗAǟ
ƗI\Lࢅ artࢅandࢅ thcࢅ substitutionࢅoƹࢅaࢅ countcr-culturc.ࢅ
oȱࢅ aࢅ ƬRͫSLБƗAJI \Lࢅ art . ࢅ ďࢅ s i t uationࢅ thatࢅ
rc˟nȱorccsࢅ thcࢅ drcadȱul ࢅ dccli ncࢅ o|ࢅ t:]t:s-»/c/t::ȑ
4:o·:tcŰȑ inࢅ |aωourࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ dcmocĢacyࢅ bascȬࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ
rulcࢅ oƹࢅ opinion.ࢅ i nࢅ anticiœaʸionࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ immincntࢅ
arĢivalࢅ o|ࢅ :/t/sc/ȑ 4-æ·:tcŮȊ.ȑ somcࢅ kinȬࢅ oȱࢅ ' dircctࢅ
dcmocĢacyŨࢅ orʿ ࢅ morcࢅ prcciscly.ࢅ d ]t:s:»/c/t::ȑ multi-
mcȬi aࢅ dcmocr˕cyࢅ bascdࢅ onࢅ automaticࢅ pollingˆࢅ
Inࢅ thcࢅ cnd.ࢅ ǐ moȬcrnࢅ art'ࢅ wasࢅ ablcࢅ toࢅ glcanࢅ whatࢅ
communicatĿożsࢅ andࢅ tcl ccoŀŀunic̛tionsࢅ toolsࢅ nowࢅ
acʣoŀplishࢅ onࢅ aࢅ da̭lyࢅ basis ǹࢅ thcࢅ æts:ȑ :»ȑ c/jo:ȑo|ࢅthcࢅ
body.ࢅ oƹࢅthcࢅĶgurc.ࢅ wi thࢅ thcࢅŀaĪorࢅ attcndantࢅriskࢅoȱࢅ
ǵs/-æc/t:ȑ hypcrvi olcnccࢅ anȬࢅ aࢅ boomࢅ i nࢅ porno-
ўĢaphicࢅhighԁ|ĢcDZucncyࢅ thatࢅ h׿sࢅ nothingࢅ toࢅdoࢅwithࢅ
scࡗuali tyϸࢅ H Ƽcs/ȑ]e/ȑ·c/ȑ/|:ȑ-đ:-ssȑ tc/|-tȑ /|c»ȑ/|:ȑƅƟt:,ȑ
asࢅ Řcraclitusࢅ ҽarncȬˆࢅ
3o
Ht/ȑ ac4ȑIsatȑ
JodaĠ, ࢅwithࢅcxccssࢅhcapcdࢅ onࢅ cxccss,ࢅ dcscnsitiŕaɠ
tionࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ shockࢅolࢅi magcsࢅ andࢅ thcࢅ mcani ngĬcssncssࢅ
olࢅwordsࢅ hasࢅ shattcrcdࢅ thcࢅ worldࢅ stagcȜࢅ ƬIJĉLLSS, ࢅ
contcݍporaryࢅ artࢅ i sࢅ noࢅ Ĭongcrࢅ impropcrƪ ࢅ 8ut ࢅ i t ࢅ
showsࢅaĬlࢅthcࢅimpropri ctyࢅol ࢅprolancrsࢅandࢅtorturcrs,ࢅ
allࢅ ̓hcࢅ arroganccࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ cxccutioncrˆࢅ
Jhcࢅ intclĬigcnccࢅ olࢅ RLIRLİLNJďJI ņNࢅ thcnࢅ
givcsࢅǂaĠࢅtoࢅ thcࢅstunncdࢅmullctࢅcơΎcctࢅo΍ࢅaࢅ ƨ prcscncc' ࢅ
thatࢅisࢅ notࢅonĬ yࢅwcird,ࢅ asࢅinࢅ thcࢅ daĠsࢅolࢅİurrcalism, ࢅ
bƤtࢅ i nsuĬ tingࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ mind˅ࢅ ʝhcࢅ wholcࢅ proccss ,ࢅ
morcovcr, ࢅ impĬicsࢅ thatࢅ thcࢅ ƨ i magcŨࢅ su̧ccsࢅ toࢅ givcࢅ
artࢅi tsࢅ NjcaningࢅandࢅsigniƋcanccˆࢅďtࢅoncࢅcx̓rcmcࢅthcࢅ
arti st, ࢅ likcࢅ thcࢅĪίurnali st, ࢅisࢅrcdundantࢅi nࢅ thcࢅlacc-oΐࢅ
bctǂccnࢅ pcrơҗrmcrࢅ andࢅ vicwcr. ࢅ
ƨ İucǨࢅ aࢅ conccptionࢅ olࢅ in|ormationࢅ lcadsࢅ toࢅ aࢅ
disturbingࢅ lasci natioݬࢅ wi thࢅ i magٝsࢅ¡/o:4ǟ //::

withࢅ
sccncsࢅ olࢅ violcnccࢅ andࢅ grucsomٞࢅ humanࢅ intcrcs tࢅ
storics ' , ࢅ I gnacioࢅ Ramonctࢅ writcsࢅ ޓnࢅ thcࢅ impactࢅ olࢅ
tcl cvi si onࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ pri nt ࢅ mcdi aȜ ࢅ ƨ Jhi sࢅ dcmandࢅ
cncouragcsࢅ thcࢅ supplĠࢅ o|ࢅ |akcࢅ docuǭcnts, ࢅ sundrĠࢅ
rccons tructionsࢅ andࢅ conΣ uringࢅ tricks . Ũ
ϵࢅ
8ut ࢅ surclĠࢅ wcࢅ couldࢅ saĠࢅ thcࢅ samcࢅ todaĠࢅ oƘࢅ artࢅ
whcnࢅ itࢅ comcsࢅdownࢅ toࢅ itȜ ࢅ JaƎcࢅ thcࢅ cxamplcࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ
ʜLƷࢅ БLŎRņJĉ Cࢅ RLďĊI Sřࢅ olࢅ admanࢅ andࢅ
col l cctor, ࢅ Charlcsࢅ İaatchi , ࢅ asࢅ rcvcalcdࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ
Ƴondonࢅ ƃ andࢅ Ncwࢅ ĖorƎĭࢅ cxėibition, ࢅ ' Sscsa//cc` .ȑ
wi t hࢅ i tsࢅ lusi onϬconlusi onࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ Jď8LņIÐࢅ andࢅ
´U
Aȑ I////:ssȑ At/ȑ
somcࢅ soĢtࢅ o|ࢅ ϋould-bcࢅ avant-gardcࢅ art . ࢅ לct ࢅ thcࢅ
conơҗrmismࢅo|ࢅab̮cctionࢅi sࢅ ncvcrࢅmorcࢅthanࢅaࢅ haʢi tࢅ
thcࢅ t͇cnti cthࢅccntǵryࢅ hasࢅ cn̮oycJࢅsprc̞di ngࢅrö́ndࢅ
thcࢅ globc. ࢅ
ŘcĢc. ࢅthcࢅ΁rƤtalityࢅisࢅnoࢅlongcrࢅsoࢅmuchࢅaiŀcdࢅ atࢅ
warni ngࢅ asࢅ at ࢅ dٟstĢoyi ngϜ ࢅ pavi ngࢅ thcࢅ wayࢅ |orࢅ thcࢅ
̞ctualࢅ torturingࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ vic͇cr. ࢅ thcࢅ listcncr. ࢅ ͇hŹchࢅ
willࢅ notࢅ bcࢅ loήgࢅ cĸmingࢅ thanksࢅ toࢅ thatࢅ cyʢcrncti cࢅ
aĢtc|actȇ ࢅ /|:ȑ /»/:ta:/ƙ::ȑ(::4-/a:/ȑ Ƣȑ:tt/aa/ȑ t:a/tČīȑ
I|ࢅ thcࢅ contcݎporaĢyࢅ authorࢅ isࢅ rcdundantࢅ sccࢅ
Iicassoࢅ onࢅ Ca:tǁt:aȑ andࢅ i|ࢅthcࢅ suicidcࢅ ratcࢅ hasࢅ onlyࢅ
̯cptࢅ accclcrati̵gࢅ inࢅ culẗ́ralࢅ circlcsࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ pointࢅ
whcrcࢅi t ࢅwillࢅsoĸnࢅbc ncccssaryࢅ toࢅsctࢅƤpࢅaࢅıȀŴࢅɏ!ࢅ
JŘLࢅ !LÐLR՟JհÐࢅ CɏMMŎNLࢅ ɏ!ࢅ SŎI CIÐLSࢅ
i̵ࢅ muscumsࢅ Ƕ ࠂҖࢅ matchࢅ thcࢅ ͇alѹࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ |cdcratcJࢅ
communardsࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ Iarisࢅ CommuncࢅinࢅIʧrcࢅ̏ach؀iscࢅ
ccŀctcry͎ . ࢅthcnࢅmaƏcࢅnoࢅ misŁakcǹࢅ ࠃhcࢅ artࢅlovcrģ sࢅdaysࢅ
arcࢅ numʢcrcd͌ࢅ
Jhisࢅ isࢅ hoǂࢅ ִothkoࢅ put ࢅ i t Ս ࢅ ą I ࢅstudicdࢅ thcࢅ ̨gurcƪ ࢅ
ɏήlyࢅrcluctantl˴ࢅdidࢅIࢅ rcaѹi ŕcࢅi t ࢅdi dnģ tࢅcorrcspo̵dࢅtoࢅ
myࢅ nccds Ōࢅ Lstǀgȑ |cæaoȑ t:1t:s:o/a/tco,ȑ (ctȑ æ:,ȑ æ:ao/ȑ
oa///a/ƚ»vȑ //' Ĭȑ Shot ࢅ o|ࢅ allࢅ moralࢅ or ࢅ cmoti onalࢅ
compromisc. ࢅ thcࢅ paintcrࢅ sccksࢅ toࢅ movcࢅ ' /caat4sȑ /|:ȑ
:/tæ/oa//coȑc(ȑa//ȑc/s/a:/:sȑ /:/a::oȑ /|:ȑ1a/o/:tȑao4ȑ /|:ȑt4:a,ȑ
/:/a::oȑ /|:ȑ /4:aȑ ūo4ȑ //:ȑ co/ccƫ:t' .ȑ
Jhisࢅisࢅ thcࢅradiographicࢅ tri ƙmphࢅo|ࢅtransparcncc.ࢅ
tۨ˖ࢅ wayࢅ raJi ationࢅ ĸ|ࢅthcࢅ rcalࢅ i nࢅ archi tccturcࢅ tod̞yࢅ
´1
Aǔ/ȑ a»4ȑ Ō:atȑ
gocsࢅ handࢅ inࢅ glovcࢅ withࢅ thcࢅ cxtcrminationࢅ o|ࢅ allࢅ
i ntcrmcdi arics,ࢅ o|ࢅallࢅ ǁhatࢅstillࢅrcsistsࢅrcvclati on, ࢅpurcࢅ
andࢅ simplc͛ࢅ
8ut ࢅthisࢅsuddcnࢅÒ\LRLКƬÒƆŎRLࢅo|ࢅthcࢅwork, ࢅ
asࢅ o|ࢅthoscࢅ whoࢅ lookࢅ uponࢅ i t, ࢅ isࢅ accompanicdࢅ byࢅ aࢅ
violcnccࢅ thatࢅ isࢅ notࢅ onlyࢅ ƨ symbolic' ,ࢅ asࢅ bc|orc, ࢅ but ࢅ
practical, ࢅ sinccࢅ Źtࢅ aƺcctsࢅ ǁ hcࢅ vʨr˴ࢅ i ntcntŹonalityࢅ o|ࢅ
tŐcࢅpai ntcrˊ ࢅ' JoࢅthoscࢅwŐoࢅƋndࢅm˴ࢅpaintingsࢅscrcnc, ࢅ
I' dࢅ l i kcࢅ toࢅ sayࢅ thatࢅ Iȑ |a::ȑ /ta11:4ȑ /|:ȑ æcs/ȑ a/sc/a/:ȑ
:/c/:»::ȑ /»ȑ :::Ćȑ sǎaat:ȑ ::»/tæ:/t:ȑ ljȑ||:/tȑ saǚa::' , ȑ řarkࢅ
RothƎoࢅ con|csscsࢅ bc|orcࢅ provingࢅ thcࢅ poi nt ࢅ byࢅ
turningࢅ thisࢅ rcprcsscdࢅ |uryࢅ agaĈnstࢅ himscl|ࢅ onࢅ aࢅ
ccrtainࢅ dayࢅ inࢅ Ćcbruary, ࢅ l 9 ʏĤ˅ࢅ
Jhi rtyࢅ ycarsࢅ on, ࢅ howࢅ canࢅ wcࢅ |ailࢅ toࢅ |cclࢅ thcࢅ
conccntrationࢅ o|ࢅaccumulatcdࢅ haŝcࢅ inࢅ cvcryࢅ sDZuarcࢅ
mctrcࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ ƨ uncivi
ܷࢅ
citics' ࢅ o|ࢅthiߞࢅ Ƌnࢅ dcࢅ siɴclcȡࢅ Coࢅ
oncࢅ nightࢅ andࢅ cɺcckࢅ ou̓ࢅ tǖcࢅ bascmcntsࢅ orࢅ undcr-
groundࢅ parkingࢅ lotsࢅ o|ࢅsuburbanࢅ ؟ouncilࢅ cstatcs ,ࢅ allࢅ
tǖatࢅ thcࢅ clandcstincࢅ RAɮLࢅ ƬARࢅʞILSࢅ andࢅ 8ACĜ-
Rņņřࢅbrothclsࢅarcࢅonl yࢅcvcrࢅthcࢅ/catts/ȑ/ta11t»gsȑ oڗࢅ
soࢅ toࢅ spcak͌ࢅ
AΗcrࢅ ǖavingࢅ ' onlyࢅ rcluctantl˴' ࢅ Хbandoncdࢅ thcࢅ
Ƌgurcࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ prctcxtࢅ oǧࢅ notࢅ mutilatingࢅ it, ࢅ thcࢅ
Amcricanࢅpaintcrࢅthcnࢅ choscࢅ toࢅ cndࢅthisࢅli|cࢅ Ői mscl|ࢅ
asࢅ wcllࢅ byࢅ cxcrcisingࢅ thcࢅ mostࢅ nihilisticࢅ o|ࢅǧrccdomߟࢅ
o|ࢅcxprcssionˊࢅ thatࢅ o|ࢅSLL!ǷÐLSʞRŎōJI ˒NĂ ࢅ
I |ࢅЄodࢅdicdࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ ninctccnthࢅ ccntury, ࢅ accordi ngࢅ
3H
Hȑ I////:ssȑ At/ȑ
ςoࢅ ĝictzschc, ࢅ ϋhatࢅ isࢅ thcࢅ bctࢅ ǁhatࢅ thcࢅ victimࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
twcnticthࢅ ccntȗryࢅwiĬlࢅ notࢅ turnࢅ outࢅ toࢅbcࢅ thcࢅ :t:aǶctĝ ȑ
πhcࢅ author,ࢅ thѩsࢅ hcrcsyࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ his ρoricalࢅ matcri alismࢅ
o|ࢅthcࢅ ccnࢅturyࢅ o|ࢅmachincsȠࢅ
8utࢅ bc|orcࢅ ˲cࢅ biŶࢅ thcࢅ Ardzistࢅ |arcwcll, ࢅ wcࢅ shouĬdࢅ
notࢅ |orgctࢅ |orࢅ aࢅ momcntࢅ thatࢅ tǨcࢅ wordsࢅ IIJЛࢅ andࢅ
̐ILJȎࢅarcࢅcoǮsubstantialࢅ somcthingࢅthcࢅmcmbcrsࢅ
o|ࢅ thcࢅ Řolyࢅ ֆ nޱuisi tionࢅ obvioȗslyࢅ ovcrlookcŶࢅ Ă ˃ Ō ࢅ
Ŵct' sࢅ noǁࢅ rcީcatࢅ thcirࢅ ůrimcs, ࢅ lct' sࢅ notࢅ bcůomcࢅ
oſƈa//cc/s/sȑ cƀĹt/. ǟ
1cȑ sǾ:tȑ ȃ///ȑ ctȑ /cȑ dzæ]a///Ȍ:ȑ a///łȑ Ɨhatࢅ isࢅ aࢅ
Žucstionࢅ thatࢅɱonccrnsࢅbothࢅcthicsࢅ andࢅ acsthctiůs, ࢅ asࢅ
wasࢅ clcarlyࢅ iżtƤitcdࢅ byࢅ CĴriůauĬt, ࢅ thcࢅ manࢅ whoࢅ
madcࢅ hisࢅ |aݏoƤsࢅ ' portrai tsࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ insanc' ࢅ atࢅ Ċaࢅ
ƆaĬp٠߅riʧrcࢅ HޔspitalࢅinࢅƬarisࢅovcrࢅ thcࢅwint˖rࢅo|ࢅl ˉǒǒࢅ
at ࢅ t hcࢅ invitationࢅ o|ࢅ oncࢅ Ðrࢅ ǻcorgct, ࢅ |oundcrࢅ o|ࢅ
Ē socialࢅ psychiǤtryț˼ࢅ CĴriůault' sࢅ portraltsࢅ wcrcࢅ mcantࢅ
dzoࢅ scrvcࢅ asࢅ classi Ķcatoryࢅ sctsࢅ lorࢅ thcࢅ aĬi cni st' sࢅ
studcntsࢅ andࢅassistants Ă ࢅ
Ðrivcnࢅ byࢅ aࢅ passionࢅ |orࢅ immcdiacy, ࢅ CĴricaultࢅ
soughtࢅ /cȑ s:/ȍŶȑ //:ȑ Ƹcæ:»/ȑ whcthcrࢅ o|ࢅmaŶncssࢅ orࢅ
dcathࢅ livcԚ ࢅ Ċikcࢅ thcࢅ cmcrgcntࢅ prcss,ࢅ hcࢅ wasࢅ
cspcciallyࢅ kccǮࢅ onࢅhumanࢅi ntcrcstࢅstoricsࢅsuchࢅasࢅthcࢅ
wrcؠkࢅo|ࢅthcࢅŕ:4asa.ȑ thatࢅ JI׃ţʜI ƕࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅpai ntingࢅ
worldࢅ ˃ Ă ࢅ
Ɨhcࢅ artࢅ o|ࢅpaintingࢅ at ࢅthcࢅ timcࢅwasࢅ alrcadyࢅ busyࢅ
JJ
čt/ǟaoJǟI-atǟ
tryingࢅ toࢅ outdoࢅ mcrcࢅ RLIRLƆLNJAJIņNࢅ byࢅ
o̦ڊcringࢅ //-ǟ :-ưǚǟ1t-s-e·-ǟ c¡ǟ //-ǟ -:-o/,ǟ asࢅ instantancousࢅ
photographyࢅ wouldࢅ Jo, ࢅ |ollowcdࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ IŘņJņ-
Ćĉ Nĉ SŘࢅ andࢅ thcࢅĶrstࢅcincmatographicࢅ ncwsrcclsࢅ o|ࢅ
tėcࢅ Ċƀmiɴrcࢅ brothcrsࢅ and, ࢅ ul timatcly, ࢅ thcࢅ LI\Lࢅ
Cņ׍LRAЄLࢅ oƺcrcJࢅ byࢅ CNN.ࢅ
և NJղRţōJI \IJȎࢅ wasࢅ actƀallyࢅ bornࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ
ni nctccntėࢅ ccnturyࢅ wi thࢅ thcࢅ tclcgraph, ࢅ ccrtainly, ࢅ
butࢅ alsoࢅ andࢅ cspcciallyࢅ withࢅ cĬinicalࢅ clcctrici ty, ࢅ
wŐiůhࢅ i nvolvcdࢅ pl anti ngࢅ clcctrodcsࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ laccsࢅ o|ࢅ
thcࢅėumanࢅguincaࢅpigsࢅ uscdࢅinࢅsƀchࢅ ' mcdicalࢅ artģ ࢅ asࢅ
practiscdࢅ byࢅÐrࢅÐuchcnncࢅdcࢅ̇oƀlogncࢅ Jhcࢅrcccntࢅ
Ðuchcnncࢅ cxhibi tio̴ࢅ at ࢅ thcࢅ
ձ
colcࢅ dcsࢅ 8cauxǡArts, ࢅ
Ƭaris, ࢅaimcdࢅnoࢅlcssࢅthanࢅtoࢅ' rchabilitatcģ ࢅÐuchcnncƐ sࢅ
worŊ, ࢅ thoughࢅ thi sࢅ Ŵaࢅ Salp١triɴrcࢅ Řospitalࢅ photo-
graphcrࢅwasࢅ noࢅ m؁rcࢅ thanࢅ anࢅ ǐ cxpr̢ssionis tࢅ olࢅthcࢅ
passi ons' ࢅlorࢅwhomࢅhi sࢅpati cntsƐ ࢅ l؂ccsࢅwcrcࢅonlyࢅcvcrࢅ
l aboratoryࢅ matcrialࢅ that ࢅ cnablc
ةࢅ
himࢅ toࢅ practiscࢅ
' //:-ǟ aaa/·oj' . ǟ
AlrcaJyࢅi nࢅthcࢅcightccnǁhࢅccnturyࢅ̮ ustࢅpriorࢅt oࢅthдࢅ
Ćrcncėࢅ Rcvolution, ࢅ thisࢅ con|usionࢅ o|ࢅ·c/J-//ccJ-Jo-ssǟ
withࢅ aǟ ocJ-ǟ c¡ǟ {-t·-1//coǟ thatࢅ allowcdࢅ thcࢅ doctorࢅ orࢅ
sƀrgconࢅ ǁoࢅ diagnoscࢅ illncssࢅ ducࢅ t oࢅ t hcࢅ abilityࢅ toࢅ
rcprcssࢅ cmotionࢅ pi t yࢅ hadࢅ contaminatcdࢅ thcࢅ
artistiůࢅ rcprcscntationsࢅ o|ࢅ' naturalisticƐࢅ paintcrsࢅ andࢅ
cngraŔcrs. ࢅ֍acoucsࢅ Agoty, ࢅ |orࢅ instancc, ࢅ asࢅ aࢅ pai ntcrࢅ
andࢅ anatomi stࢅonࢅ thcࢅtrai lࢅ oƉࢅ' thcࢅ invisiblcࢅ truthࢅ o|ࢅ
+U
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
ĐoJics ' . ࢅ wa˱crcJࢅ bctwccnࢅ anࢅ cngravcr' sࢅ Đƚrinࢅ anJࢅ
anࢅ autopsyࢅ scalpclࢅlnࢅ hlsࢅ workԕ ࢅ
8υt ࢅthcࢅ trul˳ࢅdccisivcࢅs tcpࢅhadࢅt oࢅwaltࢅńntllࢅ mńchࢅ
morcࢅ rcccntly. ࢅ tlllࢅ l Ϸ9Ħ, ࢅ with ϕࢅT/-ǟ Act/Jǟ cǟđ·J/-s'ǟ
cxhl bl tl onࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ thcࢅ Ĕannhci mࢅ Mus cumࢅ o|ࢅ
ƖcchnologyࢅanJࢅͼorkࢅ Ď ĊandcǚmuǚcumࢅIür ƶc̠hn܅ ܧࢅ
υnJࢅ ļrbcl tʊ .ࢅ Ɯhcrcࢅ cl oscࢅ toࢅ oÜÜ,ÜÜd visltorǚࢅ rushcJࢅ
toࢅ contcmpl atcࢅ ?Ü0 humanࢅ corpscsࢅ prcscntcdࢅ Đyࢅ
ɫҲnthcrࢅ vonࢅ ʔagcns ࢅ
ƶhcࢅ ƅcrmaęࢅ anatomls t ࢅ actǴallyࢅ hasࢅ lnvcntcJࢅ aࢅ
procɗssࢅ lorࢅ prcscrvlngࢅ thcࢅ dcadࢅ and.ࢅ lnࢅ particular.ࢅ
lorࢅ s·Ǖ/1//o¿ǟ thcm.ࢅ byࢅ pl astinatlon. ࢅ thcrcbyࢅ takingࢅ
thlngsࢅ aࢅ lotࢅ lŧrthcrࢅ thanࢅ thcࢅ mcrcࢅ cmbalmlngࢅ o|ࢅ
mummlcs Ԕࢅ İtaݧJingࢅtallࢅllkcࢅstatucsࢅ olࢅantlońityӰ ࢅthcࢅ
ʪa˳cdࢅ cadaƥc޾sࢅ clthcrࢅ branJlshcdࢅ thclrࢅ ski nsࢅ likcࢅ
trophlcsࢅ olࢅsoNJcࢅ klnJࢅ orࢅ showcdࢅ oщࢅthclrࢅl nęarJsࢅinࢅ
imltationࢅ olࢅ Ɔalvadorࢅ ɍali' sࢅ į-ocsǟ J-ǟ A//cǟ a///ǟ
Jtaa-ts

ţǚࢅ solcࢅ cȄplaݨatlon. ࢅ ɍrࢅ vonࢅ Hagиnsࢅ rcsortcJࢅ toࢅ
˭hcࢅ modcrnࢅ bࠜŕŕwordŢࢅ ' I/`sǟ a/cc/ǟ |t-ak/o¿ǟ //-ǟ /as/ǟ
Ʊ-Ɛa/o/o¿ǟ /a/ccs' . ǟhcࢅsaysࢅ . . . ࢅdžࢅ kindࢅo|ࢅsllJcࢅoccursࢅ asࢅ
aࢅĢcsultࢅolࢅtۢƍsࢅ֛annhcimࢅtcrrorl stࢅmanilcstoǠ ࢅȵ uǚ t ࢅasࢅ
itࢅ Jocsࢅwithࢅ thcࢅ cxhlbi ti onࢅ' S-osa//co'ǟ lnࢅ LonJonࢅanJࢅ
֣cwࢅĖorkƞࢅ itࢅҺlllࢅnotࢅbcࢅlongࢅ Đc|orcࢅwcࢅarcࢅlorccJࢅtoࢅ
acƏnowlcdgcࢅ thatࢅ thcࢅ Ccrmanࢅ LҾprcssionlstsࢅ whoࢅ
ɔalˡcJࢅ lorࢅ mńrJcrࢅ wcrйࢅ notࢅ thcࢅ onlyࢅ avantšgarJcࢅ
artistsč ࢅ 8yࢅ thcࢅ samcࢅ tokcnࢅ soࢅ ʻcrcࢅ pcoplcࢅ llΥcࢅ Ilǚcࢅ
+ Ì
Ďt/ǟ aaJǟI-aƲǟ
ʗocǨ. ࢅthcࢅblonJcࢅromanticࢅwho. ࢅi nࢅ l 9͠Ϸ,ࢅ settleJࢅlnࢅaࢅ
ulooɽyࢅ ˱allcyࢅ ncarࢅ ŭclʱarࢅ whcrcࢅ ɫocthcࢅ onccࢅ
llkcdࢅ tވࢅ walkࢅ andࢅ whcrc. ࢅ moreࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ ާoʮ nt . ࢅ hcࢅ
drcamcdࢅ ńpࢅ hi sࢅ ĔLIHI İJÒIHLLLƆࢅ //a/ ǟ s{/t//ǟ
//a/ǟň-o/-sǟ a//.ǟ Jhcࢅ pl aceࢅ w׳sࢅ գƚchenwaldčࢅ
JǨcࢅ womanࢅ thcyࢅ wouldࢅ c̙llࢅ ' thcࢅ 8ltЩۣࢅ Ðogࢅ o|ࢅ
̇uchenwald'ࢅ actńallyࢅ enź oyedࢅ acsthctʮcࢅ aspirationsࢅ
prettʼࢅ similarࢅ toࢅ thoseࢅ o|ࢅtƻeࢅ uoodࢅ Ðrࢅ vonࢅ Hagcns. ࢅ
|orࢅ sheࢅ haJࢅ certai nࢅ Jctal uȯcsࢅ sportlngࢅ t at toosࢅ
sǪʮnncdࢅ soࢅ thatࢅ shcࢅ couldࢅ tƙrnࢅ thcʮrࢅ sƏinsࢅ intoࢅ
variousࢅ obΣectsࢅ o|ࢅartࢅ brut ,ǟ asࢅ ࡊellࢅ asࢅ lampshaJes .
' T/-ǟ {a/o/-tǟ /t/o¿sǟ //sǟ /cʼnǛǟ a///ǟ //oǟ ş/ts/ǟ aaJǟ
(cƳ-ocs/' ,ǟ wrot˘ࢅ Iaǝlࢅ \alĴry. օnࢅ tǨcࢅ cońrscࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ
l 9ƓĤĄ ࢅ anJࢅ l 9 ԻĤĄ , ࢅ thcࢅ pai ݩtcrsࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ A/-o-tǟ
ďk//co/socs

orࢅ ׌܆cnnesْࢅ džcti onism. ࢅ ɀȹulJࢅ |ollowࢅ
thlsࢅ Jictŧmࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ ܲctˬǦr. usingࢅ ߸hcirࢅ ownࢅ Đodl csࢅ asࢅ
thcࢅ ' supportࢅsurlace'ࢅ o|ࢅtheirࢅ ar֕ࢅ
Hermannࢅ Ni tsch' s ࢅ Òrgiesࢅ ֜ys tcricsࢅ Jhcatrcࢅ
Ŗ masscs' ,ࢅ ŷnࢅ whichࢅ heࢅ s״criƊceJࢅ animalsࢅ i nࢅ aࢅ blooJࡡࢅ
andࢅ bawJࡠࢅ ritual

wcrcࢅ ƈollowȯdࢅ byࢅ whatࢅ ҈oࢅ doubtࢅ
takcsࢅ tǨcࢅcakcࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ ɽostࢅ extremeࢅ casǦࢅ olࢅdžŎƖÒ-
Ðdžš!L Đyࢅ anyࢅ artlstč ࢅ Jheࢅ storyࢅ ۆocsࢅ thatࢅ Rudol|ࢅ
İchwar͋Əoglerࢅactuallyࢅdlcdࢅaltȯrࢅaࢅbońtࢅo|ࢅcastrationࢅ
heࢅ i n˚śictcJࢅ onࢅhimscl|ࢅJuringࢅoncࢅ oڂࢅhisࢅpcr|ormanccࢅ
piccesࢅ thatࢅ tookࢅ placcࢅ wlthoutࢅ c slnglcࢅ viewcrࢅ ŷnࢅ thّࢅ
/c/sǟ·/csǟbctwccnࢅ thcࢅ artistࢅ anJࢅ aࢅ viJcoࢅ camcračࢅ
Jhi sࢅ isࢅ JLRĔI NdžĊࢅ dž̑Jࢅ t hat ࢅ noࢅ l ongerࢅ
12
Hȑ Iƛ///:sǮȑ Ht/ȑ
rcoŧΞ rcsࢅanӁthingࢅmމrcࢅthanࢅthcࢅshowdoǞnࢅbctһccnࢅ
aࢅ torturcdࢅ boijyࢅ andࢅ anࢅ automaticࢅ camcraࢅ toࢅ bcࢅ
accoˣplishcdŌ ࢅ
ƫtࢅ thcࢅ clo̽cࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ tǞcnticthࢅ ccntury. ࢅ Ǟithࢅ
Ɔtclarc.ࢅ thcࢅ ƫustralianࢅ adcpt ࢅ atࢅ Ē bodyࢅ art' ϟ ࢅ thcࢅ
șisŧalࢅ artsࢅ Ɔchopcnhaucrࢅwrotcࢅ Ǟcrcࢅ ' /|:ȑsas]:os/coȑLJƁȑ
/|:ȑ njŬ/»ȑ Āȑ//Ȁ/rv`ȑ Ǟoŧl dࢅ turnࢅ intoࢅ aࢅ hcadlonķࢅ rŧshࢅ
towardsࢅ painࢅ andࢅ dcathࢅ |orࢅ indivi duСl sࢅ Ǟhoࢅ havcࢅ
Ǿradċallyࢅ dcșclopcdࢅ thcࢅ unconsidcrcdࢅ haǽi t ࢅ o|ࢅ
ѳ̥așingࢅ thcirࢅ ǽodicsࢅ notࢅ ǚoࢅ mucۤࢅ ' toࢅ sciɗnccɃࢅ asࢅ toࢅ
ǚoNJкࢅsortࢅoǧࢅclinicalࢅvoycŧrismࢅ harkingࢅbackࢅtoࢅ thcࢅ
hc˳dayࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ ccrt ai nࢅ Ðrࢅ ȉosc|ࢅ Ĕcngcl cࢅ Ǟhoࢅ
pcrlormcdࢅ cҿpcr i mcntsࢅ Ǟжࢅ al l ࢅ knowࢅ aǽoŧ t . ࢅ
ţͺƆCŘıIJמ-8I RĜL֤ďŎࢅ |orࢅ aࢅ timcࢅ bccominķࢅ
Ƿ|:ȑ|Ɯgv:s/ȑv:o://:ȑ /a/cta/cĆȑ /»ȑ/|:ȑact/J.
