CompTIA A+ Essentials

220-601: Networks

CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks


A full-duplex connection will let the application perform more efficiently. topologies. You can diagnose network device problems with status indicators. Network Architectures Network architecture is a collective term that denotes a collection of protocols. You have to purchase public IP addresses from an ISP. models. it can either send data or receive data. A half-duplex connection has a single circuit. You will become more familiar with such things as Local Area Network (LAN) and Bluetooth as you learn more about network technologies. and access methods. cables. The naming standard is the same for different Ethernet types. Examples of network architectures include the Ethernet and Token Ring topologies. you will learn about basic networking concepts and networking models such as peer-to-peer and client/server. Bandwidth is typically measured in Megabits per second (Mbps). If an application requires two-way communication. A NIC has two indicator lights: a link indicator and an activity indicator that provide information on the status of the link and on network activity. Lesson 2. protocols.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Lesson 1. The amount of information that can be sent at any time depends on the available bandwidth at that time — the higher the bandwidth. Ethernet Ethernet is a group of standards used in a LAN. the greater the amount of information that can be passed from one location to another. Bandwidth Bandwidth is the rate at which information travels from one location to another over a channel. The pages that follow provide more detail about these architectures. such as Ethernet and Token Ring. After completing this lesson. let's examine a few critical concepts. you should be able to: • Identify the fundamental principles of networks Before we discuss networking protocols and hardware. you will look at different network architectures. Addressing Addressing is the assignment of IP addresses to hosts on a network. respectively. Course Introduction In this course. or bits per second (bps). 2 . An Internet Service Provider (ISP) provides public IP addresses used over the Internet. Status Indicators Status indicators are used to determine whether a network device such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) or a switch is working properly. Networks use different architectures.and Half-Duplex A full-duplex connection can send and receive data over two separate circuits at the same time. Kilobits per second (Kbps). Network Protocols and Hardware A network is an interconnection of two or more computers used to share resources such as printers and files. the middle section indicates the signaling type. You cannot use private IP addresses over the Internet. There are two categories of IP addresses: public and private. Finally. and the last section indicates the transmission medium. The first number of each standard indicates the transmission speed in Mbps. but cannot perform both actions at the same time. and connectors for interconnections. A switch has indicator lights that show whether the device is working properly. Private IP addresses are available free of charge and are used on a LAN. Full. you should use a full-duplex connection.

in a 100BaseTX model. Three major fields have to be configured for TCP/IP: the IP address. they also operate at 4 or 16 Mbps. and F. and 100BaseFX. Standard Ethernet implementations include 10Base2. This 32-bit number is in the abc. FX. Network Protocols A network is an interconnection of computers that use the same or different network protocols. and Windows XP. An example of an IP address is 202. Some commonly-used protocols include: • • • TCP/IP NWLINK IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequence Packet Exchange) NETBEUI/NetBIOS (NetBIOS Extended User Interface/Network Basic Input/Output System) TCP/IP TCP/IP is a standard set of rules used for communication in large networks. its implementations include 1000BaseT. and the default gateway. the subnet mask. Windows and 10BaseF. Windows 2000. First is the IP address hierarchy. A protocol is a set of rules that determine how computers communicate over a network.100. 10Base5. Type 1 networks normally use STP cables and operate at 4 or 16 Mbps. "TX" indicates that a twisted-pair cable is used as the network medium. where abc is a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255. "Base" indicates that the network uses the baseband transmission method — meaning only one signal is sent over the network medium at a time. A network can be categorized into classes. format. T can also indicate twisted-pair cable. printer. the "100" indicates that the network can transmit data at 100 LX. Type 3 networks use UTP cables. FL. or router in a network. IP Addresses An IP address is a 32-bit number that is a combination of four 8-bit numbers known as octets. Second is the TCP hierarchy.1. and 1000BaseFX. Communication over the Internet requires TCP/IP. Windows ME. and SX indicate fiber optic cable. the "2" indicates thinnet coaxial cable and "5" indicates thicknet coaxial cable. Gigabit Ethernet runs at a maximum of 1000 Mbps. which uniquely identifies a host such as a computer.10. 3 . or a computer can be configured to attain its IP address automatically from a server on the network by using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). In the Ethernet standards 10Base2 and 10Base5. 10BaseT. A network administrator can assign an IP address manually. Token Ring Token Ring networks can be of Type 1 or Type 3. its implementations include 100BaseT. These are described on the pages that follow. IP addresses have a network section that identifies the network to which the computer belongs and a node section that identifies the network address of the computer. The subnet mask divides a large TCP/IP network into smaller networks.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks For example. Fast Ethernet runs at a maximum of 100 Mbps. TCP/IP is managed through two different hierarchical structures. TCP/IP is included with Windows 9x. A subnet defines all computers that have a common network prefix. with each class being allowed to use a defined set of IP addresses. 1000BaseCX. a transport-level protocol responsible for providing reliable data delivery over the network. Protocols are grouped according to their functions.

