Теория решения изобретательских задач Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch

Theory of Inventive Problems Solving Genrich S. Altshuller, 1956

Athar Pasar Suzanne Ward October 23,2007

TRIZ Research
• Reviewed over 40,000 patents 1956; 200,000 by 1969; 1.4M today – Only small portion are “true innovations” • Less than 1% - “rare scientific discovery or pioneering invention of essentially a new system” • 4% - New generation principle to perform primary functions. Solution found in science not technology – Balance are straight forward improvements • 18% - Fundamental improvements by methods know outside the industry. Contradictions resolved • 45% Minor improvements, by methods within industry. Usually with some compromise” • 32% Routine design problems solved by methods well know within the specialty. No invention needed.

95% of all solutions have been solved before


but the service delivery system gets complicated (bad). Physical contradictions. – Patterns of technical evolution are repeated across industries and sciences.“ • TRIZ . but keeps employees away from their assignments (bad). are situations in which one object or system has contradictory. – Coffee should be hot for enjoyable drinking. opposite requirements. something else gets worse. – Training is comprehensive (good). – “Somebody someplace has already solved this problem (or one very similar to it. Ellen Domb and Michael S. Ellen Domb and Michael S. when something gets better.What Is TRIZ? By Katie Barry. also called "inherent" contradictions. TRIZ . Slocum http://www. but requires more power (bad). Classical examples include: The product gets stronger (good). – Creative innovations use scientific effects outside the field where they were developed. but cold to prevent burning the customer – Training should take a long time (to be thorough)." The desired state can't be reached because something else in the system prevents it.) Creativity is now finding that solution and adapting it to this particular problem. – Software should be complex (to have many features). The classification of the contradictions in each problem predicts the creative solutions to that problem. – Service is customized to each customer (good). but should fly slowly to collect data directly over the target for long time s_triz/ TRIZ & Contradiction • Technical contradictions are the classical engineering "trade-offs. but the weight increases (bad). but should be simple (to be easy to learn).What Is TRIZ? By Katie Barry.” – Most inventions seemed to have similar patterns -. but not take any time. In other words. Everyday examples abound: – Surveillance aircraft should fly fast (to get to the destination). Slocum http://www.Research Findings • “Inventing is the removal of a technical contradiction with the help of certain • 2 .40 Inventive Principles – Systematic step by step procedure and use of these patterns to resolve contradictions – Repeatable and Reliable Problems and solutions are repeated across industries and sciences. – The bandwidth for a communication system increases (good).

geometrical and chemical phenomena and effects are available. the product is not needed. Stockholm. Proceedings of ICAD2000 First International Conference on Axiomatic Design Cambridge.slideshare. IVF KTH . 2000 ICAD009 Mind Map of Characteristics Vishwanath Ramadas http://gopu44.kth. Technical conflicts have to be solved through innovation. compromise or http://www. MA – June 21-23. 39 conflicting parameters and associated innovative principles used to relax each conflict are presented to stimulate creativity. PRODUCTIVITY.googlepages.Woxéncentrum. Sweden.FUNDAMENTALS OF THE THEORY OF INVENTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING • • • • • • The purpose of a product is its functions. Qualities strength Temperature Static Qualities Energy Stability Volume Brightness effort Information 39 conflicting parameters Ease of Use Harmful Factors Reliability Performance Qualities System complexity Control complexity Speed Material Wastes time Adaptatbility Usage of Mttl Harmful Side effects Ease of Repair Outcomes Accuracy of manufacture Accuracy of measurement Processing Productivity Automation Manufacturability 3 . . 40 inventive principles. 1350 physical. If the functions can be obtained without the weight Durability Dimension weight Area Shape Force Quality in motion Volume Dimension Energy Durability Area Pressure Phy. Prof Gunnar Sohlenius. QUALITY AND DECISION THEORY BASED UPON AXIOMATIC DESIGN. not through optimization.