i ij ȑ
ƨ Immcdiac˳ࢅi s ࢅaࢅ|raudɃ . ࢅĆathcrࢅÐi̤trichࢅ̇onhފȲcrࢅ
dcɔlarcdࢅ ǽc|Ⱥrcࢅ di sappcaringࢅ inࢅ thcࢅ caNJpࢅ atࢅ
Ćlosҥcnburgࢅ inࢅ l 9ȟǓࢅ ŭcll.ࢅ artࢅ isࢅ cvcryࢅ ǽitࢅ asࢅ
mŧchࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ |raŧdࢅ asࢅ amncsiacࢅ immcdiacyƪࢅ
Ilࢅ ' :::ą/|/oƉȑ tsȑ ta/:4ȑ |Ēȑ /tv|/»/ov' . ȑ asࢅ ēcra̟li tŧsࢅ
ǚuķќcκ t cd
˺ࢅ
tƌcࢅ IēÒJÒǡ !I NI İēࢅ i mposcsࢅ t hcࢅ
Śnstantancityࢅ o|ࢅ i tsࢅ violcnůcࢅ onࢅ al l ࢅ thcࢅ șarioŧsࢅ
ƨ artiǚ ticࢅ rcprcǚcntations' ࢅ andࢅ modcrnࢅ art. ࢅ likcࢅ warࢅ
8ĊIJɯĜRĉLշࢅ i sࢅ noࢅ morcࢅ thanࢅ Ó kindࢅ o|ࢅ
cҿƌiƮitionismࢅ thatࢅ imposcǚࢅ i tsࢅ oǞnࢅ tcrroristࢅ voycŧr˵
isNJŢࢅ thatࢅ o|ࢅ4:a/|.ȑ //::. ȑ
1J
Aƴ/ǟ aoJǟ I-atǟ
̆yࢅ wayࢅ o|ࢅll l ustratlngࢅ thcࢅ pathࢅ thcࢅ /o{/-/ǟ cǟat/ǟ
hasࢅ taƏcnࢅl nࢅ thcࢅ Dzwcntlcthࢅ ɕcntury. ࢅ l ct' sࢅ looƏࢅ atࢅ twoࢅ
typcsࢅ o|ࢅ |uncraryࢅ lmagcrӃࢅ baɕkࢅ toࢅ baɕƏ. ࢅ thoughࢅ
thcscࢅ arcࢅ scparatcJࢅ byࢅ almostࢅ į. ǢġǢࢅ ycars ࢅ ƶhcࢅƊrstࢅ
arcࢅ thcࢅ|amousࢅ IÒRƶRļIƶİࢅÒ!ࢅƶHLࢅ !ļĖÒŎĔࢅ
l nࢅ Ŏppcrࢅ Lgypt ͧ ࢅ t hcࢅ s ccond.ࢅ t hcࢅ IHÒƶÒ-
!I NI İHLİࢅolࢅthcࢅ Juolࢅ İlcngࢅ ֝cmorlalࢅ l nࢅ Ihnomࢅ
Icnh. ࢅ whcrcࢅ thcࢅ ļngƏarࢅ thcࢅ govcrnmcntࢅ o|ࢅ
ą ɍcmocratlcࢅ ֐ampuchca' ࢅ hadࢅ thousandsࢅ o|ࢅ
l nnoɕ̥nŝsࢅ {e/ǟ /cǟ J-a//ǟ /oǟ ··/Jǟ |/··J,ǟ womcnࢅ anJࢅ
chlldrcnࢅ ơˠ rs tࢅ Ū č ࢅ carc|ullyࢅ photographlngࢅ thcmࢅ
bc|orchanJ˽ࢅ
l l
I nࢅLgyptࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ Jawnࢅ o|ࢅͼcs ŝcrnࢅ hƍstory. ࢅ pcoplcࢅ
|orccJࢅ thcmsclvcsࢅ toࢅ dragࢅ thcࢅ dcɕcascdࢅ oǴtࢅ o|ࢅ
anonyml tyࢅ anJࢅ l ntoࢅ thcࢅ publƍcࢅ cycࢅ asࢅ anࢅ l magcࢅ
lnࢅ ordcrࢅtoࢅldcntl|ךӗ ܳۥٓࢅ-ss-a//a/ǟ/-/o¿. ǟ Inࢅ CamboJƍaࢅ
atࢅ thcࢅ golngࢅ Jownࢅ olࢅ aࢅ pl tƍ l cssࢅ ccntǴry. ࢅ //-ǟ
1/c/c¿ta{//·ǟ /J-o//nǟ »(ǟ //-ǟ J-/a/o--ǟ 0üS ¡/-Jǟ /ŗ»t-ǟ //mǟ
a-t-ǟ{e/ ǟ/cǟ J-a//. ǟ
Inࢅ thcࢅ twlnƏllngࢅ o|ࢅanࢅ cycࢅ wcࢅ havc. ࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ oncࢅ
hand. ࢅ thcࢅ blrthࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ{ct/ta//ǟ lnࢅ al l ࢅltsࢅ humllĞty. ࢅ ltsࢅ
Jlscrctlonɧ
Ї Ȟࢅ
Ònࢅ thcࢅ othcr. ࢅ systcmatlcࢅ uscࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ
(t--:-ǟ Štao-ǟ asࢅ aࢅ dcathࢅ scntcnccࢅ rcvcallngࢅ ƖHLࢅ
ĊÒņʗࢅ ÒĆࢅ ɍLļƶջࢅ
Ɩwoࢅ vcrslonsࢅ o|ࢅ anࢅ ˶ art' ࢅ thatࢅ !rcnɕhࢅ arŝƍst. ࢅ
Chrƍsǁlanࢅ ̆oltansƏl . ࢅ hasࢅ trlcJࢅ toࢅ pul l ࢅ oȲࢅaccordlngࢅ
toࢅ hlsࢅ ownࢅ lĞghŝsࢅ lnࢅ orJcrࢅ toࢅ lcnJࢅ oщࢅ |orgcttlng. ࢅ
11
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
ncgationǹࢅ thisࢅ ĺ-s//-//·ǟ c¡ǟ J/sa]]-atao·-ǟ tħĨt. ࢅ alas, ࢅ
slmplyࢅ provldcsࢅ aࢅ covcrࢅ |orࢅ thoscࢅ whoࢅ s till. ࢅ cvcnࢅ
now
˺ࢅ
rcźc̠tࢅ//-ǟųƑ¡/-/ǟ cƀǟ at/. ǟ
I/ǟ /sǟ/-//-tǟ /cǟ /-ǟaoǟ c/Ɓ-·/ǟ c¡ǟ J-s/t-ǟ //aoǟ]//. ǟ thcyࢅ sayࢅ
Ԗࢅ ɧ ˄ ࢅ ֫nccࢅ thcࢅ provinccࢅ o|ࢅ advcrtising, ࢅ thisࢅ adagcࢅ
sƤrclyࢅ nowࢅ bclongsࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ rcĨlmࢅ oƈࢅart,ࢅ thcࢅdcsircࢅ toࢅ
consƤmcࢅylcldlnǾࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ Jcslrcࢅ toࢅ rapcࢅ orࢅklll .ࢅ I|ࢅthlsࢅ
rcallyࢅ Ŀsࢅ thcࢅ casc,ࢅ thcࢅ acaJcmiclsmࢅ o|ࢅ horrorࢅ wlllࢅ
havcࢅtrlumphcJ, ࢅthcࢅ]tcĜao-ǟartࢅoƈࢅmodcrnltyࢅbowlngࢅ
Joࡋnࢅ Đc|orcࢅ thcࢅ sa·t-Jǟ artࢅ o|ࢅ con|ormi sm. ࢅ l tsࢅ
prlmСcy, ࢅ Ĩࢅ con|ormlsʰࢅthatࢅĨlwaysࢅspawnsࢅorJinaryࢅ
cvcrydayࢅ |Ĩsclsɽɧ ࢅ
HowࢅcĨnࢅwcࢅlaΟ lࢅ toࢅsccࢅ thatࢅthcࢅmaskࢅo|ࢅocJ-to/soǟ
hasࢅbccnࢅconccallngࢅthcࢅmostࢅclasslcࢅa·aJ-o/·/so. ǟthĨtࢅ
o|ࢅ anࢅ cndl csslࡢࢅ rcproJuccdࢅ standardl͋ati onࢅ o|ࢅ
oplnlon.ࢅ thcࢅ dupllcationࢅ o|ࢅŖbadࢅ |cclings'ࢅ l dcnticallyࢅ
rcproducl ngࢅ thcࢅJupllcationࢅolࢅthcࢅ ƨ goodࢅ Ώcclings' ࢅ o|ࢅ
thcࢅ oڥciĨlࢅ artࢅoƹࢅyorc̅ࢅ
Howࢅ cĨnࢅ wcࢅ ultl matclyࢅ ƈallࢅ toࢅ twigࢅ thatࢅ thcࢅ
apparcntࢅ implctyࢅ o|ࢅcontcmporaryࢅ Ĩrtࢅ lsࢅ onlyࢅ cvcrࢅ
thcࢅ lnvcrtcdࢅ imagcࢅ o|ࢅǁa·t-Jǟ at/.ǟ thcࢅ rcvcrsalࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
crcatorϖ sࢅi nl tlalࢅŽucstionƞ ࢅa/jǟ /sǟ //-t-ǟs·o-///o¿ǟ /os/-aJǟ
·ĝǟ o·///o¿Ćǟ
!inally, ࢅȵustࢅll̯cࢅ thcࢅmassࢅmcdla, ࢅwhichࢅnoࢅ longcrࢅ
pcJJlcࢅ anythingࢅ othcrࢅ thanࢅ obsccnl tyࢅ andࢅ ΏcĨrࢅ toࢅ
sa߹ls|yࢅ thcࢅ ratinǾs.ࢅ contcmporaryࢅ nihilismࢅ cxposcsࢅ
|hc dramĨࢅ olࢅanࢅ acsthcticࢅ o|ࢅdlsappcaranccࢅ thatࢅ noࢅ
1o
AtNJǟ aoJǟ I-atǟ
longcrࢅ i nƦolƦcsࢅ thcࢅ domainࢅ ȹ|ࢅrcpҡcscntationࢅ cxcluǟ
siƦclࡣࢅ Ď politicalĻ ࢅ artisticĻ ࢅ anJࢅ soࢅ onĭࢅ butࢅ ourࢅ wholcࢅ
Ʀisionࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ Ҽorѵdǹࢅ ƦisĞonsࢅ o|ࢅcƦcryࢅ ǪĿnJࢅ o|ࢅcȄccκ̿ӱ ࢅ
startĞngࢅ withࢅ adƦcrtĞsĞnǾࢅ outragcsࢅ thatࢅ cnsurcࢅ thcࢅ
sucزࢁsࢅ dcࢅ scandalcࢅ withoutࢅ whichࢅ thcࢅ conditionĞ nǾࢅ
o|ࢅ appcaranccsࢅ wouldࢅ i mmcdi atclyࢅ stopࢅ bcinѝࢅ
cΑcc˭ĞƦcčࢅ
ļndࢅ spcaǪĞngࢅo|ࢅdisappcaranccࢅ andࢅdcclĞnc. ࢅ notcࢅ
thcࢅ υndcrhandࢅ wayࢅ thcࢅ ocq paintcrsࢅ haƦcࢅ bccnࢅ
bunدlcJࢅ ТwayՌ ࢅ ҼĞthoutࢅ wantĞnǾࢅ tO whcclࢅ outࢅ yctࢅ
againࢅ thcࢅ Ŗ Ðouanicr' ࢅ Rousscau. ࢅ wĘoscࢅ mastcrworǪĻ ࢅ
ıat.ǟ ĞnspĞrcJࢅ Iicasso' sࢅ ėc-to/·a.ǟ thinǪࢅ o|ࢅ paintcrsࢅ
liǪeࢅ \iƦinࢅ orࢅ8auchant Ō ࢅ
ıhyࢅ t hcࢅ ĆrcuJianࢅ lapsc̅ࢅ Jhisࢅ discrcctࢅ climinaӈ
tionࢅ o|ࢅ paintcrsࢅ whoࢅ ncƦcrࢅ laidࢅ claimࢅ toࢅ anyࢅ at/ǟ
sc:co|. whcthc޿ࢅ aߺ׵dcmicࢅ orࢅ a࠲antӿǾarJcȠࢅ Ðoࢅ wٔࢅ
rcallɟࢅ bclĞ cƦcࢅ thatࢅ thĞsࢅ trcnذࢅ o|ࢅ art ' sࢅ towardsࢅ
Ğ ngcnuityࢅ sudرcnlyࢅ stoppcdࢅ inࢅ ܇tsࢅ tracǪs Ļࢅ J-·/J-4|ǟ
/ccǟ{/|µc/ǟ liǪcࢅ thatࢅ/o¿Ŕocǟ ///ǟ-t//oǟĻࢅ Raoulࢅ Ðu|yȡࢅ
I t ࢅ w˟llࢅ notࢅ bcࢅ longࢅ bc|orcࢅ thcࢅ Jrawingsࢅ o|ࢅ
Ǫi ndcrgartcnࢅ childrcnࢅ arcࢅ banncdĻࢅ rcpѵ accdࢅ byࢅ
digĞ talࢅ calligraphicࢅ cxcrciscs Ō
Ԫ ͟ ࢅ
ʘcanwhilcĻ ࢅ lct' sࢅ gctࢅ backࢅ toࢅ ̙rt' sࢅ |raudulcntࢅ
i mmcdiacy. ࢅ toࢅ thcࢅIRLİLʚJAƖIÒʚࢅo|ࢅworǪsࢅ tĘatࢅ
sƙpposcdlyࢅcomcࢅacrossࢅasࢅobƦiousࢅ toࢅallࢅandࢅ sundryࢅ
wi thoutࢅ rcouĞringࢅ thcࢅ i ntcrccssĞ onࢅ o|ࢅ anyࢅ |ormࢅ o|ࢅ
rcڵcctĞonࢅ ͯcrc' sࢅ ĔarsĘallࢅ ĔcLuhanĻ ࢅ thatࢅ bucolicࢅ
1o
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
prosatcurࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ ' gloǽalࢅvlllagc'ࢅ . ' I a-ǟ t-c/|ǟ aco/ǟ/cǟ
Ƅoc+ǟ+/c/`sǟ¿c/o¿ǟ coǟ /oǟ //-ǟ1t-s-o/,ǟ a-ǟs/cc/JŤts/ǟas/ǟ//-ǟ
at//s/sĂǟ thcyࢅ Ənowࢅ aࢅ ˢotࢅ morcࢅ thanࢅ scicntΠstsࢅ andࢅ
tcchnocratsࢅ s/o:-ǟ//¬ǟ//:-ǟ /oǟ //-ǟ a/sc/c/-ǟ1t-s-o/. 'ǟ
ʔcrcࢅ wcࢅ Űndࢅ thcࢅ samcࢅ llncࢅ o|ࢅthދughtࢅ asࢅ Rcnٕࢅ
ƅimpcl ' s ࢅ onlࡤ. ࢅ dc|ormcdࢅ ǽyࢅ thcࢅ Canadianࢅ socloʆ
logls t ' sࢅ mcdi aǡ hauntcdࢅ i dлol ogyŌࢅ ŭhat ࢅ lsࢅ thisࢅ
՞8ƆÒLɑJLࢅ ȊLƆLNJࢅ Ď thatࢅ ' absolutc' ࢅ isࢅ surclyࢅ
tautologi cal ɡ ĭ ࢅ l|ࢅ notࢅ thcࢅ rcsurgcnccࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ classlcismࢅ
thУtࢅ alrcadyࢅ laidࢅ claimࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ -/-toa/ǟ1t-s-o/ǟ o|ࢅart. ࢅ
c࠳лnࢅ golngࢅ soࢅ |arࢅ asࢅ toࢅ |rcc͋cࢅ l tࢅ l nࢅ gcomctrlcࢅ
ߝtandardsࢅ Ď witncssࢅ thcࢅ ƅoldcnࢅ Ĕcanĭ ࢅ ǽcarlngࢅ noࢅ
rclationshi pࢅ tȺࢅ thcࢅ rclativcࢅ andࢅ cphcmcralࢅnaturcࢅo|ࢅ
analogicalࢅ pcrccptlonࢅ o|ࢅcvcnts .ࢅ Io1t-ss/co/soǟ wouldࢅ
tryࢅtoࢅ |rccࢅusࢅڃromࢅ thcscࢅ standards. ࢅ onࢅthcࢅthrcsholdࢅ
oƹࢅindństrialࢅ NJodcrnity.ࢅ
ƕontraryࢅ toࢅ appcaranccs. ࢅ ̑LļLࢅ JIMLࢅ thlsࢅ
' prcscnt' ࢅ thatࢅ imposcsࢅ itscl|ࢅ onࢅ cvcryoncࢅ lnࢅ thcࢅ
spccdingšupࢅ oڄࢅdallyࢅ rcalityࢅ ŷs .ࢅ l nࢅ |act. ࢅ onlyࢅ cvcrࢅ
thcࢅ rcpctitionࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ splcndldࢅ acadcmicࢅ lsolationࢅ o|ࢅ
bygoncࢅ days ࢅ ļࢅ massࢅ mcdlaࢅacadcmiclsʰࢅ thaǁ ࢅsccksࢅ
tĸࢅ |rccŕcࢅ allࢅ orlglnalityࢅ andࢅ allࢅ pҕcti΃sࢅ i ݪࢅ thcࢅ incrtiaࢅ
oƹࢅimmcdŷacy ࢅ
Io-t//aǟ /sǟ cǟ ÌÛU (cƫoǟ c(ǟ 4-s1c/t' .ǟ Ɔal nt-LxupĴryࢅ
cˢaimcd.ࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ cndࢅ o|ࢅhisࢅli|cŌ ࢅ ´ Jhisࢅ gocsࢅsomcࢅ һayࢅ
tĸࢅ cxplalninǾࢅ thcࢅ rcl cntlcssࢅ dcslrcࢅ notࢅ toࢅ savcࢅ
phcnomcna. ࢅ asࢅ inࢅ tđcࢅ past.ࢅ butࢅ toࢅ shcdࢅ thcm.ࢅ toࢅ
17
At/ǟ aoJǟ I-atǟ
s p݆t ࢅ t hcmࢅ awayࢅ bchi nJࢅ t hcࢅ art Ś ڪccࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ
mĨnŚ puś atŚ onࢅ o|ࢅ sŚgnsࢅ ĨnJࢅ sŚgnĨlsࢅ byࢅ aࢅ J/¿//a/ǟ
tcchnośogyࢅ thatࢅ hasࢅ nowࢅ sunkࢅ Ś tsࢅ tccthࢅ Ś ntoࢅ thcࢅ
whoś cࢅ arrayࢅ o|ࢅartŚsti cࢅ Ji sci pśincs. ࢅ |romࢅ thcࢅ takŚngࢅ
o|ࢅphotographsࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ capturi ngࢅ o|ࢅsounJs čࢅ Jhi ngsࢅ
havcࢅ rcachcJࢅ suchࢅ aࢅ pi tchࢅ thatࢅ aࢅ 1//µc/ ǟ musi cŚ anࢅ
parࢅcxccܴl cnccࢅlikcࢅ8obࢅÐyś anࢅ canࢅbcmoanࢅ thcࢅ|ac t ࢅ
thĨtࢅ
A//ǟ //-ǟæcs/:ǟ·ccǟ/-atǟ//-s-ǟJa·sǟ / sǟ žcs/ǟ -/-:/t/:/Ǎ!ǟ ĖoǴࢅ
can' t ࢅ hcarࢅ thٖࢅ singcrࢅ brcathŚngࢅ anymorcࢅ bchindࢅ
thŚsࢅ cścctronicࢅ waś l ࢅ Ėouࢅ can' t ࢅ hcĨrࢅ aࢅ hcartࢅ
bcĨtingࢅ anymorcࢅ Coࢅ toࢅ anyࢅ barࢅ ĨnJࢅ listcnࢅ toࢅ Ĩࢅ
bś ucsࢅgroupࢅanJࢅ yoċ' l ś ࢅbcࢅtouchcJ.ࢅ movcJɧࢅ Jhcnࢅ
lŚstcnࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ samcࢅ groupࢅ onࢅ aࢅ CÐࢅ ĨnJࢅ you' lśࢅ
wonJcrࢅ whcrcࢅ thࢂࢅ sounJࢅ youࢅ hcĨrJࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ barࢅ
JŚsĨppcĨrcJࢅ toɧࢅ
ɐhcࢅJcmŷscࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ rcśatŚvcࢅ anJࢅ an׶śogŚcalࢅ chĨractcrࢅ
o|ࢅʃhotoѝraphicࢅ shotsࢅ ĨnJࢅ soundࢅ samplcsࢅ I n |avourࢅ
o|ࢅthcࢅ absoś utc, ࢅ JŚ gi taśࢅ charactcrࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ computcr, ࢅ
|ośśowŚngࢅ thcࢅ synthcsŚŕcr, ࢅ isࢅ thusࢅaśsoࢅ thcࢅ lossࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
pocˬicsࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ cphcmcraśŪ ࢅ !orࢅ oncࢅ bric|ࢅ momcntࢅ
Iæ1t-ss/co/sæǟ i nࢅpaintŚngࢅanJࢅi nࢅʰusi cࢅ wasࢅĨbścࢅtoࢅ
rctri cvcࢅ thcࢅ їavourࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ cphcmcraśࢅ bclorcࢅ thcࢅ
o/////sæǟ o|ࢅ contcmporaryࢅ tcchnośogyࢅ wŚpcJࢅ Ś t ࢅ ońtࢅ
onccࢅĨnJࢅ|orࢅ ĨlśŪ ࢅ
18
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
' ŭeࢅ llvcࢅ inࢅ aࢅ worldࢅ traverscdࢅ byࢅ aࢅ llmitlessࢅ
destrǝctiveࢅ lorɔe' . ࢅ rccƏonedࢅ ȉonathanࢅ Mann. ࢅ thcࢅ
manࢅ lnࢅ cƻargcࢅolࢅtƻeࢅ Ʒorldࢅ ʔcal tƻࢅ ÒrganĞ ŕatlon' sࢅ
ګgƻtࢅagal nstࢅɩЉÐĕ, ࢅ bclorcࢅ heࢅ disappeared.ࢅ aࢅ vlcti݇ࢅ
olࢅtheࢅcrashࢅolࢅƆwissairࢅ մligƻtࢅ Í I I .
̌mposslbleࢅ indccdࢅ toࢅ Ğ magi ncࢅ theࢅ arǁࢅ olࢅ theࢅ
twentƽethࢅ centࠝryࢅ without ࢅ welghingࢅ tƻeࢅ thrcatࢅ olࢅ
whƽcƻࢅitࢅisࢅaࢅ prl݈eࢅ cxampl e. ࢅɩࢅoul ctࢅyctࢅvƽsĞblc.ࢅ evenࢅ
blinding.ࢅ thrcatč
ܵ ҩ ࢅ
Inࢅ thcࢅ waƏeࢅ olࢅtheࢅ :·«o/-tǟ:«//«t-.ǟ
aren' t ࢅ weࢅ nowࢅ atࢅ theࢅ dawnƽ ngࢅ olࢅaࢅ cƚl tƚrcࢅ andࢅ anࢅ
artࢅ thatࢅ arcࢅ :c«e/-t-oa/ǒt-ąǟ
׀hat.ࢅ inࢅ anyࢅcasc. ࢅwasࢅ ͂ƻcࢅońes tionࢅthatࢅ secmedࢅ toࢅ
beࢅ beingࢅ posedࢅ byࢅ aࢅ con|erenceࢅ ƻٗldࢅ atࢅ theࢅ ̌ nstltńtࢅ
ʕeƽnrlchࢅ HcineࢅĞ nࢅ Iarisࢅ i nࢅ theࢅ winǁerࢅ olࢅ ˇ 999č ࢅ Jheࢅ
titleࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ cތnlcrcnceࢅ was ǹ ࢅ ˶ Jheࢅ Llimlnationࢅ olࢅ
ɬatƚreࢅ asࢅ aࢅ ƶhcm̥ࢅÍ n Contcmporaryࢅ ļrt' čࢅ
ƫsࢅ larࢅ asࢅ coǮtemporaryࢅ scienccࢅ andࢅ blologyࢅ go.ࢅ
Joƚbtࢅ isࢅ noࢅ longcrࢅ anࢅ optĞon. ࢅ lorࢅ genctĞcsࢅ lsࢅ onࢅ tƻeࢅ
waʼࢅ toࢅ bccomĞngࢅ anࢅ art.ࢅ aࢅ /taos¿-o/:ǟ at/.ǟ Ü cńl tureࢅ olࢅ
theࢅ embryoࢅ toࢅ γńrelyࢅ pcrlormativeࢅ ends.ࢅźustࢅasࢅ tƻeࢅ
eǝgenƽcistsࢅolࢅtheࢅbcginni ngࢅolࢅthcࢅtwentƽeǁhࢅccntǝrʼࢅ
hopedŌࢅ ŭhcnࢅ Ўƽet͋scheࢅ decldedࢅ thatࢅ ą moralࢅź udgcƧ
ments.ࢅ likcࢅ allࢅ rcligioǎҨࢅ ź udgemcnts. ࢅ belongࢅ toࢅ
ƽgnorance' . ࢅ heࢅ ڶńngࢅ theࢅ doorࢅ toࢅ tƻcࢅ laboratoriesࢅ olࢅ
tcrrorࢅ widcࢅ openč ࢅ
ƶoࢅ ḍȸons t̺ateࢅ orࢅ toࢅ ϕ monsŦratc' . ࢅ thatࢅ lsࢅ theࢅ
ŽƚestlonŢ ࢅ whctherࢅ toࢅ practiscࢅsomeࢅ Əlndࢅ olࢅacs tƻctlcࢅ
19
At/ǟ coJǟI-ctǟ
orࢅcthicࢅǥcmonstrationࢅorࢅtoࢅpractlscࢅthcࢅ clcanslngࢅo|ࢅ
allࢅ ƨ ʴaturc˷ . ࢅ allࢅ Ŗ cul tࠞrc˷ . ࢅ througđࢅ thcࢅ tcchnŷcalȶyࢅ
o߀lcntcǥࢅ cơڅ܈cicncyࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ mcrcࢅ ą monstration˷ .ࢅ aࢅ show.ࢅ
aࢅ blatantࢅ prcscʴtationࢅ o|ࢅhorror ࢅ
ƶhcࢅ cxprcssionlsʰࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ MÒɬİƶL̑. ࢅ bornࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
l abourࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ scicnccࢅ dcl l bйraǁclyࢅ Jcʃrlvcǥࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ
conscicnccࢅ Ū Ū ࢅļsࢅ thougđ. ࢅ thanƾsࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ progrcssࢅ o|ࢅ
gcnctl cs. ࢅ tcratologyࢅ đadࢅ suJJcnlyࢅ bccom٘ࢅ tđcࢅ
İɑMMͷMࢅ olࢅ 8I ÒĊÒCĖࢅ anǥࢅ tđcࢅ oJdballࢅ tđcࢅ
nΈwࢅ lormࢅ o|ࢅgcʴŷusࢅ oʴly. ࢅ notࢅ ̚ࢅ litcrarʼࢅ orࢅ Тrtŷs ticࢅ
gcniƙsࢅ anymorc.ࢅ butࢅ aࢅ ƅLɬLƶȦ CࢅƅLNI ̕İ ࢅ
ƶǨcࢅworlJࢅl s ࢅsicƾ. ࢅ aࢅ lotࢅsicƾcrࢅthanࢅ pcoplcࢅ rcaliκcŪ ࢅ
ׁǨaǁ˷ sࢅ whatࢅwcࢅ mustࢅŰrstࢅ acƾnowlcdgcࢅscǟ //cLJǟ aŏǟ
·caǟ /c/:ȑ 1/nǟ coǟ t/.ȑ זcࢅ sđoulǥnϖ t ࢅ conǥcmnࢅ thlsࢅ
worlJࢅ soࢅ mucđࢅ ׷sࢅ |cclࢅsorryࢅ |orࢅ itŌ ࢅ T/-ǟ act/Jǟǃ::űȑ
]tǽ ȑ Ònlyࢅ pltyࢅ ܶ
ࡱ׸
sࢅ aࢅ cđanccࢅ o|ࢅcobblingࢅitsࢅ ʃrlǥcč ࢅ
İoࢅ ࡌrotcࢅ Ccorgcࢅ 8crnanosࢅ l nࢅ l 9ɋ9ࢅ .ȑ İixtyࢅ ycarsࢅ
on. ࢅ thcࢅworlJࢅ lsࢅ sicƾcrࢅs till .ࢅ but ࢅsclcntistࢅpropagandaࢅ
isࢅ i nŰnltclyࢅ morcࢅ cƺcctlvcࢅ anǥࢅ anacsthcsiaࢅ đasࢅ tđcࢅ
tcrrl toryࢅ covcrcJŪࢅ džsࢅ |orࢅ priǥc.ࢅ pri Jcࢅ hasࢅ gottcnࢅ
complctclyࢅout ࢅo|ࢅhanJ. ࢅ thanƾsࢅ toࢅglobaliŕatl onɌ ࢅanJࢅ
1/nǟ hasࢅ nowࢅ bŷttcnࢅ thcࢅ dǝstࢅ Σustࢅ asࢅ 1/-nǟ onccࢅ
s uccƙmǽcdࢅ i nࢅ tđcࢅ ccnt ƙryࢅ o|ࢅ pđl l oǑ|ollyࢅ a laࢅ
Nŷctӄscđc ࢅ
JǨcyࢅsayࢅthcࢅpurposcࢅo|ࢅctđicsࢅisࢅtoࢅslowࢅJoǞnࢅtđcࢅ
ratcࢅ atࢅ whlchࢅ thlngsࢅ happcn. ࢅ Conlrontcǥࢅ byࢅ tđcࢅ
0U
Aȑ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
gcęcralࢅ spccJięgǑċpࢅ oǧࢅ phcnȺmcnaࢅ ięࢅ oċrࢅ hypcr-
mǯǥcrnࢅ world.ࢅ thlsࢅ curblngࢅ ؓyࢅ conscĿ cęccࢅ sccmǍࢅ
prcttyࢅ |ccblcԗࢅ
ŭcࢅ arcࢅ |amillarࢅ ʻithࢅ -x/t-o-ǟ s1ct/s.ǟ lęࢅ whichࢅ thcࢅ
champlonࢅ rlsѰsࢅ Jcathࢅ strivingࢅ ơލrࢅ sǯmcࢅ polntlcssࢅ
pcrǧǯrmaęccࢅ Ʊ goingࢅlorࢅi t' ˽ࢅ ˑǯwࢅʻcࢅƊęJࢅthcࢅmanࢅoǧࢅ
scĿ cncc. ࢅ aJcptࢅ lnࢅ -A/t-Ü-ǟ sł/-e:-s. ǟ rċnęi ęgࢅ thcࢅ
sńprcmcࢅrisѰࢅo|ࢅJcnaturingࢅthcࢅllvi ęgࢅĐclęgࢅ ha࠴lngࢅ
alrcaJyࢅshattcrcJࢅ hisࢅ ll˱lęgࢅ cę˱ironmcęt . ࢅ
ƶhaęƏsࢅ t oࢅ t hcࢅ dccryptioęࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ mapࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ
hńm׹nࢅgcęomc. ࢅgcęcticistsࢅ arcࢅnȺwࢅusięgࢅclonlngࢅinࢅ
thcࢅ Žńcstࢅ |orࢅ thcࢅ ļ//m:ta.ǟ thcࢅ hybridlŕatl onࢅ o|ࢅmanࢅ
aęJࢅ aęl mal. ࢅ ռowࢅ canࢅ wcࢅ ǧailࢅ toࢅ sccࢅ thatࢅ tƻcscࢅ
ƨ scicntiƊcࢅ cxtrcŲĞsts ' . ࢅ larࢅ lromࢅ mcrclyࢅ thrcatcęlngࢅ
thcࢅ ńęl ؝l tyࢅ ގ|ࢅ thcࢅ humanࢅ raccࢅ byࢅ traڦcΥingࢅ
cmbryȺs.ࢅ arcࢅ alsoࢅ taƏlngࢅ thcirࢅ axcࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ wholcࢅ
phĿlǯsǯphicalࢅ anJࢅ pĩysiologicalࢅ panoplyࢅ thatࢅ prcƧ
viońslyࢅgaƦcࢅ theࢅ tcrmࢅ ƭCȦLNϼLࢅ i tsࢅ ˱cryࢅ mcaęi ęgȠࢅ
Inࢅ sǯࢅ Jolng. ࢅ thcyࢅ thrcatٙnࢅ sclcnccࢅ l tscl |ࢅ ʻithࢅ
JĿs̞ࢅppcar׺ncc˽ ࢅ
Ix/t-o-ǟ at/ò.ࢅ sǝchࢅ transgcnicࢅ practiccs. ࢅ ai mࢅ atࢅ
nǯҬhlngࢅl cssࢅthanࢅtoࢅcmbФrܨࢅ̇IÒLjÒCכࢅonࢅthcࢅroaǥࢅ
tǯࢅ aࢅ ƏlęJࢅ o|ࢅą cxprcssloęismƐ ࢅ ʻhcrcbyࢅ tcratolog͊ࢅ willࢅ
nǯࢅ lǯęgcrࢅ bcࢅ contcntࢅ źustࢅ toࢅ stńJyࢅ mallormationsɆ ࢅ
Đńtࢅ Һillࢅ rcsol utclyࢅ sctࢅ oȲࢅl nࢅ DZċcstࢅ o|ࢅthclrࢅ chlmcrlcࢅ
rcprǯJǝctionč ࢅ
ƫsࢅlęࢅ anclcntࢅ myths. ࢅ sclcncɳ, ࢅ thusࢅ cęфccblcJ. ࢅ wĿllࢅ
o l
At/ȑa»4ȑI:atȑ
oncȯࢅ morcࢅ bccoʱcࢅ thcࢅ Ŗ thcatrcࢅ olࢅ phantasmati cࢅ
