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Physics A

Advanced GCE 7883 Advanced Subsidiary GCE 3883

Mark Scheme for the Units January 2008

**3883/7883/MS/R/08J
**

Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations

OCR (Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations) is a unitary awarding body, established by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate and the RSA Examinations Board in January 1998. OCR provides a full range of GCSE, A level, GNVQ, Key Skills and other qualifications for schools and colleges in the United Kingdom, including those previously provided by MEG and OCEAC. It is also responsible for developing new syllabuses to meet national requirements and the needs of students and teachers. This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and students, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which marks were awarded by Examiners. It does not indicate the details of the discussions which took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking commenced. All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in candidates’ scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills demonstrated. Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the published question papers and the Report on the Examination. OCR will not enter into any discussion or correspondence in connection with this mark scheme. © OCR 2008 Any enquiries about publications should be addressed to: OCR Publications PO Box 5050 Annersley NOTTINGHAM NG15 0DL Telephone: Facsimile: E-mail: 0870 870 6622 01223 552610 publications@ocr.org.uk

CONTENTS

GCE Physics A (7883) Advanced Subsidiary GCE Physics (3883)

MARK SCHEMES FOR THE UNITS

Component 2821 Forces and Motion 2822 Electrons and Photons 2823/01 Wave Properties / Experimental Skills 1 Written Paper 2823/03 Wave Properties / Experimental Skills 1 Practical Examination 2824 Forces, Fields and Energy 2825/01 Cosmology 2825/02 Health Physics 2825/03 Materials 2825/04 Nuclear and Particle Physics 2825/05 Telecommunications 2825 Common Question 2826/01 Unifying Concepts in Physics 2826/03 Experimental Skills 2 Practical Examination Grade Thresholds

Page 1 8 13 16 22 26 30 33 36 43 49 50 53 58

A tick ( ) should be used for each answer judged worthy of a mark. If two (or more) responses are required for one mark. 6. The number of ticks should be the same as the number of marks awarded. on the right hand side. The mark total for each question should be ringed at the end of the question.g. the exact procedure to be used is given in the mark scheme. Ticks should be placed as close as possible to the point in the answer where the mark has been awarded. No comments should be written on scripts unless they relate directly to the mark scheme. mark the first answer(s) given up to the total number required. 2. If the science is correct and answers the question. who may then gain partial credit even if their final answer is not correct. In cases where candidates are required to give a specific number of answers. Half marks (½) should never be used. Correct answers to calculations should gain full credit even if no working is shown. Please mark all post-standardisation scripts in red ink. If you are in doubt about the validity of any answer. Remember that scripts may be returned to Centres. unless otherwise indicated in the mark scheme. The marks awarded for each part question should be indicated in the margin provided on the right hand side of the page. and candidates may not use the exact words that appear in the mark scheme. 5. An element of professional judgement is required in the marking of any written paper. These totals should be added up to give the final total on the front of the paper.2821 Mark Scheme January 2008 2821 Forces and Motion ADVICE TO EXAMINERS ON THE ANNOTATION OF SCRIPTS 1. . Strike through the remainder. use only one tick. 8. (e. In specific cases where this rule cannot be applied. x ^ bod ecf on f 4. You are advised to destroy all draft versions. then the mark(s) should normally be credited. The following annotations may be used when marking. ‘give three reasons’). (An instruction on the paper to ‘Show your working’ is to help candidates. Please ensure that you use the final version of the Mark Scheme.) Strike through all blank spaces and/or pages in order to give a clear indication that the whole of the script has been considered. 7. contact your Team Leader/Principal Examiner for guidance. = = = = = incorrect response (errors may also be underlined) omission mark benefit of the doubt (where professional judgement has been used) error carried forward (in consequential marking) contradiction (in cases where candidates contradict themselves in the same response) = error in the number of significant figures 3.

A1 M1.319 (s) (ii) speed / s = d / t 1 / 9. running slow (longer t) gives lower acceleration C1 A1 M1.25 = 9. A1 Max 2 M1 Max 3 Total 9 .5 = 0. A1 M1. NOT () ecf = = = = = = Session JANUARY Year 2008 Version FINAL alternative and acceptable answers for the same marking point separates marking points answers which are not worthy of credit words which are not essential to gain credit (underlining) key words which must be used to gain credit error carried forward Question 1 1 (a) (i) Expected Answers s = ½ at2 / 0. e.81 0. d too large gives lower a t incorrect so average velocity incorrect.g. sheet falling at an angle.5(2) (m s-2) (ii) air resistance.052 + 2 x a x 0.81 t = 0.81x t2 / t= Marks M1 / t= t2 = (2 x 0.319 C1 A1 = 1.2821 Mark Scheme January 2008 Mark Scheme Page 1 of 6 Abbreviations.102 M1 A0 / s = 0.5) / 9. acceleration reduced length incorrect.752 = 3. length measured incorrectly hence average speeds incorrect incorrect value for d.57 / 1.5 / 0.6 (m s-1) (b) (i) v 2 = u2 + 2as 3. A1 M1.5 x 9. annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme Unit Code 2821 / .

81 x 190) / 40 = 3.81 x 190 [139.5 (m s-2) = (5 – 0) / 2 = gradient of line Marks C1 A1 C1 M1 A0 = 0.5 x 75 x (5)2 C1 A1 C1 A1 (ii) area under line / 180 + 5 + 180 +5 distance = 190 (m) (iii) K E = ½ m x v2 / = 940 (937.8] rate of PE gain = P E / t = (75 x 9.5) (J) (iv) P E = mgh / = 140 k(J) (v) = 75 x 9.5 (kW) unit: kW / kJ s-1 / W / J s-1 C1 A1 B1 C1 (b) (i) P=F/A A = (75 x 9.013(4) (m2) A1 (ii) It (pressure) is greater in first period of acceleration force up needs to be > weight (It) (pressure) less in deceleration / second period of acceleration weight > force up [by the same amount ] any three B3 Total: 16 . annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme Unit Code 2821 / .2821 Mark Scheme January 2008 Mark Scheme Page 2 of 6 Abbreviations.81) / (55 x 103) = 0. NOT () ecf = = = = = = Session JANUARY Year 2008 Version FINAL alternative and acceptable answers for the same marking point separates marking points answers which are not worthy of credit words which are not essential to gain credit (underlining) key words which must be used to gain credit error carried forward Question 2 (a) (i) Expected Answers a = (v – u) / t = 2.

4 (N) A1 Sum = 44 (N) B1 C2 .5 x 200 + 17.5 x 400 Marks B1 (b) (i) = 5300 + 7000 B (ii) The total force acting down is equal to the total force acting up B1 The sum is constant (iii) A becomes less and B becomes greater Same amount of increase and decrease At centre A = B Any 2 MAX B2 Total: 8 = 15.2821 Mark Scheme Page 3 of 6 Abbreviations. annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme Unit Code 2821 / . NOT () ecf = = = = = = Mark Scheme Session JANUARY Year 2008 January 2008 Version FINAL alternative and acceptable answers for the same marking point separates marking points answers which are not worthy of credit words which are not essential to gain credit (underlining) key words which must be used to gain credit error carried forward Question 3 (a) Expected Answers (For a system in equilibrium) the sum of the clockwise moments = sum of the anticlockwise moments (about the same point) / the sum of the moments equals zero B x 800 = 26.

annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme Unit Code 2821 / . NOT () ecf = = = = = = Session JANUARY Year 2008 Version FINAL alternative and acceptable answers for the same marking point separates marking points answers which are not worthy of credit words which are not essential to gain credit (underlining) key words which must be used to gain credit error carried forward Question 4 (a) Expected Answers T1 cos 50 = T2 cos 40 / T2 = 392sin40 / T1 = 392sin50 T12 + T22 = (392)2 / T1sin50 + T2sin40 = 392 / correct vector triangle drawn and labelled / scale given for triangle Marks C2 T1 = 300 (N) T2 = 252 (N) (b) Method cannot be used as system not in equilibrium B1 Upward forces are greater than the downward forces / resultant force is not zero / cannot form a closed triangle OR Stretching the ropes more gives greater upward force (than downward) B1 Total: 6 A1 A1 .2821 Mark Scheme January 2008 Mark Scheme Page 4 of 6 Abbreviations.

symbols defined Area = π d2 / 4 Good physics determine E in the elastic region SPAG B1 (< 4 errors) Organisation B1 B4 max QWC B2 Total: 12 . or other instrument for measuring the extension described or shown (Original) length with a ruler Marks M1 A1 Readings Extension with relevant instrument Extension related to the correct original length Diameter with micrometer screw gauge /digital vernier callipers mg for the load / balance for mass / newton meter for weight long wire e. metre rule (for length and extension). NOT () ecf = = = = = = Session JANUARY Year 2008 Version FINAL alternative and acceptable answers for the same marking point separates marking points answers which are not worthy of credit words which are not essential to gain credit (underlining) key words which must be used to gain credit error carried forward Expected Answers Clearly labelled diagram could score both marks (Long) wire fixed at one end. > 2m / measure length to marker in correct region / measure diameter in several places /second wire to allow for temperature changes Analysis graph of F / e or graph of stress / strain B4 max determine gradient stress and strain defined gradient is E E = (grad x original length) / area E = stress / strain E = Fl / eA. masses required to produce extension shown at other end / Searles apparatus (workable arrangement) Micrometer. annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme Question 5 Apparatus Unit Code 2821 / . pulley.2821 Mark Scheme January 2008 Mark Scheme Page 5 of 6 Abbreviations.g.