Class C networks can have a maximum of 2. identify the network as a Class B network. The rest of the address identifies the host on the network. The address of the default gateway is also required if the computer is connected to the Internet. It's a simple protocol for creating a small network in a small amount of time. NetBIOS works in two modes: • Session mode allows a connection between two computers.214 hosts. It is used mostly in Ethernet and token ring networks. To support the IPX/SPX protocol. • NetBEUI is the default protocol for Windows 9x.255.0. The first two octets. because it requires little configuration. The network number is an 8-digit alphanumeric number that uniquely identifies a network segment of the IPX/SPX network and enables IPX Internetwork routing. The frame type is usually autodetected. and error detection and recovery.255.0 to 223. 192. The rest of the address identifies the host on the network.534 networks.255. Class B Class B uses IP addresses ranging from 128. by using the default subnet mask of 255. Class C Class C uses IP addresses ranging from 192. The first three octets.255. Microsoft created its own version.255. by using the default subnet mask 255. identify the network as a Class C network. If a network consists of more than one subnet. NetBEUI/NetBIOS is included with Windows 9x.0. the frame type defaults to IEEE 802. 1 to 126. If not detected. The rest of the address identifies the host on the network. Datagram mode allows the broadcast of messages on the entire LAN. Windows NT. NetBEUI/NetBIOS NetBEUI is a modified version of the Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) developed by Microsoft for Windows networking. IPX/SPX requires a network number and a frame type setting if possible.0. Windows 2000.255.0 to 126.0. The first octet.534 hosts. networks. data can still be sent to a target computer in a different subnet by using a default gateway address. Class A networks can have a maximum of 126 networks. and Windows XP. identifies the network as a Class A network. Class B networks can have a maximum of 65.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Class A Class A uses IP addresses ranging from 1. IPX/SPX is included with Windows 9x. 128. Windows NT.255.0.0. and each network can have 65.0.0. Windows 2000. transfer of large messages.2. Windows ME. Default Gateways The default gateway specifies the address of the router to which the host sends all TCP/IP traffic.255. which contains information such as the request location and the name of the destination host.0 to 191.255. NWLINK IPX/SPX IPX/SPX is the protocol used on Novell NetWare networks.255.255.0. known as NWLINK.0 to 191.255. 4 .777. It also helps send TCP/IP traffic from a source computer to a target computer on a different subnet. Windows ME. and Windows XP.255.097. and each network can have 254 hosts.0 to 223. and each network can have 16.0. The NetBIOS protocol is a name resolution protocol that searches for computers on a LAN by computer name.255.0. Every computer connected in a network has the same default gateway address. NetBIOS sends a request as a network control block. by using the default subnet mask of 255.