appȯaranccs 'ࢅ olࢅ chimcraࢅ olࢅ al l ࢅ Ǫinds . ࢅ ļnJࢅ soࢅ thcࢅ
cnķȯndcrinķࢅ olࢅ monstcrsࢅ willࢅ cnJcavoƚrࢅ toࢅ con-
tri butcࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ malcvolcntࢅ powcrࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ dcmišurķc. ࢅ
withࢅ ƍtsࢅ abƍlƍtyࢅ toࢅ ķoࢅ bcyondࢅ thcࢅ physioloķyࢅ olࢅthcࢅ
bcinķƲ ࢅ ŭhichࢅ isࢅ onlyࢅ lnࢅ kccpĿnķࢅ ʻithࢅ whatࢅ wasࢅ
alrc̙dyࢅ bcƍnķࢅproduccdࢅ byࢅ thcࢅCcrmanࢅկxprcssƍonƧ
ismࢅ dcnońnccJࢅ byࢅRcnĴࢅ Cimpclč ࢅ 8utࢅ also. ࢅ Űrs tࢅ andࢅ
lorcɚost. ࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ horrorࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ laboratorĿcsࢅ olࢅ thcࢅ
cxtcrminationࢅ c׻mps. ࢅ
Itࢅ isࢅ noࢅlonķcrࢅ cnońķhࢅnowࢅtoࢅopposcࢅncķationismࢅ
olࢅ tɘcࢅ Ɔhoahͧ ࢅ wcࢅ alsoࢅ nccdࢅ toࢅ catcķoricallyࢅ rcȵcctࢅ
ncķatƍonƍsmࢅ olࢅartࢅ byࢅrcȵcctƍnķࢅthƍsࢅ Ē artࢅbrńt ' ࢅ thatࢅ
sccrȯtlyࢅ cons titutcsࢅ :»gt»::tt»gȑ r //:ȑ //:t»g.ȑ thanΥsࢅ toࢅ
thcࢅ ķradńalࢅ dccryptionࢅ o|ࢅÐNdžͦ ࢅ thĿsࢅ ' cƚgcnƍcs 'ࢅ thatࢅ
noࢅ lonۇcrࢅspcaǪsࢅ ƍ ߻sࢅ namcࢅ yctࢅ Ŀsࢅ ķc̛rinķࢅ upࢅ allࢅ thcࢅ
samȯࢅ toࢅ rcprodȖccࢅ thcࢅ abomin
ܜ
tionࢅ olࢅ dcsolation. ࢅ
notࢅ ܞustࢅ byࢅ puttinķࢅ i nnoccntԘ ࢅ victimsࢅ toࢅ dcathࢅ
anyΨorcࢅ butࢅ byࢅ ŭtt»gt»gȑ thcࢅncwࢅ HÒM͹NCɑLɑƆࢅ
/ cȑ /ƨŷ ȑ
І n ࢅl 99ʏ , ࢅaࢅ mcmbcrࢅolࢅthcࢅĆrcnchࢅNationalࢅLthicsࢅ
Committcc. ࢅ džxclࢅ ʗahn
͑ࢅ
wrotcࢅ oтࢅcloninķŢ ࢅ ' I t ࢅ isࢅ noࢅ
lonķȯrࢅaࢅ mattcrࢅolࢅtcstsࢅ onࢅ aࢅ manࢅ butࢅolࢅactualࢅ tcstsࢅ
ǧorࢅ aࢅ man. ࢅ Jhatࢅ aࢅ lilcࢅ soࢅ crcatcdࢅ isࢅ nowࢅ ķcncticallyࢅ
proķrammcJࢅ toࢅ suȲcrࢅ abnormallyࢅ thisࢅ cons ǁitutcsࢅ
absolńtcࢅhorror. ࢅ
| 6
Howࢅ canࢅ wc ࢅ lailࢅ t oࢅ sccࢅ hcrcࢅ thcࢅ catastrophicࢅ
0Z
Hȑ I////·ss At/ȑ
ɱoǮ߶iݥǜationࢅoпࢅ֡aziࢅcxœɵrimcǗtati on, ࢅc͈pcri mcnta-
ŁĈoŒࢅ JcstincJࢅ asࢅ aࢅ priorĈ tyࢅ lorࢅ thcࢅ pilotsࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ
֔Ƚу߷waơΎcࢅ anJࢅ thcࢅ solJi crsࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ Иchrmacht, ࢅ thoscࢅ
s.¡··o·o cngagcJࢅ boJyࢅ anijࢅ soulࢅ i nࢅ aࢅ toĹalࢅ ȿarՕࢅ
ʖ ҆ࢅŘi tlcrģ sࢅtiŲc, ࢅ Iro|cssorࢅLugcnࢅ!ischcr, ࢅlounJcrࢅ
anȮࢅ Jircctorࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ Ŗ I nstitutcࢅ o|ࢅ Anthropology, ࢅ
ЅȽȒanࢅ ͭcncŦiăsࢅ anJࢅ ȣugcǗicsࢅ Ӡ ܰ ծնӢ ,ࢅ Jccǫarcijࢅ
tɹatࢅ animalࢅ cҾpcri mcntsࢅ stillࢅ JominatcJࢅ rcscarchࢅ
onĬ࡟ࢅ bccauscࢅ ȿcࢅ havcࢅ vcryࢅ l i mi tcJࢅ ɿcansࢅ olࢅ
bࢅ
ɦ

hࢅ ΁ ӕ ࢅ ԓࢅ l ' ࢅ
͞ ̀ ࢅ
ĆӖ ࢅ hࢅ oࢅ Ła݄݅gࢅ ࠚΦanࢅ cmࢅ ryomc ma͂cݦ; Įࢅ 1bL crࢅ
ࡈcǮtࢅ ĸnࢅ toࢅ sayࢅ that, ࢅ Ē ЙhcǮࢅ wcࢅ havcࢅ Joncࢅ ȿithࢅ
rƇߚƇarchࢅonࢅrabbits, ࢅ ǂhiăhࢅrcȒainsࢅ thcࢅmainࢅt˴pcࢅo|ࢅ
޼ُscarăhࢅ|orࢅtħɳࢅmoɿcnt, ࢅȿcࢅwillࢅmovcࢅonࢅtoࢅhum̛nࢅ
ƇNJbryos
˺
Į
͞
Կࢅ
Иiʷhࢅ thcࢅ aƟunijantࢅ s toăɼࢅ oтࢅ humanࢅ
cNJbryosࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ cnJࢅ o|ࢅt۠cࢅ tȿcnt˟cthࢅ ccnturyࢅ thisࢅ is, ࢅ
aưas, ࢅ aࢅ Joncࢅ Jcalࢅ Ϩ Į Į ࢅ
ͪǜtࢅ s tayࢅ tuǮcJࢅ toࢅ ȿǩatࢅ tǩcࢅ ͭcrmanࢅ gcncticistࢅ
ƜcŒtࢅ DH toࢅ sayࢅ inࢅ l 9ȟĤ.ࢅ Ʊ Rcscarchࢅ onࢅ twiǗsࢅ
cĸŒstitǜŦcsࢅ thcࢅ spcciƊăࢅ ɿcthoȮࢅ lorࢅ stuJyingࢅ humanࢅ
gƇŒƇtics ɧ Ƃ
͞
Ճࢅ
Jࡉoࢅ ycarsࢅ latcr, ࢅ ţJol|ࢅ Ři tlcrࢅ maJcࢅ
̋ȽgƇŒࢅ Ć܄ scħcrࢅ anࢅ honoraryࢅ ʲcmbcrࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ Ŗ Scicn-
ŁiŰcࢅScnatc' ࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅוchrmaăhtɌ ࢅ hcࢅȿasࢅsȕccccijcJࢅ asࢅ
ɹƇaȮࢅo|ࢅthcࢅܱLǻࢅbyࢅ ֯ro|cssorࢅÒtmarࢅvonࢅ \crschucr, ࢅ
aࢅ spƇcialistࢅ i nࢅ twinsࢅ Į Į . ࢅ
ʑromࢅ thatࢅ momcnt, ࢅ AȍSCŘЙIJɓǑ8ʖRȧLƵAȍࢅ
occamc O ˩cscarchࢅ l abora˫oryࢅ unJoubDzcJlyࢅ ǜniDZucࢅ
ĈǮࢅ Ŧhɳࢅ ȿorl J, ࢅ thcࢅ la΁oraŁoryࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ Ʊ I nsti tƚtcࢅ olࢅ

At/ǟ aoJǟ I-atǟ
՜nthropologĠ,ࢅ HuŲanࢅͭeneĀicsࢅanJࢅ ȣugenics'
ɦࢅ
Jheࢅ
naΦeࢅ o|ࢅ Irolessorࢅ \erschuer' sࢅ assi sDzantࢅ wasࢅ Ȋoselࢅ
Me҆gel eϩ ࢅ Ėouࢅ Ǝnowࢅ theࢅ rest
ɦ
Ȟԡࢅ
՝sࢅ reăentlĠࢅ aߛࢅ l 99Ħ, ࢅ theࢅ 8ritisőࢅ meJicalࢅ weeƎlyࢅ
T/-ǟ Iao·-/ǟ conJeŲneJࢅ theࢅ initiaĀivesࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ LurӅ
opeanࢅ ɑni onࢅ anJࢅ theࢅ ȍni teJࢅ ָtatesࢅ inࢅ Āryingࢅ toࢅ
i ntroJuceࢅ aࢅ toĀalࢅ banࢅ onࢅ Āheࢅ praătiăeࢅ o|ࢅ huŲanࢅ
cloning
ɦࢅ
džࢅ Ġearࢅ laĀer, ࢅ theࢅ edi torsࢅ wereࢅ sĀillࢅ argui ngࢅ
ĀhaŁࢅ Ē theࢅ creaĀi onࢅ olࢅ huŲanࢅ bei ngs' ࢅ haJࢅ beăomeࢅ
Ē i nevitable' , ࢅ regarJless .ࢅ ɭheࢅ eiji torsࢅ o|ࢅȼheࢅ ŴonJonࢅ
puؒlicationࢅ wroteࢅ thatȇ ࢅ
Jheࢅ mediăalࢅ coŲŲunityࢅ willࢅ ґneࢅ Jayࢅ haveࢅ Āoࢅ
aJJressࢅ Āheࢅ careࢅo|ࢅanJࢅ respectࢅ̦ޅ޽ࢅ peopleࢅcreatedࢅ
byࢅclғningࢅ teăhnioues
ɦࢅ
JhaĀࢅJisăussionࢅhaJࢅbetĀerࢅ
begi nࢅ now,ࢅ bِ|oreࢅ theࢅ newspaperࢅ heaJlinesࢅ rollࢅ
overࢅ tőeࢅ i ťJivi
ح
ualityࢅo|ࢅtȏeࢅ̦ˠrstࢅ personࢅ bornࢅ thisࢅ
ҹay
ɦ
Ȟ Ӌࢅ
Jheyࢅ wenĀࢅ onࢅ Āoࢅ stressࢅ that, ࢅ
ײ
llࢅ inࢅ all, ࢅ Ŗ tǖereࢅ isࢅ noࢅ
خi ڛerenăeࢅ beĀweenࢅ anࢅ iJenticalࢅ twinࢅ anJࢅ aࢅ cloneࢅ
ƃ JelayeJࢅ i Jentiăalࢅ twi nĭ '
ɦ
ȞȞࢅ
Itࢅ isࢅ notࢅtooࢅ hРrJࢅ toࢅ iŲagineࢅ theࢅ ă
ކ
nseouencesࢅolࢅ
thisࢅ con|usi onࢅ beĀweenࢅ IRÒCRLAJЈ Ò֢ࢅ anJࢅ
CR̋AɭI ņƵ, ࢅ o|ࢅ Āheࢅ JeŲiurgicࢅ pretensionsࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ
euge̴iăsࢅ Āhatࢅ noࢅ longerࢅ hasࢅ anĠࢅ liŲits. ࢅ Ƶowࢅ thatࢅ
o-Ņ/·a//ǟ ass/s/-Jǟ1tc·t-a//coǟ Ol thзࢅ embrĠoࢅ hasࢅ leJࢅ Āoࢅ
¿-o-//·a/|ǟ1tc¿taoo-Jǟ ·t-a//coǟ o|ࢅtheࢅ double, ࢅ theࢅ gapࢅ
a1
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
bctƜccnࢅ Hȍ֚AƵࢅ andࢅJRAƵİࢅ HǣʙAƵࢅ Ǖasࢅ bccnࢅ
ɱloscJࢅ ̮ Lstࢅ aߜࢅ Үőoscࢅ olJࢅ ĝcwࢅ Agcࢅ disăiȃlcsࢅ ǖaJࢅ
hoœcdՏࢅ anȮࢅ tۡcࢅ ăcŤcbžatcJࢅ 8ri tisőࢅ revicwࢅ T/-ǟLao·-/ǟ
ɱanࢅarrogateࢅtoࢅitsel|ࢅtőcࢅ c͈orbi Үantࢅ rigőtࢅ toࢅ rcmovcࢅ
thcࢅ tcrmࢅ IĝŘȍʙAƵࢅ |roɿࢅ ourࢅ vocabularyʈࢅ
ǼižࢅĆÏancisࢅǻal ton, ࢅ thcࢅ unrcdccmcdࢅ cugcniăist,ࢅ isࢅ
bacѱࢅ ʮnࢅ tħcࢅ lanJࢅ o|ࢅ Ǖisࢅ ăousi nࢅ Ðažwi nՋ ࢅ šƵ--Jcoǟ c¡ǟ
a-s//-//:ǟ :x1t-ss/caǟ nowࢅɼnowsࢅ noࢅ boundsĮ ࢅ Ƶotࢅonlyࢅ isࢅ
cψcrytǖingࢅ|rҔmࢅ nowࢅ onࢅ Ʊ ȃossibŤcģ Ōࢅ I t ࢅisࢅ ą i ncvi taĐlc' ʈࢅ
־hanksࢅ ߰oࢅ tǖcࢅ gcnetʮăࢅ boɾĐ. tőcࢅ scicnceࢅ olࢅ
bioưogyࢅ őasࢅ Đcăomcࢅ aࢅ maź or ࢅ artࢅ onĬ yũ ࢅ anࢅ
̋КɭRȣMȣࢅ ƫRɐDŽࢅ
ɭőisࢅ ȏelȃsࢅȒakcࢅscnscࢅo|ࢅtőcࢅ titlcࢅolࢅtőatࢅHcinrĈcőࢅ
Ѕcincࢅ I nstitࠛtcࢅ con|crcnccũ ࢅ ŖJőcࢅ ȣlimi nationࢅ olࢅ
Ќaturcࢅ asࢅ aࢅ ֿőcɾcࢅ i nࢅ ContcŲȃožažyࢅ Artģ Ōࢅ ʖtࢅ alsoࢅ
NJaѱcsࢅ scnscࢅ ĸlࢅtőcࢅ rcccntࢅ innovationࢅ notࢅ onĬyࢅ olࢅaࢅ
̈ÒȍʛJȣRࢅ ̈ȍLJǣRȣ, ࢅ oœœoscdࢅ toࢅ tőcࢅăultužcࢅo|ࢅ
thcࢅ bourgcoisic, ࢅ but ࢅ alsoࢅ o|ࢅ a҇ࢅ ažtࢅ thatࢅ isࢅ lranѯlyࢅ
̈ÒȍɬɐȣR-ɬAɐȍRL, ࢅ pcJJŤi ngࢅ asࢅ itࢅ Jocsࢅ aࢅ
cugcniăsࢅ tőatࢅ őas ࢅ ΓnalĬ yࢅ tri umȃǕcJࢅ ovcžࢅ allࢅ
pžcʯuJiccࢅ ab̽olutɗly, ࢅ inࢅ sœiʷcࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ numbcrlcssࢅ
hožžožsࢅ olࢅtǕcࢅ wa҇ingࢅ ccntury.ࢅ
Řavi ngࢅ /t·k-oǟ //-ǟ /a/ccsǟ olࢅ sLȲoLatlngࢅ Đoužgcoisࢅ
ɱulturc. wcࢅ a¡cࢅ Ïowࢅ sLœœoscdࢅ toࢅ /t-akǟ //-ǟ /-/o¿.ǟ tǖcࢅ
uni ɱi tyࢅ o|ࢅ őȽŲanki nJ, ࢅ tǖrougőࢅ tǖcࢅ i mȃcnJingࢅ
c͈œlosionࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ gcncticࢅ bombࢅ tőatࢅwilĬࢅ bcࢅ toࢅ bi˦Ĭއgyࢅ
Ɯǖatࢅ tőcࢅ atoNJiăࢅ bombࢅ wasࢅ toࢅ ȃhysi ɱsɧ ࢅ
oo
At/ǟ aoJǟI-atǟ
ijc«ǟ Jco`/ǟ oc/-ǟ ///-ta/«t-ǟ c«/ǟ · aķtoǟ aoJǟ («:ǜǟ
ŝ--//ovs.ǟ theyࢅ sayŪ ࢅ AnJࢅ theyࢅ areࢅ probablyࢅ right ā ࢅ 8ut ࢅ
howࢅćarࢅJoࢅweࢅgoࢅinࢅtheࢅoppositcࢅJirectionƔࢅAsࢅćarࢅ asࢅ
ĕАͷ!Ђࢅ ÍÍJÍI/J\HI, inࢅ wѡichࢅ theࢅ conlormismࢅ
olࢅabȵ cctionࢅinnoƛatesࢅ anࢅacaJemicismࢅolࢅhorror, ࢅ anࢅ
oڢcialࢅartࢅolࢅmacabreࢅcntertainmentȡࢅ IʴࢅthcࢅȌni ξeJࢅ
ĕtates. ࢅ toࢅ οakeࢅ oneࢅ eƝample,ࢅ ˫heࢅ torturingࢅ olࢅ theࢅ
humanࢅ boŏyࢅ byࢅ sharpࢅ instrumentsࢅ secmsࢅ toࢅ haƛeࢅ
becomeࢅ ξheࢅ prelerreJࢅ imageࢅ olࢅadƛertising.ࢅ accorJ-
ingࢅ toࢅ theࢅ İa//ǟ ò/t--/ǟjc«toc/ǟolࢅȟࢅ Ĕayࢅ ǒġġǢ.ࢅ
ēi t ࢅ oƛerࢅ theࢅ heaJࢅ byࢅ suchࢅ meJiaࢅ bluJgeoning, ࢅ
theࢅ artࢅ loƛerࢅ isࢅ surelyࢅ alreaJyࢅ theࢅ ƛictimࢅ olࢅwhatࢅ
psychiatris tsࢅcallࢅ/o1a/t-4ǟſ«J¿-o-o/. ǟЗhichࢅisࢅ theࢅĶrstࢅ
stepࢅ inࢅ anࢅ accelerateJࢅ processࢅ olࢅ Jerealization. ࢅ
cont emporaryࢅ artࢅ accepti ngࢅ tǩeࢅ escal ati onࢅ inࢅ
extremismࢅ anJࢅ thٶe|oreࢅ i nࢅ insigniƋcance, ࢅ withࢅ
signiƋcanceࢅ goingࢅ theࢅ wayࢅ olࢅ߱heࢅ ǐ ǩeroic' ࢅ natureࢅ olࢅ
olŏš|ashioncJࢅoڣcialࢅart. ࢅanJࢅobscمnityࢅno˲ࢅexcccJࡵ
ingࢅ allࢅ boundsࢅ withࢅ İʚɑ!!ࢅ ĔÒ\ILİࢅ andࢅ Jcath, ࢅ
liƛcࢅ ā ƪ . ࢅ
Ƴet' sࢅ turnࢅ nowࢅ toࢅ contemporaryࢅ thcatreࢅ anJࢅ
Jance, ࢅ inࢅ particularࢅ theࢅ workࢅ olࢅ choreographer, ࢅ
Ĕcgࢅ ĕtuartā ࢅ ĕinceࢅ theࢅ carlyࢅ l 99Ǣs, ࢅ Ǽtuartࢅ ĩasࢅ beenࢅ
takingࢅ herࢅ stageࢅ perlormanceࢅ Ĺoࢅ Ĺheࢅ limi t . ࢅ Inࢅ
ē/ǂv«t-Jǟ S/«Jǟ o|ࢅ l 99 ԧ . ࢅ theࢅ Jancer' sࢅ skinࢅ lookeJࢅ
likeࢅ itࢅҸasࢅstrainingࢅt˦ࢅcontainࢅaࢅ boJyࢅinࢅ theࢅproccssࢅ
oƉࢅdislocatingࢅ i tselćࢅi nࢅ aࢅ brutaȐࢅ ƛisionࢅ olࢅautomaticࢅ
0i
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
sclƹǑmutilationāࢅ ÐevastateJࢅ boJŸesࢅ seemeJࢅ likeࢅ soࢅ
ܿanyࢅpanickyࢅ signsࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ liveࢅspectacleࢅ inࢅ whichࢅ Ʊ theࢅ
ʤatastrophiʥࢅintensityࢅ conJensesࢅaࢅ terri|yingࢅsereȂityࢅ
atࢅ theࢅ eJgeࢅ olࢅtheࢅ abyssƂࢅ asࢅ youࢅ coulJࢅ readࢅ inࢅ theࢅ
pressࢅ aproposࢅ ַtȖart' sࢅ mostࢅ recentࢅ ͆ork,ࢅ A11-///-.ǟ
coŒceiveJࢅ withࢅȔheࢅ i nstallationࢅartistŠ ࢅƫnnࢅʓamilton. ࢅ
ĉnࢅ workࢅ likƇࢅ tŐis, ࢅ ̤verythingࢅ isࢅ Jance, ࢅ Janceࢅ
Ƽ nșolvingࢅ ' boЪiesࢅ wi t hout ࢅ hanJs, ࢅ twi steJࢅ legs ,ࢅ
Ɯaveringࢅ i Jentʭ tyࢅ cxpressingࢅ wŐoࢅ knowsࢅ wħatࢅ sel|Ƨ
ɹaĺreJ
,
ā
˾ϯࢅ
AΗerࢅ theࢅ ĕĝʠ!!ࢅ \I ÐLÒũ ࢅ weࢅ nowࢅ haveࢅ
theࢅ ĕNȌ!LJࢅ ÐANCL, ࢅ tħeࢅ Janceࢅ o|ࢅ Jeathࢅ olࢅ theࢅ
slɰȽghterhousesࢅ o|ࢅmoJernŸtyԌ ࢅ
Зhetherࢅ AJornҌࢅ Ѵ i kesࢅi t ࢅ orࢅ not, ࢅ theࢅspectacl eࢅo|ࢅ
abʯectionࢅ remaѩnsࢅ theࢅ same. ࢅ aΘerࢅ asࢅ Ʈe|oreࢅ AuschƧ
Ɯitzāࢅ 8utࢅ i tࢅ ħ׬̾ࢅ becomeࢅ politicallyࢅ incorrectࢅ toࢅ sayࢅ
soƪࢅ Allࢅ i nࢅ tħeࢅ nameࢅ o|ࢅ |reeJomࢅ olࢅ eƝpression.ࢅ aࢅ
о޷eeJomࢅ conteˣporaryࢅ withࢅ theࢅ terroris tࢅ politicsࢅ
֊osephࢅ ƅoebbǦlsࢅ JescribeJࢅ asࢅ ' theࢅ ȫrtࢅ o|ࢅ makinۃࢅ
possibleࢅ whatࢅ sƇemeJࢅ ĈmpossiƮlن
,
.
Ȟ
ϰࢅ
ͪutࢅ letŨ sࢅ JŸsγelࢅ anyࢅ JouƮtsࢅ weࢅ miǾht ࢅ stillࢅ hașeƪ ࢅ
Ðcspiteࢅ theࢅcȽrrenĀࢅ negationismŠ ࢅ |reedomࢅolࢅexpresƧ
s܁ ݾnࢅhasࢅ atࢅ leasπࢅoncࢅlimi t Ţ ࢅ//-ǟ·a//ǟ/cǟocƬJ-tǟaoJǟ/ct/cƭ-. ǟ
Ͷememberࢅ theࢅo-ņ/aǟ c(/a/-ǟinࢅ theࢅ exǑĖugoslaviaࢅo|ࢅ
ǼloƮoJanࢅ MiѴݿsoͅicƔࢅ Rememberࢅ theࢅ ' JhousanJࢅ
ʔillsࢅ RaJioϒࢅ olࢅ theࢅ ƅreatࢅ Ƴakesࢅ regionࢅ ȹ|ࢅ A|ricaࢅ
calli ngࢅ RwandaŒsࢅ toࢅ inter-ethnicࢅ genocidΈƔࢅ ϼonƧ
lronteJࢅ byࢅ sucʫࢅ ' eƝpressionis t͍ ࢅ events,ࢅ s Ⱦrelyࢅweࢅcanࢅ
J1
At/ǟ aoJǟ I-atǟ
secࢅ whatࢅ comesࢅ next, ࢅ loomiťgࢅ oƛerࢅ ȗsࢅ asࢅ itࢅ is ǹࢅ aoǟ
c(¡:/a/Ɗyǟ /-ttct/s/ǟ ct/ǟ preachingࢅ suiciJcࢅ anJࢅ selćʇ
mutilationࢅ thcrebyࢅextenJingࢅ thcࢅ current ࢅinćatua-
tionࢅ ϊithࢅ scarringࢅ anJࢅ picrcingč ࢅ Òrࢅ eȐ seࢅ ranJomࢅ
slaughtcr, ࢅ theࢅ comingࢅ oćࢅ aࢅ JˎďNƫJÒƬēI Lĉďࢅ
that ࢅ ҸoulJࢅ reƛiƛeࢅ t heࢅnowࢅloÏgottenࢅ lascistࢅ sloganŢࢅ
ĭIĮAǟ IAǟ AĬIB 7A!ǟ
ďtࢅ tħisࢅ poiťtࢅ weࢅ mightࢅ noteࢅ theࢅ proȵectࢅ oćࢅ theࢅ
mul ti nationaȐ ࢅ Ĕonsantoࢅ JesigťeJࢅ toࢅ geneticallyࢅ
programmeࢅ cropࢅ steriȐizationࢅ anJࢅ desigťatedࢅ byࢅ
tħcࢅ tcllingࢅ name, ࢅ Ʊ JLRĔINAJÒR' čࢅ ďreࢅ wcࢅ stilȐࢅ
talkingࢅbi otecħťologyࢅ hereƔࢅďreť' t ࢅweࢅreallyࢅtalkingࢅ
aboutࢅ aࢅ lormࢅ olࢅo-:tc-/-:/oc/cŧǟ aimeJࢅ atࢅ ensuringࢅ
oncࢅ нˠ rm' sࢅ monopolyƔࢅ
Jhanatophilia, ࢅ ӫ necro-technologyࢅ aťJࢅ oťeࢅ Jayࢅ
sooťʿ ࢅ teratologyࢅ ɥࢅ Պ čࢅ Isࢅ thisࢅ geݡeticࢅ tranceࢅ stillࢅ aࢅ
scieťceŠ ࢅ someࢅ newࢅ aȐ chemy. ࢅ orࢅ iߗࢅ itࢅ aoǟ -x/t-o-ǟ atLj³ǟ
LJorࢅ conĶÏmationࢅ weࢅ ťeeJࢅ loްkࢅ ťoࢅ luÏtherࢅ thanࢅ
thcࢅˎarƛarJࢅ ĔeJicalࢅǼchoolࢅwƯereࢅĔalcolmࢅ Loganࢅ
aťJࢅ Cliрپordࢅ Jabiťࢅ reccntlyࢅ crcateJࢅ aࢅ ˣutationࢅ thatࢅ
saysࢅ aࢅ lotࢅ aboutࢅ theࢅ ćunJamentallyࢅ exprcssionis tࢅ
ťatureࢅ o|ࢅgcneticࢅ enginecringč ࢅ
ďΙerࢅ locatingࢅ aࢅ gcncࢅ thatࢅ secmeJࢅ toࢅ playࢅ aࢅ
Jecisiveࢅ roleࢅ inࢅ theࢅ lormatioťࢅ olࢅ aࢅ chicīcn' sࢅ
ħiťJlimbs. ࢅƳogaťࢅaťJࢅJabinࢅtookࢅtheࢅraJicalࢅs tepࢅ
olࢅi ntroJucingࢅtƯeࢅgcneࢅi ntoࢅ theࢅgenomeࢅol aࢅƛirusࢅ
oH
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
whichࢅ theyࢅ thenࢅ inʯectedࢅ i ntoࢅ thɗࢅ developingࢅ
wingsࢅ olࢅaࢅ ʤhickenࢅ embryoࢅ toࢅ testࢅ theࢅlunctionࢅ olࢅ
hࢅ
˾Եࢅ
tࢅ eࢅ gene. ࢅ
Ǽomeࢅweeksࢅlater, ࢅthisࢅJLRAJÒŴÒƅĉ CAŴࢅ bʵeak-
througŐࢅ maŵeࢅ Őeadli nes. ࢅ
ʞheࢅ chiʤܦenӓ s ࢅ wi ngsࢅ haveࢅ undergoneࢅ maȵorࢅ
trans΍ormationsࢅ andࢅ nowࢅlookࢅ liŊeࢅ legs,ࢅ wi tǩࢅ theࢅ
wingࢅ twis ŝedࢅ i ntoࢅ aࢅ posi tionࢅ suitableࢅ lorࢅ walki ngࢅ
anJࢅ tŐΉࢅ Εnћersࢅ pivotingࢅ toࢅ lacili˫ateࢅ pressureࢅ onࢅ
Ǜheࢅ groundĂࢅ Jheࢅ placementࢅ oʩࢅ theࢅ musclesࢅ i sࢅ
radicallyࢅ diƺerent, ࢅ too, ࢅ bet terࢅ adapǛedࢅ toࢅ theࢅ
speʤi Ƌcࢅ lunʤtionsࢅ o|ࢅwalking˂
˾
Ըࢅ
̆utࢅthisࢅmonsterࢅisࢅnotࢅyetࢅperlect, ࢅhowever, ࢅlorࢅi tsࢅ
֎aѓaesŽueࢅ
݀
etamorphosisࢅ isࢅ incompleteࢅ . . . ࢅJheࢅ
Ē louršleggeJࢅ chicken' ࢅ isࢅ inࢅ lactࢅ anࢅ experimentalࢅ
lailureࢅ worŝhɟࢅ ȹlࢅ leaturingࢅ inࢅ theࢅ bes tiaryࢅ olࢅ aࢅ
֋erȹmeࢅ8oschɡ ࢅAlterࢅtŐeࢅ ' ÐoctorࢅǼtrangeloves' ࢅolࢅtheࢅ
a߲oȸicࢅ bo݁b, ࢅ v˦il׭ࢅ ' LJranŊenstein' ,ࢅ noࢅ less ˊࢅ //-ǟ
ocos/-tǟ /asǟ /-:co-ǟ //-ǟ ://o-t/:a/ǟ /ct/:coǟ ƻǟ//-ǟ s/cJǟ Ƽǟ
ocƌctoa//cosǟ AnJࢅ itࢅ won' t ࢅ beࢅ longࢅ beloreࢅ humanࢅ
guineaࢅ pigsࢅ areࢅ usedࢅ inǍteadࢅ olࢅ animalsࢅ i nࢅ lutureࢅ
experi ments. ࢅ
Let' sࢅ hearࢅ itࢅ |romࢅ thoseࢅ tryingࢅ toࢅ denounceࢅ thisࢅ
Ȯriʩtࢅ olࢅ¿-a-//·ǟ -x1t-ss/ca/so.ǟ lromࢅ theࢅ inǍi dê ࢅ
03
At/ǟaoJǟ I-atǟ
ʝhcࢅ dazzl cࢅ olࢅ succcssࢅ isࢅ goaJi ngࢅ bi ologi s tsࢅ
i ɚplacablyࢅ on. ࢅ cacħࢅ obstaclcࢅ ovcrcomcࢅ ȶcaŏi ngࢅ
tljcmࢅ toࢅ taŊcࢅ upࢅ thcࢅncxtࢅchaˡˡcngcࢅ aࢅ challcngcࢅ
-:-oǟ¿t-a/-t,ǟ-:-oǟoct-ǟ /osao-³ǟǔcࢅshoulJࢅnotcࢅthatࢅilࢅ
tɘisࢅ challcngcࢅ isࢅ notࢅ mct.ࢅ thcࢅ conscDZucnccsࢅ willࢅ
notࢅbcࢅ|cl tࢅbyࢅ thcࢅbiologistsࢅaloncࢅbutࢅalsoࢅbyࢅ thŸsࢅ
i ɚprobablcࢅanJࢅ unccrtainࢅ chilJࢅ whoscࢅbirthࢅ thcyࢅ
willࢅ ljavcࢅ cnablcJࢅ i nࢅ spitcࢅ olࢅcvcrythi ngā ࢅ
ĕoࢅwritcsࢅ AxclࢅĜahnࢅaproposࢅ ' mcJicallyࢅ assistcJࢅ proƧ
crcationŨ . ࢅĜahnࢅconcluJcs.ࢅ ' Ŭvcrythingࢅinࢅthcࢅhistoryࢅ
olࢅhumanࢅcntcrprŸscࢅwoulJࢅinJicatcࢅthatࢅthisࢅhcadlongࢅ
rusljࢅintoࢅ thcࢅluturcࢅ willࢅoncࢅdayࢅcnJࢅi nࢅcatšastrophicsࢅ
i nࢅ botchcJࢅ attcmptsࢅ atࢅ humanࢅ bcings ā Ց
˾̀ࢅ
ͮowࢅ canࢅ wcࢅ lai lࢅ hcrcࢅ toࢅ dcnounccࢅ yctࢅ anothcrࢅ
lacct ࢅ o|ࢅ ncgationi smȇ ࢅ thatࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ Jclibcratcࢅ ovcrƧ
looŊingࢅ olࢅthcࢅ |amousࢅ NʠRˍM8ǣRCࢅ CÒÐŬ. ࢅ sctࢅ
downࢅ inࢅ ĥ 9ʌ͢ࢅ i nࢅ tɘcࢅ wakcࢅ olࢅtۗcࢅ horrorsࢅ thcࢅ Naziࢅ
doctorsࢅ pcrpctratcJƔࢅ Ņ Jhcࢅ Nurه݂burgࢅ ƕoJcࢅ cstabƧ
lishcJࢅ thcࢅ conJi tionsࢅ unJcrࢅ whichࢅ tcstsࢅ onࢅ hċΧͿnࢅ
bci ngsࢅ couldࢅ bcࢅconductcJ̃ ࢅ i t ࢅisࢅ aࢅ lunJamcntalࢅ tcƝtࢅ
lorࢅ ɚodcrnࢅ mcdicalࢅ cthics Ƃ . ࢅ asࢅ Axclࢅ Ĝahnࢅ rigljtlyࢅ
rcminJsࢅ usࢅ Ă Ū . ࢅJhcrcࢅ isࢅ no߳ࢅ aࢅ hintࢅ o|ࢅrcspcctࢅlorࢅ anyࢅ
olࢅ tljisࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ contcmporaryࢅ trial sȇ ࢅ ǐ ǔhcnࢅ willࢅ thcࢅ
Nurcmburgࢅ ƕodcࢅ bcࢅ applicdࢅ toࢅ mcJicallyࢅ assis tcJࢅ
procrcationࢅ Ă Ă . ࢅtoࢅthcࢅaDztcmptsࢅatࢅcrcatingࢅaࢅ huΧanࢅ
bcŸngƔ Ƃࢅ asŊsࢅĜaħn. ࢅasࢅaࢅgcncticistࢅandࢅmcmbوrࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ
o0
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
ĆrƇnchࢅ Nationalࢅ Lthicsࢅ ƕoȷmittcc. ࢅ byࢅ wayࢅ olࢅ
conclȽsion͛ ࢅ
I///:sǟ ctǟc-s//-//:s?ǟ Jhat ࢅisࢅ inJccdࢅ t hcࢅŽucstionࢅ at ࢅ
t hcࢅ Ȯawnࢅ Ҏlࢅ t hcࢅ mi l l cnni umŪ ࢅ I | ࢅ lrccJomࢅ olࢅ
S̈ʖLʛJI ĆI զࢅcƝprcssionࢅnowࢅactuallyࢅhas ࢅnoࢅmorcࢅ
liѾitsࢅ thaȂࢅ |rccdomࢅ o|ࢅ ďRJI ƆJI ƕࢅ cȄprcssi on. ࢅ
ƜhcrcࢅƜi l l ࢅ/o/coco/ǎǟ cnJࢅ inࢅ lȾturcȡࢅ
ƫڻcrࢅ allࢅ tۘcࢅ grcatࢅ pcriodsࢅ o|ࢅart.ࢅ aڼcrࢅ thcࢅ grcatࢅ
ߘchoolsࢅ suchࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ classicalࢅ anJࢅ thcࢅ baroŽȘc. ࢅ aΙcrࢅ
coŒtcѾporar˳ࢅ cxprcssionism.ࢅ arcࢅ Ɯcࢅ notࢅ nowࢅ hcaJ-
ingࢅ lorࢅ thaߴࢅ ¿t-c/ǟ /tcos¿-o/:ǟ ct/ǟ i nࢅ whƼchࢅ cvcryࢅ
pharmɰcy.ࢅ cvcryࢅ laboratoryࢅ willࢅ launchࢅ itsࢅ ownࢅ
Ē lilcstɟlcsƂ . ࢅitsࢅownࢅtranshumanࢅlashioȂsȡࢅƫࢅchimcricalࢅ
cxplosionࢅ wo޸Āhyࢅ olࢅ|caturingࢅi nࢅsomcࢅluturcࢅ Sc/coǟ c(ǟ
ģ-+ǟ B-c////-sǟ i|ࢅnotࢅ inࢅ aࢅ ĠǓs-coǟ c(ǟ Lc¿-o/:ǟċt/. ǟ
ƫsࢅ oncࢅ criĺƼcࢅ rcccntlyࢅput ࢅitƞ ࢅ ' Čt//s/sǟ/c:-ǟ//-/tǟ|//ǟ/cǟ
sc·ǟ c/cc/ǟ//-ǟ /ĸasǟƙ(ǟ oc/ct-ǟ c/ǟ///sǟ¡ioǟJ-ǟ s/Ő:ű- 'ǟ ǔhatࢅ isࢅ
ȽrgcntlyࢅrcŽŧircdࢅisࢅ ' /cǟ Js/o-ǟcǟ o-aǟt-/c//cos//{ǟ /-/a--oǟ
s]-:/-s,ǟ co-ǟ //c/ǟ /sǟ oc/ǟ :co:-/:-Jǟ /oǟ //-ǟ /ccJ-Jǟ /-tosǟ c(ǟ
|-s//c//Ǐ'ǟ
?6
Itࢅi sࢅnotࢅcŒtirclyࢅirrclcvantࢅ toࢅpoi ntࢅoutࢅhcrcࢅ thatࢅ
ilࢅ ˶ cxtrcmcࢅ sports 'ࢅ camcࢅ bclorcࢅ ' cȄtrcmcࢅ scicnccsƂ .ࢅ
thcrcࢅ isࢅ aࢅ goodࢅ rcasonࢅ lorࢅ this. ࢅ oŒcࢅ thatࢅ hasࢅ toࢅ Joࢅ
Ɯithࢅ thcࢅ cul tࢅolࢅpcrlorȷancc. ࢅ olࢅct/ǟ(crǟ ct/`sǟsc/-,ǟ thcࢅ
brcakingࢅ olࢅrccordsࢅ olࢅcvcnjyࢅimaginablcࢅki nJ. ࢅ
ŭhcnࢅ i t ࢅ comcsࢅ t oࢅ t Ưcࢅ i Ȃgcs ti onࢅ o|ࢅ ccrtai nࢅ
i Ì
Hr/ coJǟ I-ctǟ
subs tancesࢅ byࢅ top-le˰elࢅ sportspeople, ࢅ Ó numberࢅ olࢅ
trai nersࢅ areࢅ alreaJyࢅ askingࢅ abö́tࢅ ˢ i̱its ɥࢅ Ʊ ǔeࢅ areࢅ atࢅ
theࢅ Ɵegi nn܂ ngsࢅ oƘࢅbiologicalࢅ reprogrammingࢅ yetࢅ weࢅ
Jonʉ t ࢅknowࢅ howࢅ larࢅ weࢅ areࢅ notࢅ goingࢅ toࢅ Ɵeࢅ ableࢅ toࢅ
goǸ ' ࢅ 8eyonJࢅ theࢅ Jr̈́gࢅ testsࢅ anJࢅ meJicalࢅ monitoringࢅ
thatࢅ championsࢅ areࢅ alrΈaJyࢅ suƟźecξࢅ to, ࢅ theࢅ generalࢅ
l ackࢅ olࢅ gui Jel i nesࢅ opensࢅ theࢅ wayࢅ toࢅ geneti cࢅ
mani pul ationࢅ anJࢅ cellulaʵࢅ enhancement ࢅ asࢅ wel l ࢅ asࢅ
Jopi ngࢅ onࢅ aࢅ molecularࢅ level. ࢅ ļccorȮingࢅ toࢅ ƅĴrarJࢅ
Ði ne, ࢅ heaJࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ ˶ MoƟileࢅ8iologicalࢅ ̖ni tϓ ࢅlauncheJࢅ
Ɵyࢅ theࢅ LJrenchࢅ Ministerࢅ olࢅĖouthࢅ anJࢅ Ǽportǹ ࢅ
Ǽportspeopleࢅ areࢅ manageJࢅ byࢅ anࢅ entouraΚeࢅ whoࢅ
areࢅunJerࢅmoreࢅ anJࢅmoʵeࢅ pressuʵeࢅlromࢅtheࢅmeJiaࢅ
anJࢅ theirࢅьnancialࢅ bacΤers Ǹࢅ IƘࢅtheࢅ currentࢅ JeƟateࢅ
isn͍ t ࢅsettleJࢅ prettyࢅԍԎࢅswiڽly,ࢅ aࢅ personࢅwilȶࢅonlyࢅhaveࢅ
toࢅ askࢅ i nࢅ orŏerࢅ toࢅ Ɵeࢅ programmeJࢅ toࢅ winǸࢅ
' T/-ǟcss-o/ƍ-//o-ǟ :/co1/coǟ /sǟ c/tőaJ·ǟ ÚÌÌ //-ǟ 4tca/o¿ǟ
/cct4.ǟ Ǽoonࢅ weࢅ willࢅ evenࢅ beࢅ ableࢅ ŝoࢅ i nterveneࢅ wi thࢅ
preci si onࢅ onࢅ energyࢅ levelsࢅ anJࢅ mechani cal, ࢅ musʇ
cul arࢅ anŏࢅ neurol ogi cal ࢅ el ements ' ,ࢅ oneࢅ expert ࢅ
claims āࢅ ļlterࢅal l , ࢅt heࢅƅermanࢅÐemocraticࢅRepuƟlicࢅ
Ji Jࢅ itࢅ inࢅ theࢅ l 9͢ɉsࢅ usingࢅ syntheticࢅ hormones, ࢅ bſt ࢅ
theseࢅleltࢅ aࢅ traceǸ ࢅJhanksࢅt oࢅgenomics, ࢅyouࢅcanࢅnowࢅ
enterࢅ tۙeࢅ humanࢅ systemࢅ i nࢅ theࢅ sameࢅ wayࢅ asࢅ youࢅ
Ɵreakࢅi ntoࢅ aࢅ comput eʵࢅbankࢅ ȿithoutࢅleavingࢅ anyࢅ
traceࢅ at ࢅall Ǹࢅ
o2
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
ϔ Jۚeࢅ lacŊࢅ olࢅ guiJelinesࢅ reŽuiresࢅ ࠗsࢅ urgeȂtlyࢅ toࢅ
Jeэneࢅ aoǟ -//Ų:a/ǟ |cco4atǙǟ //a/ ǟ acc/4ǟ oaƅ-ǟ :/-atǟ a/aljǟ
.cƏ-sǟ coJ-tǟ //:ta1j aoJǟaa/ǟ /sǟ cc/ǟc(ǟ |cǔo4s' ǟ. ¯¯
ĉ lࢅweࢅ Joࢅ έotࢅ put ࢅinࢅ placeࢅ someࢅ sortࢅ oƉࢅcoJeࢅ thatࢅ
ƜoulJࢅ extenЪࢅ whatࢅwasࢅcovereJࢅ byࢅ theࢅ ʼnuremburgࢅ
ˌoJeࢅ i nࢅ theࢅ areaࢅ oʩࢅ experimentatioȂࢅ onࢅ top-levelࢅ
sportsࢅȃeople.ࢅ theࢅ Òlympicࢅ ŗamesࢅ olࢅtheࢅ yearࢅ 2u2u
orࢅįġ͠Ĥ,ࢅ sav.ࢅwillࢅbeࢅmereࢅvao-sǟƜǟ//-ǟ /taosv-o/.ǟ:/t:csǟ
iŒࢅ whichࢅ theࢅ magi ciansࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ humanࢅ genomeࢅ willࢅ
holJࢅ uȃࢅ |orࢅ ĸurࢅ appl auseࢅ t̬eࢅ exploitsࢅ oʩࢅtheࢅ s/a4/coǟ
ŦcJsǟo|ࢅaࢅ tri u݃phantࢅ superǷhumanity. ࢅ
Lthicalࢅ bouȂJary. ࢅ aes theticࢅ bounJaryࢅ olࢅsportࢅ asࢅ
olࢅ artā ࢅ ǔithoutࢅ limits. ࢅ thereࢅ isࢅ noࢅ valuẽ ࢅ without ࢅ
value. ࢅ thereࢅ Ѫsࢅ noࢅ esteem.ࢅ noࢅ respectࢅ anJࢅ especiallyࢅ
noࢅpi tyŢ ࢅ4-a/ũǟ/cǟ //-ǟ ts-t--' ǟ Ėouࢅ Ŋnowࢅ ħowࢅ itࢅ goesࢅ ā ā ā ࢅ
ƫlreaJv. ࢅ NJoreࢅ orࢅ lessࢅ ΊŔىrywhereࢅ youࢅ turŒ. ࢅ youࢅ
hearࢅ theࢅ worJsࢅ thatࢅ precedeࢅ thatࢅ ʩatalࢅ habituationࢅ
toࢅ theࢅ banalƼzationࢅ olࢅ excess āࢅ !orࢅ ʤertainࢅ philoߙo-
phЮrsࢅ theࢅ ЧҐJyࢅ i sࢅ al reaJyࢅ noࢅ moʄeࢅ t hanࢅ aࢅ
phenomenonࢅ olࢅ memory.ࢅ //-ǟ t-ooaƕ/sǟ c(ǟ aoǟ at:/a/:ǟ
|cŋă ǟ anJࢅ tǩeࢅ humanࢅ beingӬࢅ aࢅ mereࢅ bipeJ. ࢅ |ragileࢅ oʩࢅ
ڴeshࢅ anJࢅ soࢅ ̽lowࢅ toࢅ growࢅ uȃࢅ anJࢅ Je|enJࢅ i tsellࢅthatࢅ
theࢅspeciesࢅ sѢouldࢅ notࢅhavيࢅsurviveJࢅ . ɥ ā ࢅ
Joࢅmaīeࢅ࠘pࢅlorࢅ thisࢅlacŊ.ࢅ thisࢅ ǐ nativeࢅi nĶrmi ty'ࢅ asࢅ
theyࢅ cal l ࢅ i tϟ ࢅ echoiȂgࢅ aࢅ phraseࢅ ŧseJࢅ byࢅ ȋeroi-
յourhanŢ ࢅ manࢅ inveȂteJࢅ tools. ࢅ prosthesesࢅ anJࢅ aࢅ
Ɯholeࢅ technoloǾicalࢅcorpusࢅwithout ࢅࡅhichࢅheࢅ ƜoulJࢅ
o3
At/ǟ aoJǟ ŞŒatǟ
notࢅ haveࢅ sȘrvivedࢅ ͘ . č ࢅ8ut ࢅ thisࢅ isࢅ aࢅ res trospectiveࢅ
࠰isionࢅ i ncapabl eࢅ olࢅ comingࢅ toࢅ teʄmsࢅ withࢅ t heࢅ
outrageousnessࢅ o|ࢅ t heࢅ timeࢅ t hat ࢅ isࢅ approachi ng. ࢅ
ŗۛicaȘlt, ࢅIicassoࢅandࢅÐal i . ࢅŗaltonࢅandࢅĔengeleࢅ. č . ࢅ
נ׉hoࢅcomesࢅ neƝtՓࢅ
Ʒhereࢅ willࢅ i tࢅ enŏ.ࢅ thisࢅ impietyࢅ o|ࢅart, ࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ artsࢅ
andࢅ craΘsࢅ olࢅ thisࢅ ǐ transƋguration' ࢅ thatࢅ notࢅ onlyࢅ
ćulƋlsࢅ theࢅ dreamsࢅ olࢅtheࢅ ŗermanࢅ LƝpressionistsࢅ butࢅ
alsoࢅtǕoseࢅolࢅtheࢅLJȘtȘris ts.ࢅ thoseࢅ' hatešmakers'ࢅwhoseࢅ
destructivenessࢅ չansࢅ ĔagnȘsࢅ ͫnzensbergerࢅ hasࢅ
dissected.ࢅ
Rememberࢅ ĔayakovskyƂ s ࢅ warࢅ cry, ࢅ thatࢅ blastࢅ o|ࢅ
poeticࢅ premoni tionŢ ࢅ ' Ŵetࢅ yourࢅ aƝesࢅ Janceࢅ onࢅ t heࢅ
baldࢅ sŊȘllsࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ wellšheeledࢅ ɳgoistsࢅ anJࢅ grocers. ࢅ
Ĝi llʈ ࢅ Ĝill ʈࢅ Ĝill ɡࢅ Òneࢅ goodࢅ thingȇ ࢅ theirࢅ sŊȘllsࢅ ǂillࢅ
maŊeࢅ perсًctࢅ ashtra࡛s.
͑
͟ހࢅ
Ashtrays ,ࢅ l ampshaJes. ࢅ DZuotiJi anࢅ obźectsࢅ anŏࢅ
prosĹhesesࢅ olࢅ aࢅ li|eࢅ whereࢅ theࢅ b׮nalityࢅ o|ࢅ evil. ࢅ i tsࢅ
ordinariness. ࢅ isࢅ |arࢅ moreࢅ terri|yingࢅ thanࢅ allࢅ theࢅ
atʄoci tiesࢅ pȘtࢅ together. ࢅ asࢅ ēannahࢅ Arendtࢅ notedࢅ
whileࢅobservingࢅtheࢅtrialࢅo|ࢅAdollࢅLichmannࢅinࢅ l 9Ɠ l . ࢅ
Ȍnderࢅ theࢅ reignࢅ o|ࢅIolࢅ Iot' sࢅ Ðemocraticࢅ Ĝam-
puchea. ࢅ theࢅ hopesࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ poetࢅ oćࢅ theࢅ ÒctoƟerࢅ
Revolutionࢅ wereࢅ satisơ܃eŏࢅ yetࢅ again. ࢅ thoughࢅ itࢅ wasࢅ
withࢅ spades. ࢅ notࢅ axes .ࢅ thatࢅ theࢅ sellšmutilationࢅ oćࢅ aࢅ
socialࢅ bodyࢅ olࢅnearlyࢅ twoࢅ millionࢅ Cambodiansࢅ ǂasࢅ
perpetratedčࢅ ' Jheࢅ murderersࢅ didࢅ notࢅ useࢅ Ķrearms čࢅ
o1
Aǟ I////-ssǟ At/ǟ
ּƯcࢅ silcnccӭ ࢅ thcyࢅkncw. ࢅ aJJcdࢅćurtƯcrࢅtoࢅ tƯcࢅclimatcࢅ
olࢅtcrrorā
͑
ϯ Ԩ ࢅ
JƯeࢅ sileέccࢅ oćࢅtheࢅ lambsࢅ s tillࢅ reDZui reJࢅ theࢅ silcnceࢅ
olࢅtƯcࢅ cxccúioncrs .ࢅ Jhcࢅ silcnccࢅ oćࢅ anࢅ untroubl cJࢅ
conscicncc. ࢅ suchࢅ ̜sࢅ ˫hatࢅ enźoycdࢅ byࢅ aࢅ soǑcallcJࢅ
ǐ politicalࢅ scicnccŨ ࢅ nowࢅ JisowncJࢅ byࢅ ćormcrࢅ ǐ revolu-
tĈonaryŨ ࢅ IcŒgǷĕaryࢅ whoࢅ toJayࢅ Jccˢarcs. ࢅ apparcntlyࢅ
Шyࢅ wayࢅ oćࢅcxcusc. ࢅ ǐ JƯeࢅ worldࢅ hasࢅ cƯ̜ngcJ͙ࢅ Iࢅ ťoࢅ
longerࢅ bclicvcࢅ i nࢅtǕcࢅclassࢅstrugglc. ࢅ JhcࢅpcrioJࢅ ćromࢅ
ԩ 9͡ ˿ࢅtoࢅ l 9͢9ࢅwasࢅaࢅ ćailure. ࢅ ͽcࢅ wentࢅlromࢅutopi aࢅtoࢅ
Шarbari ty. Ũ
͟Ȟࢅ
ĔcanwƯʭle. ࢅJuolࢅĕlcngࢅƯasࢅ bccomcࢅaࢅ mſscumࢅ ̜ࢅ
gcnoci Jcࢅ m࠙scum. ࢅ Jhcࢅ sƽnƽstcrࢅ CampϣĕȆ lࢅ ƃ ĕccuri tyࢅ
˒ڤccࢅ ƒ l ɢ . ࢅƜhercࢅ thɵࢅ gaolcrsࢅ wcrcࢅ tecnagcrs.ࢅ oڙcrsࢅ
visitorsࢅ a ࢅ tourࢅ oćࢅ thcࢅ gallcryࢅ oćࢅ photographi cࢅ
portrai tsࢅoćࢅʭ Ǜsࢅ ȸul ti tudin˦usࢅŔictimǍ .ࢅ ēcrc. ࢅcontraryࢅ
toࢅ theࢅ ƅcrȸanࢅ cxterminatiށnࢅ c̜mps. ࢅ thcࢅ bodƽcsࢅ
Ưaveࢅ disappcareJ. ࢅ but ࢅ tƯcࢅćaccsࢅ remai nࢅ . . . ࢅ
oo
òt/ºn:º )n 1rta/
't/ºn:º )n 1rta/
ĥ-oc/e/o¿ǟ s//-o/,ǟ ocaǟ //-t-`sǟcǟ /-sscoěctǟjcc/ǟ A/c/ ǟoct-ǟ
/oo-Ň/c/-ǟ ac//coǟ »ǟ Jctc//ca?' .ǟ Ƭaulࢅ \alĴŜyࢅ noteJࢅ i nࢅ
l ́ūĦŠ ࢅ shoŜtlyࢅ beloŜeࢅ t Ǖeࢅ tŜageJyࢅ o|ࢅt heࢅ camps, ࢅ theࢅ
silenceࢅ oƹࢅtǕcࢅ lambsࢅ DŽ Ǹ Ū ࢅ
Tcǟ s1-c/ ǟoŜࢅ /cǟ t-oc/aǟ s//-o/. ǟ aŜeࢅ theyࢅ toࢅ sonoҠiࢅtyࢅ
ɀhatࢅ /cǟ s/caǟ oŜࢅ /cǟ //J-ǟ aŜeࢅ toࢅ visibili tɟՔࢅ גhatࢅ
prosecuti onࢅ olࢅmeaningࢅ isࢅ thusࢅ hi JJenࢅ behinJࢅ theࢅ
prosecŧtionࢅ olࢅ soŧnJƔࢅ ēasࢅ Ŝemainingࢅ silent ࢅ nowࢅ
bccomeࢅ aࢅ JiscŜeetࢅ loŜmࢅ o|ࢅassent ʿ ࢅ o|ࢅconnivance, ࢅ inࢅ
theࢅ ageࢅolࢅtۜeࢅ sonoŜizationࢅolࢅimagesࢅ anJࢅ allࢅ auJioƧ
vis Ȗal ࢅ i consƔࢅ ēaveࢅ ͅocalࢅ machi nesƂ ࢅ poweŜsࢅ o|ࢅ
eŒunciationࢅ goneࢅ asࢅ |aŜࢅ asࢅ theࢅ Jenunciationࢅ o|ࢅ
silence.ࢅ olࢅaࢅ silenceࢅ thatࢅ hasࢅ tuŜneJࢅ i ntoࢅ M̖JI ĕMƔࢅ
Itࢅ migljtࢅ beࢅ appŜopriateࢅ at ࢅ thisࢅ ź ŧnctȖŜeࢅ toࢅ
ŜemembeŜࢅ̎osephࢅ8euysࢅwǕoseࢅwoŜk,ࢅS//-e:-.ǟ paŜallels, ࢅ
notࢅ toࢅ sayࢅ cɔhoдs, ࢅ LJvarJࢅ ֖unch' sࢅ l ˉĦūࢅ painting, ࢅ
7/-ǟ ò:Ʈ-co ǟ Jhinkࢅ o΍ࢅ theࢅ sys tematicࢅ useࢅ o|ࢅ lel tࢅ i nࢅ
cJ
At/ǟ aaJǟI:aƤǟ
բeτ࡜ҧƂ ࢅ ƳonJonࢅinstallationsࢅoƘࢅĥ 9Ħϲࢅ withࢅ theࢅ galleryࢅ
ʶޥacesࢅ ƜaJJeJࢅ likeࢅ soࢅ manyࢅ ĕÒȌĝÐ̐RÒÒЂࢅ
Г֨֩֗ĕ, ࢅ preʥiselyࢅ atࢅ aࢅ timeࢅ whenࢅ tĘeࢅ Jeaćeningࢅ
cࡖplosionࢅ oƘࢅ theࢅ A̖ÐIÒ- \Iĕ̖ďŴࢅ wasࢅ toࢅ occurࢅ
̝longࢅ wiȔhࢅ wĩat ࢅ isࢅ nowࢅ conƛeni entlyࢅ labelleJࢅ theࢅ
cǙisiʶࢅinࢅmoJernࢅartࢅor
˺ࢅ
moreࢅexactly.ࢅ //:ǟ·co/:o1ctaƽǟ
aƥ/ǟ ƹǟ//:ǟ :t/s/sǟ c(ǟ o:ao/o¿.ǟ thatࢅ NÒNĕLĝĕLࢅ ƭartreࢅ
̝ݢJࢅ եamuʶࢅ wereࢅ onࢅ about . ࢅ
Joࢅ Ɵetterࢅ unJers ȔanJࢅ suchࢅ aࢅ hereticalࢅ pointࢅ oƘࢅ
vÍcv aƟoutࢅtĩeࢅprogrammeJࢅJemiseࢅolࢅtĩeࢅ \Òĉ CLĕࢅ
ņȤࢅĕIƳLĝCL, ࢅ thinkࢅoƘࢅtheࢅperƛerseࢅ i mplicationsࢅoƘࢅ
tĩeࢅ ·c/c«Ʀa//caǟ ƺǟ(//osǟ originallyࢅ shotࢅ i nࢅ 8LjACĜࢅ
/^I דʕЈֽL, ࢅ toࢅ citeࢅ oneࢅ exaʱple. ࢅ orࢅ theࢅ useࢅ oٿࢅ
monochŜomaticࢅƋlmࢅi nࢅphotogŜaʃhingࢅacciJɵnȔs. ࢅoi lࢅ
ʶpi l ls. ࢅ Jheࢅ lackࢅ olࢅ colourࢅ i nࢅ aࢅ ьlmࢅ segmentࢅ o޹ࢅ
ʶnɰʃshotࢅisࢅseenࢅasࢅthc tellštaleࢅsigݣࢅoƘࢅaࢅ ÐLʑLCJ. ࢅaࢅ
h̝nJi cap. ࢅ theࢅ lossࢅ oƘࢅcolourࢅoƘࢅtheࢅ ޺isingࢅ tiJeࢅ unJerࢅ
theࢅ eơܯٌctsࢅ oƘࢅmaritimeࢅpollutionࢅ . Ō Ƅ ࢅ
Ʒhereasࢅ i nࢅ t h̤ࢅ pas t . ࢅ engravi ngࢅ enricĩ̤Jࢅ aࢅ
ʃai nti ng' sࢅ huesࢅ withࢅ i tsࢅ velƛetyࢅ blacksࢅ anJࢅ theࢅ
rai nboࡆࢅarrayࢅoƘࢅi tsࢅ greys .ࢅ 8ŴACĜࢅ anJࢅǔʓIJL
areࢅ nowࢅnoࢅmoreࢅthanࢅ tracesࢅoƘࢅaࢅ JеgraJation. ࢅsomeࢅ
ʃrematureࢅ rui nŪ ࢅ
Ȋus tࢅ likeࢅ aࢅ yelloweJࢅ photographࢅ ґڀࢅt heࢅJeceaseJࢅ
mountcJࢅ onࢅ theirࢅ t omb. ࢅ tѡeࢅ MÒĝÒCˎRÒࡻࡼࢅ
MȢJI Cࢅ segment ࢅ merelyࢅ signalsࢅ theࢅ obscurantismࢅ
oƘࢅaࢅ ؑygoneࢅ era. ࢅ theࢅ JwinJlingࢅ olࢅ aࢅ heroicࢅ ageࢅ inࢅ

S//-o:-ǟ coǟ Tt/aƆǟ
Ɯhichࢅ Ȕheࢅ ׊I Sʖ ÒNࢅ ֘ACʔINLࢅ haJࢅ yetࢅ toࢅ re࠱eͿlࢅ
theࢅ IƫNCպȨÒřAJĉ Cࢅ richesࢅ olࢅJechnicolorࢅ . . . ࢅ
gauJyŠ ࢅ bras۝ࢅ ACLJƫCÒȋÒȨ
ցࢅ
overǑprivilcgingࢅ hotࢅ
coloursࢅ toࢅ tѣeࢅ JetrƼ ȸentࢅ olࢅcolJ.ࢅ 8ut ࢅ surelyࢅ ɀeࢅ canࢅ
sayࢅ theࢅ samcࢅ thi ngࢅ aboutࢅ theࢅ sonori zationࢅ olࢅwhat ࢅ
Ɯereࢅ onceࢅ s//:o/ǟ(//os.ǟ
АoɀaJaysࢅ everythi ngࢅ that ࢅ reȸai nsࢅ si ȶ entࢅ i sࢅ
JeemeJࢅ / cǟ Ľcos:o/,ǟ toࢅ acceptࢅ ɀi thouˬࢅ aࢅ worJࢅ olࢅ
protestࢅ t heࢅ backgrounJࢅ noiseࢅ olࢅ auJiošvisualࢅ im-
ȑoJerati onࢅ t̬atࢅ i sŠ ࢅ olࢅtheࢅ Ē opticallyࢅ correctӔ ˂ࢅ ͪut ࢅ
Ɯhat ࢅhappeżҨࢅas ࢅaࢅ resultࢅt oࢅt heࢅSIƳLNCLࢅÒLJࢅJʕLࢅ
ʡISI8ȋLࢅużJerࢅtheࢅreignࢅolࢅtheࢅAǣÐIÒš\I Sʖ8֒Ŭࢅ
cpitomizeJࢅ byࢅ /:/::/s/co,ǟ ɀilJlyࢅ overrateJࢅ asࢅ ˫cle-
visionࢅ isƔࢅ Řoɀࢅ canࢅ ɀeࢅ appIyࢅ theࢅ lessonࢅ olࢅ ̐aulࢅ
ʡalĴryƂ sࢅ apѤorismࢅ i nࢅ consiJeringࢅ theࢅ ŽuestionŠ ࢅ notࢅ
oƹࢅtĩٍࢅƾ//:o::ǟcśǟat/ǟsoࢅJeͿrࢅtoࢅAnJrĴࢅMalraux. ࢅ butࢅolࢅ
theࢅÐLƫLJƵLSSࢅolࢅtheࢅcontemporaryࢅ artsࢅinࢅ theࢅaۄeࢅ
olࢅt̬eࢅ ȸul tiȑeJiaȡࢅ
S//Ōo:-ǟ ocǟ Ƈco¿:tǟ /asǟ aǟ :c/::.ǟ Itࢅ ȋÒSJࢅ IJSࢅ \ÒĉCŬࢅ
Ưal lࢅaࢅ centȘryࢅ ago.ࢅ 8utࢅthi sࢅȸutismࢅhasࢅnoɀࢅcoǭcࢅt oࢅ
aࢅ heaJࢅ Ō Ō Ō ࢅ̓heࢅvoiccsࢅ olࢅsiȶenceࢅ haveࢅ beenࢅsilenccJɌࢅ
whatࢅ isࢅ noϊࢅregarJeJࢅ asࢅ obsceneࢅisࢅ not ࢅsoࢅ ȸȖchࢅ theࢅ
iȑageࢅ asࢅ th΅ࢅ sounJࢅ orŠ ࢅ raŝherŠ ࢅ theࢅ lackࢅ olࢅsounJ.ࢅ
Ʒhatࢅ happɵnsࢅ ŝoࢅ theࢅ ǔÒȨȋÐࢅ ÒLJࢅ SI ȋL֟CLࢅ
onceࢅ theࢅ Ķrstࢅ SÒNࢅ LJࢅ ƳǣĔI ÈRLࢅ proJuctionǍࢅ areࢅ
stageJŠ ࢅ agaiżࢅ unJerࢅ theࢅ aegisࢅ olࢅMalrauxŠ ࢅ i nvaJingࢅ
J Ì
At/ǟ aoJǟ I.atǟ
asࢅ theyࢅ Joࢅ theࢅ monumentalࢅ spacesࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ Ĕeŏi terɠ
raneanͨࢅ Jheࢅ ǐ sonࢅ etࢅlǜmiɴre' ࢅ phenomenonࢅhasࢅ beenࢅ
|olloweJࢅ mostࢅ recenǛlyࢅ byࢅ theࢅ crazeࢅ i n museumsࢅ asࢅ
venuesࢅ ćorࢅ liveࢅ shows,ࢅ thoughࢅ youࢅ woulŏࢅ beࢅ harŏʇ
presseJࢅ toࢅ beatࢅ theࢅ calamitousࢅ ʼnICˎJࢅ ˒ʑࢅ JēLࢅ
řI LLLʼnʼnI ǣĔ, ࢅwhenࢅ theࢅmistsࢅ olࢅtheࢅʼnileࢅ\alleyࢅ
suJJenlyࢅ brokeࢅ upࢅ aࢅ ȉeanšřicǕelࢅ ֌arreࢅ concertɇ ࢅ
AΘerࢅ theࢅ Jea|eningࢅ |el tࢅ o|ࢅ8euy' sࢅ LonJonࢅ i nstalla-
tion, ࢅ IŴICˎJӮ ࢅ theyࢅ manageJࢅ toࢅ bringࢅ SĔÒCࢅ toࢅ
theࢅ ćootࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ pyramiJs . ࢅ
ǐ I ࢅŏon' tࢅ want ࢅt oࢅavoiJࢅ tellingࢅ aࢅ s tory,ࢅ butࢅ Iࢅ wantࢅ
very, ࢅveryࢅmuchࢅtoࢅŏoࢅtheࢅthingࢅ\alĴryࢅsai ŏࢅ toࢅgi veࢅ
theࢅ sensáiίnࢅ wi thoutࢅ theࢅ boreŏomࢅ o|ࢅ i tsࢅ convey-
ance. ' ࢅ Jheseࢅ worJsࢅ o|ࢅ!rancisࢅ 8acon' s, ࢅ takenࢅ ơ޻omࢅ
Ðaviŏࢅ SylƦes terƂ sࢅ interviewsࢅ wi thࢅ theࢅ artis tࢅ anJࢅ
Žuoteŏࢅ asࢅ aࢅ leaJϤinࢅIor tǕeࢅ ' AcJ.Ƨoǟ S/at/s'ǟ e͈hibitionࢅ
atࢅ theࢅ ֙useumࢅoćࢅĔoŏernࢅ Artࢅ inࢅ Newࢅ Ėork, ࢅ l 999, ࢅ
beautilullyࢅsumࢅupࢅt heࢅcurrentࢅŏilَmmaǹ ࢅt heࢅlessࢅyouࢅ
represent, ࢅ theࢅ moreࢅ youࢅ pushࢅ theࢅ simulacrumࢅ oćࢅ
RLIRLSLʼnJAJĉÒNʈ ࢅ
8ut ࢅ whatࢅ isࢅ thi sࢅ Ʊ situati on' ࢅ concealingࢅ i|ࢅnotࢅ t heࢅ
·co/ta·//coǟ rǟ //o.Ąǟ ˒|ࢅ t hi sࢅ t.a/ǟ //o.ǟ thatࢅ eښacesࢅ allࢅ
Juration, ࢅ exclusivel࡝ࢅ promotingࢅ i nsteaJࢅ theࢅ1t.s.o/. ǟ
theࢅJirectnessࢅolࢅtǕeࢅimmeŏiacyࢅolࢅɓLRÒࢅJIMLࢅ. . . ࢅ
aࢅ contractionࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ LI\Lࢅ anŏࢅ olࢅLIʑL, ࢅ whichࢅ weࢅ
seeࢅ onceࢅ moreࢅ at ࢅ worŊࢅ i nࢅ theࢅ recentࢅ appealࢅ oćࢅ//:.ǟ
s/cas,ǟ whi chࢅ areࢅ toࢅ Janceࢅ anJࢅ choreographyࢅ whatࢅ
/2
Ħ//:o::ǟ coǟ Tt|a/ǟ
theࢅ videoࢅ ins tallaĹi onࢅ alreaŏyࢅ wasࢅ toࢅ ʑernandࢅ
ЊĴger' sࢅğ::/co/·a/ǟ Đa||:/.ǟ
Allࢅ inࢅ ˕llŠࢅ theࢅ inventionࢅ olࢅ theࢅ ƕĉNLĔďJÒ-
ƅRAIʓࢅ ɹasࢅ raJicallyࢅ alteredࢅ theࢅ experienceࢅ olࢅ
:x1csct:ǟ /|o:,ǟ theࢅwholeࢅregi meࢅ olࢅtemporalityࢅ olࢅtheࢅ
șisualࢅ artsȜ ࢅ ĉŒࢅ theࢅni nete̥҄tljࢅcenturyŠ ࢅ theࢅaesthetiʥsࢅ
olࢅ CI ֠ŬͳďJĉ ƕࢅ Ji sappearanʥeࢅ promptlyࢅ sup-
planࢅt edࢅt hcࢅmࢅul timillenni alࢅaesࢅ tljeticsࢅolࢅρ heࢅaࢅppear-
anceࢅ olࢅthǦࢅ S̓AJĉƕ. ࢅ
Ònceࢅt heࢅphotogramࢅ hi tࢅ tljeࢅ sceneŠ ࢅ i t ࢅwasࢅ solelyࢅ aࢅ
̱atterࢅ olࢅ mechanicallyࢅ orࢅ eleʥtricallyࢅ proJucingࢅ
someࢅ kindࢅo|ࢅt:a/|nǟ ř:·/ǟ toࢅ get ࢅ peopleࢅ toࢅ lorgetࢅ theࢅ
lackࢅolࢅanvࢅ subźeʥtࢅasࢅ theࢅ ƋlmࢅrolleJࢅ past Į ࢅ
Ėetࢅ oneࢅ crucialࢅ aspectࢅ o|ࢅ t ̬i sࢅ mutationࢅ olࢅ t heࢅ
seventhࢅartࢅhasࢅbeenࢅt ooࢅl ongࢅignoreJࢅ anJࢅt hat ࢅisࢅ theࢅ
arrivׯlࢅolࢅtѤeࢅJAƳ֏ĉ LǼ. ࢅ!romࢅ theࢅendࢅolࢅtheࢅ l ́ȆĤsࢅ
onwarJs Š ࢅtheࢅiJeaࢅolࢅacceptingࢅtɘeࢅabsenceࢅolࢅwordsࢅ
orࢅ ̸hrasesŠ ࢅ olࢅ someࢅ kinJࢅ o|ࢅ JialogueŠ ࢅ becameࢅ
untlji nkװbˡ e.