NOT () ecf = = = = = = Session JANUARY Year 2008 Version FINAL alternative and acceptable answers for the same marking point separates marking points answers which are not worthy of credit words which are not essential to gain credit (underlining) key words which must be used to gain credit error carried forward Question 6 (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) Expected Answers Distance travelled from the instant the driver sees the problem until the brakes are applied Distance travelled by car after the brakes are applied and the car has come to rest Distance = 25 x 0.81 x sin 5.8]) / 850 = 5. annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme Unit Code 2821 / .50 m s-2 (iii) s = u2 / 2a = 56.62 = 15.5 (m) Marks B1 B1 C1 A1 B1 B1 B1 B1 Max B3 A0 C1 A1 (ii) F =ma Force down slope = Wsin5.5 Total: 9 .8 m / = (25)2 / 2 x 5.8 = ma a = ( 5520 – [850 x 9.2821 Mark Scheme January 2008 Mark Scheme Page 6 of 6 Abbreviations.8 / 843 B – Wsin5.

which do not depend on other marks. or allow a C-mark to be scored. if an equation carries a C-mark and the candidate does not write down the actual equation but does correct working which shows the candidate knew the equation. C marks: A marks: Abbreviations. annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme = = = = = ecf = AW = ora = / . For a B-mark to be scored. These are accuracy or answer marks. B marks: These are awarded as independent marks.2822 Mark Scheme January 2008 2822 Electrons and Photons CATEGORISATION OF MARKS The marking schemes categorise marks on the MACB scheme. For example. which either depend on an M-mark. the point to which it refers must be seen in the candidate’s answers. M marks: These are method marks upon which A-marks (accuracy marks) later depend. the point to which it refers must be seen specifically in the candidate’s answers. For an M-mark to be scored. providing subsequent working gives evidence that they must have known it. then none of the dependent A-marks can be scored. If a candidate fails to score a particular M-mark. These are compensatory method marks which can be scored even if the points to which they refer are not written down by the candidate. then the C-mark is given. NOT () alternative and acceptable answers for the same marking point separates marking points answers which are not worthy of credit words which are not essential to gain credit (underlining) key words which must be used to gain credit error carried forward alternative wording or reverse argument .

d across the resistor decreases. resistor and thermistor Correctly drawn circuit (Allow 1 sf) (Possible ecf) B1 B1 C1 A1 C1 V = 0.4 – 0.4 / 0.005 × 120 (b)(i) V = IR / potential difference = 0. which attempts to answer the question.60 (V) (b)(ii) V = 1.005 = 280 (Ω) ] (c) The resistance of the thermistor increases / the current decreases Hence.005 resistance = 160 (Ω) [Allow 1 mark for total resistance calculation: R = 1. Structure and organisation Award this mark if the whole answer is well structured. A1 B1 B1 [Total: 8] 2 (a) All I-V graphs identified correctly B1 B1 B1 (b)(i) The resistance / R remains constant I ∝ V / Graph has a constant slope / gradient / Obeys Ohm’s law (b)(ii) R is infinite / large when: I = 0 / no conduction / ‘reverse’ direction / ‘up to a point’ / negative V / negatively biased B1 R is small / decreases / low(er) when: I is not zero / there is conduction / ‘positive’ direction / ‘beyond a point’ / positive V / positively biased B1 (No credit for ‘conducts in one direction only’) (b)(iii)The resistance increases as I (or V) increases B1 The temperature increases (as I increases) / more electrons collisions (with the vibrating atoms / ions) B1 QWC The answer must involve physics.2822 1 (a) Mark Scheme January 2008 Correct symbols for the cell (not battery).6 ( = 0.8 R= 0. B1 B1 [Total: 9] .8 V) 0. Spelling and Grammar mark More than two spelling mistakes or more than two grammatical errors means the SPAG mark is lost. the p.

d. across the internal resistance / ‘lost volts’ / energy wasted within the supply or internal resistance 4 (a) (b) Correct arrow(s) between the north and south poles B1 C1 F = BIL 1.0 (V) (Allow 1 sf ) (Allow R in range 1.1875 × 24 force = 0.8 Ω to 2. the force decreases by a factor of four (Allow 1 mark for: Resistance is larger / current smaller and force smaller) [Total: 7] .5 × V C1 C1 A1 B1 B1 [Total: 9] potential difference = 3. in the range 2.85 V to 3.5 = 0.0 F = 1.2822 3 (a) (b) Mark Scheme January 2008 Same unit / measured in volts / (both defined as) energy per (unit) charge / (both to do with) transfer of energy 1 J (of energy transfer) per coulomb (of charge) (Allow 1 V = 1 JC-1) B1 B1 B1 B1 (c)(i) It is the energy transferred by a 1 kW device working for 1 hour (c)(ii) 1 kWh = 1000 × 3600 1 kWh = 3.5 = 2. This gives p.0 / / P = I 2 R / I = 1.15 V) (d)(ii) The supply has internal resistance There is also a p.5 = 1.19 A gives 0.d.5 × 2.2 Ω.6 × 106 (J) V2 (d)(i) P = R V2 4.055 (N)) C1 A1 B1 (c) The resistance of the wire increases by a factor of four (because R ∝ 1 ) / the A B1 B1 current decreases by a factor of four Hence.054 unit: N / newton / TAm (Allow 0.0 / 4.2 × 10 −2 × 0.1875 (A) current = 8.5 (A) V = 1.19 A) (Current of 0.

m.76) / V36 = 36 × 0.d.2822 5 (a) (b) (c)(i) Mark Scheme January 2008 The current is (directly) proportional to the p.f.67 R A1 (c)(ii) current = = (d)(i) Q = It current = 1.76) / V18 = 18 × 0.m.5 × 1020 −19 1.32 (A) (d)(iv) total resistance of 18 Ω and 36 Ω in parallel = 12 Ω total resistance of circuit = 12 + 12 = (24 Ω) E = 0.48 × 12(= 5.52 (V) ≈ 12 (V) C1 A1 [Total: 12] .52 (V) ≈ 12 (V) Or V12 = 0.5E R / current = E 2 / 3R (Possible ecf) B1 C1 A1 Q = 0.32(= 5. = 11.f = 11.48 × 150 charge = 72 (C) (d)(ii) number (= 72 ) = 4.48 × 24 e.76 e.76 + 5.16(= 5.6 × 10 (Possible ecf) B1 B1 C1 A1 (d)(iii)current = 0.76) E = 5. / voltage as long as the temperature remains constant (Allow ‘physical conditions’) Only ‘energy’ is circled B1 B1 B1 C1 1 1 1 = + R R1 R2 1 1+ 2 = R( t ) 2R R( t ) = 2R 3 3E 2R / / resistance = 0.

22 × 10-19 (J) C1 C1 C1 A0 φ = 1.8 × 10-9 (m) . h mv 1 KE = mv 2 2 λ= / λ= h p C1 v = (2 × 3.6 × 10 −19 × 3.0 × 10 −20 ) / 9. hf or hc λ = φ + KE (max) / f = 9. visible light.92 × 10 −19 ) KE (max ) = ( 6.7 (= 5. 3.38 × 1014 (Hz) / (hf = ) 6.2 × 10 maximum kinetic energy = 3. Photon mentioned A single photon interacts with a single electron Energy is conserved between photon-electron interaction (wtte) Electron is released when photon energy > / = work function (energy) / frequency > / = threshold frequency ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrons have a range of KE because some electrons are ‘tightly held’/ are ‘deep below the surface’ / electrons make collisions with atoms / ions B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 (c)(iii)2.57 × 10 5 ) C1 λ= 6. 5.2822 6 (a) Mark Scheme January 2008 Any one from: Travel through vacuum / ‘free space’ Travel at the speed of light / c / 3 × 108 m s-1 (in vacuum) They are all transverse waves / can be polarised Consist of oscillating electric / magnetic fields Consist of photons gamma rays.11 × 10 −31 × 2. infrared and microwaves B1 (b) B1 B1 M1 A1 (c)(i) The minimum energy required to remove an electron (from the metal surface) (c)(ii) Potassium (has the lowest threshold frequency) φ = hf (o ) with some explanation / f (o ) ∝ φ / threshold frequency is (directly) proportional to work function (energy) (c)(iii)1.0 × 10 8 ) − 5.11 × 10 −31 (= 2. 2.63 × 10 −34 × 3. Any three from the statements 1 to 4: 1. 4.57 × 10 5 A1 λ = 2.0 × 10-20 (J) (c)(iii)3.92 × 10 −19 −7 3.63 × 10 −34 9.

46 C = sin -1(1/1.g.685) correct substitution into n = sini/sinr: e.1O allow 1 mar } Use of n= 1/sinC: e.46 x sin 40 ⇒ r = 69.05 x 108 m/s 2. speed of light in core = 3 x 108 /1.1 is quoted for either or both give maximum of 1 mark} B1 [1] (ii) (b) (i) B1 C1 C1 A1 C1 A1 B1 B1 B1 [1] [3] (ii) (iii) (c) (i) [2] [1] [1] [1] (ii) Critical angle (much) BIGGER (for core/cladding) change in speed (much) smaller OR /difference in RI smaller (WTTE) {allow first mark for new value of C correctly calculated as 73.46 = 2.8o (or 70) {If n=1.46) OR sin C = 0.46 is used. speed of light in cladding = 3 x 108 /1.685 or C = 43.2 (hence C =43o ) (Ray will be totally internally) reflected 1.3O} only rays nearly parallel with axis of optic fibre will undergo TIR (WTTE) {allow “more light escapes” OR “less light is internally reflected”} less multipath dispersion/smearing OR all rays arrive at the same time (WTTE) {do not allow “better quality”(WTTE) OR cladding protects core } M1 A1 [2] (iii) B1 B1 [2] QUESTION TOTAL = 14 .40 = 2. leading to r = 26. sinr = 1. sinC = 1/1.14 x 108 m/s {if calculations are correct but 2.2823/01 Mark Scheme January 2008 2823/01 Wave Properties / Experimental Skills 1 Written Paper 1(a) (i) speed of light (in air/vacuum) / speed (of light) in medium accept c/v but reject ci /cr and speed of incident ray/speed of refracted ray} sini/sinr {do not allow n1sini = n2sinr etc} evidence of knowledge that gna = 1/1.46 ( = 0.g.

but 8 scores zero} B3 Symbol F A λ V T B1 [3] [1] smooth & consistent wave drawn (judged by eye) (ANY SHAPE!) B1 {i.g.g light example of longitudinal waves: e. both have wavelength/frequency/vibrations B1 difference: anything valid: e.008 s {allow 8ms.72 m A1 [2] QUESTION TOTAL = 11 3(a) transverse waves: vibrations 90o to wave direction (WTTE) AND longitudinal waves: vibrations parallel to wave direction (WTTE) example of transverse waves: e.e consistent amplitude and period and must start at origin} amplitude correctly shown: 3 mm above AND 3 mm below time axis B1 correct period shown on graph {allow ecf from (i)} B1 [3] [2] (iii) correct phase difference shown (: e.48m (labelled) diagram of valid arrangement: i. tuning fork/loud-speaker/oscillator/hand moving slinkyexplanation of how the standing wave is formed: e. amplitude and period as original wave B1 {generously judged by eye} {If graphs are not labelled assume graph A is the one through the origin} C1 (iv) correct substitution into v=fλ: e.g.g.12 = 0.g.e for longitudinal waves wave source stated: e.2823/01 Mark Scheme January 2008 2(a) ALL correct 3 marks – minus 1 for each error – stopping at ZERO Definition number of cycles produced per unit time maximum displacement minimum distance between points on the wave moving in phase. in progressive (c) (i) (ii) node = point of no movement/zero displacement (allow amplitude) antinode = point of maximum movement/max displacement (amplitude) {for diagrams with no words maximum of 1 mark} B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 [2] [1] (d) (e) wavelength = 4x0. B1 no transfer of energy in standing waves standing waves have nodes (&/or antinodes) neighbouring pts vibrate in phase in standing waves but have a phase diff.g. waves leaving wave sources interfere/superpose with reflected waves . distance travelled by the wave per unit time Time taken for a complete one wave cycle (b) (i) (ii) period = 1/f = 1/125 = 0. x=3 (or -3) when t= 0) B1 same shape.g sound (b) B1 B1 B1 [3] [2] similarity: anything valid: e.g. 340 = 125λ λ = 340/125 = 2.

g.2823/01 Mark Scheme January 2008 {allow this mark for correct procedure used to produce longitudinal the standing wave} node (N) AND antinodes (A) shown in correct positions and labelled anywhere {all ecf from cand’s defns in (c)} {answers in terms of transfer waves may score a max of 3 marks} B1 [4] QUESTION TOTAL = 12 4(a) when waves meet/cross/interfere/superpose/interact (WTTE) displacements (not amplitude) are added to give the resultant (WTTE) (b) (i) (ii) path difference: any 2 correct values – e. λ AND 2λ.g incorrectly changing the value of a from mm to m} B1 B1 B1 C1 A1 A1 [2] [1] [3] (iii) bright images would move closer together (WTTE) B1 because higher frequency waves have shorter wavelength (WTTE) B1 {“there will be more interference/fringes” is too vague and scores zero”} [2] QUESTION TOTAL = 8 Question totals = 14 + 11 + 12 + 8 = 45 .8mm or 5.g.2x10-3 x =5. {any mention of 0 prevents the mark} recall of λ = ax/D correct substitution: e.4x10-7x1.8)/0. x = λD/a = (6.76 mm (or 5.76 x 10-3 m) {allow ecf for one error: e.