Coaxial. An external modem connects to the serial port of a computer with an RS-232 cable. Coaxial cable is half-duplex. A client or workstation can make requests to the server for resources. As the network grows beyond this size issues such as security. fiber optic. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable was the most commonly used cable type in early computer networks. A peer-to-peer network architecture is more suitable for small businesses where security isn't a concern. In a peer-to-peer network each computer can function as a client or a server. which is a cable with specific pin contacts reversed. USB. The selected networking model may differ based on your requirements and the number of computers you want to install on the network. there's at least one centralized server running the network operating system that allows network administrators to control the network. Client/server The client/server model uses a network operating system to manage the network and act as a central authority for network resources. You'll need an adapter to perform the pin reversal required for a direct connection. RS-232. and wireless media. When one of these adapters is used. and Windows 2003 networks are client/server networks. it provides half-duplex data transmission. or an IEEE 1394/FireWire cable to connect two computers directly. you require a network. and the server can fulfill or reject those requests. is known as a peer-to-peer network. A USB cable has only one pair of wires for data transfer. fiber optic. and there is no central server controlling the access of resources. Peer-to-peer A network that has no dedicated servers. USB and IEEE 1394/FireWire cables provide serial data transfers. There are two basic networking models: peer-to-peer and client/server. where individual workstations can share data or services with other workstations.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Whenever there's a need for connecting two or more computers. Windows 2000. In a client/server network. In modern networks coaxial cable has been replaced by UTP. and IEEE 1394/FireWire cables allow a serial port on one computer to be connected directly to another computer with a null-modem cable. This provides a secure and organized network. twisted pair. and Plenum/PVC cables connect network devices on a LAN. administration. Peer-to-peer networks are effective when the total number of participating workstations doesn't exceed 20. it is possible to connect two computers through their serial ports using a standard serial cable without reversing any pin contacts in the cable. Network Cables Cables connect two network devices and transfer information between them. it supports a transmission rate of 10 Mbps. 5 . You can use an RS-232 serial cable. STP. Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable. Windows 2000 and 2003 use domains to provide centralized control of security. which is considered slow compared to other cable types. Windows NT. and data backups tend to become problems. All computers are considered equal in functionality.

It uses a laser to transmit one signal at a time. 6 .CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cables consist of four pairs of wires with no foil shield. It transmits multiple signals using a light-emitting diode (LED). CAT6 supports transmission speeds up to 1000 Mbps. Plenum/Polyvinyl Chloride Cable Because it does not produce toxic fumes when it burns. It also provides backward-compatibility to the older and much slower 10 Mbps standards. and they support full-duplex communication. motors. it supports transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps. STP is generally preferred only when shielding from EMI is required.000 km. Examples of UTP cables are: • • • CAT3 T is used in 10BaseT networks. The metallic shield protects the cable from interference caused by fluorescent light fixtures. Mechanical Transfer-Registered Jack (MT-RJ) connectors MT-RJ connectors are used with single-mode and multi-mode fiber optic cables. while SC fiber uses a square-block style connector. While Category 5e also supports speeds of up to 1000 Mbps. It also provides backward-compatibility to the older and much slower 10 Mbps standards. Fiber Optic Cable Fiber optic cable can be used with Ethernet networks. such as ventilation ducts. ST fiber uses a round-plug style connector. There are two types of fiber optic cable: • • Single Mode fiber optic cable has a thin core-diameter of 5 or 10 microns. but it has been phased out in favor of Category 5e. LC connectors use a plastic housing. Practical transmission distances for multi-mode fiber optic range up to 3. Lucent Connector (LC) connectors LC connectors are used with single-mode and multi-mode fiber optic cables. MT-RJ connectors are cheaper than SC and ST connectors. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) refers to fiber optic cable used in Token Ring networks. STP cable is identical to UTP except for the shielding. It carries digital data and voice signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. Each type of cable requires a specific type of connector for termination. MT-RJ connectors use a plastic housing. Shielded Twisted Pair Cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables consist of four pairs of insulated wires with a foil shield wrapped around the wires. and other electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources. Category 6 is recommended for best results. Most fire codes require plenum-rated cable in any area that carries breathable air. LC connectors have a locking tab. Plenum/Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) cable is used in plenum (air-filled) spaces in buildings. 62. Standard connectors (SC) and Straight Tip (ST) connectors Fiber optic NICs usually include an ST or SC connector. Fiber optic cable is commercially available either with the same connector at both ends or with an ST connector at one end and an SC connector at the other end. but are more expensive than UTP. Non-plenum cables are covered with PVC that produces toxic gas when it burns. CAT5 supports transmission speeds up to 100 Mbps.5. or 100 microns. they provide precise alignment through ceramic ferrules. they provide precise alignment through metal pins and plastic ferrules. Practical transmission distances for singlemode fiber optic range up to 50 km. Multi Mode fiber optic cable has a core-diameter of 50. STP cables can be used in any implementation where UTP cables are used.

