WAR CRIMES

NghHf; Fw;wq;fs;;

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Kd;Diu
jkpoh;fspd; murpaypy; ,d;W rpy nrhw;gpuNahfq;fs; gad;ghl;by; cs;sd. Xk; - ePq;fs; Clfq;fs; thapyhf mwpe;Jnfhz;bUf;Fk; Nghh;f;Fw;wq;fSf;Fk;> ,dg;gLnfhiyfSf;Fk; vjpuhd rl;l eltbf;iffSk;> tprhuizfSkhFk;. cz;ikapy; ,it rhh;e;j tplaq;fis cw;W Nehf;fp> Muha;e;J mwpgth;fisj; jtpu> VidNahUf;F ,t; tplaq;fs; GhpahjitahfNt cs;sd. fhuzk; ,it Kw;W KOjhf rl;ltpaiy ikag;gLj;jp cs;sikNaahFk;. Nghh; vd;gNj Fw;wk;. mg;gbahdhy; Nghh;f;Fw;wk; vd;gJ ahJ? xU ehL Nghh; Ghptjw;Ff; $l rl;ljpl;lq;fs; cs;sdth? mr; rl;lq;fs; ahit? rpwPyq;fh muR kPwpAs;s midj;Jyf Nghhpay; rl;l jpl;lq;fs; vit? vjd; mbg;gilapy; jkpoh;fs; tof;Ffisj; njhLj;Js;sdh;? vd;w cq;fsJ midj;J tifahd tpdhf;fSf;Fk; Rtp]; <oj;jkpouitAk;> midj;Jyfj; jkpo;g; ngz;fs; mikg;Gk; ,ize;J> ,f; ifEhy; Clhf fUj;Jj; njspthf;fk; mspf;fpd;wdh;. midj;Jyf Fw;wtpay; ePjpkd;wk; kw;Wk; INuhg;gpa kdpj chpik ePjpkd;wq;;fspy; ,uz;L tof;Ffisj; jhf;fy; nra;j mDgtq;fspD}lhf ,f; ifE}iy midj;J kf;fSk; thrpj;J njsptila Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf ntspapLfpNwhk;. ,f; ifE}y; gw;wpa cq;fsJ Mf;fG+h;tkhd fUj;Jf;fis vjph;ghh;j;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;. ed;wp Rtp]; <oj;jkpouit (E-mail: info@scet.ch) midj;Jyfj; jkpo;g; ngz;fs; mikg;G.

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WAR CRIMES
War crimes are serious violations of the laws of war, also known as International Humanitarian Law (IHL). This is the body of international law governing the conduct of international and non‐international armed conflict. Under the laws of war, certain violations are considered so serious as to give rise to individual criminal responsibility, both domestically and at the international level. War crimes typically include serious violations of the laws of war aimed at protecting persons who are not or are no longer participating in the hostilities and of rules that restrict the means and methods of warfare.

NghHf; Fw;wq;fs;;
NghH tpjpKiw my;yJ midj;Jyf kdpjhgpkhdr; rl;lj;jpw;F Kuzhf nraw;gLtNj Nghu;f;Fw;wq;fshFk;. NkYk; ehl;bw;Fs;Sk;> midj;Jyf uPjpapYk; MAjg; Nghuhl;lq;fs; njhlHghd midj;Jyfr; rl;lq;fs; vdyhk;. ,t;tpjpfspd; gb rpy kPwy;fs; kpfTk; ghuJ}ukhdit. mg;gb kPWgtu;fs; cs;SupYk;> midj;Jyf kl;lj;jpYk; mf;Fw;wq;fSf;F mth;fNs nghWg;ghfpd;wdu;. Nghhpy; <Lglhjtu;fs; my;yJ Nghupy; njhlu;e;Jk; <Lglhjtu;fisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhf ,it ,aw;wg;gl;ld.
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What are crimes against humanity?
khDlj;Jf;F vjpuhd Fw;wq;fs; vit?
Under the Rome Statute, a crime against humanity is any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack:

nghJkf;fisf; Fwpitj;J elj;jg;gLk; - gutyhf my;yJ jpl;lkpl;L> njupe;J nfhz;Nl jhf;Fjy;> kdpj Fyj;Jf;F vjpuhd Fw;wkhFk;. mitahtd:

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a. Murder; nfhiy. b. Extermination; KOikahf

mopj;njhopj;jy;.

c. Enslavement; mbikg;gLj;Jjy;. d. Deportation or forcible transfer of population; ehL

flj;jy;

my;yJ kf;fis type;J ntspNaw;Wjy;.
e. Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;

midj;Jyfr; rl;lj;Jf;F Kuzhf rpiw nra;jy;.
f. Torture; defines as “any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.”

