Deliverable: METADATA SPECIFICATIONS One of the definable characteristics of cultural heritage institutions is the diversity of their collections.

Such materials may include sound and audio recordings, photographs, text, 3D objects, and digitized items. Therefore, making these resources accessible requires a metadata schema containing an appropriate semantic structure. Although, in reality no single schema could satisfy all the complexities and requirements of a heterogeneous collection, we have decided to choose the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) format, since it comes closer to meeting the required specifications to accurately describe the resources in our collection in order to facilitate their access. Some of the reasons for the selection of this particular metadata schema are:     Interoperability Simplicity/usability Widely recognized metadata standard Extensibility

Interoperability is highly significant as a basis for interchange of information amongst various domains. One of the goals of the museum is to facilitate access to the collection, thus being able to share and work collaboratively with other cultural institutions is imperative. This being the case, DCMES uses a broad level of common element sets which a number of analyses have proven to be widely used amongst various cultural repositories.1 Simplicity is also a significant advantage of DCMES, as it not only easily accessible by a variety of users, but it requires less specialized training for the individuals that will ultimately be responsible for its use. It is simple and easy to use, and since the magnitude of this project will require extensive staff time, interns or part-time staff could be hired to perform many of the simpler cataloguing duties. Additionally, DCMES is widely used by a large number of cultural institutions to describe their resources, and it is often regarded as an adequate compromise between complex metadata structures and simpler formats, with the capability to transport the embedded semantic metadata into online formats such as XML, RDF, and HTML.2 Basically, DCMES uses a set of 15 broad elements that are easily applicable to describe a variety of information resources, and they can be expanded with other descriptors as needed to meet the

specific requirements of the collection. Since the value applied to the elements is subject to the use of related terms to describe the same resource, as well as personal preferences in the use of language, an authority control will be required to ensure consistency. By using controlled vocabularies, we can facilitate the users to accurately retrieve desired information.3 Since no one single tool is exhaustive enough to cover all the terminology in our collection, we have decided to make use of various tools of controlled authority taking into consideration the specific content of our collection. The Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) is intended for use by a variety of users, and it‘s widely utilized in various cultural institutions to improve access to information in art, architecture, and material culture.4 Other applicable tools include the CCO Commons: Cataloging Cultural Objects, Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA), and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). Elements that are mandatory will be noted as such in their descriptions, with optional elements being used as needed:  Creator: This element describes the creator of the content of the particular resource, and may include names, organizations, and services. They will be listed according to Library of Congress standards. If there is ambiguity as to the actual responsibility of the content, the organization name will be listed under the ―Publisher‖ element, and ―Creator‖ will be used for individuals. If available, this element will be mandatory. Example: ―Davis, Miles.‖ The creator of the LP, Sketches of Spain. ―Selmer.‖ Manufacturer of saxophones.  Contributor: If another entity is responsible for making significant contributions, but secondary in nature to the content of the resource, it will be described within this element. Although this element is optional, it should be described if available. Example: ―Troupe, Quincy‖ who contributed, as the editor, to the publication, Miles: The Autobiography.  Date: This element has two manifestations: Date Original and Date Digital. Date Original will represent the date the original item was created or modified (example: release date) while Date Digital will represent the date the item was digitized. This is a mandatory element, and it will use the W3C Date & Time Format. Example: W3C format is YYYY or YYYY-MM or YYYY-MM-DD (to allow for varying levels of available data). Coming Through Slaughter, a book published in 1976, would have a Date Original entry that displays as 1976; if it was digitized

for our collection in May 2009, it would have a Date Digital entry that displays as 2009-05. The film Bird which was released on September 30, 1988 would have a Date Original entry that displays as 1988-09-30; if it was ‗digitized‘ and uploaded as a streaming film on July 5, 2010, it would have a Date Digital entry that displays as 2010-07-05.  Description: The description field contains information about the content of the resource, and may include among others, an abstract, free-text, or a detailed graphic description of the resource. The description element is significantly important as a rich potential for relevant subject matter, therefore, it‘s imperative to use indexable terms, and therefore this element will be mandatory. Example: ―Smoky, backlit black & white photograph of jazz saxophonist Dexter Gordon holding the saxophone in his lap, while smoking a cigarette.‖ A description of the photograph by Herman Leonard.  Format: This element presents the digital or physical medium of the item. This is a mandatory element, and it will use the MIME Media Types as a controlled vocabulary for the digital objects and an internally developed controlled vocabulary to ―describe the physical carrier of the resource‖.5 Example: A digitized recording of Miles Davis‘ So What would have a Format entry that displays ―Audio-mp3‖. A physical copy of Miles Davis‘ Kind of Blue would have a Format entry that displays ―Audio-CD‖. Note that CD is the preferred term over options like Compact Disc.  Language: This element describes the language of the item. Language is a mandatory element when applicable. Photographs, for example, would not be required to include this element. The Language element will make use of the ISO 639.2 controlled vocabulary, as seen in the CDP‘s Best Practices.6 Example: An audio recording in French would have a Language element that displayed ―fre‖.  Publisher: The Publisher element as defined by Dublin Core is the ―entity responsible for making the resource available‖.7 If the item is digitized, the Publisher field will display the institution where it was digitized. This is not to be confused with the person who actually did the digitization—that information would fall under Contributor. The