Ȟࢅ
Jheࢅ so-callжJࢅ /|s/:o/ogǟ ·co(cƨ/ǟ olࢅ
Jarkenedࢅ ʣi ncmaࢅ halˡsࢅ reDZuireJࢅ thatࢅ ʔLARĉNCࢅ
andࢅ׋ĉ SI ֪Nࢅ beࢅǃo·/tco/::4.ǟ ĔuchࢅlaterŠ ࢅatࢅtheࢅenJࢅ
olࢅtheࢅ centurӂŠ ࢅ Aƕ̓ĉÒNࢅ a҄Jࢅ ȨL՚CJЉ ÒNࢅ sƼ mi -
larlyࢅ woulJࢅ beࢅ put ࢅi ntoࢅi nstantࢅ |o/:ta·/|coǟ thanksࢅ toࢅ
theࢅ leaǛsࢅ olࢅ ' tele-action' Š ࢅ tljisࢅ ti meŠ ࢅ anŵࢅ notࢅ źust ࢅ
raJiophoniʣࢅ ' tele-llstening' ࢅ orࢅ ' tele-visio҅ʉ ԏ ࢅ
ƕuri ouslӂŠ ࢅi tࢅi s ࢅi nࢅtheࢅeraࢅolࢅt ljeࢅƅreatࢅÐepressi onࢅ
t hat ࢅ |ollowcJࢅ theࢅ הal ȶ ࢅ Streetࢅ Crashࢅ olࢅ l 9Ȇ́ࢅ tɘatࢅ
²ó
At/ǟ coJǟ Ưœctǟ
SI ĊLNCLࢅ ıASࢅ I׆Ɨࢅ ÒƵࢅ ƗRIļĊࢅ inࢅ Luro̸eࢅ asࢅ
inࢅ theࢅ ʠni teJࢅ ĕtaŝes Ԑࢅ ճromࢅ thatࢅ moment , ࢅ ŭͯÒʇ
L׈LГࢅ SAĖSࢅ NÒJʓI NCࢅ ̌ Sࢅ ϾLLͲLϿࢅ ʝņࢅ
ƕÒNĕȣNJā ࢅ Noࢅ silen̟eࢅ canࢅ expressࢅ Ji sapproͅalࢅ
orࢅ resi stanceࢅ but ࢅ onlyࢅ consent ƪ ࢅ Jheࢅ silenceࢅ olࢅt heࢅ
i mageࢅ isࢅ notࢅ onl yࢅ ANI ʙAƗLϿࢅ byࢅ Ǜheࢅ motori za-
ti onࢅ oځࢅƋl mࢅsegmen͂sɌ ࢅ i t ࢅ isࢅ al soࢅ ŬʛĊIĕʟŬթࢅ i nࢅ t heࢅ
generalࢅ acŽui escenceࢅ i nࢅ aࢅ ƗņƗAĊࢅ ARƗࢅ theࢅ
sevent˝ࢅ artࢅ whi ch, ࢅ theyࢅ woſlJࢅ thenࢅ ̠l ai m, ࢅ conӆ
tai nedࢅ al l ࢅ theࢅ rest ɥ ࢅ
Ðuringࢅ t he ࢅ greatࢅ economi cࢅ crisisࢅ w۞i ch,ࢅ i nࢅ
ŬuropcĻ ࢅ woulJࢅ enJࢅ i nࢅ Naziࢅ ƗÒƗAĊI ʟARIAN-
I ĕř, ࢅ ʶil enceࢅ ࡇasࢅ alreaJyࢅ noࢅ moreࢅ thanࢅ aࢅ lormࢅ olࢅ
abstentionā ࢅ Jheࢅ trenJࢅ everywhereࢅ wasࢅ towarJsࢅ t heࢅ
s/o«//aa:c«sǟ synchronizationࢅ olࢅ imageࢅ anJࢅ sounŏɥࢅ
Ʒhenceࢅ theࢅ maźorࢅަނli ticalࢅ roleࢅ playeJࢅ atࢅ theࢅ timeࢅ
byࢅ cinematicࢅ ƵLıĕRLLĊS, ࢅ notablyࢅ thoseࢅ pro-
ducedࢅ byࢅ LJoxšřovietoneࢅ inࢅ theࢅ ܹni tedࢅ ̒tatesࢅ andࢅ
byࢅ ʠ!ࢅ Aࢅ inࢅ Cermany, ࢅ whichࢅ perlecŝlyࢅ ̸reэguredࢅ
televisualࢅ{t/o:ǟ//o:. ǟ
AlongsiŏeࢅboomingࢅraJio̸honyࢅanJࢅ theࢅ//::ǟta///:sǟ
olࢅ Nuremburgࢅ anJࢅ elsewhereʿ ࢅ Ǜheࢅ talkiesࢅ wouldࢅ
becomeࢅ oneࢅ olࢅ theࢅ instrumenǛsࢅ oƘࢅ choiceࢅ olࢅ theࢅ
ʪcdglingࢅ totalitarianisms .ࢅ LJorࢅ řussolini. ࢅ //tǟ :aottaǟ
aasǟ //:ǟocs/ǟ{ca:Ƹ«/ǟa:a{coǟ //tt:ǟaasāǟ lҒrࢅ̒tali n, ࢅ aĹࢅ theࢅ
sameࢅ momentࢅi nࢅti me. ࢅ//:ǟ :/o:oaǟaasǟ//tǟ ocs/ǟŕ(:://::ǟ
ŵǟ/cc/sǟŜctǟ s//tt/o¿ǟ «1ǟ //:ǟ oass:s.ǟ
71
S//-o:-ǟ coǟ Tt/a/ǟ
ĝoࢅ H|I7II0I orࢅ II0IA|A^DA ħTć1ĕĖLLǟ
͆ithoutࢅ theࢅ :cos-os«Ĵ/ǟ1ca-tǟ c¡ǟ //-ǟ /a/k/-s.ǟ Ònceࢅ yoȾࢅ
haχeࢅ tħeࢅ taˢkiesࢅ upࢅanJࢅ running, ࢅώoȖࢅ canࢅ getࢅwalls ӯࢅ
anyࢅ olJࢅ animateJࢅ imageࢅ wħateverࢅ toࢅ talkŪ ࢅ Jheࢅ J-a4ǟ
too,ࢅ thougħ. ࢅ anJࢅ a//ǟ a/cǟ t-oc/oǟ s//-o/. ǟ ďndࢅ notࢅĪuǍtࢅ
peopleࢅ orࢅ beings ,ࢅ either, ࢅ bſt ࢅthingsࢅ tαࢅ bootɡ ࢅ
7/-ǟ s:t--oǟ aesa-tsǟjcetǟ -:-¬ǟ a//o,ǟ /oǟ cń:aƒ:-' ,ǟ asࢅ
Òr͆ellࢅ put ࢅ it. ࢅ Ėetࢅ tħoȖghࢅ theࢅ wallsࢅ mayࢅ ͆ellࢅ talk, ࢅ
|rescosࢅ noࢅlĸngerࢅ can. ࢅ Jheࢅseventhࢅ artࢅ thusࢅbecomesࢅ
aࢅ ЖŬNJRĉ ֓ÒВͺւ SJࢅ ļRJࢅ Jeliχeringࢅ i tsࢅ ownࢅ
oracles āࢅ Ƴiɻeࢅ tħeࢅ Ƭythi anࢅ prophetess. ࢅ theࢅ i mageࢅ
speaks̃ࢅ but . ࢅmoreࢅspeciΕcallyϝࢅi tࢅaosa-tsǟtheࢅsilen̟eࢅo|ࢅ
theࢅ anguisǩeJࢅ massesࢅ whoࢅ haveࢅ ȶostࢅ theirࢅ tongues ͙ࢅ
ļsࢅ aࢅ certainࢅ poetࢅ put ࢅ it, ࢅ ' C/o-oaǟ o-:-tǟ /asǟ /--oǟ
SIIIĢT,ǟ cƓ/ǟ DIAF.
Jhoseࢅ Jaysࢅ areࢅ ȶރngࢅۅαneǸ ࢅ Noࢅ oneࢅ isࢅ waitingࢅ anӀࢅ
mǀreࢅlorࢅ theࢅ RL\ÒƳ̕JIÒĝ˻ ࢅ onlyࢅ |orࢅ ߵħeࢅ ďCCI˵
ÐLɬJ. ࢅ theࢅ breakJown. ࢅ tħa t ࢅ wi l l ࢅ reJuceࢅ thisࢅ
unbearableࢅc۟ױtterࢅ toࢅ silenc˘āࢅ
I nࢅ ol JeŒࢅ Jaysࢅ aࢅ pi ani stࢅ useJࢅ toࢅ punct uateࢅ
segmentsࢅ oƹࢅolȮࢅ bſrlesDZueࢅ movies̃ࢅ nowࢅ theࢅ reali t࡞ࢅ
ȹƹࢅǍLenCh OI everώJaώࢅ li|eࢅ neeJsࢅ toࢅ beࢅ sȖbti tleJࢅ inࢅ
similarࢅ vein.ࢅ theࢅ ďŎÐI Ò-ɮI SŎďȋࢅ aimingࢅ toࢅ put ࢅ
paiJࢅ t
ބࢅ
theࢅs//-o:-ǟ c(ǟ :/s/coǟ i nࢅi tsࢅ entiretyā ࢅ
ļl l ࢅ youࢅ ʫaveࢅ tǘࢅ Joࢅ isࢅ Jſmpࢅ yourࢅ mobileࢅ phoneࢅ
anJࢅgrabࢅyourࢅinlra-reJࢅħelmet ࢅ JhenࢅyoȖࢅareࢅreaJyࢅ
toࢅ goࢅ wanJeringࢅ arounJࢅ thoseࢅ museumsࢅ whereࢅ thеࢅ
1J
Ĉt/ǟ aoJǟI-atǟ
s:cƔJ-/ta:/ǟ amĚlyࢅ maƾcsࢅ uĚࢅ lorࢅ thcࢅ /oa¿-ǟ /ta·/ǟ olࢅtɺcࢅ
Ěicturc-rail .ࢅ
Ͼocsࢅ artࢅ mcanࢅ listcningࢅ orࢅ lݽҏki̳gĻ ࢅ Ƙorࢅ thcࢅ artࢅ
lovcrƔࢅ Hasࢅ contcmĚlationࢅ olࢅ Ěai ntingࢅ Đccoɾcࢅ aࢅ
rcʪcxࢅ actionࢅ andࢅ Ěossiblyࢅ aࢅ CĖ8ŬRʛŬJI Cࢅ oncࢅ atࢅ
that̅ࢅ
̗ictimࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ Ơtcs-·«//coǟ ƟǟsŪ/-o·-.ǟ co̳tcmĚoraryࢅ
artࢅ longࢅ agoࢅ madcࢅ aࢅ Ɵidࢅ lorࢅ J/:-t¿-oľ-ǟ i̳ࢅ othcrࢅ
words, ࢅ toࢅĚractiscࢅaࢅ CÒNCŬIJ̕džĊࢅ ̉IɮŬRSI Òʛࢅ
bcΌorcࢅ oĚtingࢅ|orࢅ ·co:-t¿-o·-.ǟ
Surclyࢅ thatࢅ isࢅ thcࢅ onlyࢅ wayࢅ wcࢅ canࢅ i ntcrĚrctࢅ thcࢅ
Cubists' ࢅ ncwsĚaĚcrࢅ co̰̰agcsࢅ orࢅ thcࢅ latcr, ࢅ Ěost- l 9 l Ħ,ࢅ
coll agcsࢅ andࢅ Ěɺotomontagcsࢅ o|ࢅRaoƚlࢅ Hausmann, ࢅ
say, ࢅ orࢅhisࢅ8crlinࢅ̉adaistࢅconlrʧrc,ࢅ̎ohnࢅŘcartĶcld,ࢅ
notࢅtoࢅ mcnti onࢅ tɺcࢅ Ȥrcnchࢅ̉adaistsࢅ andࢅ Surrcalists, ࢅ
aɾongࢅ othcrs . ࢅ
I nࢅ aࢅ dccidcdlyࢅ Űnࢅ dcࢅ siʧclcࢅ wor̰d,ࢅ whcrcࢅ tɺcࢅ
automoĐilcࢅ oucstionsࢅ i tsࢅ drivcrࢅ aؐout ࢅ thcࢅ lunctionӆ
ingࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ handbraƾcࢅ orࢅ whcthcrࢅ thcࢅ scatbcltࢅ isࢅ
bucƾlcd, ࢅwhcrcࢅthcࢅrcƉrigcratorࢅisࢅgcaringࢅi tscllࢅuĚࢅtoࢅ
Ělaccࢅ thcࢅ ordcrࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ suĚcrmarkct, ࢅ whcrcࢅ yoȖrࢅ
comȃƚtcrࢅ grcctsࢅ ࡚ouࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ mornĈ ngࢅ withࢅ aࢅ hcartyࢅ
ą hcllo' , ࢅsurclyࢅ wcࢅ haҴcࢅ toࢅ asƾࢅ oursclvcsࢅ whctɺcrࢅ thcࢅ
silcnccࢅ olࢅartࢅ canࢅ bcࢅsustaincdࢅ |orࢅ muchࢅ longcr. ࢅ
J̫isࢅ gocsࢅcvcnࢅ|orࢅ thcࢅɾoĐilcࢅ Ěhoncࢅcraʽcࢅ thatࢅi sࢅ
Ěartࢅ a̳dࢅ Ěarcclࢅ olࢅtɺcࢅ saɾcࢅ thiʴg, ࢅ si nccࢅ itࢅ isࢅ nowࢅ
ncccssaryࢅtoࢅ /o1cs-ǟs//-o·-ǟ inࢅrcstaurantsࢅandࢅĚlaccsࢅ
JU
ò//.a:.ǟ caǟ TƩ/a/ǟ
o|ࢅworshipࢅ orࢅ conccrtࢅ halls ěࢅ Òncࢅ JayɆ ࢅ ˙ҍllowingࢅ thcࢅ
cxaűpl eࢅ ĸ|ࢅ theࢅ caűpaignࢅ toࢅ combatࢅ ni coti ncࢅ
adJiƠtion, ࢅ itࢅ mayࢅwellࢅ bcࢅ nccessaryࢅ toࢅ put ࢅ upࢅ signsࢅ
o|ࢅthcࢅ ' SilcǮccࢅ ēospital' ࢅ varictyࢅ atࢅthcࢅ cntranceࢅ toࢅ
NJǜseƙmsࢅ andࢅ cxhibitionࢅ hallsࢅ toࢅ gctࢅ allࢅ thoscࢅ
Ē communicationࢅ machines' ࢅ toࢅ shutࢅ upࢅ anJࢅ putࢅ anࢅ
cnJࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ allࢅ tooࢅ numerousࢅ cul Dzuralࢅ exerciscsࢅ inࢅ
ƆÒ̕Ƶ̉ࢅ aęJࢅ ŴI ŗēJ. ࢅ
MachinǦࢅ|orࢅs../a¿.ǟ machincࢅ|orࢅ/.at/a¿,ǟ onceࢅuponࢅ
Ü tiűcͦ ࢅ machincࢅ |orࢅ ///ak/a¿ǟ vcryࢅ shortlyࢅ withࢅ thcࢅ
ǽoomࢅ inࢅ allࢅ thingsࢅ 4/¿//a/ǟ anJࢅ thcࢅ programmcJࢅ
abanJonmcntࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ aaa/c¿«.. ǟ Howࢅ willࢅ //.ǟs//.a·.ǟ Ŷǟ
//.ǟ /Ɨ/a//.ǟ sơa:.sǟ ŷǟat/ǟ subsist , ࢅ thisࢅ silcnceࢅ thatࢅ scemsࢅ
toࢅ tcrri|yࢅ thcࢅmakcrsࢅo|ࢅmotorsࢅo|ࢅanyࢅɻinJ,ࢅ |romࢅthcࢅ
logicalࢅ in|crcnceࢅ motorࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ computcrࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ
rcsea޲chࢅ cŒgincࢅ o|ࢅ tħcࢅ nctworkࢅ o|ࢅ nctworks̄ࢅ Allࢅ
tƌcseࢅ̹ucstionsࢅthatࢅtoJayࢅrcűainࢅunanswcredࢅmakcࢅ
̋ʛICʙţSࢅ o|ࢅcontcmporaryࢅ cthicsࢅ anJࢅ acsthctics Ɉࢅ
ŭithࢅ arɔhi tccture, ࢅ alas, ࢅ theࢅ Īigࢅ isࢅ alrcaJyࢅ up. ࢅ
ƫrchi tectoȁicsࢅ hasࢅ becomcࢅ anࢅ ae4/c-:/s«a/ǟ at/.ǟ thcࢅ
onlyࢅ ouestiĸnࢅ nowࢅ bcingࢅ whcthcrࢅ itࢅ willࢅ shortlyࢅ goࢅ
onࢅ toࢅ becoȒeࢅ Ü \ĉ RJŎALࢅ ARJ. ࢅ Ćorࢅ sculptureɆ ࢅ
cvcrࢅ s i nccࢅ Ȋcanࢅ Ji ngucl yࢅ anJࢅ hisࢅ ' 8achel orࢅ
ͳachincs' , ࢅ thisࢅ has ࢅ beenࢅ mcrclyࢅ aࢅ risīࢅ t oࢅ bcࢅ run͗ ࢅ
ƫs ࢅ |orࢅ paiżtingࢅ anJࢅ t hcࢅ graphicࢅ arts,ࢅ |romࢅ thcࢅ
NJomcntࢅ\IÐLÒࢅARJࢅhitࢅthcࢅsccneࢅwithࢅthcࢅnotionࢅ
o|ࢅthcࢅinstallation, ࢅi tࢅhasࢅ bcenࢅiűpossibleࢅtoࢅűcntionࢅ
7 7
At/ǟ aoJǟ I-atǟ
CÒNϻLIJׄAŴࢅ ARJࢅ withoƚt ࢅ pickingࢅ upࢅ thcࢅ
backgrounJࢅ noiscࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ massࢅ mcJiaࢅ bchindࢅ thcࢅ
worJsࢅ anJࢅ obΡcctsࢅ oǧࢅthcࢅ artࢅ űarƾcŝ Ō ࢅ
Ŵi keࢅ JIĝĝIJǣS, ࢅ ࠿hcrcࢅ aࢅ ringingࢅ inࢅ t hcࢅ carsࢅ
pcrcciࠪedࢅ inࢅ thcࢅ abscnccࢅ o|ࢅ cxtcrnalࢅ noiscࢅ soonࢅ
bccomcsࢅ ǜnbcarablc, ࢅ contcmporarvࢅ arʷ'sࢅ Ƣt:s-:e//coǟ
c¡ǟ s//-o:-ǟ isࢅ inࢅ thcࢅ proccssࢅ o|ࢅlastinglvࢅ pollutingࢅ ourࢅ
rcprcsentaĹions Ʋࢅ
Ha˰ingࢅ Jigcs tcJࢅ thcࢅ criticalࢅ impactࢅ o|ࢅ Marcclࢅ
Ðuchamp' sࢅrctinalࢅ art,ࢅ l ct' sࢅhcarࢅwhatࢅ!rcnchࢅcritic, ࢅ
IatrickࢅɮauJay, ࢅ haJࢅ toࢅ sayࢅ aࢅ littlcࢅmorcࢅ rcccntlvǺࢅ
Jhcࢅpassagcࢅ |romࢅimagcࢅ toࢅph̶tographyࢅ anJࢅ thcnࢅ
toࢅ cincmaࢅ andɆࢅ morcࢅ rcccntlӀࢅ still,ࢅ toࢅ viJcoࢅ anJࢅ
Jigi talࢅcomputcrࢅgraphics,ࢅhasࢅsurclyࢅhaJࢅ tħɗࢅcژcctࢅ
o|ࢅ ǙcnJcringࢅ paןޟtingࢅ magniн۸ccntlyࢅ ·ū///a/a/t-ǟ
IaiҀtingࢅ ˜asࢅ Ƣnallyࢅ bccnࢅ rعlcascJࢅ |romࢅ thcࢅ
i magc-makingࢅ |unctionࢅ thaʷࢅ tillࢅߨhcnࢅ morcࢅ orࢅ lcssࢅ
conƠcalcdࢅ itsࢅ trʹcࢅ csscncc.ࢅ ĝoߩwithstanJingࢅ thcࢅ
' ncࡀ'ࢅ ˛gǜrativcࢅ art,ࢅ itࢅ isࢅ notࢅ tooࢅ |arǑ|ctchcJࢅ toࢅ sccࢅ
i nࢅ thcࢅ moJcrnࢅ ava˪arࢅ o|ࢅpaintingࢅ aࢅ o/s-ǟa oeǟo|ࢅi tsࢅ
csscncظࢅ Ǜhatࢅ isࢅ rcsolǜtclyࢅ I CÒʼnÒCŴASJI C.