Skill P A1 A2 Diagram of workable circuit. Detailed references should have page numbers or be internet pages. 7. ammeter and power supply Correct procedure (i. Accounts that are rambling.g. sand/fluid+named heat source Wait for temperature to stabilise Safety precautions: e. Diode is correctly connected with the correct symbol. 1 1 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 D1/2/3 1 1 1 Workable method of achieving high temperatures e. Method must be workable. 2.Use gloves to handle equipment in freezer/oven.freezer not fridge. i. change temperature and measure new current – allow graph or table).g. Do not award both of these marks if the word count exceeds 750 words.e. Q Quality of written communication 2/1/0 This is for the organisation and sentence construction. Workable method of achieving low temperatures e. 16 marks total .e. Two or more detailed independent references scores two marks. 3. 1.oven. 8.g. Examples of creditworthy points might be. 6. Keep potential difference constant Use of milliammeter Any further relevant detail. 4. measure temperature and measure current. 5.2823/03 Mark Scheme January 2008 2823/03 Wave Properties / Experimental Skills 1 Practical Examination Planning Exercise . 1 1 1 1 max 3 Use of uninsulated/teflon coated wires inside hot area as plastic melts Use of thermocouple or justified use of mercury thermometer/valid thermometer Calculation of range of ammeter /calculation of value for protective resistor Use of protective /current limiting resistor Detail of measuring devices outside the method of changing temperature Method of keeping V constant across the diode Evidence of preliminary investigation in the laboratory Stated value of Boiling Point for liquid used 2/1/0 R1/2 Evidence of the sources of the researched material Two or more (vague) references or one detailed reference score one mark. diode. or where the material is not presented in a logical order will not score these marks.

6:10. Measurements 2/1/0 Write the number of readings as a ringed total next to the table of results. indicate with “FO” Plotting of points 2/1/0 Count the number of plots and write as a ringed number on the graph grid.p. Read-offs must be accurate to half a small square and ratio correct. The scales must be labelled with the quantities plotted. Consistency of raw readings One mark for I which must be to the same number of d. Major help (equipment set up for the candidate) then -2. Do not allow more than three large squares without a scale value. 4 x 6 large squares). No trend (i. 2/1/0 Sensible scales must be used. Allow line through five trend plots for full credit (if done well). Quality of results Judge by scatter of points about the line of best fit. One mark if the plot is out by > half a small square and < than one small square. Do not allow a line through a curved trend. 1 mark.One mark for each correct axis. Line of best fit Judge by scatter of points about the line. One mark for V which must be to the same number of d. Ignore units in the body of the table. 1 mark. Six good trend plots on the graph grid needed for mark to be scored. If the plot is accurate < half a small square. Five sets scores 1 mark Minor help from Supervisor then –1. Check a suspect plot. 2/1/0 (d) (d) (d) 2/1/0 (e) Axes . of sf in R is the same or one more than sf in raw data/I / V/meter readings scores 1 mark Do not credit answers in terms of decimal places or related to graph plotting.e. Column headings in the table One mark for I and V headings correct. Six distinct sets of values for I and V scores 2 marks. 2/1/0 . 7:10) are not allowed. Mark Scheme January 2008 2/1/0 (c) Justification of significant figures in R. Plotted points must occupy at least half the graph grid in both x and y directions (i.e. random scatter of plots) then -2. If false origin.p. Awkward scales (e. 3:10. One mark for 1/I. Tick if correct otherwise indicate the correct position. then two marks awarded. 1/0 (e) (e) 1/0 (f)(i) Gradient The hypotenuse of the Δ must be ≥ half the length of the drawn line. All observations must be plotted. One mark for R. Ignore units. No. 2/1/0 Expect to see sf in R is the same or one more than sf in I and V.2823/03 Question 1 (b) Values of R and 1/I. There must be a fair scatter of points either side of the line of best fit. One mark for 1/I and R headings correct.g.

. Write the mark as a ringed total at the bottom of page 7.2823/03 Mark Scheme January 2008 (f)(ii) y-intercept 1/0 Expect the value to be read from the y-axis to an accuracy of half a small square. (h) (ii) 3/2/1/0 (h) (iii) Calculation of percentage difference/ use of 10% of 220 and appropriate conclusion1/0 Expect to see difference/220 x 100 28 marks available. 1/0 (g) (h) (i) Candidate’s gradient value equated with E-VD (can be implied from working) Value of VD found using the gradient value Sig Figs of VD: allow 2 or 3 only Unit of VD. compare to Sv Help from Supervisor then –1.0 V to 7. Or correct substitution from point on line into y = mx +c. 4/3/2/1/0 Candidate’s y-intercept equated with -P (can be implied from working).0 V. Sensible emf – allow range 3. Value of P within the range of 200 – 240 using intercept Sig Figs of P: allow 2 or 3 only.

Vague answers will not score this second mark. No credit for simple ‘repeats’. sentence construction. Allow max two errors. grammar) Capital letters at the beginning of sentences.1-0. percentage uncertainty x2 Note: Δx/x2 x 100 scores first mark only if Δx is in range.2823/03 Question 2 (b) (ii) (c) Value of F correct Mark Scheme January 2008 1 1 1 1 Δx = 0. A B C D E F Problem Difficulty in measuring x/Parallax Magnets wobble/not vertical Large percentage error in measuring x Magnets not directly above one another Magnetic retort stand may affect reading Two readings are not enough to verify the relation(between F and x) Solution Use vernier callipers/clamped ruler/marker on top magnet/eye level Measure x at different places and take average Increase separation distance/linked to use of stronger magnets Use (vertical rules as) guide/straight edge/use a plumb line Use non magnetic retort stand Take many readings of a range of F and x and plot a graph relating F and x 2 One mark for each box to a maximum of 7. determines k values or similar) Appropriate conclusion based on a comparison of k values or similar. 2/1/0 16 marks total . No method loses both these marks (d) (e) 1 1 1 (f) Evaluation of procedure 7 Relevant points must be underlined and ticked with the appropriate marking letter. spelling. Quality of written communication (i.e.5 cm percentage uncertainty ratio correct. New value of R smaller than (b)(ii) Inverse proportionality ideas Method to prove or disprove inverse proportionality (e. full stops at the end scores one mark Correct spelling scores one mark.g.

07 N x2 = 10.2823/03 Results Mark Scheme January 2008 Question 1 1/I / A-1 109 164 222 81.73 V gradient = (E-VD) VD = 4.67 V y-intercept = .11 y-intercept = -225 E = 4.3 11.5 137 90.3 cm F = 0.62 R/ Ω 222 449 689 110 73.60 N x = 3.2 6.11 = 0.3 72.74 3.10 1.5 12.2 337 147 Plotting a graph of R against 1/I produces: Gradient = 4.3 13.53 N R = 0.46 1.1 cm F = 0.68 N x = 2.8 7.76 Since k is not constant F is not inversely proportional to x2 .04 2.01 2.15 N x2 = 4.35 1.9 cm2 k = F x2 = 0.41 cm2 k = F x2 = 0.1 4.78 – 4.9 I/ mA 9.r r = 225 Ω Weight of magnet: 0.0 V/V 2.66 R = 0.

2823/03 Mark Scheme January 2008 Summary of shorthand notation which may be used in annotating scripts: SFP ECF AE POT NV NR GAP NBL FO NGE BOD R NA SV SR OOR CON Δ A1 C d SF Significant figure penalty Error carried forward Arithmetical error Power of ten error Not valid Not relevant Insufficient scale markings on an axis Not best line False origin Not good enough Benefit of the doubt Point repeated (no further credit) Not allowed Supervisor's value Supervisor’s report Candidate's value is out of range contradictory physics not to be credited Used to show that the size of a triangle is appropriate (gradient calculation) Used to show the type of mark awarded for a particular piece of work Used to show that the raw readings are consistent Used to show that the raw readings have correct spacing Used to show calculated quantities have been given to an appropriate number of significant figures Piece of work missing (one mark penalty) Several pieces of work missing (more than one mark penalty) Scale can be doubled in the x-direction Scale can be doubled in the y-direction ^ ^^ ↔ b .

55 m s-1 change in momentum = m (v ± u) = 0. = 0.8 = 0.4(3) x 105 (J) n = pV/RT Δm = pVM/R(1/Tc – 1/Th) .137 or 0. = 0.56 (W) ecf c(ii) k. e.22 J so h = 1.1 x 0. = 1.14 x 4.8 x h .007) = (3.e. after bounce = 0.e.014 x 9. increases.24 Total vertical arrow through seat labelled weight/W/mg arrow upwards along chain labelled tension/T resultant/unbalanced force/vector sum of tension and weight/(horizontal) component of tension. the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 K Q = mcθ .14 (N) Fv = mgv or 0. annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme Question 1 a b c i ii iii d Unit Code 2824 / .014 x 9.96 m s-1) F = mg = 0. alternative methods acceptable.0 = 0.03/8.088 J giving u = √(0.g.007) = 3.0 x 105 x 0.90 x 990 x 160 = 1. or internal energy α T or temperature.088/0. Fields and Energy Mark Scheme Page 1 of 3 Abbreviations. and potential energies of the atoms/molecules/particles of a body . at a decreasing rate ½ mv2 = 0. directed/acting towards centre of circle/rotation/axis/pillar F = mv2/r Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 5 4 13 2 a 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 b c i 3 ii 7 13 3 a i ii 1 1 1 1 1 5 iii .31(1/ 293 – 1/453) . () ecf AW Session January Year 2008 final version = alternative and acceptable answers for the same marking point = separates marking points = words which are not essential to gain credit = error carried forward = alternative wording Expected Answers mgh or 0.014(7. kg m s-1 /N s Total the sum of the random kinetic .55)= 0.0435 (kg) k.11 / 0.11 v = √(0. v α √T or v2 α T ratio = √(453/293) = 1.54 to 0.11.e.6 m k. in terms of n giving Δm = 0.2824 Mark Scheme January 2008 2824 Forces.