Publisher can be universities, presses, record labels, or any other publishing/distributing organization. Example: For John Coltrane‘s album A Love Supreme, the Publisher would be Impulse! A digitized photograph of John Coltrane (which was digitized by our institution) would display Suaban Music Museum as the Publisher (and the individual who scanned the photo would be listed under Contributor).  Rights: This element is mandatory, as it provides the rights held over the particular resource, typically covering copyright laws and intellectual property rights. It can be expressed in either a textual note or a URL pointing to a certain statement of these rights. Example: ―Physical rights are retained by XXX. Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.‖8  Subject: This value signifies the type of content of the resource, and it is a good practice to use terms from a previously decided controlled vocabulary to reduced language ambiguity. This element is also mandatory. Example: ―Ondaatje, Michael, 1943-,‖ taken from LCSH. ―Phonograph records‖ – preferred term as described in AAT.  Title: The Title element is mandatory and will provide the name of the item. If the item doesn‘t have an established title, a descriptive title may be applied by the Suaban Music Museum. Example: ―Shack-Man‖, title of a Medeski, Martin, & Wood album ―Dexter Gordon‖, title supplied by Suaban to an untitled photograph  Type: DCMI defines Type as ―the nature or genre of the resource‖.9 Type is a mandatory element, and it will employ the DCMI Type Vocabulary for a controlled vocabulary to prevent genre categories from becoming unwieldy. Example: ―sound‖ for a sound recording of Billie Holiday singing ―Strange Fruit‖ The choice was made to use the Dublin Core metadata schema based on a variety of factors that will facilitate the access and retrieval of our particular jazz collection. As mentioned, some of these factors include its interoperability, simplicity, extensibility, and wide acceptance and success within numerous cultural institutions.

Implementation of Metadata Plan Now that our metadata plan has been identified, the next step is to develop the processes and systems to complete the project. To do this, we must understand the roles of the people involved and identify how they will interact with the systems that have been put in place. Various technicians will be responsible for the documentation, administration and digitization of metadata information:  An information architect will be hired as a consultant on a per-hour basis of about $35.00/hr10 for the initial setup of the needed systems. This will encompass a period of observation of already existing systems, interviews with staff and patrons, design of the system, and an implementation/testing/training period.  Museum professionals (non-MLIS degree holders)—a Curator, an Assistant Curator, and a Registrar—will orient the IA to the museum‘s systems, organize staff and patrons for focus groups, and give any needed input and access to the IA. They will, of course, learn the system, but will not be primarily responsible for entering the metadata.  Professional librarians (with MLIS degrees) will be hired to maintain the system and input metadata. This group consists of three permanent full-time staff; a Cataloger/Metadata Librarian II, a Cataloger Librarian I, and a Digital Specialist Librarian. At the outset they will work with the IA to design and understand the system. The Digital Specialist will also work with digitization projects.  Students, particularly graduate students performing unpaid internships/field experience for credit, will work in assisting the librarians on various digitization and cataloging projects. Initially we envision two such internships/field experience positions. Part-time temporary employees will be hired on a need-basis.  Outsourced/contractors will be utilized on a minimal basis, primarily for the original push to digitize as much of the new collection as possible. Since the institution‘s facilities and capabilities are limited, outsourcing some of the process will provide the advantage of a reduced monetary investment in technical infrastructure and staff expertise.11  Other people involved in the metadata workflow include two Information Technology full-time staff members responsible for the maintenance and analysis of the systems tools, and distribution of the metadata internally and externally. These IT professionals

are already full-time staff at the museum, and this new project is encompassed within their normal job duties. As far as workflow is concerned, the IA will be hired for an 8-week contract with the possibility of extension should the original implementation take longer than expected. Observation and focus groups will take up the first two weeks, then about 4 weeks for design, and the final two weeks for implementation/training/testing. The museum professionals will be involved with the project throughout its entirety, facilitating the process and coordinating staff and patrons. The IT professionals will be involved with the IA from week 3 until the end of the implantation to ensure the new system will work with already-existing systems. While this is happening, the museum professionals, the Digital Specialist, and two graduate students will be working to begin to digitize the collection. During the last two weeks of the IA‘s contracted period, these staff members will begin to learn the new system, testing it and providing feedback. Once everything is in place, the professional librarians and graduate students will work together to get the collection online. The graduate students, directed by the Digital specialist, will primarily digitize documents and provide the files to the catalogers who will then input the metadata in the system. Some metadata will arrive with the digitized document, provided by the graduate student: Digital Technician, Digital Publisher, Digital Date, Format, Type, Language, and Permissions. The Title, Creator, Subject, and Description may also already be available. Anything not provided already will be input by the catalogers. As the graduate students learn the system they will be permitted to input records which will be spot-checked by the catalogers before being batch-loaded into ―live‖ production. Quality and Consistency (2 examples): Sample Record #1 Title: Kind of Blue Creator: Miles Davis Publisher: Columbia Records Release Date: 1959 Subject: Phonographic Records Jazz