Mind Map – 40 Inventive Principles Vishwanath Ramadas http://gopu44. universality. Color Changes Chemical (4) – Oxidate – reduce. Bring Fluidity. merge. Equipotence.slideshare. phase transitions Interactions (5) – Reduce mechanical movement. intermediary. cheap disposables Physical (4) – Porosity. abstraction (extract out).com/ http://www. nesting. use and retrieve. negative to positive. repeated action. prior cushioning. continued action. counter weight. dynamity. Thermal Expansion. prior actions. spheroids. prior counter actions Service (5) – Self service. Additional Dimensions. homogenity. skip through. thin films.googlepages. inertness. asymmetry Compose (7) – Local quality. vibration Process (9) – Do it in reverse. homogenous composites Thin films Nest shperoids + dimension Thermal expansion Local quality Merge Counter weight Compose universality Cheap disposables Segment Organize Abstract – extract porosity Physically Phase transition Color changes Transform states asymmetry Chemically inertness Oxidate invert 40 inventive Principles Negative to positive Skip through feedback Self service Service intermediary Dispose retrieve Less mechanical Equi potence cheap copy Repeated Action Interactions dynamism Process Continued Useful action Prior Cushioning Prior Counter Action Prior Action ++ / -actions fluidity vibrations The 40 Inventive Principles • • • • • • • Organize (6) – Segmentation. cheap copies 4 . ++/--. transform sates. feedback.

Taiwan “Designing around existing patents of competitors is a task constantly faced by designers. and the feature that thereby requires a trade-off The suggested group of inventive principles to use will be shown above! Copyrights > Matrix 2007 / Luger Research TRIZ in use • Companies with TRIZ: Allied Signal Aerospace Sector. taking out and composite construction to the training and support. Unisys. Waste processing: Dairy farm operators could no longer dry the cow manure due to increased cost of energy. its entertainment island (aquarium. Boeing. Samsung. Emerison Electric. School administrators: Creativity has been greatly enhanced in situations ranging from allocation of the budget for special education to building five schools with funding only for four. Previously.” They say that new design problems are often a ‘local innovation’ of an existing patent. dolphin show. to improving racial harmony in the schools. BAE Systems. while the rules of patent infringement judgment present the major constraints to such design problems. “Innovative design methodologies are needed to solve these new design atrix. restaurants. LG Electronics Inventor David Levy. Procter & Gamble. proposing an “integrated process” for designing around existing patents using Triz.Manufacturability Undesired results (conflict) 28 . whose portfolio includes work on the functional layout of the Apple PowerBook. and applying the principles of segmentation. and are generated during the design-around process." Entertainment: Singapore needs to find a way to manage automobile traffic on the Sentosa. which requires no heat. Rockwell International. Johnson & Johnson.). TRIZ led the operators to a method used for the concentration of fruit juice. Philips Semiconductors. General Motors. Xerox Corporation. Yuan Ze University.xls • Automated Contradiction Matrix http://triz40. • • • • • • – 5 . etc. Chrysler Corp. bird sanctuary. from one of the worst in its class to 30 percent better than the best in class.” they say. calls the methodology "tremendous. Ford Motor Company. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Applications of TRIZ developed eight families of solutions. they had used TRIZ to reduce idle vibration in a small car by 165 percent. Researchers use Triz to design around patents: – – Yung-Chieh Hung and Yeh-Liang Parameter to improve 32 . music.Accuracy of measurement Principles 1 Segmentation [3] 35 Physical or chemical properties [1] 12 Equipotential [37] 18 Mechanical vibration [8] Select the parameter you wish to improve.lugerresea rch. • IT Product development: A manufacturing company doubled the value to the customer of their patient interview system for opticians offices by applying the feedback and selfservice principles of TRIZ to the overall product development.TRIZ Tools Altshuller Matrix • http://www. Warranty cost reduction: Ford used TRIZ to solve a persistent problem with squeaky windshields that was costing several million dollars each year.