22/5 x 9.2824 b i Mark Scheme January 2008 ii a = 3.36 ( giving θ = 19.528 (m s-2) or T sin θ = mv2/r and/or T cos θ = mg tan θ = v2/rg or 4. = 0.8 .8o) max 4 marks No change as mass cancels out in b(i)/angle is independent of mass Total 1 1 2 1 5 10 .

525 x 1015 = 0. = 1. acceleration α displacement/amplitude hence accelerations different resonance 50 Hz at peak with linear scale markings from zero ecf from (b)(i) approx.25 x 106 .525 x1015 ecf b(ii) or can take the gradient of the tangent to the curve at (15. achieving correct solution N = (m/M)NA or 4.60 MBq e.99 x 1015 = (m/137) x 6.02 x 1023 hence m = 1. =1.99 x 1015 or use N = Noe-λt with appropriate substitution for N and t award marks as follows: viable method. f = 1/T = 50 (Hz) amplitude varies at every point .g.25 x 106 (N C-1) F = QE = 5 x 10-9 x 1. arrows towards negative charge E = V/d = 50000/0. suitable substitutions.8 x 10-3 (N) T = 20 ms .15 x 107 ) = 7. = 6.5 x 0.4 x 10-5 kg or 0. standing wave (with antinode at centre)/simple harmonic vibration .04.06 .219 g Total F upwards between poles F = BIl or 0. = 9 x 10 x25 x 10 /16 x 10 . (of Y) 81.3. number of protons (in Y-90 nucleus)/atomic no.33 x 10-10 x 3.14 x 10-6 g ecf c(ii) Total 3 4 5 12 5 a i ii i ii b c i ii iii 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 5 13 6 a b i ii c i 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 ii iii 2 1 1 1 7 14 . take N at t = 15 y then N = No √2 giving 3.3(3) x 10-10 (s-1 ) (A = λN )= 7.014 g .525) = 2. = 4.406 x 10-4 (N) Δm = 1. number of neutrons (in the Ba-137 nucleus) the number of atoms/nuclei which decay per second or number of atomic/nuclear decays per second 0.032 x 2.2824 Mark Scheme January 2008 Mark Unit Code Scheme 2824 Page 2 of 3 Question Expected Answers 4 a b c i i ii i ii Session January Year 2008 final version Marks 2 1 2 2 3 2 appropriate shape. same (or slightly lower) resonance frequency smaller amplitude/broader peak but curves must not cross passes through same point on y-axis as original curve Total 39.707 No hence No = 4. giving new reading as 8.25 x 10-3 (N) ecf b(i) 2 2 9 -18 -4 F = Q /4πεo r .693/(30 x 3.58 x 106 Bq or 2. lines perpendicular to and touching plate and sphere.

so that diffraction effects are observable statement that hard X-rays are still at atomic size wavelengths energy of X-rays required well above electron transition energies to achieve such small wavelengths/some calculation using c = fλ and energy = hf to show energy of X-rays required up to 3 marks pattern/size of ring enables radius of the nucleus to be found max 4 Total Quality of Written Communication (see separate sheet) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 11 4 . The wavelength of the electrons depends on their speed/momentum. moveable detector to measure angles. X-rays need wavelength λ of the order of the spacing of the atoms. de Broglie’s relation p = h/λ for electrons shows why different energies are needed with this detail worth 2 marks.2824 Mark Scheme January 2008 Mark Scheme Page 3 of 3 Question 7 a Unit Code 2824 Session January Year 2008 final version Expected Answers A significant/measurable diffraction pattern is only observed when the electrons behaving like waves. electrons or X-rays are scattered from crystal planes like a diffraction grating/because of the regular array of atoms. pattern of maximum signals can be very complex depending on structure/AW. as λ is known d can be found max 7 Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 7 b 4 5 ratio of atom to nuclear diameter/radius: about 10 or 10 . 0. constructive interference only occurs at certain angles . i. use of c = fλ to give some idea of frequency or energy.g. have a de Broglie wavelength λ of the order of the spacing d of the atoms/ size of pattern depends on ratio of λ/d.e.e 10 m or 10 m or 10-15 m do not score twice if mark already given in (a) for atomic diameter or giving both atomic and nuclear diameters can score both marks above electrons can be accelerated to give speeds where wavelength is of order of nuclear radius/diameter. -10 -14 atomic or nuclear diameter given. or maxima occur at angles of about nλ/d. depending on λ and d. Acceleration is only through a few hundred volts/low energy electrons (100 – 400 eV). wavelength of X-rays or spacing of atoms order of magnitude given .1nm Diagram showing or description of incident beam scattered by or diffracted through crystal at only certain angles either for X-rays or electrons.

2825/01 Mark Scheme January 2008 2825/01 Cosmology Cosmology 2825/01 1 a(i) Mark Scheme Final Jan 2008 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 Any 4 from Reference to Sun in centre/planets orbit Sun References to phases of Venus/ diagram Explanation of crescent shape (Apparent) change in size of Venus Explains apparent size change/ distance changes Any 2 from Mountains/craters on Moon (Planets) are not perfectly spherical Moons orbiting Jupiter Earth is not at the centre of all orbits Stellar parallax not observed Stars much more distant Sunspots Sun not a perfectly smooth sphere 4 (ii) Total 8 2 (a) Gravity attractive force Gravity acts on masses Finite Universe has contractive force/ will collapse (b) Any 2 from: Equal areas swept out in equal times maximum speed at closest approach minimum speed at furthest point reason: kinetic energy converted to potential energy/ variation of force with distance/ conservation of angular momentum (c)(i) star’s gravitational field strength stronger for A star’s grav. field strength provides centripetal force (ii) (iii) at least one arrow drawn along line AB arrows same length and in opposite directions A accelerates/ B decelerates (ora) reference to perturbations in planetary orbits additional perturbation for Uranus/Saturn/ Jupiter 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 max 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 7 Total 13 .

2 lg (d) .16 x 10-12 =9. 0.38 x 1037s-1 Total 8 .5 + a (d) m – M = 5 log(d/10) M = 6.05 (ii) graph: all 4 points plotted correctly graph: best straight line drawn.9 x 1026 / 4.5 [ .6 x 10-19 = 4.2 ] + a m = 5 lg (d ) + ( 5.39 1 1 1 1 2 2 Total 14 4 (a) Any 5 from x axis: temperature x axis: temperature increases right to left y axis: luminosity/ absolute magnitude y axis: luminosity increases from bottom to top red giants main sequence indicated white dwarf line showing evolution of main sequence star through red giants finishing at white dwarfs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 (b)(i) mass converted into energy/ E = mc2 (ii) energy in joules = 26 x 106 x 1.2.5 + a ) calculation of new constant / b = 5.16 x 10-12 J fusion frequency = 3.07.2825/01 3 (a) Mark Scheme the luminosity/brightness of a star as seen from Earth January 2008 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 (b)(i) 0.2.2.2 (ii) correct substitution of log I eg m = . ignoring origin (iii) k gradient of graph k = 7 x 10—3 units of k : W m -2 pc2 (c)(i) log I = -2log(d) .

2825/01 5 (a) Mark Scheme Any 6 from light from galaxies is red shifted speed of recession proportional to distance universe is expanding cosmic microwave background radiation(CMBR) peak at 2.18 x 103 s-1 (iii) ref to increase in rest mass/ increase in energy when speed nears c or centripetal force would exceed inter-particular force of attraction (c) any 5 from spacecraft with glass sides.7K uniform intensity in all directions/ very small ripple ratio of helium to hydrogen higher than can be accounted for by stellar fusion alone created during initial high temperatures January 2008 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 v=Hxr 1 1 3 1 6 (b)(i) H = 1/ t Conversion process (alternative conversions allowed) Correct answer ( 215 km s-1 Mpc-1 ) ( H = 7 x 10-18 s-1 scores 2 max. to change of acceleration with increasing size of Universe 3 Total 13 6 (a) speed of light constant in all inertial reference frames 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 (b)(i) 3 x 108 ms-1 / accept c (ii) 3 x 108 / 2 x π x 15 x 103 max frequency = 3. velocity from red shift data/ distance from Cepheid variable ref.) (ii) minimum time so H is a maximum (iii). moving in straight line spacecraft accelerates light beam moves across craft light beam curved principle of equivalence stated light beam crossing gravitational field lines is deflected (d) change in apparent position of star when light grazes Sun experimental evidence for GTR 2 5 2 Total 14 .

/ half life shorter / γ = 2.34 / t = to /√ ( 1. relative motion and time interval defined Interval measured Improper observer measures longer time because longer path.88 x 10-5 s (iv) ref. Speed of light constant Other detail January 2008 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Total 12 (b)(i) t = 2π 900 / 0.v2/c2 ) = 0. 2 observers.94c (ii) (iii) fraction remaining = 0.i. 8 (a) gravitational fields/gravity and acceleration produce the same effect / cannot be distinguished 1 1 1 1 1 1 Total 6 (b)(i) spacecraft is accelerating (ora) clock in spacecraft runs faster (ora) (ii) Moon: smaller gravitational field (ora) Clock in spacecraft runs slower (ora) .25 √ ( 1. clocks.93 t = γ to ecf from b.2825/01 7 (a) Mark Scheme Situation.v2/c2) t = 5. to time dilation ‘clocks’ / time of stationary particles same rate as lab.

6 = .g. (c) (i) 1/u + 1/ v = 1/ f 1/0.7 D for first 3 marks either labelled diagram or in words audible frequency range of 20 – 20 000 Hz most sensitive at 2-3 kHz -12 -2 10 W m is the lowest detectable intensity any 5 from max.019 = 1/f = p p = 54.019 f p = 52. wax in ear (1) . sensitivity related to resonance in the auditory canal (1) at frequencies either side.072 explanation e.6 D (iii) 3 -54. ear drum insufficiently elastic.3 + 52. e.1.2825/02 Mark Scheme January 2008 2825/02 Health Physics 1(a) (i) (sum of) clockwise moments b sin 30 x 3 (1) b = 1116 N MA = load / effort = 0. 1/u must be less.g.3 D p= = (sum of ) anticlockwise moments = 80 x 34 + (12 x 15) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (M1) (A1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (ii) (b) (i) (ii) 2(a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) (ii) (ii) 1 1 1 + = = p ∞ 0.60 + 1/0. perpendicular distance of b to pivot F decreases so b must increase effort increases and load is unchanged so MA decreases rays meet before retina rays refract at both the cornea and lens out of focus / blurred concave / diverging near point will be further away corrective lens diverges the light more / has a negative power … … (so) lowers combined power / eye was previously too powerful / refracted the light too much … … (so) now not enough power to focus at N / light can’t be refracted enough (to meet on the retina) / as v is constant. minimum detectable intensity rises / sounds have to be at a greater intensity to be perceived at the same loudness / meaning of line drawn on graph made clear (1) any one physical cause of hearing problem.