Աࢅ
Atࢅ th˥seࢅ worJs. ࢅ youࢅ coulJࢅ bcࢅ |orgivcnࢅ |orࢅ |caringࢅ
ߪhatࢅ tیcࢅ waxingࢅ twcntyˀƊrstࢅ ccntǜrvࢅ wcrcࢅ aboŃtࢅ toࢅ
rcpǙoJǜccࢅ thcࢅ Ƣrs t ࢅ ycarsࢅ ݵ|ࢅ thcࢅ twcnticth. ࢅ albcitࢅ
unƁi ttinglyɡ ࢅ
˓nȬerࢅ thcࢅ gȕiscࢅ o|ࢅ Ē ncwࢅ tcchnologics' , ࢅ surclvࢅ
78
S//:oĿ:ǟ ·oǟ Tt/a/ǟ
whatࢅisࢅrcaưlyࢅatࢅworkࢅhcrcࢅisࢅthcࢅacĹualࢅƕĊÒĝIĝƅ, ࢅ
ovcrࢅ anJࢅ ovcr, ࢅ o|ࢅ somcࢅ SʠIŬRǑ, ࢅ noʿ ࢅ HȪIŬR-
Ֆ8SJRďōƖIÒЋࢅ thatࢅ willࢅ bcࢅ toࢅ φƼ rtualࢅ rcali tyࢅ
whatࢅ HȪIŬR-RLďĊISMࢅ wasࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ photographicࢅ
shotƲ ࢅƖhisࢅisࢅ happcningࢅatࢅaࢅ ti mcࢅƁhcnࢅsomconcࢅliɼcࢅ
Ĝouichiroŧࢅ LtoϜ ࢅ |orࢅ instanccũ ࢅ isࢅ gcari ngࢅ upࢅ toࢅ
launchࢅ Sɏʠʼnʐࢅ ōRŬļJͷRŬSࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ ր ntЬrnctࢅ
alongࢅ withࢅ hisࢅ ownࢅ mctaǑmusicalࢅ ambicntࢅ musicɡ ࢅ
ŭƌatࢅ thisࢅ mcansࢅ isࢅ aࢅ stylcࢅ o|ࢅpaintingࢅ notࢅ onlvࢅ
a///·e/ǟţ¿cƪ-sǟ butࢅ alsoࢅ a///·e/ǟ /oa¿-s.ǟ aࢅ ocs/:ǟ ·Žǟ //-ǟ
s¡Ũ-t-sǟ a///Ƙ«/ǟ s·«oJ.ǟ prcscntingࢅ thcࢅ Ǎvmptomsࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ
///oJ/e¿ǟ thatࢅ wouldࢅ bcࢅ thcࢅ cxactࢅ countcrpartࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ
s//:o:-ǟ ·¡ǟ //-ǟ /am/s. ǟ Spcaѭingࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ paintcrࢅ Ɩurncrũ ࢅ
ccrtainࢅ ninctccnth-ccnturyࢅ acsthctcsࢅ suchࢅ asࢅ ēaŕli ttࢅ
ijcnoŧnccijࢅ thcࢅ advcntࢅ o|ࢅ'1/:/ct-sǟ »ǟo·///o¿,ǟ aoJǟ ::¬ǟ
//k:` ǟ.ǟ´ Ȫouࢅ canࢅ ،ctࢅ thatࢅ soon,ࢅ thanksࢅ toࢅ Jigitalࢅ
tcchnologv,ࢅ :/::/t·-a:·«s//:ǟ musicࢅ willࢅ gcncratcࢅ ncwࢅ
|ormsࢅ o|ࢅvisualࢅ art. ࢅ Ĕ/::/t·-·1//:ǟ computcrࢅ graޠhicsࢅ
willࢅ similarlvࢅ crascࢅ thcࢅ dcmarcationࢅ lincsࢅ bctwccnࢅ
thcࢅ diȲcrcntࢅ artࢅ|orms .ࢅ
Ònccࢅ again, ࢅ wcࢅ willࢅ spcakࢅ o|ࢅaࢅ ƖÒƖţĊࢅ ļRJࢅ
oncࢅ noࢅ lonњcrࢅ inJcbtcJࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ cincmatographӦ ࢅ thatࢅ
artࢅwhichࢅsŧpposcdlyࢅ containcijࢅ allࢅ thcࢅrcst. ࢅƖhanksࢅ
toࢅ clcctronics,ࢅ wcࢅ willࢅ invcntࢅ aࢅ ŗĊÒ8ďĊࢅ ļRJϝ ࢅ aࢅ
Ʊ singlcࢅ artʉ ,ࢅ likcࢅ thcࢅ thinɼingࢅ thatࢅ subtcnijsࢅ thcࢅ ncwࢅ
in|ormationࢅ andࢅ communicationsࢅ tcchnologics čࢅ
Ɩoࢅ takcࢅ anࢅ cxamplc, ࢅ thinkࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ inѕucnccࢅ o|ࢅ
²3
At/ǟ aoJǟ I.atǟ
ıagncrࢅ onࢅ ĜanJinsƎyࢅ inࢅ l 9 l Ǣ,ࢅ whcnࢅ thcࢅ vcryࢅ Ƣrstࢅ
ţ8SJȨţōJࢅ canvascsࢅ cmcrgcdɌࢅ orࢅ thinkࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ
inʪucnccࢅ o|ࢅ Ĝurtࢅ Schwittcrsࢅ whoseࢅ ītscaa/.ǟ wasࢅ
coűposcdࢅ o|ࢅoralࢅsounJsࢅ. . . ࢅJhcn, ࢅo|ࢅcoursc,ࢅ thcrcࢅisࢅ
thcࢅ i nʪucnccࢅ o|ࢅȉAɯɯࢅ onࢅworksࢅ likcࢅ thcࢅ ' 8roadwayࢅ
8oogicࢅ ıoogic'ࢅ o|ࢅ ĝcwࢅ Ȏorkࢅ bascdࢅ MonJrian, ࢅ anࢅ
arti st ࢅwhoࢅwouldࢅ notࢅ havcࢅ aࢅ tclcphoneࢅ inࢅ thcࢅ houscࢅ
Jurinɷࢅ thcࢅ ycarsࢅ l 9ȟĤࢅ toࢅ l 9ʌȆ .ࢅ ͸nlikcࢅ ƴoholy-
ĝagy,ࢅ whoࢅ wasࢅ צlrcadyࢅ űakingࢅ JLŴL-IAIĝƖɠ
ĉĝȥSࢅ twcntyࢅyearsࢅ carlicrࢅusingࢅthcࢅcrankࢅphoncࢅtoࢅ
issucࢅ i nstructionsࢅ atࢅ aࢅ distanccࢅ toࢅ aࢅ signࢅ paintcrࢅ . . ࢅ
anJࢅ invcntingࢅ pictorialࢅ ĉ ĝJLȨAōJĉ\ĉJȎࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ
proccss. ࢅ
Allࢅ thisࢅ intcractionࢅ bctwccnࢅ SÒ͸ĝÐ, ࢅ ĊI CHJࢅ
anJࢅ ĉ ƴţȥL, ࢅ|arࢅ |romࢅ crcatingࢅ aࢅ ' ncwࢅ art'ࢅ orࢅ aࢅ o.aǟ
t.a//Njǟ toࢅ borrowࢅ tۍcࢅ namcࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ l 9˿ɉࢅ Iarisࢅ salonࢅ
JcJicatcdࢅ toࢅ Ćrcnchࢅ paintcrࢅ Hcrbi n' sࢅ gcoűctricࢅ
abstractionࢅ onlyࢅ Jcs troysࢅ t۵cࢅ naturcࢅ o|ࢅ art, ࢅ
proűotingࢅinstcadࢅ itsࢅ communication ࢅ
ƴorcovcr, ࢅ soűconcࢅlikcࢅţnJyࢅıarholࢅűakcsࢅ noࢅ
ߓcnscࢅ asࢅ anࢅ artistࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ Ðuchaűpࢅ mouldࢅ unlcssࢅ wcࢅ
unJcrstanJࢅ thcࢅ dynaűicࢅ rolcࢅ playcJࢅ notࢅ onlyࢅ byࢅ
signࢅ pai nting, ࢅ butࢅ űorcࢅ cspcciallyࢅ byࢅ advcrtising, ࢅ
thatࢅ lastࢅ AōţÐLƴI ōĉ Sƴࢅ thatࢅ hasࢅ graJuallyࢅ
invadcJࢅ thcࢅ tcmplcsࢅ o|ࢅƝ·/a/ǟ at/ǟ wi thoutࢅ anyoncŨ sࢅ
battingࢅ anࢅ cycli J͘ ࢅ Soࢅ littlcࢅ oȲcnccࢅ hasࢅ itࢅ givcn, ࢅ inࢅ
|act, ࢅ thatࢅwhcrcࢅ ' ōampbcll' sࢅ Soup' ࢅ notࢅ soࢅ longࢅ agoࢅ
ÙU
S//:a·:ǟ caǟ Tt/a/ ǟ
turncdࢅ intoࢅ aࢅ {a/a//a¿,ǟ toJaɟࢅ Iicassoࢅ has ࢅ bccomcࢅ d
·ĵt. ǟ
Las t ࢅ auƣ umnǠ ࢅ thcࢅ 88ƕࢅ bcganࢅ broaJcastinķࢅ
rccorJi ng̽ࢅ o|ࢅ murmursࢅ anJࢅ convcrsationࢅ noiscsࢅ
Jcs tincdࢅ |orࢅ thcࢅ oڟccsࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ bigࢅ cndࢅ o|ࢅtownࢅ whcrcࢅ
cmployccsࢅ complainࢅ aboutࢅ thcࢅ rcigningࢅ Jcathl࡙ࢅ
silcnccƲ ࢅ
Ē ŭc' rcࢅ tryingࢅ toࢅ gctࢅ aࢅ backgrounJࢅ o|ࢅ ambicnĺࢅ
sounJ' , ࢅcxplainsࢅ O spokcsmanࢅ|orࢅ thcࢅ8ritishࢅ stationԊ ࢅ
Ē Jhcscࢅ oڠccsࢅ arcࢅ soࢅ ̹uictࢅ thatࢅ thcࢅ slighƣcsƣࢅ noiscӧ ࢅ
ߔ uchࢅ asࢅ thcࢅ phoncࢅ ri ngi ng, ࢅ Ji s t urbsࢅ pcopl c' Ąࢅ
conccntraŦionࢅ which,ࢅ o|ࢅ coursc. ࢅ canࢅ lcaJࢅ toࢅ stȽȲӷ
· 5
ups ࢅ
!ollowi̲gࢅ thcࢅ muzakࢅ thatࢅisࢅ pipcdࢅ throughࢅshopĄࢅ
anJࢅ supغžmarŊctsǠ ࢅ l ct' sࢅ hcarࢅ iƣࢅ |orࢅ AM8I LЌ̓ࢅ
MɑRM͸RIʼnŗ, ࢅ //:ǟ :c/::ǟ ƛǟ //:ǟ :c/::/:ss!ǟ A˙߫crࢅ tƌcࢅ
promoti onࢅ o|ࢅ domcs ƣ i cࢅ cons umcri s mࢅ viaࢅ tƌcࢅ
cuphoriaࢅ o|ࢅraJiophony, ࢅ itࢅ isࢅ nowࢅ proJuctioݖࢅ thatࢅ
Ķndsࢅ i tscl|ࢅ bcc|cdࢅ upࢅ wi t ʫࢅ aࢅ soundࢅ backdropࢅ
Jcsigncdࢅ toࢅ improvcࢅ o̧ccࢅ li|cࢅ Ʋ Ʋ Ʋ ࢅ
Similarly,ࢅ ovcrࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ IompiJouࢅ ƕcntrcࢅ inࢅ Iaris.ࢅ
thcࢅ postǑrcnovationࢅ rcopcningࢅ cxhibi tion, ࢅ whichࢅ
wasࢅ callcJࢅ ' L:ǟ T:o{sǟ ://:'ǟ orࢅ ' T/o:,ǟ Ias/'ǟ wasࢅ
undcrscorcdࢅ byࢅ aࢅ soundࢅ picccࢅ composcJࢅ byࢅ Hcincrࢅ
ŗocbbclsƲ ࢅ
Hcraldingࢅthcࢅcomingࢅproli|crationࢅo|ࢅ//::ǟs/casǟí n
muscȕms, ࢅ silcnccࢅ hasࢅ bccomcࢅ iJcntiĶcJࢅ withࢅ Jcathࢅ
U Í
HtDŽǟ aoJǟ ǝōatǟ
. . ˄ ࢅʝhoughࢅ i tࢅ isࢅ trucࢅ ˖nougێࢅ dzǕatࢅ thcࢅ deaJࢅ toJayࢅ
ȭanceࢅ ̚ndࢅ siťgࢅ thanɼsࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ recorȮiˤɷࢅ process Ţࢅ
Ē էeathࢅ rcpresentsࢅ aࢅ lotࢅ o|ࢅmoney, ࢅ iDzࢅ caҁࢅ cvcnࢅ makcࢅ
youࢅ aࢅ star' , ࢅ asࢅ ďndyࢅ ǔarholࢅ |amouslyࢅ Žuipped.ࢅ
Ðon' tࢅ theyࢅalsoࢅsayࢅthat, ࢅ onࢅ theࢅnightࢅo|ࢅʼnewࢅĖearģ sࢅ
Lvcࢅ įɉġǢ, ࢅ theࢅ ' IÒSJǡMÒRJLMģ ࢅ ijuoࢅ o|ࢅ 8obࢅ
ĔarleyࢅanJࢅ ʬisࢅdauɷhter-inǡlaw, ࢅ LaurΆȂࢅHill, ࢅcouldࢅ
bcࢅ heaǙJࢅ allࢅ ovcrࢅ ĝewࢅĖࢅorkƔ
Էࢅ
Ònࢅ thcࢅ eveࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ ncwࢅ millennium, ࢅ theࢅ acstheticsࢅ
o|ࢅJisappcaraˤccࢅwasࢅcompletcdࢅ byࢅ theࢅ acsthcticsࢅo|ࢅ
aʢscnce. ࢅ !romࢅ thatࢅ momcnt, ࢅ whoevcrࢅsaysࢅ noDzhingࢅ
consentsࢅ toࢅ ceJcࢅ theirࢅ Ē rightࢅ toࢅ remainࢅ silcnt' ,ࢅ theirࢅ
|rccdomࢅ toࢅ listcn, ࢅ toࢅ aࢅ oc/s:-æaƂ/o¿ǟ {tc·:ssǟ thatࢅ
simulatcsࢅ oralࢅ exprcssionࢅorࢅ convcrsationƲ ࢅ
8ut ࢅ Ji dࢅ anyoneࢅ i ݗࢅ thcࢅ pastࢅ everࢅ ơҟctࢅ aboutࢅ thcࢅ
vcryࢅ parti cul arࢅ si l ػncЭࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ \I ƆІ 8LjL, ࢅ bestࢅ
cxempliоˠedࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ pictorialࢅ orࢅ sculpturalࢅ imagēࢅ
Jhinkࢅ o|ࢅwhatࢅAugustࢅǔilhelmࢅ ƭcllcgclࢅ onceࢅ wrotcࢅ
aboutࢅ Ȩaphael ' sࢅ Ēt:sJ:oǟ AaJcoaa.ǟ Ē Jheࢅ eƺectࢅ isࢅ soࢅ
immcdiateࢅ thatࢅ noࢅ wordsࢅ springࢅ toࢅ mind. ࢅ 8csidcs, ࢅ
whatࢅ uscࢅ arcࢅ wordsࢅ i nࢅ theࢅ |aceࢅ o|ࢅwhatࢅ oƺcrsࢅ i tsel|ࢅ
withࢅ s uchࢅ luminousࢅ obviousneǍsȠ Ϟ
̀ࢅ
Joday,ࢅ whenࢅ thcࢅ A͹ÐIÒǡ \ȦSI8LjLࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ massࢅ
mediaࢅ rcigns, ࢅ beamcdࢅ outࢅ twentyǡ|ourࢅ hoursࢅ aࢅ dayࢅ
sevcnࢅ daysࢅ aࢅ weeɼ,ࢅ whatࢅ remainsࢅ o|ࢅ thatࢅ ź:·/ǟ cǟ
/æo:J/aŃǟ olࢅvisualࢅ rcprcscntationƔࢅ A:J/aǟ{t:s:o/a//coǟ
dominadzcsࢅ cverywhereࢅ youࢅ turn.ࢅ
ÙZ
SŬ/-aŀ-ǟ caǟ Tt/a/ǟ
Strǵckࢅ Ē Jcaٺࢅ andࢅ Ē Jǵmb' ࢅ ovcrࢅ thcࢅ coࠒrscࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
waningࢅ centǵryǠࢅ thcࢅ visuaĬࢅ artsࢅ haφcࢅ takcnࢅ aࢅ
battcrĈ ngǠ ࢅ notࢅ onlʼࢅ |romࢅ theࢅ ao/oa/-Jǟ /oa¿-,ǟ buҬࢅ
cspccĈalǫyࢅ |roNJࢅ thcࢅ JALĜĉ LS. ࢅ
RcmcmbcrǠ ࢅ tooǠ ࢅ whatࢅ t hcࢅ pݶctࢅ saidࢅ whcnࢅ hcࢅ
insis tcdࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ |acҭࢅ thatࢅ soӸcalleJࢅ SILjLɬJࢅ cincmaࢅ
wasࢅ onǫyࢅ cvcrࢅ ÐLA!, ࢅ thcࢅ Ɗrs tࢅ cincma-gocrsࢅ oٻࢅthcࢅ
darkcncJࢅmovicࢅhallsࢅ bcingࢅlcssࢅ awarcࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ actors ʉࢅ
lackࢅ o|ࢅworJsࢅ tƌanࢅ o|ࢅthcirࢅ ownࢅ Jca|ncss. ࢅ Jhcࢅ earlyࢅ
Jevotccࢅ o|ࢅ tƌcࢅ scvcntƌࢅ artࢅ o|ࢅ cĈ ncmatographyࢅ
translatcJࢅ thcࢅ silcnccࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ movicsࢅ intoࢅ thcirࢅ ownࢅ
imagĈnaryࢅ handicapǠࢅ thcirࢅ pcrsonalࢅ ǫimitationࢅ i nࢅ
sccingࢅ wi tɹoutࢅ ƌcaringࢅ whatࢅ thcࢅ charactersࢅ upࢅ onࢅ
tƌcࢅ screcnࢅ wcrcࢅ sayingࢅ toࢅ cachࢅ othcr. ࢅ
Ȫctࢅ ƌaߕࢅ anyoncࢅ evcrࢅ expcri cnccdࢅ thisࢅ(-Ŏ//o¿ǟ Ÿǟ
/a¡ŭto/njǟlooīingࢅ atࢅ aࢅpaintingࢅreprcscntingࢅsingcrsࢅorࢅ
angcǫicࢅ musicĈans̄ࢅ ēarJǫyɡ ࢅ Soࢅ whyࢅ Ji Jࢅ thcࢅ aesʾ
thcticsࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ animatcdࢅ imagcࢅ s ǵJdcnlyࢅ Jisabǫؼࢅ theࢅ
vicwcrࢅ o|ࢅ sĈlcntࢅ ƢlmsǠࢅ rcnJcringࢅ strangclyࢅ dca|ࢅ aࢅ
personࢅ hi tǨcrtoࢅ notࢅJca|ࢅinࢅ thcࢅ slightesȼ̄ࢅ
Ē Looɻingࢅisࢅnotࢅtheࢅsamcࢅasࢅcxpcricncing' Ǡࢅ ̌ sabcllcࢅ
Adź aniࢅ recѭonsࢅ andࢅ shcࢅ woǵlJࢅ knowࢅ whcnࢅitࢅ comesࢅ
toࢅ looks Ȝࢅ AJĪ aniࢅ hcrcࢅ gocsࢅ oncࢅ |ǵrthcrࢅ thanࢅ Ĝa˚ܠa, ࢅ
whoࢅ cxprcsscdࢅ hi sࢅ spcciƢcࢅ anxictyࢅ toࢅ hi sࢅ ǧricndǠࢅ
ƅustavࢅ ȊaݘouchǠ ࢅ ζomcࢅ timeࢅ inࢅ thЮࢅ ycaĢsࢅ betwecnࢅ
l 9 l ġ ࢅandࢅ ų 9 l įǺࢅ
H3
At/ǟ aoJǟ I.atǟ
' C/ocoaǟ 4/s/«t/sǟ coc`sǟ :tstco. ǟ Jhcࢅ spccJࢅ oƈࢅ thcࢅ
movcmcntsࢅanJࢅ thcࢅrapiJࢅ changcࢅ o|ࢅimagcsࢅ |orccࢅ
yoƙࢅ toࢅ lookࢅ continuouslyࢅ |romࢅ oˤcࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ ncƝtɈ ࢅ
IJc«tǟs/¿//ǟ Jc.sǟ oc/ǟoas/.tǟ //cǟ1/·/«t.s,ǟ //ǟ/sǟ//.ǟ{/·/«t.sǟ
//a/ ǟ æas/.tǟjc«tǟ s/¿//. ǟ Jhcyࢅ іoodࢅ yourࢅ conscious-
ncssɈ ࢅ ĩ/cǟ ·/o.æaǟ/o:c/:.sǟ1«///o¿jc«tǟ-y.sǟ/o/cǟ«oµctæ,ǟ
a/coǟ |sct.ǟ //¬ǟa.t.ǟ oak.J. 'ǟ
' Jhatࢅ isࢅ aࢅ tcrriblcࢅ thingࢅ toࢅ say' ,ࢅ Ȋanoƙcɹࢅ saiJɈࢅ
' T/.ǟ -y.ǟ /sǟ //.ǟ a/o4caǟ cǟ//cǟ sc«ƈ. ǟ aࢅ Czccƌࢅ provcrbࢅ
says Ɉ ' ࢅ
Ĝaڲaࢅ noJJcJɈࢅ ' ĆI LjMSࢅ ARLࢅ I RÒĝࢅ SŘ͹J-
JLRSě Ϟ
ϵࢅ
סhatࢅ canࢅ youࢅ sayࢅ aboutࢅ thЬࢅ ' talkics' ࢅ anJࢅ aboƙtࢅ
thcࢅsc«o4-/ta·kǟ thatࢅputsࢅ thcࢅƢnishingࢅ toƙchcsࢅonࢅthcࢅ
cƺcct ࢅ o|ࢅmastcryࢅ o|ࢅtېԋcࢅ /æa¿.ǟ /ta·k,ǟ cƝccptࢅthatࢅ thcyࢅ
arcࢅaࢅ lotࢅmorcࢅɹarmƈulࢅtƌanࢅpcopƿcࢅrcaliŕc̅ࢅMustࢅwcࢅ
whcclࢅ inࢅ raJiophonyࢅ anJࢅ ȼclcphoݙyࢅ yctࢅ againࢅ toࢅ
cƝplainࢅ ' tƌcࢅ acciJcnt ࢅo|ࢅthcࢅvisiblc' ࢅӐ that ࢅgocsࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ
namcࢅ oƈࢅthcࢅ AȌɍI Ò-\I SȌALjƔࢅ
8carࢅ inࢅ mi nJࢅ ʐЯmЯny' s ࢅ bitࢅ o|ࢅ cƌronophoto-
graphyࢅ inࢅ wƌichࢅ aࢅ manࢅ moƤthsࢅ 'Ρ cࢅ t ' aimc' ࢅ toࢅ aࢅ
camcraࢅ thatࢅ onlyࢅ rccorJsࢅ thcࢅ movcmcntࢅ oƈࢅhisࢅ lips Ɉࢅ
ŭc' vcࢅ allࢅ sccnࢅ tƌcࢅsmilcࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅMonaࢅ Lisaͧ ࢅ ƌcrcࢅyoࠓࢅ
canࢅ sɗcࢅ thcࢅ smilcࢅ oƈࢅLticnnc-Ȋulcsࢅ Marcy' sࢅ prct tyࢅ
nicccࢅ asࢅ aࢅ prcl ƤJcࢅ tίࢅ ۏcaringࢅ Ҥ p˗cؘőࢅ ˗nunɕi;tcdࢅ inࢅ
|ront ࢅo|ࢅaࢅ microphoncɈ ࢅ
H1
S//:o::ǟ :oǟ TtŮa/ǟ
Ɨheࢅ contemporaryࢅ cݚsܬsࢅ i nࢅ tđeࢅ plasticࢅ artsࢅ
actuallyࢅ s tОrteJࢅ hereũ ࢅ a///ǟ //:ǟ :o«o:/aDž/:oǟ rǟ//:ǟ /æa¿:ǟ
:¡ǟ //:ǟ Tĉ1ĞĘ1Sǟ ao4ǟ //:ǟ ::o::o//ao/ǟ4:o«o:/a//:oǟ :¡ǟ :«tǟ
4:a¡e:ss.ǟ ĖҎuࢅ Joࢅ notࢅ lenJࢅ speecđࢅ toࢅ wallsࢅ orࢅ screensࢅ
withࢅ impࠔnityࢅ notࢅ wi thoutࢅ alsoࢅ attacƾingࢅ theࢅ
|reηcoࢅ andࢅ muralࢅ artࢅ anJũࢅ ulti mately,ࢅ theࢅ wđoleࢅ
panoplyࢅ oпࢅ theࢅ parietalࢅ aestheticsࢅ o|ࢅ archƽ tectureࢅ
everyࢅ bi tࢅasࢅ muchࢅ asࢅ painting͙ ࢅ
Aјerࢅ thؽࢅ m:,ǟ o:////::4ǟ byࢅ tđeࢅ whippingࢅ pastࢅ o|ࢅ
ڨlmࢅse̹ueɛcesࢅJenounceJࢅ Ůyࢅ Ĝaڳa,ࢅ i tࢅisࢅ theࢅ turnࢅo|ࢅ
tđeࢅ :at,ǟ /taǑoa//::4ǟsuJdenlyࢅ byࢅ i maginaryࢅ Jea|ness ěࢅ
ʡictimࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ warࢅ inࢅ whichࢅ theࢅ un|oĬJingࢅ o|ࢅti meࢅisࢅ
speeJeJϢ uγũ ࢅ t đeࢅ Γel dࢅ o|ࢅ percept i onࢅ s uJJenl yࢅ
becomesࢅaࢅ ̺eal ࢅ/a///Ŗi:/4.ǟ wi thࢅ i tsࢅ barƾeJࢅ commanJsࢅ
anJࢅ i tsࢅ sđrieƾsࢅ o|ࢅterrorɌ ࢅ wđenceࢅ theࢅ ̹uestࢅ |orࢅ theࢅ
ƆōRLAMࢅ asࢅ |orࢅ ĆLARࢅ conJucteJࢅ byࢅ theࢅ ŗ˗rmanࢅ
ŬxpҠessionistsࢅthrougđout ࢅtđeࢅtraumaticࢅyearsࢅo|ࢅtheࢅ
l 9įġsࢅקnJࢅ ԥ 9ūǢsࢅ whenࢅ theࢅ4/sƣ«a/Ż:a//:oǟ :(/ƃ:ǟsů/:o::ǟ
:¡ǟ1a/o//ogƿǟ ࡁoulJࢅusđerࢅinࢅ theࢅ impendingࢅtyrannyࢅo|ࢅ
massࢅ comΦunicationsࢅ tools ͗ࢅ
ɭhisࢅ bes̀owingࢅ o|ࢅspeechࢅ uponࢅ images.ࢅ uponࢅ theࢅ
whirlinۂࢅruҥhࢅo| Ɗlmũ ࢅmeantࢅunwi ttinglyࢅtrigȳeri ngࢅaࢅ
phenomenݷnࢅ o|ࢅ panicࢅ inࢅ whicđࢅ theࢅ auJio-visualࢅ
woulJࢅ ȳraduallyࢅ le̚Jࢅ toࢅ thisࢅ silenceࢅ o|ࢅ tđeࢅ lambsࢅ
wherebyࢅthƇࢅartࢅloverࢅ؍ecomesࢅ tđeࢅvictimࢅoƹࢅsounJ,ࢅaࢅ
hostageࢅo|ࢅtۑeࢅsonorizationࢅo|ࢅtheࢅ visibleě ࢅ I nࢅhisࢅ l 9 l ɉ ࢅ
tractࢅI«/«t/ǀ/ǟIa/o//o¿.ǟ T::/o/:a/ǟAaoŹ:s/:.ǟ Ĕarinetti, ࢅ
U3
Ht/ǟc»4ȑ I-Ķtǟ
a|terࢅ all ũࢅ JeclareJũࢅ Ē Òurࢅ sensationsࢅ mσstࢅ notࢅ b̢ࢅ
whisp˖reJͦࢅ weࢅwillࢅmakeࢅ thΆmࢅ singࢅ anJࢅ shoutࢅ uponࢅ
ourࢅƠɰnvasesࢅi nࢅJea|eningࢅanJࢅ triumphantࢅ|an΋רres ě ' ࢅ
Jheࢅ keyࢅ termࢅ hereࢅ i s ࢅthĈsࢅ ͼLࢅǔȦ LjLũ ࢅ expressingࢅ
theࢅtriumphࢅo|ࢅtheࢅ willࢅ toࢅwipeࢅoƚt ࢅ//-ǟǖc/:-sǟc(ǟ s//-o·-ǟ
throughࢅ Ȕheࢅ ȭi nࢅ o|ࢅ Ȕhoseࢅ |amousࢅ Ē noi se͓makingࢅ
machines' ࢅ tħatࢅ heralȭeJࢅ theࢅ ravagesࢅ causeȭࢅ byࢅ ǁheࢅ
artilleryࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ ŗreatࢅ ǔarě ࢅ
Anȭࢅ soࢅ theࢅ ƚpheavalࢅ i nࢅtheࢅgraphicࢅ artsࢅi sࢅnotࢅ toࢅ
beࢅ cħalkeJࢅ ƙpࢅ toࢅ phoȔographyࢅ orࢅ evenࢅ toࢅ cinematȹƧ
graphyࢅ soࢅ muchࢅ asࢅ toࢅ theࢅJďLĜĉ LSě ࢅAsࢅ aࢅ contrastũ ࢅ
bothࢅ sculptureࢅ anJࢅ architectureࢅ wereࢅ ableࢅ toࢅJreamࢅ
uޡࢅ andࢅ el aborateࢅ theࢅ myriaȭࢅ metamorphosesࢅ o|ࢅ
theirࢅrepresentationsࢅ anJࢅ thisũࢅ ΋ҟomࢅtheࢅ beginningࢅ
inࢅ |actũ ࢅ thanksࢅ toࢅ aࢅ certainࢅ ci nؾmaticࢅ aesthetic˄ࢅ
Ņ ̔oࢅ commanJ. ࢅ youࢅ mustࢅ Ɗrs t ࢅ o|ࢅ allࢅ speakࢅ toࢅ theࢅ
eyes Ũ ũ ࢅ ĝapolؿonࢅ 8onaparteࢅ Jeؙ޳eeJ.ࢅ Ņ Jheࢅ cinemaࢅ
mea҂ǚࢅ put ti ngࢅ yourࢅ eyesࢅ i nto uni|orm' ũࢅ Ĝaѓaࢅ
ؚon΋۹rmeJ˃ࢅ 8etࡂeenࢅ theseࢅ ߬woࢅ compl ementaryࢅ
assertioʳsũ ࢅ oralࢅ cultureࢅ hasࢅ slowlyࢅ evaporateJěࢅ Jheࢅ
artࢅ o|ࢅspeaki ngࢅ hasࢅ boweȭࢅ outࢅ be|oreࢅ theࢅ Ē talking' ࢅ
cinemaࢅ andࢅ theࢅ oratoricalࢅ powerࢅ o|ࢅ theࢅ politicalࢅ
tri buneࢅ hasࢅ beenࢅ Je|eateJࢅ byࢅ mcJiaࢅ cul Ȕureě ࢅ !romࢅ
nowࢅ onũࢅ whatࢅspeaksࢅisࢅ theࢅi mageࢅ anyࢅimageũ ࢅ |romࢅ
billboarJࢅ i magesࢅ toࢅ imagesࢅ atࢅhomeࢅ onࢅ theࢅ boxě ࢅ
ͽhereverࢅ JLLjLIRLSЀЋդЀࢅ hasࢅ takenࢅ oҴerࢅ
Ho
S//-o:-ǟ coǟ Tt/a/ǟ
|roȑࢅ IֳLSLNCL. ࢅ whcthcrࢅ physicaŤࢅ orࢅ graphi c, ࢅ
silcnccࢅ sprcads, ࢅ cndlcsslyࢅ ŵccpcninȳ. ࢅ
Havingࢅ Ůccŋࢅ wircdࢅ |orࢅ soŃnJࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ cnJࢅ oƈࢅ tĩcࢅ
l 9įġsࢅ inࢅ Ɋ 9įԺ, ࢅtoࢅbcࢅprccisc, ࢅȚithࢅthcࢅђmࢅ Ī/-ǟja::ǟ
S/o¿-tǟ thcࢅ cincȑatographࢅ hasࢅ notࢅ onlyࢅ pŃllcdࢅ
blinkcrsࢅ ovcrࢅ ƥicwcrs Ũ ࢅ cycsࢅ orࢅ ironࢅ shŃttcrs,ࢅ as ࢅ
Ĝaєaࢅ woŃldࢅ s ayƄ ࢅ ĉ t ࢅ hasࢅ also,ࢅ accordinȳࢅ t oࢅ ՗bclࢅ
ŗancc, ࢅsǐo/-ŊǟƋcƚk/o¿ǟ bc|orcࢅgoiŋgࢅonࢅtoࢅrcndcrࢅtےcࢅ
visŃalࢅ artsࢅ hoarscࢅ anJࢅ thcnࢅswiڹlyࢅ JŃmb˂ ࢅ
8yࢅ inجircctlyࢅ promotingࢅ t hcࢅ riscࢅ o|ࢅ JÒJࢅ AĊI ʆ
JARIAЍISM. ࢅըcȑocraticࢅŗcrmaΫyŨ sࢅ' siŤcntࢅproscʆ
cŞtionŨࢅpromptŤyࢅaŃthorizcJࢅcvcߑࢅkindࢅo|ࢅo-¿a/Ŵcożæ.ǟ
8carࢅ inࢅ ȑindࢅ μhcࢅ IJon|cssionࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ ŗcrȑanࢅ prics t, ࢅ
Ćathcrࢅĝicmollcrͤ ࢅ ' ıhcnࢅthcyࢅarrcstcdࢅthcࢅgypsicsɆ ࢅ Iࢅ
saiJࢅ notۓingě ࢅ ˔hcnࢅ thcyࢅ arrcstcdࢅ thcࢅ homoscxŃals,ࢅ
Iࢅ saidࢅnothiΫȳĮ ࢅ ıhcnࢅthcyࢅJcportcdࢅthcࢅȊcws, ࢅ Iࢅ saiJࢅ
nothingƄ ࢅ8ŃtࢅwhcnࢅthcyࢅarrcstcJࢅ mc, ࢅ thcࢅothcrsࢅ saidࢅ
nothinȳϪ ӑ ࢅ
Larlyࢅ warnŷnȳࢅ siȳnsࢅ o|ࢅ tƯcࢅ pitilcssࢅ natŃrcࢅ o|ࢅ
MÒÐLͶNࢅ JIMLǼࢅ asࢅ portraycdࢅ byࢅ ɪharlicࢅ ōhaǟ
plin, ࢅ thcࢅ visŞaŤࢅ artsࢅ o|ࢅthatࢅ historicalࢅ pcrioJࢅ ncvcrࢅ
ccascdࢅ ʞÒRƖȌRIĝŗࢅ ĆÒRMSࢅ bc|orcࢅ makinȳࢅ
thcȑࢅ JiĄappcarࢅ inࢅ aŇstraction. ࢅ SimilarŤyࢅ othcǙsࢅ
woŃlJࢅ notࢅ ccascࢅ JÒRJȌRȦNCࢅ 8ÒÐI̊Sࢅ a|tcǙʆ
warJsࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ tŃΫcࢅ oƈࢅ thcࢅ scrcamsࢅ oƈࢅ thcࢅ tortŃrcdࢅ
priorࢅ toࢅ Ŧhcirࢅasphyxiationࢅinsidcࢅ thcࢅ gasࢅ chambcnjs ϩࢅ
Ònࢅthatࢅ notc, ࢅ lctŨ sࢅ hcarࢅ thcࢅ tcs tiűonyࢅ o|ࢅ\alcsɻaࢅ
Ù²
Ċr/ǟ aaJǟI.atǟ
Ccrt.ࢅ thcࢅ actrcssࢅ whoࢅ s tarrcJࢅ inࢅ ʒcrmanࢅ Ɗlmmakcrࢅ
CƲ ࢅ ı. ࢅ Iabst' sࢅ l 9ǒˈࢅ ' strcct' ࢅ ыlm, ࢅ Ěcj/.ssǟ Ĩ/r../. ǟ
J Ɖcck.Jǟ/Űk.ǟaǟ1csdž.tǟ //a/ ǟaasǟo:Ǘ./. ǟ Iࢅ woulJࢅ scrcwࢅ
myࢅ Ľaccࢅ upࢅ intoࢅ aࢅ grimaccࢅ o|ࢅ inJignationࢅ oncࢅ
minƙtc.ࢅ thcnࢅқuictlyࢅJanccࢅthcࢅncxtě ࢅ8yࢅĪȕxtapos-
ingࢅinsolcnccࢅanJࢅswcctncss. ࢅharJncssࢅanJࢅcharm.ࢅ
withoutࢅ anyࢅ transition. ࢅ ĉࢅ rcprcscntcdࢅ |orࢅ thcࢅыrstࢅ
timcࢅ somcthingࢅ charactcris ticࢅ o|ࢅ ourࢅ ti mcs ȇࢅ
/os/aĻ////.ǟ Jhisࢅ wasࢅ inࢅ l 9 l ʏ.ࢅ tow
ש
rJsࢅ thcࢅ cndࢅ o|ࢅ
thcࢅҶar. ࢅ ̔hcࢅÐaJaistsࢅ didࢅ thcࢅ showࢅ asࢅ aࢅ matinccࢅ
i nࢅ 8crlinࢅ anJࢅ thcࢅ highࢅ ޢointࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ programmcࢅ
wasࢅ aࢅ raccࢅ bctwccnࢅ aࢅ typcwritcrࢅ anJࢅ aࢅ scwingࢅ
machincě ࢅ ŗcorgcࢅ ŗrosɁࢅ wasࢅ thcࢅscwingࢅmachinc. ࢅ
! JaaŁ.Jǟ/:ǟ //.ǟs:coJǟc(ǟ //.ǟ/ǘcǟ oa://o.s.