Amnon Levav. Adverstising.” – SIT Training. Chemistry Social Sciences Architecture Food Technology Public Health (Fighting Aids) SW Development MicroElectroncs Quality Management Ecology Service Operations Education Finance Marketing. SIT takes 3 days to learn and 6 weeks to implement.trizjournal. Task Unification – (9 Tools for Use in MARCOM.Process – Design for Six Sigma TRIZ Used In • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Business Chemical Engineering. _matrix/ TRIZ in Application • Systematic Inventive Thinking – Sitsite. Roni Horowitz.TRIZ Used For • • • • • Problem Solving Innovation New Product Development Resolving Conflict Six Sigma Tool – DMAIC . Division. but close enough to fall within a company’s existing positioning and capabilities” Systematic Inventive Thinking – Highly discipline – Inside the Box – Listen to Voice of Your Product – Function Follows Form • • 6 . and David Mazursky – 5 Tools/Innovation Patterns • “manipulate elements to come up with something new” • Attribute Dependency. Advertising) • “It takes a year to learn TRIZ and 10 years to implement Finding Your Innovation Sweet Spot. October 2007 “Innovation Sweet Spot – far enough away from existing products to attract real interest. Marcom http://www. Sales. Israel – SIT in the Harvard Business Review (March 2003). Subtraction. by Jacob Goldenberg.

look for dependencies • Task Unification – Assign a new task to an existing element • Use More than One Pattern in Your Brainstorming • Attribute Dependency Change – Creating new dependencies where they don’t exist Addition == Multiplication • Start with TV – 1 Screen • Add 2nd Screen 7 .The Innovative Patterns • Subtraction – – – Opposite of Feature Creep Reduction Remove elements that seem indispensable Choosing the Right Tool • Highly complex products – – Start with Subtraction Simplicity over high performance • • • Controlling Costs – Try Task Unification • Multiplication – – Make Copies of a element Alter the Copies Seeking Quantitative Improvements – Try Multiplication • Division – Physical or Functional. or Preserving Division Task Unification – – Most fruitful but hardest to apply Matrix: Internal Attributes vs External. Attributes.

aloe and natural oils. enhanced indicator Lubrastrip signals when it's time to change blade – The Precision Trimmer blade. a single blade built into the back of the cartridge. and find benefits for the subtracted Examples of products that follow the Subtraction pattern: – Exercise bikes – Soup mix – The Dyson vacuum cleaner • 8 . “ (sitsite. allows easy trimming of sideburns and other facial hair Subtraction • “Take away an essential component from the product.TRIZ in Action – Gillette Razor • 5 blades – Addition – five-blade shaving surface for a comfortable. precise shave • Altered their differences – Multiplication – Features Blades are spaced 30% closer together than MACH3 blades – Infused with Vitamin E.

is not least temporarily. or – enhancing a feature that already exists. • Use the Tool of Subtraction – “to take something away from the product .com/app/methodPrinciples. most uncomfortable thing . It requires us to follow the Path of Most Resistance .” (sitsite.asp?cont=1_1_1_1_1_1&#Principles • • What can we do to create the next generation TV product? Adding/Enhancing features – adding something to the's the easiest way to go about it. and we naturally follow the path of least TV Components: Screen Knobs Remote Control Box Tube Power Supply Cord 9 .Subtraction • Remove an important element – the LEGS • What could I do with a legless highchair? TV Manufacturer example from: http://www. – For an existing product .to do the least intuitive. and not as easy.Real Life Example .

– It offers the hard of hearing a way to listen to TV shows at a high volume (with earphones) when in the company of other people with normal hearing. 10 . – It allows drivers to listen to their favorite TV shows while in the car.sitsite.asp?cont=1_1_1_1_1_1&#Principles • Let’s remove the screen • What happens? – We will most likely want to rush to replace the missing screen with something . or projector – Because replacing the missing component is our intuitive response TV Manufacturer example from: monitor.asp?cont=1_1_1_1_1_1&#Principles • Screenlesss TV – What could be some uses? – It offers blind people a cheap alternative to a regular TV.TV Manufacturer example from:

What Did We Do? • Function Follows Form – – rather than first asking "what do we need?" and designing accordingly. while watching a regular TV with others listening at their preferred volume – It's good for a monitor – It's good as a PC TV • Example Task Unification • Existing Element – Two Functions • Patent 4.. • A product that may at first have seemed ludicrous turns out to have several uses. What are all the possible uses for our screenless TV. – ask "what could we do?" and then figure out who might need or want that thing.095. who can listen with headphones at full volume.228 (1978) • Windshield Antenna Defroster Combination 11 .. – It's good for listening to TV programs in the car – It's a low-cost alternative for the blind – It's good for the hard of hearing.