125 cm -6 (1) (1) correct peak position i.125 cm position or just > 3 cm (2) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) e. the intensity is less so the loudness is reduced to max.125 x 2 = 6.25 x 10 / 2. narrower range of frequencies / higher threshold intensity problems can be age-related background noise so higher threshold intensity / difficult to hear quiet sounds exposure to loud noise over long periods can damage hearing discomfort at 120 dB (1 W m ) / Pain at 140 dB 100 W m -2 -2 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) for a sound source at a greater distance.5 x 10 -2 = 4. eg with high-energy photons you would need a greater exposure (to absorb the necessary amount in bone) / with highenergy photons soft tissue would be affected just as much as bone (1) .26 x 10 s = 3.20 -1 5(a) (i) (ii) (b) bone absorbs low-energy photons more than high-energy ones / more with photoelectric effect than with Compton scattering bone and soft tissue absorb high-energy photons at similar rates a valid conclusion from one of these. e.g. 8 4(a) (i) t = s/v -2 3 = 2.0 x 10 3.5 cm 3.e.0 x 10 6.20) D=fxX / -4 = 140 x 3.25 cm (ii) (b) -6 -6 = 6. (30 to 40) 30 / 150 = 0. scanning foetus owtte (not baby) safer as no ionising radiation scanning joints / ligaments quicker / instant image / cheaper f = 140 J C (+ /.5 x 10 / 4.g.g. >6cm from first peak and < 6.2825/02 Mark Scheme January 2008 any one possible consequence of hearing problem.9 x 10 -1 Gy or J kg e.

125 x 10 ) 8 = 1.0 x 10 / 515 x 10 -19 = 3.02 x 10 -2 unit: W m reference to eye lens so additional focusing E=hc/λ -34 8 -9 = 6.g.g. (laser light boils water content of cell so) surgery is sterile focusing is very fine / much finer than a scalpel seals blood vessels as it cuts so less blood so vision is easier during incision any relevant to a max.5 x 10 assumption: e.0 / π (0.2825/02 any 6 from Mark Scheme January 2008 energy deposited = no. … so are preferentially targeted healthy cells recover more quickly 6(a) (i) I=P/A -3 2 = 5.. zero absorption by filter of green light (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (ii) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (birth marks are red and) red light is reflected at red surfaces so less red light absorbed or alternative argument with green light (c) any three e.0 W so power of each type of photon beam is 2. (1) (1) (1) (1) .86 x 10 18 = 6. of 3.86 x 10 J total power = 5.5 / 3.5 W -19 2..63 x 10 x 3. of photons absorbed x photon energy X-rays cause ionisation … … which can affect DNA … which kills cells … which can cause cancers / mutations / burns cells are more vulnerable when dividing cancerous cells divide (more) rapidly (than healthy cells) .

) Cross-section of atom = π (1.8 x 10-10)2 = 7.9 x 1012) OR = 1.445 x 10-4 = 1840 kg m-3 (d) For small changes in separation from equilibrium separation graph is a straight line. Dislocations / grain boundaries upset the regular array.13 x 10-10)3 = 6. metal or example. (complying with Hooke’s law). (1) e. Layers are not in the plane of the cross-section. [At least 3 Xs required in each figure. (1) [2] (i) Radius of atom = ½ equilibrium separation = 1.4 x 10-10)2 = 6. [1] All directions of magnetisation are equally possible / Atomic dipoles can align in any direction / easy to reverse magnetism. One X maximum 1. (1) Magnetic saturation is easily achieved.16 x 10-20 m2 OR = (2.8 x 10-10 m (ii) Maximum attractive force = 8. with bonds between atoms in adjacent layers all breaking simultaneously. Wire forms a neck Bonds between atoms break successively / unzip.044 x 10-30 0.5 x 10-10 = 2500 / 2000 N (e. (After elastic extension) wire undergoes plastic extension / slip. causing slipping of layers of atoms.g.] No of atoms in 1 kg = 1/1. (1) Example of polycrystalline structure: e. diamond. (In practice).(1) so extension (or compression) of wire is proportional to stretching (or compressing) force.f.2825/03 Mark Scheme January 2008 2825/03 Materials 1(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) (ii) Example of single-crystal structure: e. alloy or example.3 x 10-12 x 8.5 x 10-10 N (b) [1] [1] (c) One correct (1). Both correct (2). Both correct but reversed (1). quartz.3 x 1012) Force to break wire = 2.16 x 10-20 (= 2.4 x 10-10 m (e.c.f) Calculation assumes complete layers of atoms.g. in the plane of the cross-section of the wire.84 x 10-20 (= 2.667 x 1025 x 6. (1) [3] Metallic glass is amorphous. silicon.50 x 10-26 = 6.g. (1) max [2] [2] (1) (1) (1) (1) [4] [Total: 12] 2(a) (i) Separation = 2. (1) (1) (1) [3] [1] (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) max [8] (c) (ii) (iii) [Total: 16] . Only 2 Xs maximum 2. there are vacancies / impurity atoms / point defects in layers .8 x 10-7 / 6.8 x 10-7 / 7.74 -4 = 5.84 x 10-20 m2 No of atoms in cross-section = 1.c.445 x 10 m3 Density = 1/ 5. (1) Material has high resistivity / conductivity.Polycrystalline structures contain grain boundaries.9 / 2.044 x 10-30 m3 Space occupied by atoms in 1 kg = 6.667 x 1025 Volume of atom = (4π / 3) x (1.

(1) The copper could then act (temporarily) as a conductor until the power is switched off.8 x 1028 x 0. (1) Copper conducts excess heat away (from niobium-titanium filaments).5 x 10-6) (Allow e. 15000 turns of very thick wire would occupy a huge space.f. and more holes are left in the valence band.1 / (1.3 x 10-6 x 15000) = (108 A) Copper wire must be very thick to carry 110 A without excessive heating.2825/03 3(a) (i) (ii) Mark Scheme R = V/I = 6.3 x 1021 x 7.012 / (950 x 7. [1] [1] (1) (1) [2] (1) (1) [2] [1] 2 The temperature of the alloy may rise (by accident) above the transition temperature. (1) Increased (lattice) vibrations of copper atoms inhibit electron flow (to a small extent. [2] [Total: 9] .8) = 5.(1) Minimal / negligible change in resistance of copper wire. More conduction electrons / charge carriers in the germanium allow more current flow (so resistance of the germanium reduced). (1) (1) (1) (1) max [3] [Total: 12] 4(a) The temperature at which the resistance / resistivity of a material falls (suddenly) to zero (or wtte). (1) max [2] In germanium increased temperature gives more energy to electrons in the valence band.0063 = 950 Ω σ = L/RA = 0.68 Ω-1 m-1 [Allow (1) If resistivity calculated correctly. requiring complicated cooling systems / so could not be operated continuously. January 2008 [1] (1) (1) (1) [3] (1) (1) (1) [3] (b) v = I/nAe vCu / vGe = (nA)Ge / (nA)Cu = 4.) = 1. The copper wire solenoid would generate large quantities of heat. (b) (i) (ii) I = 1 x 2.0 / 0.2 x 10-7 (c) In copper increased temperature has no effect on number of electrons / charge carriers in the conduction band. so more electrons are promoted to the conduction band.5 / (7.c. (iii) 1 The resistance of the copper is very high compared with the resistance of the superconducting alloy.

3 x 10-19 = 1. so can transmit more information per second. Relevant reference to graphs.and coercivities. (1) An atom produces a magnetic field if the resultant fields of all its electrons is not zero.0 x 108 / 1.2825/03 5(a) (i) Mark Scheme January 2008 A spinning electron / electron orbiting a nucleus produces a magnetic field. Relevant reference to graphs. Lasers switch much faster than an LED. Laser beam is narrower. (i) One curve of correct shape. (1) (1) [2] (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) max [7] [Total: 9] . (1) [2] A magnetic domain is a region (in a ferromagnetic material) in which all the atomic magnets / dipoles are aligned.6 x 10-34 x 3. LED beam is diverging. [1] (1) (1) [2] (1) (1) (1) [3] (1) (1) [2] (1) [2] [Total:12] (ii) (b) Fig 5. 2 Soft iron requires smaller reverse field to reduce magnetism to zero. Two curves with correct relative remanences. so having a smaller range of speeds in a fibre.2 to show that domains in the direction of B have grown. and producing less distortion of a signal. 1 Hard iron retains more magnetism when magnetising field switched off. Curves correctly labelled. Laser radiation has a smaller range of frequencies than an LED radiation.52 x 10-6 m (b) Laser radiates more power. so a more powerful beam can be directed into a glass fibre. Domains not in the direction of B have shrunk. (c) (ii) 6(a) E = hc/λ λ = hc/E = 6. Laser beam is parallel.

) Strike through all blank spaces and/or pages in order to give a clear indication that the whole of the script has been considered. Please ensure that you use the final version of the Mark Scheme. Remember that scripts may be returned to Centres. If the science is correct and answers the question. and candidates may not use the exact words that appear in the mark scheme. use only one tick. 8. x ^ bod ecf con sf 4. contact your Team Leader/Principal Examiner for guidance. An element of professional judgement is required in the marking of any written paper. mark the first answer(s) given up to the total number required. Half marks (½) should never be used. The mark total for each question should be ringed at the end of the question.g. who may then gain partial credit even if their final answer is not correct. the exact procedure to be used is given in the mark scheme. unless otherwise indicated in the mark scheme. = = = = = incorrect response (errors may also be underlined) omission mark benefit of the doubt (where professional judgement has been used) error carried forward (in consequential marking) contradiction (in cases where candidates contradict themselves in the same response) = error in the number of significant figures 3. You are advised to destroy all draft versions. These totals should be added up to give the final total on the front of the paper. No comments should be written on scripts unless they relate directly to the mark scheme. The following annotations may be used when marking. (e. If two (or more) responses are required for one mark. A tick ( ) should be used for each answer judged worthy of a mark. ‘give three reasons’). 5. on the right hand side. . Strike through the remainder. then the mark(s) should normally be credited. In cases where candidates are required to give a specific number of answers. Please mark all post-standardisation scripts in red ink. The number of ticks should be the same as the number of marks awarded. Correct answers to calculations should gain full credit even if no working is shown. 2.2825/04 Mark Scheme January 2008 2825/04 Nuclear and Particle Physics ADVICE TO EXAMINERS ON THE ANNOTATION OF SCRIPTS 1. 8. (An instruction on the paper to ‘Show your working’ is to help candidates. Ticks should be placed as close as possible to the point in the answer where the mark has been awarded. In specific cases where this rule cannot be applied. The marks awarded for each part question should be indicated in the margin provided on the right hand side of the page. 6. If you are in doubt about the validity of any answer.

