Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds 1.

Chemical Bonds Compounds are formed through the formation of chemical bonds among atoms. Noble gases are very stable as they have achieved the stable duplet or octet electron arrangements. Atoms of other elements tend to achieve the stable electron arrangement by the transfer of electron or sharing of electron. Ionic bonds are usually formed through the transfer of electron between atoms of metal and non-metal. Metal atoms donate electrons whereas non-metal atoms accept electrons to achieve the stable electron arrangement. Metal usually form positive ions. Positive ions or cations are formed when neutral atoms donate electrons. There are two types of chemical bonds: ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Only valence electrons are involved in bonding, electrons in filled shells do not take part in bonding.

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2.

Ionic Bonds In positive ions, the number of electrons is less than the number of proton. Non-metal usually form negative ions. Negative ions or anions are formed when neutral atoms accept electrons. In negative ions, the number of electron is more than the number of proton.

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3.

Ionic compound Ionic compound are compounds that are formed through ionic bonds. Example: NaCl Na (2.8.1)  Na+ (2.8) / Cl (2.8.7)  Cl- (2.8.8) Na+ and Cl- are attracted to one another to form a solid sodium chloride, NaCl compound. This is due to the existence of a strong electrostatic force between the oppositely-charged ions. The attractive force between the ions is called an ionic bond or electrovalent bond.

4.

Covalent bonds Covalent bonds are formed when non-metal atoms share electrons to achieve stable electron arrangements. - Lewis structure is used to show the valence electrons of the atoms involved in the formation of a covalent bond. - Types of covalent bonds include Properties Ionic Compounds of Ionic Exists as solids at room temperature and Covalent Have high melting and boiling points 1

Single bond: A pair of electron is shared between two atoms. Example H-H Double bonds: Two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms. C=C Triple bonds: Three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms. NN Covalent Compounds May exists as solids, liquids or gases Have low melting and boiling

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Compound Conduct electricity in aqueous solution or molten state Usually dissolve in water Usually do not dissolve in organic solvents Example Cations: 1. Na  Na+ + e+

points Do not conduct electricity Usually do not dissolve in water Usually dissolve in organic solvents

2. Mg  Mg2+ + 2e2+

Na

Na

Mg

Mg

Na 2.8.1

Na+ 2.8

Mg 2.8.2

Mg2+ 2.8

.

3. Al 

Al

Al 2.8.3

Anions: 1. Cl + e-  Cl-

2. O + 2e-  O22-

+ 1eCl

+ 2eCl

O

O

Cl 2.8.7

Cl 2.8.8

O 2.6

O 2.8

3.

N


3-

+ 3eN

N

N 2.5

N 2.8

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Ionic Compound:  Metal + Non-metal  Ionic Compound  Transfer of electron from metal to non metal Example 1: Sodium Chloride, NaCl

Example 2: Magnesium Chloride, MgCl2

Example 3: Aluminium Chloride

Example 4: Aluminium Oxide

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Covalent Compound:  Non-metal + Non-metal  Covalent Compound  Sharing electron between the two non-metal Example 1: Chlorine gas, Cl2 Example 2: Oxygen gas, O2

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Example 3: Nitrogen gas, N2

Example 5: Water, H2O

Example 7: Ammonia, NH3

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Example 4: Carbon dioxide, CO2

Example 6: Hydrochloride, HCl

Example 8: Methane, CH4

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Properties of Ionic Compounds

1. Exist as solids at room temperature.

2. Have high melting and boiling points.

3. Conduct electricity in aqueous solution or Ionic Compounds 4. Non-volatile molten state.

6. Usually do not dissolve in organic solvents

5. Usually water.

dissolve

in

1. Ionic compounds are exists as solids at room temperature. 2. Ionic compounds have high melting point and boiling points because the ions in ionic compounds are held together by strong ionic bonds. A lot of energy is used to overcome the strong electrostatic forces that are holding the ions together. 3. Ionic compound do not conduct electricity in solid state. Ions in solid ionic compounds are fixed in positions in the crystal lattice structure and do not move freely. In aqueous solution or molten state, ions are free to move and ionic compounds can conduct electricity. 4. Ionic compound are not volatile. They do not change to vapour when heated. 5. Most ionic compounds are soluble in water. 6. Most ionic compounds are insoluble in organic solvents.

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Properties of Covalent Compounds

1. May exist as solids, liquids or gases.

2. Have low melting and boiling points.

3. Do

not

conduct

electricity. Covalent Compounds 4. Volatile

6. Usually dissolve in organic solvents

5. Usually do not dissolve in water.

1. Covalent compounds are exists as solids, liquids or gases. 2. Ionic compounds have low melting point and boiling points because their molecules are held together by weak intermolecular forces. Less heat energy is required to overcome these forces. 3. Covalent compound do not conduct electricity in all state. A covalent compound consists of neutral molecules. 4. Covalent compounds are volatile. They can change to vapour when heated. 5. Most covalent compounds are insoluble in water. They cannot form bonds with water. 6. Most covalent compounds can dissolve in organic solvents. They have the same type of intermolecular forces as the covalent solvents.

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