,
ťǟ
Ϻࢅ s tľllࢅ Ɗgurcࢅ comiݛgࢅ toࢅ li|c, ࢅ silhoucttcs, ࢅ shaJowsࢅ
ʪappinɸࢅ about̂ ࢅ thcࢅ :aƎ.raǟ c/s:ctaǟ ۔aJࢅ alrcaJyࢅ bccnࢅ
thcrc. ࢅ Joncࢅ thatࢅ withࢅ thcࢅ i nvcntionࢅ o|ࢅ visŞalࢅ
pcrspcctivc.ࢅ 8ut ࢅanࢅ animatcJࢅ imagc.ࢅ oncࢅ thatࢅ talks.ࢅ
callsࢅ oǴtࢅ toࢅ youࢅ . ě ˽ ࢅJhisࢅwasࢅ thcࢅbirthࢅo|ࢅaࢅsonorousࢅ
audi o-vi sual ࢅ pcrspccti vcࢅ thatࢅ |arࢅ outJi Jࢅ ࡃhatࢅ
instrumcntalࢅmusicࢅhaJࢅalrcadyࢅdoncࢅ|orࢅthcࢅhis toryࢅ
oĽࢅoralࢅ culturc. ࢅ SuJJcnlyࢅ IlatoŨ s ࢅ cavcࢅ bccamcࢅ thcࢅ
SybilŨ sࢅlairࢅ anJࢅ thcrcࢅ wasࢅ notࢅaࢅ thingࢅ thcࢅvisualࢅartsࢅ
coŞl dࢅ Joࢅ about ࢅ thisࢅ suJJcnࢅ i rrupti onࢅ o|ࢅ t hcࢅ
AǣÐĉ Ò-ɒȦSI8ŴL. ࢅ
ȩhcnࢅϺl ࢅȊolson. ࢅ t hcࢅwhitcࢅsingcrࢅwhoࢅmimickcdࢅ
HH
S//s»:sȑ coȑ 1t/a/ȑ
thcࢅ moɞemcntsࢅ o|ࢅ aࢅ ŇŤackࢅ singcr.ࢅ launchcJࢅ hiθࢅ
cclcŇratcijࢅ ' Hs//cȑ Ŗaææj` ȑ i nࢅthcࢅ Ɗrstࢅ talkinɸࢅ Δlm.ࢅ iάࢅ
l 9įDž͐ ࢅhcࢅҷasࢅ answcrinɸࢅ thcࢅ unartľculatcJࢅ scrcamࢅ o|ࢅ
LJvarJࢅ ʹŞnchƄ ࢅ I nࢅ l ĦĦū͐ ࢅ tȚoࢅ ycarsࢅ bc|orcࢅ thcࢅ
Lumiɴrcࢅ Ňrothcrsࢅ ۺnvcntcJࢅ cincma.ࢅ Munchࢅ haŶࢅ
tricJࢅ toࢅ ̷uΐࢅǎpࢅ thcࢅ paintcJࢅ imagcࢅ withࢅ aࢅ sortࢅ oټࢅ
SÒȍNÐࢅ RLLIL!. ࢅ whichࢅ wasࢅ untilࢅ thatࢅ momcnνࢅ
thcࢅ solcࢅ provi nccࢅ o|ࢅ mʹsicࢅ aˤJࢅ i tsࢅ attcnJanνࢅ
notationsě ࢅ
Simila̺ly.ࢅ arouάJࢅ l 9 l ġ͐ࢅ ncwŤV hatchcJࢅ aŇstracʆ
tionࢅwoulJࢅ typi|yࢅ thcࢅ biJࢅ|orࢅæs»/a/ȑscoct/Ȏa//c»ȑinࢅ thcࢅ
pictorialࢅ rcalmƄࢅ ēcrc' sࢅ thcࢅ Țayࢅ ʗanJinsīyࢅ put ࢅ i t ͤ ࢅ
ɄJhcࢅclcarcrࢅt hcࢅabstractࢅclcmcntࢅo| |orm.ࢅt hcࢅpurcnj͏ ࢅ
thcࢅ morcࢅ clcmcݜtary. ࢅ thcࢅsounJ. ' ࢅ
AnࢅaJـptࢅo | ࢅ thcࢅthcnࢅvcryࢅrcccnνࢅJiscovcricsࢅinࢅ thcࢅ
psycholoњӁࢅ oٽࢅpcr̟cption.ࢅ thisࢅpionccrࢅo|ࢅaŇstractioˤࢅ
ȚoulJࢅ scckࢅ toࢅ clcarࢅ thcࢅ Δclijࢅ o|ࢅ allࢅ thcࢅ |ormalࢅ
rc|crcnccιࢅ o|ࢅΔgurativcࢅ art. ࢅ Inࢅ thcࢅpcculiarࢅmannc̼ࢅ
o|ࢅ thcࢅ 8erܭinࢅ SchooŤ' sࢅ C1S1A1ǟTH1CKI1,ȑ ʗanࡳ
Jinskyࢅ woʹlJࢅ ti޴cŤcsslyࢅ pursucࢅ Ņ thcࢅ rightࢅ |orm' Ţࢅ Ù
pictorialࢅ ưanɸuaɸcࢅ Ņ thatࢅ cvcrόoncࢅ canࢅ unJcrstanJ' č ࢅ
I t ࢅisࢅ worthࢅ notinɸࢅi nࢅthisࢅ rɳgardࢅ that.ࢅ contraryࢅ toࢅ
thcࢅroma҃ti cࢅάotionࢅprcviouslyࢅcxprcsscJࢅŇyࢅSchlcgcl͏ࢅ
art'sࢅ mostࢅ scriousࢅ Jrawbackࢅ isࢅ i tsࢅ immcJiacy.ࢅ itθࢅ
abili tyࢅ toࢅ bcࢅ pcrccivcJࢅ a/ȑ aȑg/a»:sĭȑ
ȩhilcࢅ thcatrcࢅ anJࢅ Janccࢅ thoscࢅ artsࢅ involvingࢅ
immcJiatcࢅ prcscnccࢅ stillࢅ JcmanJࢅ prol onɸcJࢅ
UU
At/ȑ a»4ȑ 1saǕȑ
attcŋtion. ࢅ wcࢅ sumࢅuĚࢅ thcࢅ˰isualࢅartsࢅimmcdiatcly, ࢅ orࢅ
asࢅ goodࢅ as .ࢅ ʟhcࢅvcryࢅrcccŋtࢅdcvclopmcntࢅ o|ࢅȨˍAŴƧ
Jփʘˍࢅ comĚutcrࢅimagгryࢅonlyࢅcvcrࢅacccntuatcsࢅthĞsࢅ
cƺcctࢅ o|ࢅiconicࢅ stuĚc|action. ࢅ
ͽljcnccࢅcontcmporaryࢅart ' sࢅshrillncssࢅi nࢅi tsࢅ Ɵidࢅ toࢅ
Ʈcࢅ ljcardࢅ at//ca/ȑ 4s/avȑ thatࢅ isʋ ࢅ at//ca/ȑ »s:ssst/a/t»Ɗȑ
a//s»/tc»,ȑ withoutࢅrcouiringࢅ t̫cࢅ onlookcr' sࢅĚrolongcdࢅ
rcΖcctionࢅ andࢅ instcadࢅ goingࢅ |o̼ࢅ thcࢅ conditioncdࢅ
rcΖcxʋࢅ |orࢅ aࢅ rcactionaryࢅ andࢅ simultancousࢅ activityěࢅ
Ȣndࢅ strangcly.ࢅ asࢅ 8ritishࢅ artࢅ historian, ࢅ ʼno̼bcrtࢅ
ȋynton. ࢅ notcs Չࢅ
Siŋccࢅthcࢅthirtics. ࢅ wcࢅ havcࢅspokcnࢅ morcࢅ andࢅmorcࢅ
o|Dzcnࢅ alsoࢅ o|ࢅ anothcrࢅ sortࢅ o|ࢅ commi tmcnt. ࢅ ıcࢅ
Ɓantࢅ thcࢅ artistࢅ notࢅ onlyࢅ toࢅgivcࢅ himscl|ࢅƁhollyࢅ inࢅ
hisࢅ artࢅ andࢅ toࢅ ޤisࢅ artϹࢅ Ɓcࢅ alsoࢅ wantࢅ hiɾࢅ toࢅ
dcdicatcࢅ hisࢅ rcsourccsࢅ toࢅ pol܀ticalࢅ Ěrogrcss .ࢅ Ȥorࢅ
tooࢅ long.ࢅ thcࢅ a̼gumcŋtࢅ gocs. ࢅ hasࢅ artࢅ Ʈccŋࢅ anࢅ
orȀamcntࢅ andࢅ aࢅ divcrsionϹ ࢅ thcӒ timcࢅ hasࢅ comcࢅlorࢅ
t˝cࢅ artistࢅ toࢅ acccĚtࢅ adultࢅ rcsĚonsiƮiliticsࢅ andࢅ toࢅ
makcࢅ artࢅ aࢅ wcaĚon. ࢅAt/ȑ //a/ȑ4cssȑ»c/ȑ/s/]ȑ t»ȑ//sȑƆg//ȑ
4t:-t/sȑ a//s»/tc»ȑ(tcæȑ t/Į
ư Ś ȑ
ʝ̫isࢅ dcclarationࢅ o| ࢅ hostilityࢅ towardsࢅ thcࢅ pro-
longcdࢅ attcntionࢅ o|ࢅ anࢅ ņʼnĊņņȧLR.ࢅ w̫oࢅ thcnࢅ
Ɗndsࢅ him͕ orࢅ hcrscl|ࢅdcĶncdࢅ asࢅ ͲIĊIʟȢʼnʟ.ࢅ i |ࢅnotࢅ
ʘI Ƴքʟࢅ ՛Ȩࢅ Ėࢅ t»ȑa»jȑ :ass,ȑasȑæt/t/a/t»gȑ agat»s/ȑ//sȑ /aaȑ
c(ȑ //sȑ st/s»:sȑc(ȑat/ȑ isࢅ typicalࢅo|ࢅaࢅ Ņ |uturĞsm' ࢅ|orࢅƁhichࢅ
UU
St/:o::ȑ coȑ Ttta/ȑ
warࢅ wasࢅ thcࢅ world' s ࢅoŋlyࢅ hygicncčࢅ I t ࢅcoŃldࢅ onlyࢅ cŒdࢅ
ŃpࢅdiscǬpowcringࢅthcࢅgraphicࢅartsࢅducࢅtoࢅthcľrࢅlacīࢅ
o|ࢅsoŃnd͚ࢅ
Ćorࢅi|ࢅƠcrtaiŋࢅ worīsࢅ SI̊AĜ, ࢅ thoscࢅ thatࢅ SHÒŎɐࢅ
aŋdࢅ SCRLAMࢅ thci rࢅ paiŋࢅ orࢅ hatcࢅ woŃl dࢅ soǀŋࢅ
abolľshࢅ allࢅ dľalogŃcࢅ andࢅ rulcࢅ outࢅ anyࢅ |ormࢅ ˥|ࢅ
oucstioning. ࢅ
Jhcࢅ wayࢅ thatࢅ prcssŃrcࢅ |romࢅ thcࢅ mcdľaࢅ audicnccࢅ
cŋsŃrcsࢅ thatࢅ crimcࢅ aŋdࢅ pornographyࢅ ncƥcrࢅ Ơcas cࢅ
dominatۻŋgࢅ ɩ˓ÐͰÒˀ\Ͱİ˓ɩLࢅ programmcsࢅ soࢅ
muchࢅ soࢅ thatࢅ ourࢅ sƠrccnsࢅ havcࢅ rcaƠhcdࢅ s atŃratiǀŋࢅ
pointࢅthcscࢅdays. ࢅasࢅwcࢅallࢅīnowࢅ thcࢅblcaܡࢅdawŋࢅ˥|ࢅ
thcࢅ twcnticthࢅ ƠcntŃryࢅ wasࢅ notࢅ oŋlyࢅ toࢅ inauguratcࢅ
thcࢅƠrisisࢅi nࢅƢgŃrativcࢅrcprcscntation, ࢅbŃtࢅalongࢅwitѠࢅ
it. ࢅ thcࢅ Ơrisisࢅ inࢅ sc:/a/ȑ s/a/t/tǸȑ wi ߭hoǴt ࢅ whi ʣѠࢅ
t-]t:s:o/a|/::ȑ dcmocracyࢅ iŋࢅ turnࢅ disappcarsϪ ࢅ
Joࢅ thusࢅ ɞoƠľ|crouslyࢅ dcnounƠcࢅ ÒM̊RJ՘,ࢅ //Ɠsȑ
/aaȑ ăȑ//:ȑ st/:o::ȑ ăȑat/,ȑ andࢅ promotcࢅľnstcadࢅ somcࢅsΰʆ
callcdࢅ Ʊ |rcciŋgࢅup o|ࢅspccƠhǃ ,ࢅ wasࢅ toࢅ triggcrࢅaࢅ systcܼࢅ
o|ࢅ iŋ|ormingࢅ thatࢅ ȥcorgcࢅ Òrwcll ࢅ woࠕldࢅ l at crࢅ
portrayࢅ t oࢅ pcr|cƠtľ on. ࢅ N̊ıSILAʗ.ࢅ t hcࢅ languagcࢅ
Òrwcllࢅ invcntcdࢅ inࢅ hisࢅ ŋovcl.ࢅ ^/o:/::o-1/;/č-IcsĄ,ȑ
bcauti|ullyࢅcxcmpliƢcsࢅnotࢅonlyࢅthcࢅ/toga/s//:ȑ:/t:/Ŵsȑ˥|ࢅ
߮hcࢅ cmcҞgcŋtࢅ totalitariaŋľsms. ࢅ butࢅ alsoࢅ thcࢅ Ơrim·sࢅ
andࢅmisdcmcanoŃrsࢅ oĽࢅthcࢅaa4tc-:/saa/ȑ/ao;aav:ȑ o|ࢅt ەcࢅ
MASSࢅ MLɍͰɩࢅ and. ࢅ inࢅ particŃlar. ࢅ thoscࢅ o|ࢅ thۼsࢅ
9 l
At/ȑ ao4ȑ I:atȑ
4:oao:/a/cǣȑ /:/:ǫct::///ao::ȑ wcࢅ sccࢅ bcingࢅ installcJࢅ allࢅ
ovcrࢅ thcࢅ worlJƄࢅ
ȩhilcࢅpsychoanalyticalࢅcul turcࢅmanagcJࢅtoࢅbringࢅ
artis tsࢅ upࢅ toࢅ spccJࢅ withࢅ talcsࢅ |romࢅ thcࢅ !RLׅʐIANࢅ
Ͻĉ ɒȢʼn. ࢅ twcnticth-ccnturyࢅ poli ticalࢅ cul turcࢅ woulJࢅ
cmbarīࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ rocƎyࢅ roaJࢅ o|ࢅtryingࢅ toࢅ controlࢅ thcࢅ
silcntࢅ ma΢oritics. ࢅ ֻÒࢅ MȢĜLࢅ SÒƴLÒʼnˍࢅ ֹȢLjͱࢅ
wouldࢅ sȕdJcnlyࢅ bccomcࢅ aࢅ maĪorࢅ rcouircmcntࢅ withࢅ
tŐcࢅadƥcntࢅo|ࢅthcࢅpollࢅanJࢅ tclcƥisionࢅratingsࢅsys tcms ɇࢅ
ֺhcࢅ impcratiƥcsࢅ o|ࢅ s/a/:ȑ Ǭ::at/ǹȑ anJࢅ thݸscࢅ ol
a4::t/ts/ovȑ bccomcࢅ inJistinguishablcࢅ inࢅ iJcnti|yingࢅ
trcnJsࢅ i nࢅ pu؎licࢅ opinionɇ ࢅ ȢnJࢅ s oࢅ contcmporaryࢅ artࢅ
ƢnJsࢅ i tscl|ࢅJraggcJࢅ īicīingࢅ anJࢅ scrcamingࢅ intoࢅ thisࢅ
cscalationࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ uscࢅ o|ࢅ inƥcstigatiƥcࢅ anJࢅ promoɠ
tionalࢅ campaigns Өࢅ cspcciallyࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ ǣni tcdࢅ ƭtatcs. ࢅ
whcrcࢅ sponsorshipࢅ ө߯urnsࢅ i ntoࢅ ȷanipulation.ࢅ purcࢅ
anJࢅ simpl cě ࢅ Jhatࢅ is. ࢅ untilࢅ thcࢅ Saatchiࢅ aƺairࢅ oĽࢅ
autumnࢅ Ɋ 999. ࢅ whcnࢅ thcࢅ cxhibitioݝࢅ ' ş:osa//cƾ`ȑ atࢅ thcࢅ
8rooѮlynࢅ Muscum. ࢅ ƢnanccJࢅ byࢅ C/t/s//:`sȑ Io/:toaē
//coa/,ȑ hadࢅ thcࢅ unavowcJࢅ aimࢅ oĽࢅspcculatingࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ
valucࢅ oĽࢅthcࢅҶorƎsࢅ onࢅshowƄ ࢅ
I I
Ðcspi tcࢅ Magri t t cࢅ andࢅ aࢅ hanJ|ul ࢅ o|ࢅ othcrs. ࢅ
commcrcialࢅ iȷagcryࢅ ::t/a/ȑ at/,ȑ :/saa/ȑ at/ȑ woulJࢅ
wrcaƎࢅ thcࢅ havocࢅ wcࢅ arcࢅ allࢅ tooࢅ |amiliarࢅ wi thࢅ yctࢅ
whichࢅhasࢅĽorࢅsomcࢅrcasonࢅprovoܢcJࢅlcssࢅo|ࢅanࢅoutcryࢅ
thanࢅthatࢅwrcaīcJࢅbyࢅŅ SocialistࢅRcalismģ . ࢅthcࢅo̧cialࢅ
artࢅ oĽࢅ thcࢅ JcĽunctࢅ ƭovictࢅ ǣnioȀࢅ . ě . ࢅJhcࢅ :cæ/:ȑ s/t/]ȑ
92
Stƭ:o::ȑ coȑ Ttta/ȑ
iconographyࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ lľkcsࢅ o|ࢅRoyࢅ Ċichtcnstcľnࢅ takľngࢅ
onࢅ thcࢅ ɛoisyࢅsoundࢅ cΑcctsࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ !uturistࢅ machincs˹ࢅ
Mimmoࢅ Rotcllaࢅ apci ngࢅ systcmaticࢅ billpostingӪࢅ ctcƄ ࢅ
˔hyࢅgoࢅonƔࢅ
Asࢅ|o޵ࢅ AnJyࢅıarhol. ࢅlistcnࢅtݹࢅhi mǺ ࢅ' š/:ȑt:ascoȑ1r
Njato/to;ȑ Ĉ/tsȑ aajȑ tsȑ/::aas:ȑ Iȑ aao/ȑ/cȑ /:ȑaȑ æa:/to:. '
i Ķ ȑ
Ċikcࢅ Hamǫctࢅ rcintcrprctcJࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ խastࢅ CcrȷПȀࢅ
Jc|cctorࢅHcincࢅ MҲǫlcr. ࢅ thcࢅ ˔ARHÒĊӺMAɪHI Ѝˍࢅ
noࢅ longcrࢅ hasࢅ somcthľngࢅ t oࢅsayࢅ aboutࢅt hcࢅŅ workc̻ɂ ˹ࢅ
bȕtࢅonǫ
όࢅ
Пbout ࢅthcࢅŅ uncmploycd' . ࢅ
Somcwhcrcࢅ bctwccnࢅ Antoninࢅ Artaudࢅ anJࢅ Stcǫarc͏ࢅ
thcࢅAus traŤľanࢅ /cŲȑat/ts/,ȑ ˔arhoŤࢅ Jocsࢅ notࢅ b ȷu؛ۖࢅ
documcntࢅ//:ȑ:o4ȑcȑat/ȑ prcccdingࢅthcࢅcnJࢅo|ࢅhis to̻yࢅ
asࢅ thcࢅcndࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ manࢅo|ࢅartǺ ࢅ/:ȑ a/cȑ s]:aƪsȑ:::oȑ asȑƍ:ȑ
t:matosȑǭt/:o/.ȑ
˔hcthcrࢅwh̛tࢅisࢅ atࢅ issȕcࢅ ľsࢅ tḥࢅ manǵaǫࢅ spcɗchࢅct
thcࢅpaintcrࢅorࢅthcࢅboJľlyࢅspccchࢅo|ࢅthcࢅ miűcࢅ arti stࢅ˥rࢅ
Janccr.ࢅ wcࢅ arcࢅ nowࢅ Ťľvingࢅ inࢅ thcࢅ agcࢅ o|ࢅsuspľcľΰnࢅ
withࢅ doŞbtࢅ aboutࢅ thcࢅ crcatľvcࢅ |acŞŤticsࢅ o|ࢅ nak·dࢅ
manࢅ holdingࢅ sway. ࢅ
ıithࢅ //:ȑ to4t:/æ:oĈȑ c(ȑ st/:o::,ȑ contcmporaryࢅ a޶tࢅ
canƐ t ࢅ oࠖitcࢅ shakcࢅ oΑࢅ thcࢅ acccǵsatľonࢅ o|ࢅ passľvit͉˹ࢅ
inJccJ. ࢅ o|ࢅ pointlcssncssࢅ . . ě ࢅ Jhcࢅ casفࢅ ľnsti tȕt·dࢅ
agaľnstࢅ θilcncc, ࢅ citingࢅ thcࢅ cvidcnccࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ worܣs˹ࢅ
thcnࢅ cݳsࢅ inࢅ oŞtࢅ andࢅ outࢅ conJcȷnatľonࢅ o|ࢅ thНtࢅ
]tc(ao:ȑ]t:Ǻȑ thatࢅwasࢅs tľllࢅanࢅcxtcnsionࢅoƹࢅthcࢅpictyࢅOt
bygoncࢅ sacrcdࢅ art. ࢅ

Ht/ȑ ao4ȑ1:atȑ
Silcnccࢅ suddcnlyࢅ s topsࢅ bcingࢅ indulgcd̂ࢅ hcࢅ whoࢅ
saysࢅnothingࢅisࢅdccmcdࢅtoࢅconscntࢅtoȑs]t|:ȑ¿ȑ//æs:Ʋȑtoࢅ
΢udgcmcntࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ artistࢅonࢅ mcrcࢅ intcntion. ࢅ
Accuscdࢅ o|ࢅ congcnitalࢅ wcakncss. ࢅ thcࢅ silcnccࢅ o|ࢅ
Ľormsࢅ andࢅ Ɗgurcsࢅ suddcnlyࢅ turnsࢅ intoࢅ MŎJI SMǺ ࢅ
t hcࢅ mutismࢅ oĽࢅabstractionࢅ orࢅ thatࢅ oĽࢅanࢅ indctcrɠ
mѧnatcࢅ Ķguratiƥcࢅ artࢅ whoscࢅ ƥictimsࢅ wcrcࢅ toࢅ bcࢅ
ʒiacomctti. ࢅ 8aconࢅ andࢅ co.ࢅ
' Jhcࢅ lcssࢅ youࢅ think.ࢅ thcࢅ morcࢅ youࢅ talɻ' . ࢅ MonӅ
tcsouicuࢅ pointcdࢅ out. ࢅ Surclyࢅ thcࢅ samcࢅ thingࢅ applicsࢅ
toࢅ thcࢅ visualࢅ arts Ƅࢅ 1/:ȑ æct:ȑjcaȑ /a//,ȑ //:ȑ/:ssȑjcaȑ1ato/!ȑ
Jhcࢅ Ɗrstࢅ thingࢅ toࢅ goࢅ wasࢅ cra|tsmanship.ࢅ aࢅ ƥictimࢅ
oĽࢅ industrialࢅ manŞ|acturingࢅ |romࢅ thcࢅ cightccnthࢅ
ccnturyࢅ onwards .ࢅ Ȧnࢅ thcࢅ twcnticthࢅ ccntury. ࢅ i tࢅ wasࢅ
art' sࢅturnࢅ toࢅĽcclࢅthcࢅimpactࢅo|ࢅindus trialࢅrcpcti tionࢅ
hcadšon.ࢅ
\ictimsࢅo|ࢅanࢅartࢅthatࢅclaimcdࢅ itࢅ containcdࢅ allࢅ thcࢅ
othcrs.ࢅ withࢅ tcƿcƥisionࢅ Ľollowingࢅ hݺtࢅ onࢅ thcࢅ hcclsࢅ o|ࢅ
thcࢅ moƥics. ࢅ thcࢅ ƥisualࢅ artsࢅ haࠫcࢅ slowlyࢅ ƥanishcdࢅ
Ľromࢅ thcࢅ sctࢅ o|ࢅ historyࢅ andࢅ this,ࢅ dcspi tcࢅ thcࢅ
Şݞprcccdcntcdࢅ proli|crationࢅ oĽࢅmuscumࢅprǀź ccts. ࢅ
1/:ȑ at/ȑ NJȑ //:ȑ æc/ctȑ ăincmatographic.ࢅ ƥidcoɠ
computcrࢅgraphicࢅ hasࢅƊnallyࢅ tΰrpcdocdࢅ thcࢅ lackࢅ o|ࢅ
MÒJÒRȦɓAJI Òʚࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ ' prѧmaryࢅ arts' . ࢅ Andࢅ Iࢅ
don' tࢅ΢ustࢅ mcanࢅ thcࢅ occanographicࢅ artsࢅ orࢅ thoscࢅ thatࢅ
haƥcࢅ comcࢅ toࢅ lightࢅ atࢅ Jhulcࢅ inࢅ ʒrccnlandࢅ butࢅ also.ࢅ
coually,ࢅ //:ȑg:s/at:ȑ ¿ȑ//:ȑ at//s/ȑwho, ࢅ Εrstࢅ andࢅ Ľorcmost.ࢅ
J+
S//:a::ȑ coȑ 1t/a/ȑ
broughtࢅ hisࢅ boJyࢅ witŐࢅ ŐimŢࢅ |a/:asȑ :·t]csĿȑ allࢅ thĸseࢅ
IJorporalࢅartsࢅwhoseࢅvestigesࢅremainࢅthcࢅaIJtorࢅanJࢅ tĩeࢅ
Janăer.ࢅ SƙIJhࢅ motoriɁationࢅ thusࢅ preŰgƙresࢅ tŐeࢅ dis-
astrousࢅࠬirtuaŤiɁationࢅ oĽࢅIJhoreograpŐy.ࢅ thcࢅ grotesޯueࢅ
JanIJeࢅoĽࢅIJlonesࢅanJࢅavatars.ࢅtheࢅinIJorporcalࢅsaraࢅ banJࢅ
o|ࢅ somcࢅ :|ct:cvta]|/:ȑ ϻĖ8LR-A8SJRAōJIɏЏࢅ
whiăŐࢅ ࡄillࢅ beࢅ t oࢅJanIJeࢅ whatࢅ tŐeࢅ enIJĸJingࢅ o|ࢅ4/v//a/ȑ
HĖ͵LR-A8ƭJRAōJIÒЏࢅhasࢅ alreaJyࢅ beenࢅ toࢅeaseŤࢅ
painting.ࢅ
Jhcࢅ ЎaɁiࢅ assaul t ࢅ onࢅ 4:v:o:ta/:ȑ at/ȑ woulJࢅ thusࢅ beࢅ
|olloweJࢅbύࢅ theࢅageࢅo|ࢅ:cæ]a/:t-v:a:ta/:4ȑat/.ȑ AɑJÒ-
ƴAJIࢅI ARJ. ࢅIJŤcanseJࢅo|ࢅanyࢅpresenIJeࢅsa/ȑv:o:t/ǯȑ
anࢅ acsthetiIJࢅ IJleansingࢅ thercbyࢅ perpetƙatingࢅ tŐeࢅ
reIJentࢅ ethniIJࢅ anJࢅ ethiIJࢅ ăleaȁsingࢅ inࢅ tŐeࢅ theatreࢅ oĽࢅ
theࢅ աalkans . ࢅ
AnJࢅ so.ࢅ aĽterࢅ t heࢅ ƭAɪRLÐࢅ ARJࢅ o|ࢅtheࢅ agcࢅoĽࢅ
Jivineࢅ rightࢅ æcaat:|jȑ anJࢅ aĽterࢅ theࢅ IJontem˧oraǙyࢅ
IRÒĆANLࢅARJࢅo|ࢅtheࢅageࢅo|ࢅ4:æc:taůȑweࢅwiܮlࢅlooܤࢅ
onࢅŐelplcssŤύ.ࢅ orࢅźust ࢅaboƙt. ࢅ asࢅ aࢅ IRɏĆAʼnLϽࢅAͶ̔ࢅ
emergesࢅ i nࢅ μheࢅ imageࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ annihilateJࢅ IJor˧sesࢅoĽࢅ
Ǥtaaaj. ȑ anμiăipatingࢅtheࢅimminentࢅIJulturaŤࢅ aIJIJiJcȀtࢅ
theࢅiɽpositionࢅoĽࢅsoѽeࢅ multimediaࢅ Ʊ oڡIJialࢅ art' ࢅ
At/ȑ /t:aƬ4caa.ȑ IJonteѽ˧oraryࢅ withࢅ theࢅ Jamaɷeࢅ
Joneࢅ Ňόࢅ teăhnosIJientiƢIJࢅ progress. ࢅ Ȧ|ࢅ Ʉ moJernࢅ artŨ ࢅ
hasࢅ beeȁࢅ sύnonymousࢅ withࢅ theࢅ INɍǣSJRIՙĊࢅ
revolutiĸn. ࢅ ' postmoJernࢅ art' ࢅ isࢅ inࢅ eΐeIJtࢅ IJontempĸrʾ
aryࢅwi thࢅtheࢅ INĆÒRƴAJIÒʼnࢅrevolutionࢅ thatࢅŷs. ࢅ
9o
ńt/ȑ ao4ȑ 1:atȑ
ʺithࢅ thcࢅ rcplaccmcntࢅ o|ࢅ analogucࢅ laʳguagcsࢅ byࢅ
digi taĬ ̂ࢅ thcࢅ compȕtationࢅ o|ࢅ s cnsations. ࢅ whcλhcrࢅ
ͅisual. ࢅ auJѨtory.ࢅ tactilcࢅ orࢅ ol|aƠtory.ࢅ /jȑ ćcƇaat:.ȑ Ioȑ
c//:tȑ act4ćĽȑ //tcav/ȑ aȑ :cæ]a/:tȑƂƝ//:tįȑ
Aںcrࢅ thcࢅ likc. ࢅ thcࢅ ANALjÒŗÒŎS. ࢅ thcࢅ agcࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ
Ņ Ťikcly'ࢅ ˋLjÒNLࢅ orࢅ A\AJARࢅ hasࢅ arrivcJ.ࢅ thcࢅ
iʳdustrialࢅ s/ao4at4t.a/tcoȑ o|ࢅ productsࢅ manu|acturcdࢅ
iʳࢅ scricsࢅ combiningࢅ withࢅ thcࢅ standarijiŕationࢅ o|ࢅ
scnsationsࢅ anJࢅ cmoti onsࢅ asࢅ aࢅ prcl uijcࢅ toࢅ thcࢅ
dcvclopmcntࢅ o|ࢅ cybcrnctics. ࢅ wi thࢅ itsࢅ attcndantࢅ
computcrࢅ Ǵo:/tcot.a/tcoĞȑ thcࢅ cnJࢅ proJuctࢅ o|ࢅwhichࢅ
ʺillࢅbcࢅ thcࢅ virtualࢅ CĖ8LRࢅ ǔÒRLjʐ.