Attributes.Shower Curtain Rod The Innovative Patterns • Subtraction – – – Opposite of Feature Creep Reduction Remove elements that seem indispensable Choosing the Right Tool • Highly complex products – – Start with Subtraction Simplicity over high performance • Controlling Costs – – Try Task Unification 1 item – more than 1 task • Multiplication – – Make Copies of a element Alter the Copies • • Seeking Quantitative Improvements – Try Multiplication • Division – Physical or Functional. External. or Preserving Division Attribute Dependency Change – – Most fruitful but hardest to apply Matrix: Internal Attributes vs. look for dependencies • Task Unification – Assign a new task to an existing element • • Attribute Dependency Change – Creating new dependencies where they don’t exist Use More than One Pattern in Your Brainstorming 12 .

and the feature that thereby requires a trade-off The suggested group of inventive principles to use will be shown above! Copyrights > Matrix 2007 / Luger Research For You To Take Home: TRIZ 40 Principles How to Help TRIZ Beginners Succeed Ellen Domb.xls • Automated Contradiction Matrix http://triz40.D.Manufacturability Undesired results (conflict) 28 . TRIZ Journal Jul 1997 http://www.Accuracy of measurement Principles 1 Segmentation [3] 35 Physical or chemical properties [1] 12 Equipotential [37] 18 Mechanical vibration [8] Select the parameter you wish to Parameter to improve 32 .TRIZ Tools Altshuller Matrix • 13 .lugerresea rch.triz-journal. Ph.

without the dog. a Phillips screwdriver. – Modular furniture – Quick disconnect joints in plumbing – Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation. merge it with other objects that provide lift. – Replace mainframe computer by personal computers. increases density below wing. – Pencil with eraser – Hammer with nail puller – Multi-function tool that scales fish. – Lunch box with special compartments for hot and cold solid foods and for liquids – Make each part of an object fulfill a different and useful function. a flat-blade screwdriver. Principle 8. cake mixers. density. (This also demonstrates Principle 4. – Use astigmatic optics to merge colors. Merging . Segmentation . or single out the only necessary part (or property) of an object. "Nested doll" . Asymmetry. Principle 2. make it interact with the environment (e.Make a part or object perform multiple functions. – Personal computers in a network – Thousands of microprocessors in a parallel processor computer – Vanes in a ventilation system – Electronic chips mounted on both sides of a circuit board or subassembly – Make operations contiguous or parallel. blenders). – If an object is asymmetrical. – Medical diagnostic instruments that analyze multiple blood parameters simultaneously – Mulching lawnmower Principle 6.Place one object inside another. eliminate the need for other parts. Dynamism). – Inject foaming agent into a bundle of logs. Asymmetry .40 Inventive Principles With Examples • Principle 1. – Aircraft wing shape reduces air density above the wing. manicure set. – To compensate for the weight of an object. Local quality . – Hydrofoils lift ship out of the water to reduce drag. in turn.) – Team leader acts as recorder and timekeeper.A. which fits inside amplifier case) – Make one part pass through a cavity in the other. or pressure gradient instead of constant temperature. – Use a work breakdown structure for a large project. density or pressure.Bring closer together (or merge) identical or similar objects.g. assemble identical or similar parts to perform parallel operations. – Use helium balloon to support advertising signs. – Make each part of an object function in conditions most suitable for its operation. place each object. use aerodynamic. increase its degree of asymmetry. – Replace a large truck by a truck and trailer. – Use the sound of a barking dog. – Link slats together in Venetian or vertical blinds. – Put a flat spot on a cylindrical shaft to attach a knob securely. Change the shape of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical. – Measuring cups or spoons – Russian dolls – Portable audio system (microphone fits inside transmitter. • • • 14 .Change an object's structure from uniform to non-uniform. – Make an object easy to disassemble. Taking out . bring them together in time. Principle 4. inside the other. Principle 3.To compensate for the weight of an object. acts as a pliers. Merging and Universality. – Use a temperature. as a burglar alarm. – Use powdered welding metal instead of foil or rod to get better penetration of the joint. to make it float better. – Use fiber optics or a light pipe to separate the hot light source from the location where light is needed. Universality . – Handle of a toothbrush contains toothpaste – Child's car safety seat converts to a stroller – Mulching lawnmower (Yes. – Extending radio antenna – Extending pointer – Zoom lens – Seat belt retraction mechanism – Retractable aircraft landing gear stow inside the fuselage (also demonstrates Principle 15. Anti-weight . – Replace solid shades with Venetian blinds. – CCD (Charge coupled device) with micro-lenses formed on the surface Principle 7. etc.) – Vortex strips improve lift of aircraft wings. change an external environment (or external influence) from uniform to non-uniform. buoyancy and other forces). – Change from circular O-rings to oval cross-section to specialized shapes to improve sealing. to create lift.Separate an interfering part or property from an object. it demonstrates both Principles 5 and 6. – Asymmetrical mixing vessels or asymmetrical vanes in symmetrical vessels improve mixing (cement trucks. a wire stripper.Divide an object into independent parts. hydrodynamic. • • • • Principle 5. – Locate a noisy compressor outside the building where compressed air is used.