xUtiu Ntz;Lnkd;Nw cly;> csuPjpahf fLikahf Jd;GWj;Jjy;> mjd; %yk; mtuplNkh %d;whktuplNkh jfty; my;yJ xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; ngWtJ> mtNuh my;yJ ,d;ndhUtNuh nra;j my;yJ nra;jjhf re;Njfj;jpy; jz;bg;gJ> mr;RWj;jpNah fl;lhag;gLj;jpNah my;yJ NtW topapNyh mth;fis Ntjidg;gLj;Jjy;> xU mjpfhhpNah my;yJ mtuJ J}z;Ljypdhy; nra;tJk; NuhkhGupapy; Vw;Wnfhz;l rl;lj;jpd; gb (Rome statute) rpj;jputijahFk;. mNjNghy; rl;l eltbf;ifapdhy; Vw;glf;$ba Jd;gk; my;yJ NtjidAk; ,jDs; mlq;Fk;.
g. Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity; ghypay; td;Gzh;T> ghypay; Nehf;Fld;

mbikg;gLj;Jjy;> fl;lha ghypay; njhopy;> type;J fh;g;gkhf;Fjy;> fl;lha ,dtpUj;jpia Nkw;nfhs;sy;.
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h. Persecution against any identified able group or collectivist on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender…, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any other crime within the jurisdiction of the Court; murpay;> ,d> Njrpa fyhr;rhu> kj> ghy; my;yJ

NtW topapy; milahsk; fhzg;gl;l FOf;fSf;F vjpuhd ml;^opakhd mlf;FKiwfs;.
i. j. Enforced disappearance of persons; (tYf;fl;lhakhf) kf;fis

fhzhky;Nghfr; nra;jy;.
The crime of apartheid; ,dNtw;Wikf;

Fw;wk;.

k. Other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health. Ntz;Lnkd;Nw kdpjj;jd;ikaw;w Kiwapy; cly;>

cs MNuhf;fpaj;jpw;;F ghupa Nrjk; Vw;;gLj;Jjy;.

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Which violations of the laws of war governing non-international armed conflicts are war crimes?
xU ehl;bw;Fs; MAjg; Nghuhl;lq;fspy; <LgLk; NghJ ve;j tifr; nraw;ghLfs; Nghu; Fw;wq;fshf fzpf;fg;gLfpd;wd?
The following acts committed against persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention or any other cause:

Nghu; eltbf;ifapy; jPtpu gq;Nfw;fhjtu;fs;> MAjq;fisf; iftpl;ltu;fs; my;yJ fhag;gl;Nlh> RftPdKw;Nwh jLj;J itf;fg;gLtjhy; my;yJ NtW fhuzq;fSf;fhf Nghu; eltbf;iffspy; gq;Nfw;fhjtu;fSf;F vjpuhd rpy nraw;ghLfSk; Nghu; Fw;wq;fshFk;. mitahtd:

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i.

Violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, injure, cruel treatment and torture; nfh^ukhf nraw;gl;L>

capu;> clYf;F vjpuhd td;Kiwfs; - midj;J tpjkhd nfhiyfs;> fhag;gLj;Jjy;> kw;Wk; rpj;jputij.
ii. Committing outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment; xUtupd;

Rakhpahijia ,opT gLj;Jjy; Fwpg;ghf rpWikg; gLj;jp njhlh;e;J jPq;fpioj;jy;.
iii. iv. Taking of hostages; gzaf;

ifjpfis itj;jpUj;jy;.

The passing of sentences and the carrying-out of executions without previous judgement pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all judicial guarantees which are generally recognized as vital; jFe;j Kiwapy; mikf;fg;glhj

xU ePjpkd;wj;jhy;> chpa Kiwapy; tprhuizapd;wp> rk;ke;jg;gl;ltUf;F mtuJ Fw;wk; njhlh;ghd tpsf;fk; nfhLf;fhJ> jz;lid my;yJ kuz jz;lid vd;gdtw;iw toq;fp> mjid epiwNtw;WtJ.
v. Intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities; nghJkf;fis Nehf;fp Ntz;Lnkd;Nw

jpl;lkpl;Lj; jhf;Fjy; my;yJ Nghu; eltbf;iffspy; Neubahf <Lglhj jdp egUf;F vjpuhd jhf;Fjy;fs;.
vi. Intentionally directing attacks against buildings, material, medical units and transport, and personnel using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions in conformity with international law; ru;tNjr rl;lq;fSf;F mika n[dpth khehLfspy;

jPu;khdpj;j milahs rpd;dq;fisf;nfhz;l fl;blq;fs;> nghUl;fs; kUj;Jtj;njhFjpfs;> Nghf;Ftuj;Jr; rhjdq;fs;> gzpahsh;fs; Nky; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw jpl;lkpl;Lj; jhf;Fjy;.
vii. Intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the

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United Nations, as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict; If;fpa ehLfs; rhrdg;gb kdpj

Neag;gzpfs; my;yJ mikjp fhf;Fk; gzpfspy; <LgLk; njhz;lHfs; kw;Wk; <LgLj;jg;gLk; nghUl;fs; thfdq;fs; Mfpatw;iw Ntz;Lk; vd;Nw jhf;Fjy;.
viii. Intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals and places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not military objectives; gilj;Jiw

my;yhj kjk;> fy;tp> tpQ;Qhdk;> jUk fhupaq;fs; njhlu;ghd fl;blq;fs;> tuyhw;W Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j epidTr;rpd;dq;fs;> kUj;Jtkidfs;> Nehahspfs;> fhag;gl;Nlhu; $bapUf;Fk; ,lq;fisj; jpl;lkpl;Lj; jhf;Fjy;.
ix. x. Raiding a town or place, even when taken by assault; Nghupl;Lf;