4 × 10-15)2 accept 1/(4π × 8.0 × 1020 (N m-1) no units but minus sign given can get 1/2 minus sign magnitude 1 1 [2] (c) Q2 .6 accept ans.9 × 10-19 m (= 5. strong force = 117 N (1) so separation of B from A = .3) 10-15 17 accept -2.0 × 1020 B is greater than / to the right of A (on graph) (1) because electrostatic force is repulsive (1) (slight) increase in strong (attractive) force to compensate for electrostatic force (1) any 2 2 [3] 10 .(-20)] × 103 (-1. = 118 N FE = either or or strong force + electrostatic force = 0 attractive strong force = repulsive electrostatic force they are equal and opposite 1 1 [2] (d)(i) 1 1 (+1) [1] (ii) at equilibrium. 117 .85 × 10-12 (1. NOT () = = = = = ecf = AW = ora = alternative and acceptable answers for the same marking point separates marking points answers which are not worthy of credit words which are not essential to gain credit (underlining) key words which must be used to gain credit error carried forward alternative wording or reverse argument Question 1(a) Expected Answers A is the equilibrium position / (resultant) force at A is zero.85 × 10-12) = 9 × 109 gives 117.9 × 10-4 fm) 2.2825/04 Mark Scheme January 2008 Abbreviations. Marks 1 1 [2] (b) gradient of line = [+20 . 4 π ε0 x2 = .0 × 10 kN m-1 ) accept -200 kN fm-1 ) = (-)2.5 + 1.6 × 10-19 )2 = 117 N 4 π × 8. = 5. (1. separation between two neutrons / diameter of a neutron. annotations and conventions used in the Mark Scheme / .

2.04 × 10 5 (= 3.77 × 10 = 8.15 × 10 accept (8.4) accept (1.04 × 105 s 1 1 1 1 1 1 [2] [1] (ii) λ = ln 2 = .4 × 10 alternative finds A by calculation from A0 = 5.80) × 1012 12 17 so N = 2.24) × 1017 -6 3.75 .693 .36 days (accept 2.2. T½ 2. 0. e.05 . can score 3/3 24000 y horizontal line [3] (c)(i) (ii) 1 1 [1] [1] 12 .0 × 1012 Bq etc.36 × 24 × 3600 = 2.3 .2825/04 Mark Scheme January 2008 2(a) reaction 1 reaction 2 reaction 3 238 92 239 92 U + U 1 0 n τ τ τ 239 92 0 −1 U e + e + 239 93 1 Np + ν 2 1 [4] 239 93 Np 0 −1 239 94 Pu + ν no neutrino gets 1 + 1 + 0 = 2/4 max.2.77 × 1012 s-1 accept (2.10) × 105 so T½ = 2.4 × 10-6 s-1 ) (iii) A = λN from graph A = 2.e.98 .or β− −1 once (b) (i) measured from graph T½ = 2.8. wrong neutrino(s) gets 1 + 1 + 1 = 3/4 incorrect symbol for beta i.

60 × 10-19 C not 1.60 × 10-10 J energy of one photon = h f i.e. 1 [1] (c)(i) two γ-photons are produced.00 × 10-10 + 1. total energy = 4.00 × 108 )2 + 2 × 8. ( = 3. 1 2 [3] 13 . with equal energy / frequency.67 × 10-27 × (3. ignores rest mass and gets f = 1.) = m c2 + ½ m v2 equation so total energy = 2 × 1.66 × 10-27 kg minus sign essential 1 1 [2] (b) in particle accelerator / near high-energy particle collision or AW / in cosmic rays / in Sun. travelling in opposite directions.67 × 10-27 kg charge = -1. and gets 2.60 × 10-10 J) for two photons.00 × 10-11 subs. ) ) ) or from sketch in (iii) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 [3] (ii) total energy of a proton = (rest energy + k. sketch to show approximate relation between velocity of particles and directions of photons.60 × 10-10 and f = 3.3 × 1023 Hz can get 2/4 factor 2 omission: -1 [4] (iii) photons in (ii) would be of higher frequency.63 × 10-34 f = 4.2 × 1023 Hz can get 2/4 ignores k.e.60 × 10-10 = 4.47 × 1023 Hz ans. 2 h f for two photons so 2 × 6.2825/04 Mark Scheme January 2008 3(a) mass = 1.e.

1 helium / tritium / product nuclei collide with other lithium nuclei / atoms so energy becomes randomised / energy becomes heat / temperature of lithium rises.26 × 10-12 J 1 [1] (d) neutron has smaller (1/4 × ) mass than He .0189 × 1. this outweighs greater mass of 4 He . 1 [3] 13 .e.0141 + 3.66 × 10-27 kg (= 3.83 × 10-12 100 4 2 = 2. 4 2 (1) (1) (1) (1) because of conservation of mtm. 2 because k.6 MeV) = 2.0026 + 1. of He nucleus.5. proportional to v2 .0189 × 932 (= 17. (1) 2 any 3 remaining energy absorbed by / becomes k.e. deduces that faster moving neutron carries more energy (than 4 He ).0301 u products mass: 4. it has larger (4 × ) speed than He . 4 2 3 1 [4] (e) (surround reactor with) 'lithium blanket'.0301 .2825/04 Mark Scheme January 2008 4(a) 2 1 H + 3 1 H τ 4 2 He + 1 0 n 1 [1] (b) reactants mass: 2. proportional to v2 .14 × 10-29 × (3.0086 = 5. k.0189 u = 0.0160 = 5.e.0112 u so mass defect = 5. = ½ m v2 or k.82 × 10-12 J ans.e. either or or lithium nucleus absorbs a neutron gives nuclear equation: 6 1 τ 4 He + 3 H 3 Li + 0 n 2 1 7 3 1 Li + 1 0 n τ 4 2 He + 3 1 H + 1 0 n. = 80 × 2.0112 = 0.82 × 10-12 J (c) mean neutron k.e.14 × 10-29 kg) energy = m c2 = 3. 1 1 1 1 [4] or E = 0.00 × 108 )2 = 2.

e.or β. 1 1 and uud τ udd + e+ + ν gets first two marks 1 1 [4] allow neutrino ecf from (b) C N and O points shown and labelled with N as the smallest mass.) loses -1 once 0 0 −1 e or 1 e omitted gets 0/1 for relevant equation neutrino incorrectly shown loses -1 once neutrino omitted from an equation 0/1 omitted altogether 0/2 (c) n τ p + e.+ ν then deduces that: d τ u + e.+ ν n is udd. p is uud. e. udd τ uud + e.+ ν u τ d + e+ + ν and p τ n + e+ + ν . when decay occurs there is (always) a loss of (rest) mass.2825/04 Mark Scheme January 2008 5(a) 14 6 C 14 8 O 14 7 N 2 [2] 2/3 correct gets 1/2 (b) 14 6 C τ 14 7 N + 0 −1 e + ν first equation 2 [2] (1) 14 8 O τ 14 7 N + 0 1 e + ν second equation (1) incorrect beta particle symbol ( i. 1 1 [2] 10 (d) .

e. either steam drives turbines linked to (electrical) generators or steam drives turbines and generates electricity. (1) (1) (1) 1 1 3 any 3 12 [12] . either product nuclei 'bunched' around two mass numbers or graph showing peaks.e. ⊄ mean k. sensibly symmetrical 235 92 1 1 1 1 1 1 (1) (1) importance of delayed neutrons in relation to controlling rate of reaction. coolant carries heat from uranium / reactor core. thermal neutron is either a slow-moving (neutron) or has k. hence temperature of uranium rises. (fissile) nucleus absorbs a neutron. reference to delayed neutrons or AW. emitted neutrons can cause further fissions / cause chain reaction. heat used to change water to steam. of atoms / molecules due to thermal agitation. U. (most neutrons) need slowing down / moderating. (1) 1 11 12 13 14 15 16 symmetry of graph about nuclide whose mass ⊄ ½ mass of (1) fission generates (kinetic) energy.2825/04 Mark Scheme January 2008 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 uranium-235 is the (main) fissile material. only / mainly thermal neutrons cause (further) fission nucleus splits / fissions into two nuclei / parts.

2825/05 Mark Scheme January 2008 2825/05 Telecommunications Mark Scheme Unit Code 2825 Question 1 Session January Year 2008 Marks Version (a) High Frequency ( or Short wave ) from to 3 MHz 30 MHz ① (deduct 1 mark if Hz omitted) ① ① (b) (i) Ionosphere drawn and labelled Multiple reflections shown between Earth's surface and ionosphere ① ① (ii) HF radio waves reflect from ionosphere back to Earth from where they make multiple reflections in travelling around the Earth ① (c) Drawing of dipole aerial ① λ/2 Typical frequency So typical wavelength f λ = = = = = 10 MHz c/f 3 x 108 / 10 x 106 30 m λ/2 = 15 m ① Hence dipole length ① .

2825/05 Mark Scheme January 2008 Mark Scheme Unit Code 2825 Session January Year 2008 Version Question (a) 2 Marks Open copper wires have a huge attenuation so signals do not travel very far before amplification is necessary Open copper wires radiate into space as an aerial So serious crosstalk occurs in other wires Open copper wires suffer from serious interference/noise Because they are simply an aerial picking up signals in their vicinity Open copper wires have a limited bandwidth over long distances Which limits their information carrying ability (any one point plus qualification) ① ① (b) Glass is an extremely common substance and is thus cheaper than copper Optic fibre cables are much thinner and lighter So are easier for technicians to handle Optic fibre has a much lower attenuation So allows much longer uninterrupted transmission Optic fibre has a much higher bandwidth So has a much greater information carrying ability Optic fibres are immune to electromagnetic interference So can be used in noisy environments Optic fibres do not radiate energy So there is no crosstalk between adjacent fibres Optic fibres are very secure Because they cannot be tapped Optic fibres are ideal channels for time-division multiplexing Which uses digital signals in the form of light pulses any four ①① ①① ①① ①① .