) – Divide an object into parts capable of movement relative to each other.To move an object in two. – Rotate the part instead of the tool.Invert the action(s) used to solve the problem (e. – Stack microelectronic hybrid circuits to improve density. – The flexible boroscope for examining engines – The flexible sigmoidoscope. Equipotentiality . – Make movable parts (or the external environment) fixed. (Or. instead of bringing Mohammed to the mountain. make it movable or adaptive.g.Perform.) – If an object (or process) is rigid or inflexible. – To loosen stuck parts. or mirror position. and walk to their next assignment. – Moving sidewalk with standing people – Treadmill (for walking or running in place) – Turn the object (or process) 'upside down'. for presentations. – Produce linear motion of the cursor on the computer screen using a mouse or a trackball. – Pre-stress rebar before pouring concrete. – Magnetic strip on photographic film that directs the developer to compensate for poor exposure – Back-up parachute – Alternate air system for aircraft instruments Principle 12. then remove excess. lay it on its side. – Use arches and domes for strength in architecture. where they return to the surface and magically reappear. spirals.• Principle 9. cool the inner part instead of heating the outer part. – Create beforehand stresses in an object that will oppose known undesirable working stresses later on. Partial or excessive actions .Curvature . – Pre-pasted wall paper – Sterilize all instruments needed for a surgical procedure on a sealed tray. Principle 17. – Masking anything before harmful exposure: Use a lead apron on parts of the body not being exposed to X-rays. "Nested doll". Preliminary Action) Principle 13.Allow (or design) the characteristics of an object. – Ball point and roller point pens for smooth ink distribution – Go from linear to rotary motion. – Dump truck – Use 'another side' of a given area. – Use a multi-story arrangement of objects instead of a single-story arrangement. domes. or forms. – Replace wringing clothes to remove water with spinning clothes in a washing machine.Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object. – Turn an assembly upside down to insert fasteners (especially screws). by using 'slightly less' or 'slightly more' of the same method. the problem may be considerably easier to solve. use curvilinear ones. – Five-axis cutting tool can be positioned where needed. – Cassette with 6 CD's to increase music time and variety – Electronic chips on both sides of a printed circuit board – Employees "disappear" from the customers in a theme park. and fixed parts movable).or three-dimensional space. – Buffer a solution to prevent harm from extremes of pH.. Preliminary action . Local Quality and Principle 9. – Pre-arrange objects such that they can come into action from the most convenient place and without losing time for their delivery. – Spiral gear (Nautilus) produces continuous resistance for weight lifting. limit position changes (e. descend into a tunnel. Preliminary anti-action). – Tilt or re-orient the object.. heat it). Principle 15. or process to change to be optimal or to find an optimal operating condition. balls. surfaces. – Use rollers. – Infrared computer mouse moves in space. – Adjustable steering wheel (or seat. – The "butterfly" computer keyboard. • • • • • Principle 14. – Empty grain from containers (ship or railroad) by inverting them. Use masking tape to protect the part of an object not being painted Principle 10. Dynamics . Beforehand cushioning . instead of cooling an object. then "top off" when filling the gas tank of your car. (also demonstrates Principle 7. use a stencil--this is an application of Principle 3. Preliminary anti-action . – Over spray when painting. change operating conditions to eliminate the need to raise or lower objects in a gravity field).In a potential field. for medical examination Principle 16. – Kanban arrangements in a Just-In-Time factory – Flexible manufacturing cell Principle 11. – Use spherical casters instead of cylindrical wheels to move furniture. or back support. – Bring the mountain to Mohammed. Spheroidality .g.If 100 percent of an object is hard to achieve using a given solution method then. instead of on a surface. before it is needed. – Spring loaded parts delivery system in a factory – Locks in a channel between 2 bodies of water (Panama Canal) – "Skillets" in an automobile plant that bring all tools to the right position (also demonstrates Principle 10. – Fill.If it will be necessary to do an action with both harmful and useful effects. this action should be replaced with anti-actions to control harmful effects. 'The other way round' . • • • 15 . Another dimension . use centrifugal forces.Instead of using rectilinear parts. external environment. the required change of an object (either fully or partially). from parts shaped as a cube (parallelepiped) to ball-shaped structures. move from flat surfaces to spherical ones.