ifg;gw;wpa efuq;fisr; #iwahly;.
Committing rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy,…, enforced sterilization, and any other form of sexual violence also constituting a serious violation of article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions; ghypay; td;Gzh;T>

ghypay; Nehf;Fld; mbikg;gLj;Jjy;> fl;lha ghypay; njhopy;> type;J fh;g;gkhf;Fjy;> fl;lha ,dtpUj;jpia Nkw;nfhs;sy;.
xi. Ordering the displacement of the civilian population for reasons related to the conflict, unless the security of the civilians involved or imperative military reasons so demand; nghJ

kf;fspd; ghJfhg;gpw;;F ghjpg;G Vw;glhj nghOJ my;yJ nghJkf;fis Nghiuf; fhuzk; fhl;b ,lk;ngaur; nra;jy;.
xii. Killing or wounding treacherously a combatant adversary;

Nghupy; <LgLgtiu tQ;rfkhff; nfhiy nra;tJ my;yJ fhag; gLj;JtJ.

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xiii. Declaring that no quarter will be given;

gpbgLgtu;fis tpLtpf;f KbahJ vd mjpfhuG+h;tkhf mwptpj;jy;.

xiv. Subjecting persons who are in the power of another party to the conflict to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any kind which are neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person concerned nor carried out in his or her interest, and which cause death to or seriously endanger the health of such person or persons;

,d;ndhUtupd; mjpfhuj;Jf;F cl;gLgtu;fis> mtu;fsJ eyd; njhlu;gpy;;yhj NtW fhuzq;fSf;fhf itj;jpa> tpQ;Qhd Ma;TfSf;F cl;gLj;JtJ> mtu;fspd; cly; cWg;Gf;fis Nrjkhf;Fjy;.
xv. Destroying or seizing the property of an adversary unless such destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of the conflict; NghUf;F mtrpakpy;yhj NghJ

vjpupapd; cilikfis mgfupg;gJ my;yJ mopj;jy;.

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Enforced disappearance
(tYf;fl;lhakhf) fhzhkw;Nghfr; nra;jy;
Enforced Disappearance is defined as “the arrest, detention, abduction or any other form of deprivation of liberty by agents of the State or by persons or groups of persons acting with the authorization, support or acquiescence of the State, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the deprivation of liberty or by concealment of the fate or whereabouts of the disappeared person, which place such a person outside the protection of the law.” It should be noted that many States do not include in their criminal codes a crime of “enforced disappearance” as such. In these States, enforced disappearances might be prosecuted as unlawful detention or arbitrary arrest and detention. It is thus important, when considering the scope of a proposed amnesty, to ensure that the proposed law does not prevent States from punishing enforced disappearances by including in the proposed amnesty crimes that appear to be ordinary crimes but which in fact, under relevant national law, provide the principal basis for prosecuting the crime of enforced disappearance.

xU murhq;f mjpfhhp my;yJ murhq;fj;jpd; mDkjpAld; xUtiur; rpiwg; gLj;Jjy;> jLj;J itj;jy;> Ml;flj;jy; my;yJ NtW tpjj;jpy; xUtupd; Rje;jpuj;ijg; gwpj;jy;. mjd; gpd;> mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;s kWj;jy; my;yJ fhzhky; NghNdhH gw;wpa tpguj;ij kiwj;jy;. ,J (tYf;fl;lhakhf) fhzhky; Nghfr; nra;jyhFk;. gy ehLfspd; Fw;wtpay; njhFg;gpy; ,jidr; NrHj;Jf;nfhs;stpy;iy. Mdhy; me;j ehLfspy; ,jid rl;lj;jpw;F khwhf jLj;Jitj;jy; my;yJ rl;l tuk;GfSf;F mg;ghw;;gl;l ifJk; jLj;Jitg;Gk; vd;W tof;Fj;njhlu KbAk;. MfNt kd;dpg;G nfhLg;gJ gw;wp MNyhrpf;Fk; NghJ - (tYf;fl;lhakhf) fhzhky; Nghfr;nra;jy; vd;w rl;lj;jpd; mbg;gilapNyNa Muhag;gl Ntz;Lk;.

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Crimes of War: Glossary of Terms
NghHf;Fw;wk;: nrhw;fsQ;rpak;
Additional Protocols of the Geneva Conventions: Articles that were added to the original text of this important convention that is the basis for international humanitarian law; midj;Jyf kdpjhgpkhd

rl;lj;jpw;fhd ,izg;Gf;fs;.

rl;l

%yj;Jld;

NrHj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl;l

Apartheid: An official policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the Republic of South Africa that involves political, legal, and economic discrimination against non-whites; jPz;lhik/,dNtw;Wik -

njd; Mgpupf;f Fbaurpy; Kd;G eilKiwapy; ,Ue;j murpay; nghUshuhj rl;l mbg;gilapd; ghFghL.
Ariel area bombing or carpet bombing: A conventional shells from the air to bombard Because bombs are dropped from planes, it to distinguish between civilian and military method of utilizing a large area of land. is nearly impossible targets; Mfhaj;jpy;