2825/05

Mark Scheme

January 2008

Mark Scheme

Unit Code 2825

Session January

Year 2008

Version

Question

3

Marks

(a)

(i)

Peak output voltage

=

2 cm x 2 V cm-1 =

4V

①

(ii) Peak input voltage

=

1 cm x 0.05 V cm-1

=

0. 05 V

①

(iii)

voltage gain

= =

4 / 0.05 80 (ignore -ve sign)

① ①

(iv)

frequency of signal

= =

1 / 4 x 5 x 10-3 50 Hz

① ①

(b)

The amplifier is inverting because the output is 1800 out of phase with the input (or the output is in anti phase with the input or wtte)

①

(c)

Op-amp and 0V line symbol correctly drawn Non-inverting input correctly connected to 0V line

① ①

Input resistor correctly connected to inverting input ① _ Feedback resistor correctly connected Ratio of resistors Rf / R1 equals gain of 80 ① + ① 0V Input and output labelled and resistor values quoted in range 100Ω to 10 M Ω ①

2825/05

Mark Scheme

January 2008

Mark Scheme

Unit Code 2825

Session January

Year 2008

Version

Question (a) (i)

4

Marks ① ① ① ① ① ① ① = 190.4 dB = = 168 dB 22.4 dB ① ① ①

Attenuation The gradual loss in energy / power along a transmission path caused by electrical resistance / heat losses radiation losses from cable Any unwanted energy added (at random) to signal

(ii) (iii)

Noise

Noise power in a transmission path is more or less constant In which case the signal can not (normally) be recovered

If signal is transmitted too far attenuation causes signal power to fall below noise ①

(b)

Each amplification of 42 dB must just compensate for the 5.6 dB loss every km. Thus L = 42 / 5.6 = = = = 7.5 km

(c)

(i) (ii) (iii)

Total attenuation Total amplification Overall power loss

4 x 8.5 x 5.6 4 x 42 190.4 - 168

Thus final power output Pout is given by - 22.4 Pout = = = 10 log Pout / Pin 86 x 10-2.24 0.495 W = 10 log Pout / 86 ① ①

(iv)

The power input Pin to the final amplifier is given by 42 Pin = = = 10 log 0.495 / Pin 0.495 x 10-4.2 3.12 x 10-5 W = = 10 log 3.12 x 10-5 W / 31.2 μW 0 dB ① ①

Signal-to-noise ratio

①

(d)

Such a ratio would make it very difficult to extract meaning from the signal

①

2825/05

Mark Scheme

January 2008

Mark Scheme

Unit Code 2825

Session January

Year 2008

Version

Question

5

Marks

Polar orbiting satellites Diagram drawn showing low Earth orbit over poles with poles marked Height of orbit is usually a few hundred kilometres Satellite is moving very fast and completes an orbit in about 90 minutes It repeatedly passes over one pole and then the other in any orbit The Earth spins slowly underneath satellite So every point on Earth is visible for a brief period repeatedly These satellites are ideal for remote sensing Military reconnaissance Meteorology Oceanography Cartography Geological prospecting ① ① ① ① ①

Geostationary satellites Diagram drawn huge orbit around equator with equator marked Height of orbit is many thousands of kilometres (36 000 km) Satellite is moving at less than half the speed of polar and completes an orbit in 24 hours It rotates in synchronism with Earth so appears stationary from any point on Earth Thus satellite always sees same face of Earth These satellites are ideal for Weather monitoring Microwave links for telephone and Internet traffic Broadcasting high bandwidth signals over large area Thus one transmitter on one carrier frequency does the work of thousands of Earth transmitters ① ① ① ① ① ①

2825/05 Mark Scheme January 2008 Mark Scheme Unit Code 2825 Session January Year 2008 Version Question 6 Marks (a) (i) (ii) Any drawing of roughly constant high frequency with amplitude slowly wobbling A high frequency carrier has its amplitude controlled by the value of a lower frequency information signal ① ① ① ① (b) (i) (ii) Any drawing of high frequency wobbling at a roughly constant amplitude A high frequency carrier has its frequency controlled by the value of a lower frequency information signal ① ① (c ) Any noise picked up on AM cannot easily be removed Information resides in amplitude of AM signal so noise adds to this and pollutes it Hence AM is inherently noisy on reception But AM occupies a relatively low bandwidth So makes more economic use of frequency space FM contains no information in the amplitude of the carrier So any noise picked up can be removed (by limiter) in the receiver Hence FM results in a very clear signal But FM occupies a relatively large bandwidth (at least for wideband FM) So can only reasonably be used where there is already a large channel bandwidth FM has potentially a greater dynamic range than AM ① ① ① ① .

3 g / 190 g (e.7 x 104 = 23. To minimise heating by Sun / avoid sunburn.c. To maximise ability of water vapour to escape from the body surface. Shield body from direct sunlight.8 = 185.3 / 32 g [If 20 % efficiency value used at this stage to give 161 / 160 g allow 1 mark for (ii) and forward credit 1 mark as first mark in (iii) mass used to produce heat due to 20 % efficiency = 4 x 32.4 kg To avoid dehydration / replace fluid loss from body. Comment on direction of heat flow. Wear porous clothing.2 + 23.0033 K OR Use Δθ/Δt = (ΔQ/Δt)/mc (1) = 0. To provide energy during run. (Potential energy gained =) mgh / 70 x 9.25 x 106 J) Period of rest = 4.7 x 104 (= 4. One of each following reason + action but no mark for action alone. Wear loose clothing.) (c) (i) Q = mcΔθ / Δθ = Q/mc / correct substitution in either expression In 1 s. To increase rate / amount of evaporation / cooling of body.5 x 105 J mass of carbohydrate used to provide ΔEp = 5.7 x 104 = 32.1 x 106 / 2.49 / 5. To allow easy transport of water away from the skin.3 = 129. Drink a large quantity of water. (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) max [2] (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) [3] [2] (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) [2] [2] [2] [1] (ii) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (ii) [2] [2] [2} (iii) (iv) .4 x 106 = 3.f.5 x 105 /1.2 g / 130 g use of 20 % efficiency value to calculate 161 / 160 g mass used in maintaining base metabolic rate = 1.7 / 16 hr Heat / energy is lost (to the surroundings / from the body). at the same rate as it is produced by conversion of energy from food / or wtte.5 hours = 900 x 2.0033 K s-1 (1) Comparison of body and external temperatures.3 + 129.1 x 106 J) mass of water evaporated = 8.5 + 23. Pour water over body during race.2825/05 Mark Scheme January 2008 2825 Common Question (a) (i) Energy provided =) Power x time / Pt / 250 x 1.25 x 106 / 75 = 5. Δθ = 900 / 65 x 4200 = 0.5 x 60 x 60 (= 8. Eat carbohydrate before / during race.67 x 104 s = 15.5 x 3600 x 75 / 1.8 / 161.81 x 800 = 5.8 / 24 g total mass used = 32. Heat to be lost in 2.

7 = 4π x (0.4 x 106)2 = 1. kg m-1 s-1 (b) (i) (ii) Drag upwards equal and opposite to weight downwards drag = krv. cloudy skies angle cannot easily be kept at right angles to rays night time fog or mist dirt accumulating on surface 1 mark for each to MAXIMUM 3 to provide energy when panel is not being illuminated OR to enable it to provide more than 80 W when required [3] [1] {5} (iii) .9 x 1024 / 3 x 1020 = 1.72 x 10-3 (N s m-2 ) (d) curve to zero terminal velocity v / m s-1 two points correct accuracy – not more than a square different from this [1] [1] [1] {3} drop radius r /10-3 m (e) there must be an upward force therefore air (under cloud) must be rising rising air will give glider lift other relevant point area = πr2 = π x (6.9 x 1024 J [1] [1] [1] [1] MAX 3 [1] [1] {3} (14) 2(a) (i) (ii) (b) (c) [1] [0] {3} [1] {1} [1] 4.g.6(3) x 104 (i) (ii) panel angled so that sunlight strikes panel at right angles e.g.7 k = 4.001)3 x 1000 x 9.2826/01 Mark Scheme January 2008 2826/01 Unifying Concepts in Physics 1(a) N = [k] m m s-1 each item correct unit of k = N s m-2 or equivalent e.001 x 8. weight = 4πr3ρg/3 [1] [1] {2} [1] [1] [1] {3} [1] [1] [1] {3} 4 πρg 2 ∴v = r hence v ∝ r 2 3k (c) k x 0.2 x 103 x 365 x 24 x 3600 = 4.81/ 3 4π × 10−3 × 9.81 k= 3 × 8.29 x 1014 x 1.29 x 1014 m2 1.

84 × 1. (30 years) is a long time for it to have to work [1] so unlikely to be economic unless there are special circumstances [1] allow alternative answers such as ‘no greenhouse gases’ or ‘use where there is no mains supply of electricity’ {2} (17) a particular type of nucleus [1] 3(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) (ii) two atoms with the same number of protons (in their nucleus) but with different numbers of neutrons [1] an atom with a different number of electrons from the number of protons [1] {3} OR the equivalent in terms of gaining or losing an electron 1.48 x 10-23 kg force on particle = Bqv = mass x acceleration = m x v2/r mv 6.6 × 10−19 = 0.02 x 1023 = 6.c.64 x 10-12 A use of 1 mol having 6.4 x 107 = 8.7 A 1000 W h / 20 W = 50 hours £500 would buy 5000 kWh time = 50 x 5000 = 250 000 hours (allow full credit for use of £400 giving 200 000 hours) January 2008 (d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] {6} (e) e.f from (b) gives 240 m there must be some ions with a larger mass another isotope of potassium [1] [1] [1] [1] {4} [1] [1] [1] [1] {4} [1] [1] {2} (13) (c) (d) .48 × 10−26 × 5 × 105 r= = Bq 0.g.2826/01 Mark Scheme output is 120 W m-2 so 80 W from 0.48 x 10-26 kg OR using 18e + 19p + 20n Allow 2/3 for 6.67 m2 80 W 12 V maximum power = maximum current x V maximum current = 80 / 12 = 6.02 x 1023 atoms 1 mol is 39 gram mass = 0.24 m e.6 x 10-19 x 5.039/6.

5.1(a) the exponential Fig. discharge of a capacitor radioactive decay cooling a hot object (in a draught) absorption of gamma radiation (b) 2 required 1 mark each [2] {2} values taken from the graph are required e.8 −> 2. 4. biological growth (in early stages) spread of epidemic (in early stages) chain reaction (in early stages) [1] {2} (9) .2 is 2. compound interest.1(c) does not fit the half life pattern For both Fig. 5.g.1 (c) the marking can be 1 mark for the idea and one mark for the evidence [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] {5} (c) (i) (ii) for equal intervals (of time) on the x-axis there will be a constant multiplying factor OR could be done by the equation y = Ae+kt [1] e.6 on x-axis i. 5. 5.1(b) is asymptotic on both axes so cannot be exponential OR is an inverse square law Fig.1 (b) and Fig.4 −> 1.2826/01 Mark Scheme January 2008 4(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) allow anything in audible range ring around 3 x 102 m s-1 correct calculation (250 Hz and 300 m s-1 give 1.2 m) [1] [1] [1] {3} [1] [1] [1] [1] {4} (7) diffraction as the spreading of a wave interference caused by superposition diagram or clear explanation of double slit arrangement diffraction through slits allows the necessary overlap for interference to occur 5(a) e.3 on x-axis 2.g.4 on y-axis requires 0 −> 2. constant fraction of fall for equal times give Fig.e.3 −> 4.g. 5.