– Do surveying from space photographs instead of on the ground. – Electric carving knife with vibrating blades – Increase its frequency (even up to the ultrasonic). – Distribute powder with vibration. and eliminates the need for sensors. – Amplify a harmful factor to such a degree that it is no longer harmful.Replace an inexpensive object with a multiple of inexpensive objects. cross-checking) to improve a process or action. – Use pauses between impulses to perform a different action. since it uses energy less efficiently when cooling. heating. – Replace a continuous siren with sound that changes amplitude and frequency. – Statistical Process Control (SPC) -. Continuity of useful action . – Run the bottleneck operations in a factory continuously. then use normal welding techniques to attach the steel object to the interface. to reach the optimum pace. – Virtual reality via computer instead of an expensive vacation – Listen to an audio tape instead of attending a seminar. energy. such as diseases in crops. • • • • • Principle 23. – Use combined ultrasonic and electromagnetic field oscillations. – Use a backfire to eliminate the fuel from a forest fire.Use an intermediary carrier article or intermediary process. – Change sensitivity of an autopilot when within 5 miles of an airport. – If visible optical copies are already used. – Use heat from a process to generate electricity: "Co-generation".Carry on work continuously. expensive. – In cardio-pulmonary respiration (CPR) breathe after every 5 chest compressions. or takt time operations) – Eliminate all idle or intermittent actions or work. 'Intermediary' . – Use Frequency Modulation to convey information. – Use an object's resonant frequency. – Flywheel (or hydraulic system) stores energy when a vehicle stops. Asymmetry.Conduct a process . – Change a management measure from budget variance to customer satisfaction. and the interface to the aluminum. fragile object. – Use animal waste as fertilizer. • • • • 16 . (This concept also has elements of Principle 24. – Recycle waste (scrap) material from one process as raw materials for another. – Cut plastic faster than heat can propagate in the material. Cheap short-living objects . Principle 27. to avoid deforming the shape. Principle 26. Skipping . – Pot holder to carry hot dishes to the table Principle 25. – Make sonograms to evaluate the health of a fetus. Principle 21. to eliminate both nitrogen narcosis and oxygen poisoning from air and other nitrox mixes. – Use food and lawn waste to create compost. change its magnitude or influence.Use harmful factors (particularly. – Print during the return of a printer carriage--dot matrix printer. – Make images in infrared to detect heat sources. use simpler and inexpensive copies. harmful or hazardous operations) at high speed. – Use waste heat to generate electric power. and Principle 4. disposable diapers.Introduce feedback (referring back. or process with optical copies. Mechanical vibration .• Principle 18. destructible. (Not all feedback systems are automated!) – Budgets --Measurements are used to decide when to modify a process. many kinds of medical supplies. or intruders in a security system. for instance). instead of Morse code. – Add a buffering material to a corrosive solution. – Automatic volume control in audio circuits – Signal from gyrocompass is used to control simple aircraft autopilots.Measurements are used to decide when to modify a process. – Destroy gall stones or kidney stones using ultrasonic resonance.Instead of continuous action. – Eliminate the primary harmful action by adding it to another harmful action to resolve the problem. – Carpenter's nailset. used between the hammer and the nail – Merge one object temporarily with another (which can be easily removed). Self-service . Cold weld the surface into a single unit with steel on one face and copper on the other. – Use a high speed dentist's drill to avoid heating tissue.) – Use waste resources. "Blessing in disguise" or "Turn Lemons into Lemonade" . Principle 24. – Replace an object. so the motor can keep running at optimum power. – Halogen lamps regenerate the filament during use--evaporated material is redeposited.Make an object serve itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions – A soda fountain pump that runs on the pressure of the carbon dioxide that is used to "fizz" the drinks. or substances.Cause an object to oscillate or vibrate. – To weld steel to aluminum. – Use piezoelectric vibrators instead of mechanical ones. Principle 20. – Quartz crystal oscillations drive high accuracy clocks.g. harmful effects of the environment or surroundings) to achieve a positive effect. – Use a helium-oxygen mix for diving. – If feedback is already used. – Hitting something repeatedly with a hammer – Replace a continuous siren with a pulsed sound. – Measure an object by measuring the photograph. – Use disposable paper objects to avoid the cost of cleaning and storing durable objects. – Change sensitivity of a thermostat when cooling vs. Principle 22.Instead of an unavailable. (From theory of constraints. or certain stages (e. use periodic or pulsating actions. Periodic action . – If an action is already periodic. This assures that drinks will not be flat. instead of risking damage by direct testing. comprising certain qualities (such as service life. – Mixing alloys in an induction furnace Principle 19. daisy wheel printers. inkjet printers. Plastic cups in motels. all the time. move to infrared or ultraviolet copies. Intermediary. create an interface from alternating thin strips of the 2 materials. make all prts of an object work at full load. change the periodic magnitude or frequency. Feedback . Copying .