Ї ֶ ࢅ
I t ࢅmightࢅbc ࢅusc|ulࢅt oࢅnotc. ࢅ byࢅwayࢅo| ࢅȚindingࢅupࢅ
thcscࢅ |cwࢅ worJs. ࢅ thatࢅ thcࢅ hypothcsisࢅ o| ࢅaoȑ a::t4:a/ȑ toȑ
ALS1H11ICȑ :a/a:sȑ orࢅinࢅscicntiƢcࢅknoȚlcJgcࢅ inࢅ
thcࢅ agcࢅo|ࢅthcࢅin|orܽationࢅrcvolȕtionࢅisࢅnoࢅmorcࢅ|arɠ
|ctchcijࢅ thanࢅ thcࢅhypothcsisࢅo|ࢅthقࢅa::t4:o|ȑtoȑ!THICȑ
ȁa/a:sȑthatࢅshookࢅLuropcࢅinࢅthcࢅag o| thcࢅproijuctionࢅ
rc࠭olutionࢅ Ʋ . . ࢅ
ȩhatࢅ hasࢅ rcccntlyࢅ takcnࢅ placcࢅ inࢅ Austriaࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ
a|tcrmathࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ tragcJyࢅ thatࢅ hasࢅ bccnࢅ̷layingࢅ outࢅ
|orࢅ tcnࢅ ycתrsࢅ i nࢅ thcࢅ 8alkansࢅ provcsࢅ yctࢅ againࢅ thatࢅ
IÒƳIJIˋS. ࢅ Ĭikcࢅ AR̔. ࢅ hasࢅ limits.ࢅ anJࢅ thatࢅ dcܾo-
craticࢅ|rccJomࢅ o|ࢅcƝprcssionࢅstopsࢅatࢅ thcࢅcJgcࢅo|ࢅanࢅ
abyss. ࢅ oݟࢅ thcࢅ brinīࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ :a//ȑ /cȑ æat4:tȑ l i mi tsࢅ
؏liࢅthclyࢅ crosscJࢅ byࢅ thoscࢅ alrcaJyࢅgoingࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ namcࢅ
oĽࢅJHLࢅ MLʐIAࢅ ÒĆࢅHAJL. ࢅ
3i
¹)/ºs
Hr/ aud Iºar: au |u/r)dar/t)u
l ˃ ࢅ Iࢅ wÒuldࢅ lŸkcࢅ tǘࢅ thanīࢅ Ryanࢅ ̆ishǘpࢅ andࢅ \crcn΀ࢅ
džnijcrȷattࢅConlcyࢅ |ǘrࢅ thcŸrࢅ valuablcࢅ commcnĀsࢅ
on ࢅanࢅ carllcrࢅ draڿࢅ o|ࢅ thŸsࢅ IntrodǝctionĮࢅ Jȏcࢅ
cssaysࢅ publŸshcdࢅ Ѧcrc.ࢅ Ē džࢅ IŸtŸlcssࢅ Art' ࢅ andࢅ
Ʉ Еŷlвݤccࢅ onࢅ JrŸal ǃ . ࢅ ʺcrcࢅ originallyࢅ givcnࢅ asࢅ tʺoࢅ
Āalīsࢅ byࢅ ֮aulࢅ \irilioࢅ Πnࢅ l 999ࢅ atࢅ tĩcࢅ M΀cgѦtࢅ
LJǘundaĀŸonࢅ i nࢅ ĕai nĀš Iaul šŵcš\cnɖcࢅ i nࢅ tȏcࢅ
Еǘuthࢅ ǘ|ࢅ LJranɖcDŽ ࢅ ņnࢅ \ŸrŸlio' sࢅ conccptࢅ o|ࢅ tȏcࢅ
acs thcticsࢅoȰࢅdŸsappcaranccࢅsccࢅ Iaulࢅ\iÏilio. Ţ/-ȑ
A:s//://:sȑ c(ȑ D/sa]]-atao::,ȑ trans. ࢅ Ihilipࢅ 8cŸtɖhӇ
ma҃ࢅ ǶˑcwࢅĖǘrīŢ ࢅ ĕcmŷǘJcƝt Ƕ cĭ .ࢅ l 99 l ĭ č ࢅ
ƒ . ࢅ Ņ ēypcrvŸolcnɖcࢅ andࢅ ͮypcrscxualŸtyǹ ࢅ Iaulࢅ \irӇ
ilioࢅ Intcrvicʺcdࢅ b࡮ࢅ Niɖholasࢅ Мurbruggɂ ˻ ࢅ trans Ʃࢅ
ˑΠc۱ol΀sࢅ Мurbrugg˻ࢅ 1j://o:ȑ ȟ˿ࢅ Ƕ autumnȝʺintcr˻ ࢅ
ƒǢǢ Ԧ ĭ . ࢅ ppԒ ࢅ l Ĥ l ū Ū ࢅ
J 1
^c/:sȑ
ū . ࢅ I/Ɣ4.ȑ
ʍ.ࢅ JhcǀJorࢅ AJorno,ࢅ Ʉ ɪulturalࢅ Criticismࢅ andࢅ Sǀ-
ci ctyŨ ,ࢅ inࢅ śt/sæs,ȑ trans Ǹࢅ Saɚǵclࢅ anJࢅ Shcrryࢅ
ȩcbcrࢅ ƃ Cambri dgcࢅ ƴAɨ ࢅ Jhcࢅ ƴI Jࢅ Ircss. ࢅ
l 9ƓDžĭ ,ࢅ pě ࢅ ūʍ. ࢅ
ǓƄ ࢅ ɒiriliǀ.ࢅ T/:ȑ A:s//://:sȑ cȑD/sa]]:aǑao::.ȑ
ƓƄ ࢅ Iaulࢅ ɒirilio, ࢅ T/:ȑ At/ȑ ¿ȑ //:ȑ Ŕc/ct,ȑ trans Ƅࢅ ːulicࢅ
Roscࢅ ƃ ƴinncapolis Ţࢅ Ŏnivcrsityࢅ o|ࢅ ƴinncsotaࢅ
Ircsι. ࢅ l 99Ǔĭ Ɍࢅ Iaulࢅ\irilio, ࢅ T/:ȑ IDŽctma//coȑBcæ/,ȑ
tranι čࢅ Chrisࢅ Jurncrࢅ ƃ LonJǀnȝ ĝcȚࢅȪǀrkŢ ࢅ\crsǀ. ࢅ
ƒϭġġĭ .ࢅ
Dž Ƅ ࢅ ņnࢅ \irilioŨ s ࢅ hypcrmoJcrnismࢅ sccࢅ Ɏǀhnࢅ Armiࡴ
tagcࢅ ƃࢅcJ. ĭ ࢅ Iaa/ ȑ l/t///c .ȑ Itcæȑ Ac4:to/sæȑ /cȑ
Ŏ]:tæc4:to/sæȑao4ȑBŻco4ȑƃ LonJonǺࢅ Sagc. ࢅƒġġϭĭ .ࢅ
Ħ. ࢅ Jhcࢅ tcrmࢅ Ē banal۽tyࢅ o|ࢅ cvilŨࢅ wasࢅ کrstࢅ coincJࢅ byࢅ
HannahࢅArcndtࢅiܛࢅ ɪhaptcrࢅ ÍJ o|ࢅhcrࢅ1/:/æaooȑ/oȑ
¸:tasa/:æȑ ƃ LondonŢ ࢅ Icnguin.ࢅ l 9ƓԲ ĭ Ƅ ࢅ
9Ƅ ࢅ ȩaѲtcrࢅ8cnź amin, ࢅ ' JŐcࢅȩorīࢅ ݻ|ࢅArtࢅ inࢅ thcࢅAgcࢅ
o|ࢅ ƴcchanicalࢅ RcproductionŨ . ࢅ inࢅ Ő/am/oa//cos,ȑ
trans .ࢅ Harryࢅɓohnࢅ Ďʼnࢅ cwࢅȪorѮǺࢅ Săhocīcnࢅ8ǀoīs ,ࢅ
l 9Ɠ9ĭ , ࢅ p˼ࢅ įʍį āࢅ
H Ít/t/ºss Hr/
l Ƅ ࢅ ˓npǝblishcdࢅ intcrvicȚࢅ withࢅ ːacoǎclincࢅ Lich-
tcnstcinࢅ anJࢅ ʒĴrardࢅ ȩaźcmanࢅ cǀŋductcdࢅ byࢅ
!ranӊoisࢅ Rouan. ࢅ ƴayࢅ Ɋ 99Dž. ࢅ
9H
^c/:sȑ
įě ࢅ ŗabriclࢅ Ringlct. ࢅ L`ȑ L:aog//:ȑ 4` aoȑ ///t:-]:os:sĄ.ȑ
Dt:aȑs:tat/-// /aƗėǍa:Łȑ ƃ Iaris Ǻࢅ Albinࢅ Michcl. ࢅ l 99Ծӡ .ࢅ
ū . ࢅ Ci tcJࢅ inࢅ ŗrcilࢅ ƴarcus. ࢅ L/]s//:/ȑ Tta::sĺȑ Aȑ S::ǒŵ/ȑ
H/s/·tȑ c(ȑ //:ȑ Ta:o//://ȑ C:o/atȑ ƃ ĝcwࢅ Ėorܥͥࢅ
ēar࠮ardࢅ Ŏniχcrsi tyࢅ Ircss. ࢅ l 99ġʊ ,ࢅ sccࢅ thcࢅ chaޣ-
tcr. ࢅ Ʊ Ċipstickࢅ Jraccs ' . ࢅ
ʍ.ࢅ Jhcࢅ ti tlcࢅ o|ࢅ thcࢅ |amousࢅ con|crcnccࢅ ˧ap̡rࢅ
Jcli࠯crcdࢅ inࢅ ʡicnnaࢅ inࢅ l 9ġĦࢅ byࢅ thcࢅ archi tc؜t . ࢅ
Adol|ࢅĊoos. ࢅ
ˈ. ࢅ Ci tcJࢅ inࢅ RolanJࢅ ȉaccard.ࢅ Ʉ Laࢅ 8iblcࢅ duࢅ 8laߖ-
pėكmc' .ࢅ L:ȑ Aco4:,ȑ į9ࢅȉanuaryࢅ l 999. ࢅ
Ɠ. ࢅ Rcnаࢅ ŗimpcl. ࢅ¸catoa/ȑ4`aoȑ:c//:://coo:at,ȑ mat:/aƿ4ȑ
4:ȑ/a//:aaxȑ ƃ Iarisͤ ࢅ Calmann-LĴvy. ࢅ l 9Ɠūʊ ,ࢅ p. ࢅ <J<
ʏ . ࢅ I//4Ĩ ,ȑ p. į9 l . ࢅ
Ħ. ࢅ I gn׫cioࢅRamonct. ࢅLaȑ ŧtaoo/:ȑ4:ȑ /aȑ:cmmao/:a//džoȑ
ƃ Iaris ͥࢅ ŗalilаc. ࢅ l 999͎ ,ࢅ pp. ࢅ l 9ġ 9 l . ࢅ
9 ě ࢅ IaǴlࢅ ɒirilio.ࢅ T/:ȑ Io(ctma//coȑ Bcm/, ȑ trans ěࢅ Chž۾sࢅ
ƖurŒcrࢅ Ƕ LonJonȝĝcwࢅ ЛorkǺࢅ ɒcrso. ࢅ įġġĤʊ
ࢀࢅ
l ġƲࢅ LrnĄtࢅͱlcc.ࢅLaȑAơ::/o:ȑoaz/:ȑ :/ȑs:sȑ:/://m:sȑ ƃArˏбҦǺ ࢅ
SoliŒȝActcsࢅ Sud. ࢅ Ɋ 999͎ ,ࢅ ppě ࢅ įġʍ, ࢅ ūʍįěࢅ
Ɋ Ɋ .ࢅ JėiĄࢅwasࢅ amongࢅthcࢅissucsࢅJiscusscJࢅatࢅ Ʊ Imagcࢅلtࢅ
IolitioǴc' . ࢅ aࢅ con|crcnccࢅ chaircdࢅ ŇyࢅIaul ࢅɒirilۿ oࢅ
wi thinࢅ tėcࢅ|orumࢅ o|ࢅthcࢅ Ʊ Rcncontrcsࢅ intcrnatiݼ-
nalcĄࢅ Jcࢅ laࢅ phǘtographic' . ࢅ Arˏcs.ࢅ Ɋ 99 ʏ ࢅ ƃArˏбҦ Ǻࢅ
Actвsࢅ SǴdȝAĆAA.ࢅ l 99Ħʊ .ࢅ
l į ě ࢅȊcaݠˀChristophcࢅ8ailly.ࢅL`A]cs/tc]/:ȑma://:Ļȑ :ssŪƕsȑ
satȑ Ɩ:sȑ]ct/tat/sȑ 4aȑ IaĒcaoȑ ƃ Iari sͥ ࢅ ēazan. ࢅ l 99Ħʊ ϫࢅ
99
^c/-sȑ
l ɋ . ࢅ Ȉsࢅćorࢅ thcࢅcuriousࢅnamcࢅgivcnࢅtoࢅ thcࢅŅ ʘusĴcࢅdcsࢅ
artsࢅ prcmicrs' . ࢅouaiࢅ8ranĥyʋ ࢅIarisŢ ࢅarcࢅƁcࢅtalkingࢅ
ʚAJI\Lࢅ orࢅ NAI\Lࢅ artࢅ ȏcrcȠࢅ ȈboŞtࢅ anࢅ artࢅ
ƭA\ANJࢅ orࢅ anࢅ artࢅ SAȌ\ȈCLȠࢅ
l ȟ.ࢅ ȈntoincࢅdcࢅSaint-LxupĴry.ࢅI/Ʈc/-ȑ4:ȑga:tt-ȑ ƃ Iarisƞ ࢅ
ʒallimard. ࢅ l 9Ħƒş ʋ ࢅp. ࢅ ĦǓ. ࢅ
l ˈ.ࢅ İccࢅ Iaulࢅ\irilio.ࢅ 1/a4-sȑ 4`tm1a:/,ȑ onࢅ thcࢅworkࢅo|ࢅ
͵ctcrࢅ ȧlascnࢅ Ď Iarisƞ ࢅ Lxprcssionsࢅ coʁࢅ tcmpࢅ orɠ
aŷncs. ࢅ l 999ş .ࢅ
ĥ Ɠ.ࢅ Ņ Art. ࢅ ou cstࢅtaࢅ naturcՒ ʉ . ࢅaࢅ conćcrcnăcࢅhcldࢅ atࢅ thcࢅ
I nstitutࢅHcinrichࢅ Hcincʋࢅ Iaris.ࢅ Ħࢅ ʘarăhࢅ ĥ 999. ࢅ
l Dž .ࢅ Ȉxclࢅ ȧahn. ࢅ Cc1t-sȑ :cǛctæ:sȑ Ď Iari sɨ ࢅ ʚilӣࢅ ų 99Ħş .ࢅ
l Ħ.ࢅ Lrnstࢅ ȧĥcc.ࢅ c1. ://. ,ȑ sccࢅ thcࢅ ăhaptcr. ࢅ Ņ ˓nࢅ gĴnĴtӶ
iălcnࢅ dɂࢅAuschwitʽ' DŽ ࢅ
l 9.ࢅ ŏ//4.ȑ
ƒĤ. ࢅ I//4.ȑ
ƒ ܪ . ࢅ ȈࢅdǎbiousࢅacăountࢅoȰȉoscȰ ʘcngclc' sࢅcarccrࢅėasࢅ
rcccntܫyࢅ bccnࢅ Ƣlmcdࢅ ۶nࢅ Ccrʰanyԃ ࢅ
ƒƒ. ࢅܝā šĖ. ࢅ ʼnau. ࢅ ' T/:ȑ Lao::/ȑ prcndࢅ positionࢅ surࢅ ˏcࢅ
clonagcࢅ humalnǃ . ࢅ L-ȑ Aco4:,ȑ ų Ǔ ࢅɎanuaryࢅ ĥ 999. ࢅ
LJorࢅ thcࢅ cditorialࢅ oŞotcd.ࢅ sccࢅ T/:ȑ Lao:-/,ȑ ɋǓɋƞ ࢅ
9 l ʌDžࢅ Ƕ 9ࢅ ȉanuaryʋࢅ ĥ 999ĭ ϧࢅ ɐhcࢅ carlicrࢅ cditorialࢅ
condcmningࢅ Luropcࢅ andࢅ tȏcࢅ ȌSAࢅ Ȱorࢅ wantingࢅ
toࢅ banࢅ huʰanࢅ cѲoningࢅ ap˧carsࢅ i nࢅ TƎ-ȑ Lao::/,ȑ
ɋǓ ĥ ɨ ࢅ9Ĥ9Džࢅ Ď l Dž ࢅȊanuaryࢅ ԣ 99Լϙ .ࢅ
ƒɋ. ࢅ C1. ://ĩȑ
ƒȟ.ࢅ ƭccࢅ RƄࢅ 8oisscauࢅ inࢅL-ȑ Aco4-,ȑ Ɠࢅ Marchࢅ ĥ 999Ԅ ࢅ
I 0U
^c/:sȑ
ǒǓ. ࢅ ˋitcdࢅ iȀࢅ Ciorgioࢅ Ȉgcmbcn. ࢅ C:ȑ Ăa/ȑ t:s/:ȑ 4`ȑAaǨ:/-
a//ȋȑ Ď Iaris Ţࢅ Lcࢅ Scuil. ࢅ l 999ɢ .ࢅ
ƒƓ. ࢅ I/tJ.ȑ
ǒ Dž . ࢅ L//íta/tco, ȑ l Ɠ ࢅMarcėࢅ l 999. ࢅ
ǒĦ. ࢅ Axclࢅ ͱahn. ࢅ Ņ L' Ȉcharncmcntࢅ procrĴatiٷ,ࢅ L:ȑ
Aco4:,ȑ Ɋ Ɠࢅ Marchࢅ ˇ 999. ࢅ
į9. ࢅ L//íta/tco, ȑ įĦࢅ !cbrǎaryࢅ l 999. ࢅ
ūǢ. ࢅ Ca:ǧ/-IǏao::,ȑ l ū l ϱ Marchࢅ ˇ 999. ࢅ
ū l ࢅ Hansࢅ Ͳagnusࢅ Lnʽcnsbcrgcr.ࢅ I:a///:/av:ȑ Ď IaǙi s ǹ ࢅ
ʒallimard.ࢅ l 99Ħɢ ˂ࢅ
ūƒ. ࢅ I/tJȑ
òt/ºurº cu 1rta/
l . ࢅ ` P subtractivcࢅ colourࢅ proccssࢅ dɳvclopcdࢅ inࢅ
Cc̺maȀyࢅ byࢅ Ag|aࢅ ȈCࢅ ćorࢅ ų Ɠ ࢅmmࢅ Űlmࢅ inࢅ ų ՀūƓࢅ
anijࢅ |orࢅ ū˿ࢅ mmࢅ ђmࢅ i nࢅ l 9ϱԟŪࢅ Ag|acolor ԅࢅƁasࢅ aࢅ
triβaƎࢅ colourࢅ proccss. ࢅ inࢅ Ɓėicėࢅ tđrccࢅ cmulsŷonࢅ
laycrs.ࢅ cachࢅ scnsitivcࢅ Āoࢅ oȀcࢅ o|ࢅ tđcࢅ primНryࢅ
colours.ࢅ wcrcࢅ laidࢅ onࢅ aࢅ singlcࢅ basc. ' ࢅ Í . ȧoni̩s-
bǎrg.ࢅ T/:ȑ Ccæ]/:/:ȑ I//æȑ ň/:/tcoaǟ,ȑ ƒndࢅ cdnࢅ
Ƕ LĸndonŢ ࢅ 8loomsbury. ࢅ l 99Dž ɢ . ࢅpDŽ ࢅ Ħ. ࢅ
ǒ. ࢅ T/:ȑ¸a..ȑ S/og:t,ȑ thcࢅͮollyƁoodࢅڱmࢅŵircctcdࢅ byࢅ
Ȉlפnࢅ ˋroslandࢅ andࢅ s Āarrin̩ࢅ singcrࢅ Alࢅ ɎolsҌn. ࢅ
marƎsࢅ tĘcࢅcincmato̩rapėɃ sࢅcntryࢅintoࢅ thcࢅa̡̩ࢅo|ࢅ
thcࢅJALĜILS. ࢅ onࢅ ǒūࢅ ÒctoƟcrࢅ ų 9į͡ ࢅ thcࢅ d̙tcࢅ
o|ࢅŦhcࢅƊrstࢅ pſblicࢅ scrccningԆ ࢅ
I 0 l
^c/:sȑ
ū Ʃ ࢅ Iatricīࢅ \auŵay. ࢅ Ʉ̘ࢅ a-tšilࢅ uncࢅ ĚciǗturcࢅ sansࢅ
i magcȡǃ . ࢅ aࢅ papcrࢅgivcnࢅ atࢅaࢅ scminarࢅhclŵࢅ Ňyࢅthcࢅ
Collɴgcࢅ Intcrnationalࢅ dcࢅ Ihilosophic. ࢅ Iaris, ࢅ
dǴringࢅitsࢅ ĥ 999 ȆĤĤĤࢅ programmc. ࢅ
ʌ. ࢅ NorŇcrtࢅ Lynt oǗ. ࢅ 1/:ȑ S/c Ǡȑ c(ȑ Ac4:toȑ At/ȑ
Ď ƳonŵoʁȝNcwࢅ Ėorkͣࢅ Ihaidon. ࢅ ȆĤĤ ĥ ĭ . ࢅ ĚƩࢅ ĥ ʌ.ࢅ
Ȱromࢅ Chaptcrࢅ I . ࢅ ' Jhcࢅ Ncwࢅ 8arŇariaǗsɃࢅ Ď origin-
allyࢅpuŇlishcdࢅ l 9ĦĤĭ čࢅ
ǓƩ ࢅ ' Ƴaࢅ 88Cࢅ iǗvcntcࢅ սcࢅ ӌMurmſrcࢅ d' amŇiaʁccϏ Ƀ . ࢅ
řa:s/ĠItao::,ȑ ĥ ʎ ࢅÒctoŇcrࢅ ų 999. ࢅ
Ɠ. ࢅ L-ȑItvatc,ȑ ȟࢅɎaǗǎaryࢅ ȆĤĤĤč ࢅ
DžDŽ ࢅ AugustࢅƷilhclmࢅ Schlcgcl. ࢅ Ia/o/tovsĦȑ
Ħԇࢅ ȥustaɞࢅɎaʁǘǎch.ࢅ Cca::tsa/tcosȑ Ut//ȑ Œa(a,ȑ trans. ࢅ
ȥoroʁwyࢅ Rccsࢅ ĎNcwࢅ ̘orīՅࢅ Ncwࢅ Ðircctions. ࢅ
l 9͡ ĥ ĭ . ࢅp. ࢅ ų ʎĤࢅ Ď ߦranslatioǗࢅ modiŰcdĭ Ăࢅ
9. ࢅ Ŗ ˑuitࢅ dǎࢅ cinĴܺaࢅ ctࢅ ŵcࢅ laࢅ danscࢅ allcmandcࢅ
Ď ĥ ́ ų Ĥ l 99Ǣĭ ǃ . ࢅ Ěrcscntcdࢅ ؋yࢅ aniclࢅ ÐoŇbclsࢅ atࢅ
thcࢅ CinĴmathʧoucࢅ Ȱranٸaisc. ࢅ ֭aris. ࢅ lĦࢅɎanǎaryࢅ
ȆԠĤĤ.ࢅ \alcsīaࢅ Ccrtࢅ isࢅ oǎotcŵࢅ Ňyࢅ MƩ ࢅ ЁosscǗࢅ inࢅ
thcࢅ showǃ sࢅ catalogǎcϧ ࢅ
l Ĥ.ࢅ NǀrƮcrtࢅ ĊyntoǗ. ࢅ c].ȑ :t/. ,ȑ p. ࢅ ūǓ9. ࢅ ćromࢅ ChaĚtcrࢅ
ĥ ԭ.ࢅ ' Jhcࢅ Artistࢅinࢅ ModcrǗࢅ Socictyǃ ˃ࢅ
l l čࢅ Harryࢅ 8cllct. ࢅ ' ƕhristicǃ s. ࢅ Saatchiࢅ ctࢅ վcࢅ mǎsĴcࢅ ŵcࢅ
8rooklynǃ .ࢅ L:ȑAco4:,ȑ wiʁtcrࢅ l 999. ࢅ
ų Ȇ.ࢅ AndyࢅƷarhǘl.ࢅDZuotcŵࢅinࢅNorŇcrtࢅLyntoǗ. ࢅc]. :t/ ,ȑ
pƩ Ȇ9ʌĮ ࢅ
ų ū .ࢅ ' Вuitcࢅ apartࢅ |romࢅ thcࢅ supprcssiǘnࢅ ǀȰࢅdcƊnitclyࢅ
l 02
^c/:sȑ
hcrctlcalࢅ wo˨ŵs. ࢅ ˨cductionࢅ olࢅ voăabularyࢅ ҵasࢅ
rc
љ
arŵcdࢅ asࢅ anࢅ cndࢅ i nࢅ itsclږࢅ anŵࢅ noࢅ wordࢅ ߧhatࢅ
coulŵࢅ bcࢅŵispcnscdࢅ ҵl thࢅwasࢅallowcdࢅ toࢅsǴrࠩŷ˰cϨࢅ
ʼnƇwspcaΤࢅ wasࢅ Jcsigncdࢅ notࢅ toࢅ cxtcndࢅ but toࢅ
4tƶto/s/ȑ thcࢅ rangcࢅ olࢅthought.ࢅ andࢅ thisࢅ purޞoscࢅ
w˕sࢅ indi˨cctlyࢅ assistcdࢅ bv cuttingࢅ thcࢅ choiʣcࢅ olࢅ
worŵsࢅ downࢅ toࢅ aࢅ ȷinimumƲ Ɛ ࢅ Ccorgcࢅ ņr࠾cll, ࢅ
^Ƙo:/::oĢ1/;/č-Icatȑ Ƕ Ċonŵonͣ ࢅ Icnguin. ࢅ ų ՁԽ9ĭ ,ࢅ
p.ࢅ ԯ ų ԰ ࢅ Ƕ Ķrs t ࢅpuŇllshcdࢅ l 9ȟ9ĭ .ࢅ
l 03
1t//t):ra1h
ļdorno.ࢅJŪ ࢅĎ l 9ʎDžş .ࢅ Ņ ƕultċralࢅCri ticismࢅandࢅƭocict͉ϐ . ࢅ
i nࢅ It/sms,ȑ trans .ࢅ ƭ. ࢅ Ʒcbcrࢅ andࢅ ƭ. ࢅ Ʒcbcr. ࢅ Caܻʾ
brŷdgc.ࢅ MAƞ ࢅ Jhcࢅ MIJࢅ IrcssƲࢅ
ļrcndλ. ࢅ HƩ ࢅ Ď l 9ʎɋş .ࢅ !/:/æaooȑ /oȑ ¸-tasa/-m,ȑ LݴndoȀՆ ࢅ
͵cnہċŷn. ࢅ
ļrmi tagc.ࢅ ̍DŽ ࢅ Ď cd . ş ࢅ Ƕ ǒ͝͝͝ş .ࢅ Iaa/ȑ ltt///c . ȑ !tDžmȑ
Ac4-totsæȑ /cȑ Hj]-tæc4-Ǟ/smȑ ao4ȑ Lźco4,ȑ LondoȀՇ ࢅ
ƭagc. ࢅ
8aill͉. ࢅעDŽ Ƿ C. ࢅ ƃ ĥ 99Ħş .ࢅ L`A1cs/tc1ƌ-ȑ ma-//-Ĺȑ -ssa/sȑsatȑ/-ǩȑ
1ct/tat/sȑ 4aȑ Iajcao,ȑ Iarisͣ ࢅ ēaʽan. ࢅ
8cllct.ࢅ ēŪ ࢅ Ď l Ղ99ş .ࢅ ƨ Christicǃ s. ࢅ ƭaatchŷࢅ ctࢅտcࢅ musĴcࢅتcࢅ
8rooɻlynϑ .ࢅ L-ȑ Aco4-,ȑ winλcrƲ ࢅ
8cnȵ amin.ࢅ ƷDŽ ࢅ Ď l 9ʎ9ş .ࢅ ŅJŐcࢅȩorkࢅoćࢅļrtࢅinࢅ thcࢅPÞc
o|ࢅ Ĕcchanicalࢅ Rcproductionϐ . ࢅ i nࢅ I//amtoa//·ƽǪ,ȑ
trans .ࢅ H. ࢅ ɓoŐn. ࢅ Ncwࢅ ĖorkŢࢅ ƭcŐockcnࢅ8ְ֧ܟs DŽࢅ
ŬnɁcnsbcrgcr. ࢅ ͯ. ࢅ Ĕ. ࢅ ӟ Ԥ 99ˉş .ࢅ !-at//-/ag-,ȑ IariߒՈ ࢅ
CalliȑardDŽࢅ
l Ub
Bt//tcgǐa]/jȑ
Ѓimpcl,ࢅ RƩࢅ Ď ų 9ϳūş .ࢅőcatoa/ȑ4`aoȑ :c//::/tcoo:at,ȑ mat:/ao4ȑ
4:ȑ /a//:aax,ȑ Iarisɨ ࢅ ōaĥmann-LĴvyԉࢅ
̍aůcard.ࢅ RԈ ࢅ Ď ĥ 999ş .ࢅ ' Laࢅ 8i Ʈl cࢅ duࢅ 8lasphɴmcǃ Ļ ࢅ L:ȑ
Aca4:, ȑ ǒ9ࢅɎanuaryƩ ࢅ
̍anouůh. ࢅ ŗɇ ࢅ Ď ˇ 9Dž ų ĭ . ࢅCco::tsa/tcosȑ at//ȑ œa(a, ȑ trans āࢅ
ȥƩࢅ Rccs. ࢅ Ƶcwࢅ Ėorkƞ ࢅ ʼncwࢅ ɍircůtions āࢅ
ȧahn. ࢅ ^. Ď ĥ 99ˉĭ .ࢅ Cc1t:sȑ :coŽctm:s,ȑ Iarisȇ ࢅ ʼnilDŽ ࢅ
ȧahn. ࢅ ȢĂ ࢅ Ď ĥ 999ş .ࢅ ' ȋǃ Aůharncmcntࢅ proůrĴatiٹ,ࢅ L:ȑ
Aca4:, ȑ ų ϳ ࢅMarchɇ ࢅ
ȧĥcc
Ϛࢅ
Lā ࢅ Ď ĥ 999ĭ .ࢅ Laȑ AƠ::to:ȑ oa.t:ȑ :/ȑ s:sȑ :t:/tæ:s,ȑ
Ar۷csƞ ࢅ SolinȝAůtcsࢅ Sudࢅ
֑ynton, ࢅ ʼn͖ࢅ Ď ǒġġ ĥ ş . ࢅT/:ȑ S/cǡȑ ¿ȑAc4:taȑAt/,ȑ Ljondonȝࢅ
ƵcƁࢅ̘orkƞࢅ IhaidonƩ ࢅ
MarůŞs, ࢅ ŗƩ ࢅ Ď ų 99ġş .ࢅ Lt1s/t:/ȑ Tta::s.ȑ Aȑ S::t:/ȑHts/ctȑc(ȑ
//:ȑ TȂ:o/t://ȑ C:o/aǢ,ȑ NcƁࢅ Ėorkȇ ࢅ Harvardࢅ Ŏni-
˰crsi tyࢅ Ircss Ʃࢅ
ʼnau. ̍ɇ Ƿ̘ɇ ࢅ Ď ĥ 999ş .ࢅ ' T/:ȑ Lao::/ȑ prطnثࢅ positionࢅsurࢅ ˏcࢅ
ůloΪagcࢅ humai nǃ , ࢅ L:ȑ Aco4:,ȑ ĥ Ǔ ࢅȉaݔuaryā ࢅ
Òrwcll, ࢅ CĮ ࢅ Ď ų 9ˉ9ş .ࢅ ^to:/::o-Ltv/Č-Icat,ȑ Londonȇࢅ
IcΪguinĂ ࢅ
RamoΪct, ࢅ I. ࢅ Ď ĥ 999ş .ࢅ Laȑ Ŧtaoot:ȑ 4:ȑ/aȑ:cmmaot:a/tco,ȑ
Iaris Ţࢅ ȥalilĴcā ࢅ
ֲingl ct, ࢅ ȥā ࢅ Ď ĥ 99Ħş .ࢅ L`L:aovt/:ȑ 4` aaȑ /t/t:ĥ:os:at.ȑ Dt:aȑ
s:tat/-t/ȑ /aƒĖĂa:?ȑ Iari sƞ ࢅ Albinࢅ Miůhclā ࢅ
SaintǷLxupĴry, ࢅ AĂ ࢅ dcࢅ Ď ų 9Ħǒş .ࢅ It/c/:ȑ 4:ȑga:tt:,ȑ Iaris Ţࢅ
Ѓallimardɇࢅ
l0o
L///tcgtc]/jȑ
\˟rilioȅ ࢅ Ì. l JJ l ) ,ȑ T/:ȑ A:s//:/t:sȑ cȑ ʼntsa]]:ctco:ų,ȑ
trans .ࢅ I.ࢅ 8citchmanȅࢅ Ncwࢅיorīƞ ࢅ ScmioJcxt ˸ cɢ .ࢅ
\irilioȅ ࢅ Ì. Ĵ JJĸě Ĝȑ T/:ȑ At/ȑ cȑ //:ȑ Ac/ct,ȑ trans .ࢅ ףƄ ࢅ
Roscȅ ࢅ Minncapolisƞ ࢅ Ŏnivcrsityࢅ olࢅ Mi nncsot aࢅ
Ircss Ūࢅ
\irilioȅ ࢅ Ì. l JJJ) , ȑŋ/eJ:sȑ J` tæ]a:/,ȑ Iarisƞ ࢅ Lxprcssioݕsࢅ
Contcmporaincs .ࢅ
\irilioȅࢅ Ì. ˸ ƒĤĤɉş ȅ ࢅ 1/:ȑ Iožctmc/tcoȑ Bcæ/, ȑ trans .ࢅ L.
Jurn΅rȅࢅ LondonϬˑ΅wࢅĖorkƞࢅ ɒcrso.ࢅ
ɓſrbrugg,ࢅ NƄ ࢅ ˸ ƒġɉ ų ɢ ϛ ࢅ Ē Hypcrviolcnccࢅ andࢅ Hypc̻ࡲ
scxuaѳi tyƞ ࢅ Iaulࢅ \irilioࢅ Intcrvicwcdࢅ byࢅ Ƶicholץsࢅ
ɓurbҞuggɂ ȅࢅ trans ˼ࢅ N. ࢅ ɓurbrſgg, ࢅ 1j:/to:,ȑ 1o
˸ autuѼnȝwintcrϙ ȅࢅ pp. ࢅ ĵ IJ l ķ ħ ȑ
I 07

/DälI3Clƴ ÌXDICääICHIämƴ J
/G(3HI,ƴ Íä3DCÌÌCƴ bó
/CƋuIICUƴ ÍmmuHCƴ
LŎŗCICnCVƴ CVHGICmCƴ
'ęÍLC1ƴ 3nGƴ
ĹOHl3mIn3lCUƴ ĜlCCGƴ
/Ŕ3IIƴ IHƴ ÍI3ƂCCƴ óJ
/GCInC, ƴ ÅhCCGCIƴ J, Ì Ì ~Ì Z,
óU, 31
ĚGƥCIlIäIHUƴ ó3, 3O, bU·Ì ,
JZ
/UClư,ƴ ¹3CGuCäƴ JÛ
/iCHI lCClCHICäƴ 1 1
/ICHGl, ƴ Í3HH3hƴ OJ
/Ilƴ Diƣlƴ JZ
/Ilƴ ÍCIƴ 8Il´ äƴ ä3KCƴ O Ì
/Ilƴ m3UGIlƴ ZJ
/Il3uG, ƴ /nlCHInƴ ZJ, Jó
/uäChWilZƴ J, Z Ì , ZJ, Z1·b,
Z3, óU, Jó, 3ó, 31
13CCn,ƴ Íi3HCIäƴ 1Z
3HGƴ ` PCGCIHƴ Cl3Ilä´ƴ
CƬhIDIlICnƴ JJ
13ÌK3näƴ J3, JU
13n3ÌIlVƴ CÍƴCViÌ,ƴ Jtt /ICnUƛƴ
UJ
13uGCl3IIC,ƴ ğh3IÌCäƴ ZJ
1CH(3mIH,ƴ Y3llCIƴ ZZ
1CIlIHƴ CChCCÌƴ bJ
1CIH3HCä,ƴ LCCIUCäƴ óU
1CuVä, ƴ¹CäCDhƴ UJ¬1U, 1Z
ÅhCƴ1IlChƴÍCUƴCÍƴ1uChCHƨ3ÌUƴ
JÌ ·Z
ácc J/á0 DCChƴ
1CÌ l3näKI,ƴ LhIIälI3Hƴ JJ
1CH3D3IlC,ƴ D3DClCCnƴ dO
1CHHƇŕCI,ƴ Í3lhCIƴ LIClIICšƴ

1Cnn3IŌ,ƴ tICIICƴ óó
ácc J/á0 ÍmDICääICHIämƴ
Ì U3
Io4:xȑ
1C8Ch,ƴ ¹CICuCƴ ó+ƴ
3nUƴ lhCƴ `ÍCuI ÌC22CUƴ ChiCŲCH´ƴ
CXDCIimCHlƴ JHƴ
1Ƒ3ƌƴUC. \CƈI2C8ƴ ZHƴ
1IClCH, ƴ /nUICƴ óUƴ
átt J/á0 CuttC3Ìi8uƴ
L3ŶũCl,ƴ¹3CuuC8ƴ ó+ƴ
L3mDCUi3ƴ ! ó,ƴ ó ! , ++ƴ
ÅuCÌƴ CÌCH2ƴ \CnCCiUCƴ
Pu8Cumƴ ++, UďJƴ
L3mu8, ƴ /ÌDCIlƴ ZJ, ƴ JUƴ
LCl3n, ƴ t3uÌƴ óUƴ
átt J/á0 CuiCiUCƴ
Lh3DÌIn, ƴ Lh3IÌiCƴ óZ, ƴ óó, ƴ dJƴ
LhCmInƴ UC8ƴ L3mC8,ƴ átt ÅhCƴ
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