,Ue;J gue;j ,lj;jpy; Fz;L tPRjy;. tpkhdj;jpy; ,Ue;J tPrg;gLtjhy; nghJ kf;fSf;Fk; Nghupy; <LgLNthUf;Fk; tpj;jpahrk; fz;Lnfhs;s KbahJ.
Biological weapon: Any pathogen (germ, bacteria or virus) used during war to kill or incapacitate an enemy; caphpag; NghHf;

fUtpia (Neha; cz;lhf;Fk; fpUkpfs;) Nghhpy; gad;gLj;jp vjpupfis nfhy;Yjy; my;yJ tY ,of;f nra;jy;.
Casualties: Any deaths, injuries, or damage to infrastructure suffered during war; NghHf; fhyj;jpy; Vw;glf;$ba ,wg;G> fhaq;fs;

kw;Wk; r%f cl;fl;likg;GfSf;F Vw;glf;$ba ghjpg;Gfs;.
Chemical weapons: A chemical substance with toxic properties used during armed conflict to kill, injure, or incapacitate an enemy; NghHf; 2010 WAR CRIMES // PAGE 12

fhyj;jpy; vjpupia nfhy;y> fhag;gLj;j my;yJ tYtpof;f nra;a ghtpf;Fk; er;Rj;jd;ik cs;s ,urhadg; nghUl;fs;.
Civilian immunity: The protection from violence and persecution granted to civilians because of their status as “civilian”;

"nghJkf;fs;" vd;w jFjpf;fhf mtu;fis td;Kiw kw;Wk; mlf;FKiw Mfpatw;wpy; ,Ue;J ghJfhg;gJ.
Civilians: A group of people designated as non-combatants, and therefore afforded different protection under international humanitarian law; Nghupy; <Lglhjtu;fs;. ru;tNjr rl;lq;fspd; gb ,tu;fs; tpj;jpahrkhd/khWgl;l ghJfhg;Gf;FupatHfs;. Cluster bombs: A shell that is dropped from an airplane and breaks into bomblets upon impact with the ground or a target. Due to technical inadequacy, a high percentage of those bomblets don’t explode upon impact and remain un triggered until touched by a foot, car or agricultural tool; tpkhdj;jpy; ,Ue;J tPrg;gLk; ,f; Fz;Lfs; gythfg; gphpe;J epyj;ij/,yf;if jhf;Fk;

jd;ik nfhz;lit. Mdhy; mr;rpW Fz;Lfs; vy;yhNk ntbg;gjpy;iy. rpy ntbf;fhky; gpd;du; if> fhy; gl;L my;yJ thfdj;jpy; gl;L my;yJ tptrha MAjq;fspy; jl;Lg;gl;L ntbf;ff;$bait.
Collateral damage: Damage to civilian infrastructure or loss of civilian life that is deemed necessary (and therefore legal) to succeed in war;

nghJ kf;fspd; cl;fl;likg;GfSf;F Vw;glf;$ba ghjpg;Gfs; kw;Wk; kuzq;fs; Nghhpy; ntw;wp miltjw;F mtrpakhd njd;W (mjdhy; rl;lg;gbahdnjd) fUjg;gLfpwJ.
Combatants: A category of persons during wartime who are recognizable as members of an armed party to conflict. Separate rules apply to combatants and civilians; NghHf; fhyj;jpy; rz;ilapy;

<LgLgtu;fs; vd milahsk; nfhs;sg;gLk; egHfs;. ,tHfSf;Fk; rhjhuz kf;fSf;Fk; ntt;NtW tpjpfs; cs;sd.
Concentration camps: Areas where civilians are taken and held against their will by an opposing armed party to a conflict. In addition to depriving civilians of their freedom, concentration camps often involve abuses like rape, torture, and genocide; vjpup 2010 WAR CRIMES // PAGE 13

MAjghzpfshy; gpbf;fg;gl;L - jkJ tpUg;gj;jpw;F khwhf kf;fs; jLj;J itf;fg;gLk; xU Kfhk;. mtu;fSila Rje;jpuk; khj;jpuk; gwpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. ,q;F ghypay; ty;YwT> rpj;jputij> ,dg;gLnfhiyfSk; eilngwyhk;.
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: A U.N. treaty to prevent torture. The convention requires states to take effective measures to prevent torture within their borders, and forbids states to return people to their home country if there is reason to believe they will be tortured. UNCAT came into force in 1987; ,J rpj;jputijfisj;

jtpHg;gjw;fhf Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l xg;ge;jk;. ,jd;gb rfy ehLfSk; jkJ ehLfspy; rpj;jputijia jtpHg;gjw;fhd eltbf;ifnaLf;f Ntz;Lk;. mj;NjhL ntspehl;ltiu mtu;fSila nrhe;j ehLfspy;> mk;kf;fs; rpj;jputijf;F cs;shthHfs; vdj; njupe;jhy; mk;kf;fis jpUg;gp mDg;GtJ jilnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. UNCAT vd;w mikg;G 1987 y; eilKiwf;F te;jJ.
Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention): A U.N. treaty that defines and outlaws genocide. Currently 137 countries have ratified the convention. All participating countries are required to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and peacetime. The convention entered into force in 1951; ,J ,d xopg;ig njspT gLj;Jk; xg;ge;jk;. ,JNt