Flexible shells and thin films . – Use a bad smelling compound in natural gas to alert users to leakage. air cushion. to reduce volume. – Isolate the object from the external environment using flexible shells and thin films.g. hot liquid. – Conversely.Use gas and liquid parts of an object instead of solid parts (e. – Replace a physical fence to confine a dog or cat with an acoustic "fence" (signal audible to the animal). – Float a film of bipolar material (one end hydrophilic. volume changes.). texture. from unstructured fields to those having structure. – Change the temperature. acoustic. or solid. putting the joint together. then use the stored energy to accelerate later. – Comfortable shoe sole inserts filled with gel – Store energy from decelerating a vehicle in a hydraulic system. coatings. Color changes . – Change from static to movable fields. – Change the concentration or consistency. Large rocks blocked passages in the Alps. – Sprinkle water on cornstarch-based packaging and watch it reduce its volume by more than 1000X! – Ice structures: use water ice or carbon dioxide (dry ice) to make a template for a rammed earth structure. instead of a gas. (Fuel "tank" for the hydrogen car--much safer than storing hydrogen gas) Principle 32.Make an object porous or add porous elements (inserts. When the temperature exceeds the Curie point. etc. Principle 31. – Use a porous metal mesh to wick excess solder away from a joint. Porous materials . Principle 30. Principle 29. and no longer absorbs heat. and returning to equilibrium. The overnight cold froze the water. electrostatically charge one positive and the other negative. Change an object's physical state (e. – Use photolithography to change transparent material to a solid mask for semiconductor processing.Use flexible shells and thin films instead of three dimensional structures – Use inflatable (thin film) structures as winter covers on tennis courts. to a gas. Thermal expansion . – To mix 2 powders. let the ice melt or sublime to leave the final structure. ferromagnetic) particles.g. – Change the degree of flexibility. filled with liquids. – Make a diamond cutting tool out of diamonds. Fill with earth. loss or absorption of heat. He poured water on them at night. aroma. etc. • • • • • • Principle 34. – Liquid hand soap is concentrated and more viscous than bar soap at the point of use. – If an object is already porous.Use phenomena occurring during phase transitions (e.) • • • 17 . one end hydrophobic) on a reservoir to limit evaporation. – Water expands when frozen.) or modify these directly during operation.Make objects interacting with a given object of the same material (or material with identical properties). then. Phase transitions . the material becomes paramagnetic.• Principle 28 Mechanics substitution . – Early communications used omnidirectional broadcasting. – Use a dissolving capsule for medicine. Hannibal is reputed to have used this when marching on Rome a few thousand years ago. such as a temporary dam. use multiple materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion. hydrostatic. liquid. – Transport oxygen or nitrogen or petroleum gas as a liquid.). – Make the container out of the same material as the contents. – Use adjustable dampers to reduce the noise of parts falling into a container by restricting the motion of the walls of the container. or mix them mechanically and let their acquired fields cause the grains of powder to pair up. magnetic and electromagnetic fields to interact with the object. – Self-sharpening lawn mower blades – Automobile engines that give themselves a "tune up" while running (the ones that say "100. (Changes taste.Change