Ali Kilinc

10/30/2007

Introduction and History Chapter Notes
Modes of Behavior
1.) Motor Behavior

physical actions (things that you do) {very interesting}

2.) Affect

(what you feel, emotions, etc.)

3.) Cognition

(any and all thought)

History of Psychology
I. How old is psychology? a. AS OLD AS TIME ITSELF [LIFE]. i. They survived hostile environments (300 million years ago) ii. They survived, because they observed their environments II. How old is psychology as a science? a.

1879

b. Prof. W. WUNDT [1879] i. Founder of “PSYCHOLOGY” ii. The first psychology lab to study human behavior iii. Established first method of study: Introspection [self observe] iv. Movement Started: STRUCTURALISM – How the mind is structured, or, how its put together (only later on was this movement known as ‘structuralism’) c. William JAMES i. First American psychologist

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Ali Kilinc

10/30/2007 1. He went to Europe to study with Wundt 2. Was mainly concerned with how the mind worked, not put together ii. Before becoming a psychologist, he was formerly a philosopher iii. Movement Started: Functionalism – How the mind functions to adapt to animals (including humans) in their environment iv. Wrote the first comprehensive textbook v. Taught the first psychology class in the U.S.A.

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Ali Kilinc

10/30/2007

d. John WATSON i. Was a very obnoxious person (quotes proving this theory below) 1. “If I can’t see it, it’s not worth my time” – Watson a. Not in a literal meaning, but, he was mainly focused on things, that were directly observable, and documentable as science 2. “Give me your baby, and I’ll make him a thief” – Watson a. How? By manipulation his environment 3. Movement Started: Behavioralism [1913] – every aspect can be explained through some type of learning e. Ivan PAVALOV i. Before becoming a psychologist, he was formerly a physiologist 1. He studies dogs. After seeing behavior in the dogs that he studied, he decided to study just that, behavior ii. Established: Classical Conditioning/Learning iii. He was able to learn every single human fear, ultimately, through the study of the dog’s behavior f. Edward THORNDIKE i. Usually, an ignored psychologist ii. Established: Law of Effect [1898] 1. Established one of the important principles of psychology 2. “All animals learn as a consequence of their behavior” – Thorndike a. Perfect rule? No. (example: 86% of prison population are upon return offenses) g. B. F. SKINNER i. Never, an ignored psychologist ii. Expanded: ‘Law of Effect’ 3

Ali Kilinc

10/30/2007 1. Later became known ad Operate Learning iii. Studied the concepts of: reward, and punishment h. Abraham MASLOW (and Rogers) i. Both worked on Humanism ii. Movement Started [Maslow]: Humanism 1. Later, dropped this movement, and started work on motivation iii. Movement Expanded [Rogers]: Humanism – Rogers greatly expanded this movement, and by doing so, also popularized it iv. Theory Started: Unconditional Positive Regard [UPR] – Often, Rogers is unfairly given credit for finding this. This concept was founded by Maslow. i. Sigmund FREUD i. Study was often around sexual behavior (although not usually offensive) ii. Movement Started: PSYCOANALISIS 1. Specifically on ‘Freudian Theory’ 2. Theory Founded: All humans have an “un-conscience mind” – a separate mind that you are unaware of, that influences your conscience mind, to make decisions and such iii. He was not “crazy”; only, naturally aggressive j. Carl LASHLEY i. Was mainly interested in the ‘WHY?’ aspect of psychology ii. He was a Physiological Psychologist iii. Responsible for the brain mapping (one of the first mappers) iv. Worked on comparing species: Comparative Psychology

Research Methods
*There are over 100 methods of Psychological Research*

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Ali Kilinc

10/30/2007

A. Social Survey ► It has many weaknesses and problems i. One weakness: subject to legitimacy (people lie) ► Will allow to gather information VASTLY & QUICKLY

B. Correlation Method ► Looks at how things are related to each other i. Often, the information is misused ► Shows only trends and tendencies or causative (NOT causes!!)

C. Controlled Experimentation a. INdependent Variable (manipulated variable) b. DEpendent Variable (always behavior of study) c. Experimental Group (treatment group) d. Control Group (often placebo group) i. During the study, they will not receive the independent variable [comparison]

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