,d xopg;ig jil nra;fpd;wJ. ,g;NghJ 137 ehLfspy; ,jid Vw;Wf;nfhz;Ls;sdu;. ,jpy; gq;F gw;Wk; rfy ehLfSk; ,d xopg;ig jtpHf;fTk;> Aj;j fhyj;jpYk; rkhjhd fhyj;jpYk; ,tw;iw jz;bf;f Ntz;Lnkd ,e;j xg;ge;jk; 1951 Mk; Mz;L eilKiwf;F nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ.
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC): A United Nations convention outlining the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. It entered into force in 1990. Most member states have ratified the CRC, although the U.S. is an exception;

Foe;ijfspd; cupikf;fhd xg;ge;jk;. If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpy; Foe;ijfspd; Fbapay;> murpay;> nghUshjhu> rKjha kw;Wk; gz;ghl;L chpikfs; gw;wpa tplaq;fs; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,e;j xg;ge;jk; 1990k; Mz;L eilKiwg; gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpy; [f;fpa
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mnkupf;fhitj; jtpHj;;J $Ljyhd cWg;Gupik muRfs; xg;Gjyspj;Js;sd.
Crimes of war: Acts which are illegal and punishable under international humanitarian law; midj;Jyf kdpj Nea

rl;lj;jpd; fPo; jz;bf;fg;gl Ntz;ba kw;Wk; rl;ltpNuhjkhd nray;fs;.
Deportation: The pressured or forced evacuation of civilians from their home or home country to a foreign state; ehLflj;jy; -

xU ehl;by; Fb cupik ngw;w kf;fis mtHfs; jha;ehl;by; ,Ue;J ntsp ehLfSf;F fl;lha ntspNaw;wk; nra;jy;.
“Disappearances”: A euphemism for politically motivated murders. Since those arranging for the disappearances are government officials, perpetrators are rarely brought to justice; fhzhky; Nghfr;

nra;jy; - murpay; Nehf;fj;Jld; nra;ag;gLk; nfhiyfNs ,jw;F J}z;LjyhfTs;sJ. ,e;jr; nraiy mur mjpfhupfNs xOq;F nra;tjhy;> <LgLgtHfs; $Ljyhf rl;lj;jpw;F Kd; nfhz;Ltug;gLtjpy;iy.
Ethnic cleansing: The attempt by one party to eradicate in part or in full a community of ethnically similar people; ,df;fUtWg;G - xU

FOtpdH ,d uPjpahf xNukhjpupahd kf;fisf; nfhz;l xU r%fj;ij KOikahfNth my;yJ gFjpahfNth mbNahL mopf;f Kaw;rpg;gJ.
Geneva Conventions: The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. They chiefly concern the treatment of non combatants and prisoners of war. The adoption of the first Convention followed the foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863. As of August 2006, the conventions had been ratified by 194 countries;

n[dpth xg;ge;jk; - ehd;F cld;ghLfisf; nfhz;Ls;s ,e;j xg;ge;jk;> n[dpth> Rtp];yhe;jpy; midj;Jyf kdpj Nea rl;lj;jpd;; juj;jpw;fika mikf;fg;gl;lJ. Nghupy; <LglhjtHfspd; kw;Wk; rpiwf;ifjpfs; Nghd;wtHfis ifahSk; tpjj;ijNa Kf;fpakhf nfhz;Ls;sJ. midj;Jyf nrQ;rpYitr; rq;fj;jhy; 1863k; Mz;L Kjy; xg;ge;jk;
2010 WAR CRIMES // PAGE 15

ifr;rhj;jplg;gl;lJ. Xf];l; 2006 Kjy; 194 ehLfshy; ,e;j xg;ge;jk; xg;Gjyspf;fg;glLs;sJ.
Genocidaires: Persons who are responsible for planning or committing acts of genocide (French term); ,d mopg;G nray;fis

nraw;gLj;JgtH my;yJ mjw;fhfj; jpl;lkpLgtH (gpnuQ;Rr; nrhy;).
Hors de combat: A French term used in international law that translates as, “out of the fight.” It refers to soldiers who are incapable of performing their military function; midj;Jyfr; rl;lj;jpy; ghtpf;fg;gLk; xU gpnuQ;Rr; nrhy;. “rz;ilapy; ,Ue;J

ntspNaw;wy;" - ,uhZt nraw;ghLfis nrayhw;w Kbahj xU ,uhZt tPuiuf; Fwpf;Fk;.
Humanitarian aid: Food, water, and necessary supplies that are brought to war-torn areas and countries by third parties, such as neutral countries or relief organizations which specialize in helping civilians during conflict; kdpj Nea cjtp - nghJ kf;fSf;F

cjTtjw;fhf rpwg;ghd kdpj Nea cjtp mikg;Gf;fshy; toq;fg;gLk; czT kw;Wk; jz;zPH Nghd;w mj;jpahtrpa nghUl;fs;.
Humanitarian intervention: A term used to describe when a state or group of states employs military force within another country’s territory to protect civilians from atrocities, such as civil war, starvation or genocide; xU muNrh my;yJ mur FOf;fNsh mtHfsJ

