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Ali Kilinc 10/30/2007

Introduction and History Chapter


Notes
Modes of Behavior
1.) Motor Behavior

• physical actions (things that you do) {very interesting}

2.) Affect

• (what you feel, emotions, etc.)

3.) Cognition

• (any and all thought)

History of Psychology
I. How old is psychology?

a. AS OLD AS TIME ITSELF [LIFE].

i. They survived hostile environments (300 million years ago)

ii. They survived, because they observed their environments

II. How old is psychology as a science?

a. 1879
b. Prof. W. WUNDT [1879]

i. Founder of “PSYCHOLOGY”

ii. The first psychology lab to study human behavior

iii. Established first method of study: Introspection [self observe]

iv. Movement Started: STRUCTURALISM – How the mind is


structured, or, how its put together (only later on was this
movement known as ‘structuralism’)

c. William JAMES

i. First American psychologist

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1. He went to Europe to study with Wundt

2. Was mainly concerned with how the mind worked, not put
together

ii. Before becoming a psychologist, he was formerly a philosopher

iii. Movement Started: Functionalism – How the mind functions to


adapt to animals (including humans) in their environment

iv. Wrote the first comprehensive textbook

v. Taught the first psychology class in the U.S.A.

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d. John WATSON

i. Was a very obnoxious person (quotes proving this theory below)

1. “If I can’t see it, it’s not worth my time” – Watson

a. Not in a literal meaning, but, he was mainly focused


on things, that were directly observable, and
documentable as science

2. “Give me your baby, and I’ll make him a thief” – Watson

a. How? By manipulation his environment

3. Movement Started: Behavioralism [1913] – every aspect


can be explained through some type of learning

e. Ivan PAVALOV

i. Before becoming a psychologist, he was formerly a physiologist

1. He studies dogs. After seeing behavior in the dogs that he


studied, he decided to study just that, behavior

ii. Established: Classical Conditioning/Learning

iii. He was able to learn every single human fear, ultimately,


through the study of the dog’s behavior

f. Edward THORNDIKE

i. Usually, an ignored psychologist

ii. Established: Law of Effect [1898]

1. Established one of the important principles of psychology

2. “All animals learn as a consequence of their behavior” –


Thorndike

a. Perfect rule? No. (example: 86% of prison


population are upon return offenses)

g. B. F. SKINNER

i. Never, an ignored psychologist

ii. Expanded: ‘Law of Effect’

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1. Later became known ad Operate Learning

iii. Studied the concepts of: reward, and punishment

h. Abraham MASLOW (and Rogers)

i. Both worked on Humanism

ii. Movement Started [Maslow]: Humanism

1. Later, dropped this movement, and started work on


motivation

iii. Movement Expanded [Rogers]: Humanism – Rogers greatly


expanded this movement, and by doing so, also popularized it

iv. Theory Started: Unconditional Positive Regard [UPR] – Often,


Rogers is unfairly given credit for finding this. This concept was
founded by Maslow.

i. Sigmund FREUD

i. Study was often around sexual behavior (although not usually


offensive)

ii. Movement Started: PSYCOANALISIS

1. Specifically on ‘Freudian Theory’

2. Theory Founded: All humans have an “un-conscience


mind” – a separate mind that you are unaware of, that
influences your conscience mind, to make decisions and
such

iii. He was not “crazy”; only, naturally aggressive

j. Carl LASHLEY

i. Was mainly interested in the ‘WHY?’ aspect of psychology

ii. He was a Physiological Psychologist

iii. Responsible for the brain mapping (one of the first mappers)

iv. Worked on comparing species: Comparative Psychology

Research Methods
*There are over 100 methods of Psychological Research*

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A. Social Survey

► It has many weaknesses and problems

i. One weakness: subject to legitimacy (people lie)

► Will allow to gather information VASTLY & QUICKLY

B. Correlation Method

► Looks at how things are related to each other

i. Often, the information is misused

► Shows only trends and tendencies or causative (NOT causes!!)

C. Controlled Experimentation

a. INdependent Variable (manipulated variable)

b. DEpendent Variable (always behavior of study)

c. Experimental Group (treatment group)

d. Control Group (often placebo group)

i. During the study, they will not receive the


independent variable [comparison]