Ali Kilinc

2/9/2008

Notes for STRESS Chapter
Common Causes of Death 1. 20% of all deaths are related to some sort of tobacco usage a. Smoking [Cigarettes, Cigars, etc.] b. Chewing 2. Diet & Inactivity a. Poor Diet b. Not enough exercise 3. Alcohol 4. Infections [including viruses] 5. Toxic Agents in the Environment a. Pesticides b. Chemicals 6. Weapons & Firearms 7. Sexual Behavior a. AIDS [mainly] b. Other STDs 8. Motor Vehicles (not including accidents) a. Speeding [things that are made by conscience choice] 9. Recreational Drug Use Behavioral Risk Factors 1. Are your stress factors controllable? 2. Blood pressure 3. Over-eating 4. Over-exposure to toxins 5. Inadequate exercise

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Ali Kilinc

2/9/2008

6. Violence [in general] 7. Over-exposure to UV rays 8. Driving too fast . . . Health Promoting 1. Good night sleep [consistently] 2. At or near ideal weight:height ratio 3. I have never smoked cigarettes |Y|N| 4. I use alcohol moderately or not at all |Y|N| 5. I get regular exercise 5 out of seven days a weeks

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Ali Kilinc

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Following and abiding by the regulations above have statistically shown to increase lifespan. A. Males: Increases odds by 400% B. Females: Increases odds by around 215% Nutrition 1. Balanced diet 2. Eat a low fat diet 3. Keeping track of caloric intake 4. Healthy body weight 5. Check blood pressure [often] 6. Stay away from drugs [duh] Other Important Notes • • Avoid injuries at all times, and when possible Learn stress management, and use it often

Types of Stress
1. Eustress [you-stress] (positive Stress, stress your body needs, good stress) 2. Distress (negative stress, or anytime you have to adjust or adapt in any way) Sources of Stress A. Daily Hastles – (basic errands, small things that you have to do to get through the day) *very small amounts of stress* B. Frustration – (mildly emotional state) *happens when, something you want to do is blocked* LABELING FRUSTRATION 1. External Frustration – Usually from outside sources 2. Personal Frustration – 100% pertaining to you, all your fault C. Conflict –A situation where you have to make a decision

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Ali Kilinc

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D. Aproach:Aproach Conflict – Two decisions that are very desirable [easiest to solve] E. Avoidence:Avaidence Conflict – You must decide on one of two things that are BOTH bad, and/or undesirable, yet you MUST decide [most difficult to solve] F. Aproach:Avoidence Conflict –Only one goal/motive: the goal has a positive AND a negative side G. DOUBLE Aproach:Avoidence Conflict – You must decide on one of two goals/motives: BOTH of which have a positive AND a negative side (good & bad) H. MUTIPLE Aproach:Avoidence Conflict – Same as [G.] but more than two goals/motives ^ How to Solve the above Sources of Stress ^ 1. Whatever you do, don’t rush your decision, don’t be hasty (if you do, you might be regretful) 2. If you can, look at all the choices, and partially try out as many as you can, preferably all of them 3. If you can, negotiate and/or compromise 4. VERY IMPORTANT: Once you make your decision, commit to it, stick to it Vocabulary Stresser A. Primary Appraisal: Aware of the situation and, looking, or trying to determine if the threat is pertaining, or relevant to you B. Secondary Appraisal: You determine that the threat IS relevant to you, and you observe your recourses, and you come up with a plan of action to confront the threat How to DEAL with stress 1. A problem focused approach: a. Modify the sources of stress or the problem in some way, any way, to REDUCE the stress 2. Emotion focused approach:

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Ali Kilinc

2/9/2008 a. When changing the scenario itself is not possible, change in the view, or changing your views on the scenario to REDUCE the stress

Defense Mechanisms • • When you are confronted with things that make you feel uncomfortable, defending yourself can be good, and healthy for your mental state They are UN-HEALTHY when you abuse, or depend on them, in any way

A. Repression: a. When you are dealt with something, anything (a problem for example), you hide them, instead of dealing with them in the here and now B. Denial: a. An unconscious thought process b. Inability to accept the reality of the situation (to protect current mental state) c. Helpful – but only in the short term C. Rationalization: a. Things that sound like rationable, and reasonable things, but are entirely false D. Compensation: a. Making up for weaknesses by over-compensating, or excelling in other areas

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Stress Disorders 1. Learned Helplessness: a. When you teach yourself, willingly, or un-willingly, to be helpless, in conflicts and such matters b. You don’t know how to ‘help yourself’ 2. Psychosomatic Illness/Disorder: a. Related to stress, very much so, but exhibits physical symptoms b. REAL symptoms, all caused by stress c. EXAMPLES: [stomach ulcers] [asthma] [migraine headaches] 3. Acute Stress Disorder: a. Very suddenly b. Very intensely c. Short term stress d. Overwhelming amount of stress 4. PTSD [Post Traumatic Stress Disorder] : a. Stress usually caused after war, and/or long term, constant stress b. ONLY 8% of post-war veterans have this disorder The effects of stress on your BODY • Hans SELYE’ :  Physiologist  Developed Theory: G.A.S. [General Adaptation Syndrome]  Only interested in physiological part of the science G.A.S. 1. ALARM: a. After you realize a threat, your body releases stress fighting hormones, and/or adrenaline

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Ali Kilinc

2/9/2008 b. Your body is ready to fight the threat 2. RESISTENCE: a. The body IS fighting the stress 3. EXHAUSTION: a. Body has depleted all resources (stress fighting hormones) b. Body starts to break down, eventually this can lead to death ** Stress ALONE can kill * * ** Find ways to relieve your stress, use them * *

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