,uhZtg; gilfis> ,d;ndhU cs;ehl;Lg;NghUf;F> gl;bdp my;yJ ,d mopg;gpy; ,Ue;J kf;fisf; ghJfhf;f me;j ehl;L vy;iyf;Fs; mDg;GtJ.
International community: A political term used in international humanitarian law to describe countries that are members of the United Nations or that are states parties to a treaty or convention; [f;fpa

ehLfs; rigapd; cWg;Gupik ngw;w my;yJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; cs;s ehLfis Fwpf;f> rHtNjr kdpjNear; rl;lj;jpy; ghtpf;fg;gLk; xU murpaw; nrhy;.
Internal conflict: A conflict between two factions within one state. Generally this categorization of a conflict delays international 2010 WAR CRIMES // PAGE 16

intervention and its treatment more nebulous under international humanitarian law; cs; ehl;L Kuz;ghL - xU ehl;Lf;Fs;

,uz;L gFjpapdUf;fpilapy; cs;s Kuz;ghL.
International Court of Justice: The principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Located in The Hague, the Netherlands, it was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations. [.eh tpd; ePjpj;Jiw rhHe;j mikg;G. nejHyhz;l;> “j N`hf;" fpy;

mike;Js;sJ. [.eh tpd; cupikr;rhrdj;jhy; 1945k; Mz;L A+d; khjk; fl;likf;fg;gl;lJ.
International Criminal Court (ICC): An independent, permanent court that tries persons accused of the most serious crimes of international concern, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The ICC is based on a treaty, joined by 104 countries. The ICC is a court of last resort. The jurisdiction and functioning of the ICC are governed by the Rome Statute; midj;Jyf

Fw;wtpaypd; mbg;gilapy; NghHf; Fw;wq;fs;> kdpj ,dj;Jf;F vjpuhd Fw;wq;fs; kw;Wk; ,d mopg;G Nghd;w fLikahd Fw;wq;fspy; <LgLgtHfSf;fhd RahjPd epue;ju rl;lkd;wk;. ,J 104 mq;fj;Jt ehLfspd; cld;ghl;ilf; nfhz;L mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j rl;lkd;wj;jpd; jPHg;Ng filrp KbthFk;. ,jpy; NuhkhGup rl;lj;jpw;F mikaNt jPHg;Gfs; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd.
International humanitarian law (IHL): The law of war that is outlined in the Geneva Conventions and other documents. It defines the conduct and responsibilities of nations and individuals engaged in warfare. IHL seeks to protect civilians from aggression; midj;Jyf

kdpjNear; rl;lk; - n[dpth xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; Nghlg;gl;l NghH rhHe;j rl;lk;. ,e;jr; rl;l xOq;fpid kjpg;gJ rz;ilapy; <LgLk; jdpegupdJk; murpdJk; nghWg;ghFk;. nghJ kf;fis jhf;Fjy;fspy; ,Ue;J ghJfhg;gNj ,jd; Nehf;fkhFk;.
International Treaty to Ban Landmines: An international agreement that bans antipersonnel landmines. The official title is “Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer or Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction” and the treaty is also known as the Landmine Treaty or the Ottawa Convention; 2010 WAR CRIMES // PAGE 17

epyf;fz;zp ntbfisj; jil nra;Ak; rHtNjr cld;ghL. ,J xl;Nlhth xg;ge;j cld;ghL vd;Wk; $wg;gLfpwJ.
Landmines: An explosive device that is designed to be placed onto or into the ground, and is triggered by the weight of a vehicle, person or animal. Anti-personnel landmines are prohibited by international law because they are nearly impossible to remove and have proven to be detrimental to civilian populations; epyf;

fz;zpntbfs; - midj;Jyfj; jilr;rl;lj;jpw;F mika> epyf; fz;zpntbfis kdpjHfisf; nfhy;tjw;fhfNth my;yJ fhag; gLj;Jtjw;fhfNth gad;gLj;JtJ jil nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. ,it kf;fSf;F jPq;F nra;af;$bait vd;gJ cWjpg;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;sJk;> ,tw;iw mfw;WtJ fbdkhdJ vd;gJTNk jilf;Ff; fhuzkhFk;.
Military objective: The object of an armed attack during wartime;

NghHfhyj;jpy; jhf;fg;gLgtH.

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Nuclear weapon: Any arm that derives its power from nuclear reactions. Nuclear weapons are significantly more powerful than conventional explosives. A single bomb is capable of destroying an entire city and causing massive environmental damage; mZ

MAjk; - xU jdp mZ MAjk; (Fz;L)> xU efuj;ijNa Kw;W KOjhf mopf;Fk; ty;yik nfhz;lJ. kw;Wk; kpfg; ghupa mstpy; Rw;Wr;#oiy rPuopf;ff;$baJ.
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW): The monitoring body of the Chemical Weapons Treaty whose mission it is to implement the provisions of the treaty; ,urhad MAjj;jpw;fhd/MAj ghtidia jil nra;Ak; mikg;G. Pillage: The siphoning off of food intended for civilians. It is considered a war crime in international conflict and a prohibited act in an internal conflict. nghJ kf;fSf;fhd nghUl;fis (czT)

NghHf;fhyj;jpy; nfhs;isaply;; midj;Jyf Kuz;ghLfspy; NghHf; Fw;wkhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ kw;Wk; cs; ehl;Lr; rz;ilapy;; jilnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.