Allow 3 dp if raw t not given & nT is in b(i) Values in the table must agree with the unit at the head of the column. please indicate the type of help that has been given by writing a brief comment by the table of results. = OX – OG. Each axis must be labelled with a quantity. as a BOD (Repeats credited in b (ii)) Readings Write the number of readings as a ringed total by the results table. Accept T if no evidence of nt. one mark. 1 1 (a) (ii) 1 (b) (i) (b) (ii) 3/2/1/0 (b) (ii) 1 (b) (ii) 2/1/0 (b) (ii) 1 (b) (ii) 2/1/0 (c) (i) 2/1/0 . 6:10. 8:10 etc. There must be some distinguishing mark between the quantity and the unit. then lose one mark. Please each correct column heading to show that it has been seen. (this should be between 25 and 35 cm. zero marks Column headings. Correct value for h.). Repeated Readings (not if all repeats are identical) Quality Good quality of results (as judged by scatter of points). Also.2826/03 Mark Scheme January 2008 2826/03 Experimental Skills 2 Practical Examination Question 1 (a) (i) Position of Centre of gravity Value for OG. Consistency of raw readings in the table of results. If no minimum. 3:10. One mark for each axis. Do not allow more than 3 large squares between scale markings. Raw times > 10s. one mark. Period of oscillation.g. Allow 5 osc at ≈ 8 s. Please each column checked. 5 sets 1 mark. 6 sets of values of T and h score 2 marks. one mark. 4 sets score zero. Scales much be such that the plotted points occupy at least half the graph grid in both the x and y directions. one mark. Do not allow awkward scales (e. Please indicate when help has been given to a candidate by writing SR at the top of the front page of the candidate’s script. Time to 1 or 2 d. Applies to time and distance OX (or h). Raw readings for OX and time. Ignore unit. but check supervisor’s notes first).f. If help is given. Distance to nearest mm. One mark for time column.p. Axes. 7:10. Calculation of h. Allow incorrect s. All columns for must be headed with a quantity and correct unit. one mark for distance column.

if no evidence of cm conversion to m. following from correct formula. No marks lost for triangle size. One mark (NOT T2 against h). Straight line graph more accurate. 2 or 3 sf. T2h (y-axis) plotted against h2 (or 4π2h2) (x-axis).) No tangent loses all three marks. One mark for read-offs and ratio correct. The number of plots must correspond with the number of observations. one mark (Allow use of cm to give g in cm s-2) Units for g. Count the number of plots on the grid and write this value by the line and ring it. There must be a reasonable balance of points about the curve. Do not award this mark if the number of plots is less than the number of observations. to be checked (be wary of g = 9. Gradient is 4π2/g.e. Circle this plot. Check one suspect plot. one mark 1 (c) (ii) 1 (c) (iii) 3/2/1/0 1 1 1 1 1 (d) (e) 1 1 (f) 2/1/0 Total [28] . one mark (any final rounding must be correct). This mark can only be awarded if a curve has been drawn through a curved trend. one mark. Allow one stray point. One mark (i.2826/03 Mark Scheme January 2008 (c) (i) Plotting of points. Do not allow “blobs”. Curve of best fit. Read-offs must be accurate to half a small square and the ratio must be correct. Significant figures for g. Values for Tmin and h. Please indicate the vertices of the triangle used by labelling with Δ. Allow errors up to and including half a small square.81 N/kg). One mark Comment on methods for g. Do not allow plots in the margin area. at least 10cm long. Do not allow thick (≥ 1 mm) or ‘hairy’ lines. . If incorrect then mark the correct position with a small cross and use an arrow to indicate where the plots should have been.e. hence g. because all values used. i. One mark for quality of tangent to curve (Tangent must be of reasonable length i.0 h / T2) Correct calculations. One mark for negative value given for negative gradient. g = 79. Tick if correct.e. Measurement of gradient of tangent. one mark Use of correct formula. g = 8π2h/T2 . N/kg or m s-2 (or cm s-2). Because difficult to get an accurate minimum from curve. one mark Do not allow N/kg or ms-2.

Vague ‘uv might be proportional to (u + v)’ or ‘uv is not proportional to (u + v)’ does not score this second mark. Allow s. Measure more than 2 sets of u and v . and these are reduced by the stop. P/S The image has coloured fringes. v will be about 60 cm). Measure lens (or bulb) thickness.2826/03 Mark Scheme January 2008 2 (b) Question 2 – Lenses. Difficult to measure u and v accurately to centre of lens. or bulb filament. Relevant points must be underlined and ticked. because of the range within which it is in focus. S. e.g. and add t/2 to readings. S. Repeat readings should be taken.e. errors. Evaluation of procedure. and plot a graph S. S. AE loses first mark but second mark allow ecf. one mark. One mark for ratio idea. u2 should increase. P/S Parallax error. Sensible figure for Δv. Some of these might be (in the form of problem followed by solution): P. P. with explanation / clamp ruler P. Do not allow brighter bulb. or wtte. (If f = 10cm and u = about 12 cm. Use optical bench. S.5cm or ±2 cm. Take the mid-point of the range. (advantage). use set square or mirror. and averaged. No need to check arithmetic Measurements of u2 and v2. The stop increases the depth of field or wtte (advantage).f. ±0. but the image is less bright (disadvantage). Correct ratio and x 100. 2 sets of u and v not enough. v is difficult to measure. plot a graph of uv against (u + v). darken windows etc. i. one mark. or calculation of k’s One mark for conclusion that uv ∝ (u + v) which follows from the reasoning (only if k values are within 10% of each other). v2 should decrease. The stop gives a sharper image. P. One measurement of each pair of values of u and v is not enough S. Mark Scheme Measurement of u1 and v1. 1 2 (c) 2 2 (d) 2 (e) 1 2/1/0 2 (g) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A B C 12 2 (g) Quality of written communication (SPAG) Total 16 marks 2 . uv/(u + v) is constant.

Non-rigid spacers.2826/03 Mark Scheme January 2008 Planning Exercise Mark Scheme – Sound & Windows A1 Labelled diagram showing workable arrangement of apparatus e. connect to y-plates. select time-base (or time scale). one mark. Frequency response of speaker and microphone Difficulties associated with standing waves/resonance Evidence of research of material i. at least two detailed references from different sources have been given (i. Allow Internet pages to be sourced. one mark A2 Correct procedure.e. chapter and/or page numbers must be given). B1 Use of time base to measure frequency. e. one mark. 16 marks in total . then repeat for different spacings.g. One vague reference scores zero.g. in volts D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 R Any further relevant detail. or slots in box. measure period.e. Compare input and output volumes for a certain frequency and air gap. speaker. so that sound is not conducted. B2 Measurement of sound amplitude. The ticks must have a subscript showing which marking point is being awarded (e. 5mm ≤ gap ≤ 5cm.e. signal generator (or wtte). one mark A3 Sensible construction of specimen window in laboratory.e. Sensible choice of air gaps. Hence frequency = 1/T. Expected results presented graphically. A2).g. one mark microphone connected to CRO. ≤ 5 cm Evidence of preliminary work. i. use spacers. Quiet room needed. no chapter or page references). e. one mark. Change frequency and repeat for several different frequencies in audible range.g sensible size. or sound proof box / best outside to avoid reflections. Microphone and speaker close to but not touching glass. One detailed reference scores one mark. e. i. labelled axes. sensible distance stated. 2/1/0 2/1/0 1 2/1/0 1 4/3/2/1/0 2/1/0 Q 2/1/0 Underline and tick each relevant point in the body of the text. 2 marks are reserved for quality of written communication (organisation). Rambling and poorly presented material cannot score both marks. (ii) frequency makes little difference). amplitude of CRO trace.e.g. Vernier or micrometer (internal calipers) to measure air gap. (i) Wider gaps give better sound-proofing. Two or more vague references (i.

0 cm and v2 = 30.05(4) within 0.2826/03 Mark Scheme Q.05(5) .05% k2 = u2v2/(u2 + v2) = 10.5 cm k1 = u1v1/(u1 + v1) = 10.0 cm and v1 = 62 cm ±1 cm then u2 = 15.5 cm ± 0.2 Lenses – Results January 2008 u1 = 12.

Grade Thresholds Advanced GCE Physics A (3883/7883) January 2008 Examination Series Unit Threshold Marks Unit 2821 2822 2823A 2823B 2823C 2824 2825A 2825B 2825C 2825D 2825E 2826A 2826B 2826C Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Raw UMS Maximum Mark 60 90 60 90 120 120 120 120 120 120 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 120 120 120 120 120 120 A 42 72 45 72 97 96 97 96 92 96 62 72 63 72 65 72 65 72 62 72 64 72 92 96 92 96 89 96 B 37 63 40 63 86 84 86 84 83 84 55 63 57 63 59 63 57 63 55 63 57 63 81 84 81 84 80 84 C 32 54 35 54 75 72 75 72 74 72 48 54 51 54 53 54 50 54 48 54 50 54 70 72 70 72 72 72 D 27 45 31 45 65 63 65 63 65 63 42 45 45 45 48 45 43 45 42 45 44 45 60 63 60 63 64 63 E 23 36 27 36 55 54 55 54 56 54 36 36 40 36 43 36 36 36 36 36 38 36 50 54 50 54 56 54 U 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Specification Aggregation Results Overall threshold marks in UMS (ie after conversion of raw marks to uniform marks) Maximum Mark 300 600 A 240 480 B 210 420 C 180 360 D 150 300 E 120 240 U 0 0 3883 7883 The cumulative percentage of candidates awarded each grade was as follows: .

9 87.A 3883 7883 13.3 70.4 C 56.uk/learners/ums_results.org.4 U 100 100 Total Number of Candidates 334 89 For a description of how UMS marks are calculated see: http://www.8 B 33. .2 12.html Statistics are correct at the time of publication.1 97.2 E 95.5 D 78.ocr.0 47.

uk www.qualifications@ocr.org.org.ocr.uk For staff training purposes and as part of our quality assurance programme your call may be recorded or monitored Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations is a Company Limited by Guarantee Registered in England Registered Office. CB1 2EU Registered Company Number: 3484466 OCR is an exempt Charity OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations) Head office Telephone: 01223 552552 Facsimile: 01223 552553 © OCR 2008 . Cambridge. 1 Hills Road.OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations) 1 Hills Road Cambridge CB1 2EU OCR Customer Contact Centre 14 – 19 Qualifications (General) Telephone: 01223 553998 Facsimile: 01223 552627 Email: general.

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