the color of an object or its external environment. etc. Homogeneity . – Drill holes in a structure to reduce the weight. – Raise the temperature above the Curie point to change a ferromagnetic substance to a paramagnetic substance.Replace a mechanical means with a sensory (optical.) – Lower the temperature of medical specimens to preserve them for later analysis. change mask material from transparent to opaque for silk screen processing. inflatable.000 miles between tune ups") Principle 35. – Raise the temperature of food to cook it. Pneumatics and hydraulics . – Vulcanize rubber to change its flexibility and durability. restore consumable parts of an object directly in operation. – Fit a tight joint together by cooling the inner part to contract. Parameter changes . Either use fields to direct them. – If thermal expansion is being used. then dip in melted chocolate.Use thermal expansion (or contraction) of materials. We now use antennas with very detailed structure of the pattern of radiation. – Store hydrogen in the pores of a palladium sponge. unlike most other liquids.g. instead of a mechanical or electrical sensor.Make portions of an object that have fulfilled their functions go away (discard by dissolving. gooey. – Freeze the liquid centers of filled candies. – Use fields in conjunction with field-activated (e.g. – Heat pumps use the heat of vaporization and heat of condensation of a closed thermodynamic cycle to do useful work. to reduce chemical reactions. hydro-reactive). – The basic leaf spring thermostat: (2 metals with different coefficients of expansion are linked so that it bends one way when warmer than nominal and the opposite way when cooler. Principle 36. Principle 37. chemical properties. taste or smell) means. heating the outer part to expand. – Use electric. and the expansion split the rocks into small pieces which could be pushed aside.A. – Use safe lights in a photographic darkroom. instead of handling the messy. Principle 33. making it easier to dispense in the correct amount and more sanitary when shared by several people. – Change the transparency of an object or its external environment. use the pores to introduce a useful substance or function. Similarly. – Heat a substance containing ferromagnetic material by using varying magnetic field. Discarding and recovering . etc. evaporating.

This makes it easier to measure with conventional tools.Replace a normal environment with an inert one.Replace common air with oxygen-enriched air. – Ionize air to trap pollutants in an air cleaner. – Use ionized oxygen. Inert atmosphere . • • 18 . – Speed up chemical reactions by ionizing the gas before use. and more flexible than metal. – Treat wounds in a high pressure oxygen environment to kill anaerobic bacteria and aid healing. Strong oxidants .Change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials. Principle 40. – Prevent degradation of a hot metal filament by using an argon atmosphere. Same for airplane parts. Composite materials . – Fiberglass surfboards are lighter and more controllable and easier to form into a variety of shapes than wooden ones. Principle 39. – Replace ozonized (or ionized) oxygen with ozone.• Principle 38. – Expose air or oxygen to ionizing radiation. – Increase the volume of powdered detergent by adding inert ingredients. – Composite epoxy resin/carbon fiber golf club shafts are lighter. stronger. – Add neutral parts. – Cut at a higher temperature using an oxy-acetylene torch. – Scuba diving with Nitrox or other non-air mixtures for extended endurance – Replace enriched air with pure oxygen. or inert additives to an object.

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