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Prisoner of war (POW): A person taken by or surrendering to enemy forces in wartime; NghHf;fhyj;jpy; vjpupfsplk; ruz;

mile;jtHfs; my;yJ vjpupfshy; gpbj;Jr; nry;yg;gl;ltHfs;.
Rome Statute: Adopted on 17 July 1998 and entered into force on 1 July 2002, the statute established an independent permanent International Criminal Court in relation to the United Nations system, with jurisdiction over the most serious crimes of concern to the international community; NuhkGup rl;;lk; - [.eh tpd;

xOq;FKiwapd; mbg;gilapy; RahjPd epue;ju> midj;Jyf Fw;wtpay; ePjpkd;wj;jpdhy;> 17 A+iy 1998 md;W gpd;gw;wg;gl;L> 1 A+iy 2002 md;W gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;lNj ,e;jr; rl;lk; MFk;. ,e;jr; rl;lj;jjpw;fika midj;Jyf r%fj;Jf;F ,lH tpistpf;ff; $ba kpfTk; ghuJ}ukhd Fw;wq;fSf;F jPHg;G/epahak; toq;fg;gLk;.
Sovereignty: A territory that is completely independent and selfgoverned, existing as an independent state; muRupik my;yJ ,iwahz;ik - xU gpuNjrk;/Ml;rpg; gFjp KOikahf

jdpj;JtkhfTk;> ehlhFjy;.

jd;dhl;rp

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Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners: Nonlegally binding guidelines for international and domestic law that established good practices in the treatment of prisoners and the management of prisons. The United Nations adopted the guidelines on August 30, 1955; mfjpfis ifahStjw;fhd Fiwe;jgl;r

mbg;gil tpjpKiwfs;.
Starvation: An illegal tactic of war meant to induce surrender by blocking humanitarian aid and/or normal commerce to a city or state;

NghHj; je;jpukhf> rl;lj;jpw;F Gwk;ghf kdpj Nea cjtpfis xU efuj;jpw;Nfh my;yJ ehl;bw;Nfh jilnra;tJ.
Violence against civilians: Wartime acts that harm civilians or civilian infrastructure; NghHf; fhyj;jpy; nghJ kf;fSf;F ,iof;fg;gLk;

Jd;GWj;jy;fs;.

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fPo; cs;s jfty;fis Nghuhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;NlhUf;Fk; kdpj cupikfSf;Fkhd eLtk; (Center for War Victims and Human Rights – CWVHR) ntspapl;Ls;sJ. Njit fUjp ehq;fs; ,jid ,e;j ifE}ypy; ,izj;Js;Nshk;.

,yq;iff;fhd I.eh. epGzHFOTk; kdpj chpik kPwy;fs; njhlHghd tprhuizAk;
• • • • •

fhyf;nfL: 15 December 2010 mDg;gNtz;ba Kftup panelofexpertsregistry@un.org xUtu; xU kpd;dQ;ry; kl;LNk mDg;gyhk;. 10 gf;fq;fSf;F Nkw;glhky; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. kpd;dQ;rypy; tprhuizapd; Njitia typAWj;jpAk; Nkyjpf jfty; Ntz;bd; cq;fis njhlu;Gnfhs;tjw;fhd tpguq;fSk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ePq;fs; tpUk;gpd; Nghuhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;NlhUf;Fk; kdpj cupikfSf;Fkhd eLtj;jpw;F xU gpujp mDg;Gtjw;fhd kpd;dQ;ry; un@cwvhr.org. Nkyjpf jfty; Ntz;bd; tiyj;jsk;:
cwvhr.org

njhiyNgrp: 416-628-1408 kpd;dQ;ry;:
dm@cwvhr.org

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,yq;iff;fhd I.eh. epGzu;FO vd;why; vd;d? ,e;jf;FO ,yq;ifapy; ele;j Nkhjypd; ,Wjpg;gFjpapy; ,lk;ngw;wjhff; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gLk; ru;tNjr kdpj cupikfs;> kdpjhgpkhdr;rl;l kPwy;fs; vd;gitf;fhd nghWg;Gg;gw;wpa tplaq;fs; Fwpj;J I.eh.nrayhsu; ehafk; ghd;fP %d; mtu;fSf;F MNyhrid $Wtjw;fhf mikf;fg;gl;l kjpAiuQu; FOthFk;. ,jw;F toq;fg;gl;Ls;s mjpfhuk; MNyhrid toq;FtjhFk;;. mJ ,yq;ifiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;jhJ. ,e;jf; FOtpdu; ,yq;iff;Fs; Eiotjw;F ,yq;if muR mDkjp kWj;Js;sJ. ,e;j epGzu; FOtpy; a];kpd; R+fh> khu;Rfp lU];kd;> ];uptd; uw;du; MfpNahu; ,lk;ngWfpd;wdu;. jpUkjp R+fh Kd;G njd;dhgpupf;fhtpd; cz;ik> ey;ypzf;f Mizf;FOtpy; cWg;gpduhfg; gzpGupe;jtu;. jpU.khu;Rfp ,e;NjhNdrpaf;Fbaurpd; rl;lthsu;ehafkhf 1999-2001 fhyg;gFjpapy; flikahw;wpatu;. ,tu; ,e;NjhNdrpahtpd; Njrpa kdpj cupik Mizf;FOtpd; cWg;gpduhf ,Ue;jtu;;. I.eh.tpd; ,U cz;ikfhz; nraw;ghl;bYk; gq;Fgw;wpatu;. Nguhrpupau; ];uptd; uw;du; kprpfd; gy;fiyf;fof rl;lg;gs;spapy; rl;lj;Jiwg; Nguhrpupauhf ,Ug;gtu;. ,e;j epGzu;FO Kjypy; 2010 A+d; 22,y; epakpf;fg;gl;lJ. mJ jdJ gzpia 2010 nrg;nuk;gupy; Muk;gpj;jJ. nghJkf;fsplkpUe;J Kiwg;ghLfs; 2010 xf;Nuhgu; eLg;gFjpapy; Nfhug;gl;lJ. mjw;fhd KbTj;jpfjp 2010 bnrk;gu; 15 MFk;. ,f;FOtpw;fhd ehd;Fkhjg; gjtpf;fhyk; 2011 rdtup eLg;gFjpapy; KbtilfpwJ. ,e;jf;FOtpd; mjpfhuq;fs;> mjd; vy;iyfs; vd;d? ghd;fP %Df;F MNyhrid $WtNj ,f;FOtpd; gzpahFk;. mjw;fhf fye;J NgRk; flikNa nfhz;lJ. mjw;F tprhuiz nra;J tof;Fj; njhlUk; mjpfhuk; ,y;iy. I.eh. nrayhsu; ghd;fP %Df;F jdJ rpghupRfis toq;Fk; ehd;Fkhj fhy vy;iy nfhz;ljhFk;. mtu;fs; ntspapl;l Clf mwpf;ifapy; mjd; mjpfhu vy;iyfs; gpd;tUkhW Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ:
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WAR CRIMES // PAGE 21