Modal Jazz Instruments Brass Trumpet Percussion Drums Strings Bass Piano Woodwind Saxophone Musicians Miles Davis John Coltrane Julian ―Cannonball‖ Adderley Bill Evans Wynton Kelly Jimmy Cobb Paul Chambers United States New York New York City Resource Type: Sound Format: Audio-CD, Original; Audio-mp3, Digital Language: English Description: Seminal modal jazz LP recording consisting of Miles Davis ensemble sextet, with saxophonists John Coltrane and Julian ―Cannonball‖ Adderley, pianists Bill Evans and Wynton Kelly, drummer Jimmy Cobb, and bassist Paul Chambers. Digital Technician: Sarah Bankston Digital Publisher: Suaban Music Museum Digital Date: 2010 Permissions: Physical rights are retained by Suaban Music Museum. Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.

Sample Record #2 Title: Coming Through Slaughter Creator: Michael Ondaatje Publisher: House of Anansi

Release Date: 1976 Subject: Book Fiction Historical Fiction Instruments Brass Cornet United States Louisiana New Orleans Resource Type: Text Format: Text-paper, Original; Text-html, Digital Language: English Description: Set at the beginning of the 20th century, this novel is a fictional account of the life of Buddy Bolden, a New Orleans jazz musician. Winner of the 1976 Books in Canada First Novel award. Note: only the first chapter is digitized. Digital Technician: Armando Suarez Digital Publisher: Suaban Music Museum Digital Date: 2010 Permissions: Physical rights are retained by Suaban Music Museum. Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Tools: As previously mentioned, we have identified Dublin Core for our metadata format, and XML as the desired encoding scheme. In order to provide end-user access and effectively share our collection online, we will use CONTENTdm. Some of the inherent benefits of using this software in our organization include:12       Cost-effective No need for extensive technical skills; easy to use and set-up Active global user community Open, extensive, and interoperable Efficient streamline of workflow, with built-in editing tools and controlled vocabularies for ease in cataloging process Supports numerous metadata standards, including Dublin Core

Support of complex media

Costs of the Project The estimated cost of the 8-week project is $77,300 which is broken down as follows: Information Architect: $11, 200 (based on a 40-hour work week and the project only lasting 8 weeks) Museum Professionals13: $22,500 (combined figure of all three staff members‘ salaries for the 8week period) Professional Librarians14: $18,600 (combined figure of all three staff members‘ salaries for the 8week period) Graduate Students: $ 0 (unpaid field-experiences) Database and Media Servers15: $15,000 CONTENTdm License16: $10,000

Bibliography

1

Jackson Amy S., Han Myung-Ja , Groetsch Kurt, Mustafoff Megan, Cole Timothy W. 2008. ―Dublin Core Metadata Harvested through OAI-PMH‖ in Journal of Library Metadata. Vol. 8 no.1. http://imlsdcc.grainger.uiuc.edu/docs/metadatachanges.pdf 2 Harper, Corey A. ―Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: Beyond the Element Set‖ in Information Standards Quarterly (ISQ). Winter 2010, Vol. 22, issue 1. http://www.niso.org/publications/isq/free/FE_DCMI_Harper_isqv22no1.pdf 3 Zhang Yan, Godwin Iris. Preserving Regional Historical and Cultural Heritages: A Case Study in Building Local Digital Libraries. School of Information Science, the University of Tennessee. http://www.ils.unc.edu/~yanz/DerrisDL.pdf 4 Harpring, Patricia. Introduction to Controlled Vocabularies: Terminology for Art, Architecture, and Other Cultural Works. Online Edition. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intro_controlled_vocab/index.html 5 CDP Metadata Working Group. 2006. Dublin Core Metadata Best Practices. Collaborate Digitization Program. http://www.bcr.org/dps/cdp/best/dublin-core-bp.pdf 6 Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages. http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/English_list.php 7 Term Name: publisher. Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1. http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/ 8 Hillman, Diane. 2005. Using Dublin Core – The Elements. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. http://dublincore.org/documents/usageguide/elements.shtml 9 Term Name: type. Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1. http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/ 10 Figure derived from the IA Institute Salary Survey: http://iainstitute.org/en/learn/research/salary_survey.php 11 Robin, Dale L. 2007. Outsourcing and Vendor Relations. Northeast Document Preservation Center. http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/6Reformatting/07OutsourcingAndVendorRelations.php 12 OCLC. Digital Collection Management, CONTENTdm. Accessed November 22, 2010. http://www.oclc.org/services/brochures/211472usb_contentdm.pdf 13 Figures derived from Payscale.com: http://www.payscale.com/research/US/Industry=Museum/Salary
14

Figure derived from ALA‘s Mid Level Salary Survey: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/personnel/MidLevel09.pdf
15 16

Based on web searches for database and media servers. Based on a complete guess since I couldn‘t access that information without starting an actual order with OCLC.

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