2010

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2010 WAR CRIMES // PAGE 22

“epGzu;

FOtpw;F mDg;gg;gLk; Kiwg;ghLfspd; ,ufrpaj;jd;ik Ngzg;gLk;" vdf;Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ. jfty;fis vg;NghJ rku;g;gpf;fyhk;? mtw;wpw;fhd KbTj;jpfjp '2010 bnrk;gu; 15" MFk;.

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2010 WAR CRIMES // PAGE 23

jkpouy;yhjtu;fspd; mikg;GfisAk;> jkpouy;yhj jdpegu;fisAk; Kiwg;ghLfis mDg;Gk; gb vg;gb ehk; J}z;lyhk;? ePq;fs;> Kf;fpakhd khztu; mikg;Gfs;> njhopw;rq;fq;fs;> kdpj cupik mikg;Gfs;> vd;gdtw;iw Kiwg;ghLfis mDg;Gk; gb J}z;lyhk;. cq;fspd; cs;Shuhl;rpkd;w cWg;gpdu;fs;> khfhzehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdu;fs;> kj;jpaehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdu;fs; Nghd;NwhiuAk; vOJk; gb Nfl;fyhk;. fdlhtpy; ,e;jg;gzpia xUq;fikj;J newpg;gLj;JNthu; ahu;? fdlhtpy; ,e;jj;jpl;lk; “Nghuhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;NlhUf;Fk; kdpj cupik fSf;Fkhd eLtk;" (CWVHR) mikg;gpduhy; xUq;fikf;fg;gl;L nraw;gLfpwJ. ,jid murpay; NtWghbd;wp> NtWgy jkpo; mikg;Gfspd; $l;LwTlDk;> xj;Jiog;GlDk; ,tu;fs; nra;fpd;whu;fs;. ,e;j Kiwg;ghLfs; tplaj;jpy; ehd; vg;gb cjt KbAk;? - cq;fSila nrhe;j Kiwg;ghl;il Kjypy; nra;Aq;fs;. gpd;G kw;wtu;fs; nra;tjw;Fk; cjtp nra;Aq;fs;. - Clfq;fs; [thndhyp/njhiyf;fhl;rp/nra;jpj;jhs;/ ,izaj;jsq;fs;/vOj;jhsu;fs;> Nfl;Nghu;> epfo;r;rp elj;jy; vd;git %ykhf cjtyhk;]. ghlq;fs; gbj;jy;> ey;ypzf;f Mizf;FO (LLRC) vd;gJ vjw;fhf? ,yq;if murpdhy; mikf;fg;gl;l “ghlq;fs; gbj;jy;> ey;ypzf;f Mizf;FO" Rje;jpukhd my;yJ tprhupj;jwpAk; Mizf;FO my;y. ,yq;ifapy; gf;fr; rhu;ghd> NtWghL fhl;Lk;> Njhy;tpaile;j ePjpj;JiwNa cs;sJ. ,e;j Mizf;FOTk; mj;jifa jd;ikfs; nfhz;lNj. vy;yhg; gpujhd kdpj cupik mikg;GfSk; - ru;tNjr kd;dpg;Gr;rig> kdpj cupikf;fhg;gfk;> neUf;fbfSf;fhd FO cl;gl - me;j Mizf;FOitf; fz;bj;J mjw;F rhl;rpak; toq;f kWj;Js;sd. vdNt ,yq;ifapy; ,lk;ngw;w Nghu;f;Fw;wq;fs;> kdpj cupikkPwy;fs; gw;wpa “gf;fr;rhu;gw;w ru;tNjr tprhuizNa" ekf;Fj; NjitahdjhFk;.

2010

WAR CRIMES // PAGE 24

2010

WAR CRIMES // PAGE 25