protocols. An RJ-45 connector connects both UTP and STP cables to hubs. In this lesson. 7 . you learned about networking concepts such as addressing and bandwidth.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Registered Jack-11 (RJ-11) connectors RJ-11 connectors are the standard connector for telephone connections. but has been replaced by other media. the different protocols or set of rules used by networks. These plug into female connectors built into networking devices. Instant networking allows two Windows XP computers to communicate simply by using a FireWire cable and the TCP/IP protocol stack. Registered Jack-45 (RJ-45) connectors RJ-45 connectors are similar to RJ-11 connectors but larger. It's used to create a connection between telephone-line jacks and analog modems. Unshielded Twisted Pair Consists of four pairs of wires with no foil shield. You also learned about different network models. An RJ-11 connector has four wires. An RJ-45 connector has eight wires in four pairs. Topic 2. FireWire supports an end-to-end throughput of over 50 Mbps. A UTP cable typically has a male RJ-45 connector on each end.1 Exercises Exercise 1 Try creating a list of the networking cables. and how networks and shared resources are connected to each other. and architectures you currently use or are considering installing or upgrading to. USB and IEEE1394/FireWire connectors These interfaces support instant networking. Networking Cables The important concepts are: Coaxial The most commonly used cable type in early computer networks. connectors. and various other twisted-pair networking devices. Fiber Optic Is available in two types: Single Mode and Multi Mode Plenum/ Polyvinyl Chloride Does not produce toxic fumes when it burns. Shielded Twisted Pair Consists of four pairs of insulated wires with a foil shield wrapped around the wires. NICs.

A cable modem connects to a computer by using an RJ45 Ethernet cable or a USB cable. ISDN is faster. which use the same channel for in-band and out-of-band signals. There are several variants of DSL available in the market. infrared. Different types of network technologies. cable. You can also configure dedicated connections such as ISDN. If it is a small organization. cellular. The three different types of ISDN services are: • • • Primary Rate Interface (PRI) — Consists of 23 B channels and one D channel (64 Kbps) in North America and Japan for a total bandwidth that is equivalent to one T1 leased line. ISDN ISDN is a digital architecture that defines hardware and call-setup schemes for end-toend connectivity. you should be able to: • Define various network technologies LAN/WAN LAN-based Internet connectivity can be established in various ways. A dedicated D channel is used for out-of-band signaling. Technologies such as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). Broadband provides high-speed connectivity over the internet. or cable-based Internet connectivity for WAN connections. or 30 B channels and one D channel in Europe. Asynchronous DSL is capable of downstream transfers of 8 Mbps and upstream transfers of 1 Mbps. The other forms of DSL provide speeds from 144 Kbps to 1. voice. Broadband ISDN — Offers transfer rates of up to 633 Mbps and uses coaxial or fiber-optic cables. A gateway is simply responsible for sending and receiving data packets. Compared to normal telephone lines. dial-up. wireless. ISDN uses two separate channels for in-band and out-of-band signaling. Bluetooth. When you need to configure Internet connectivity for a LAN. Network Technologies Networks use a wide variety of technologies to establish connections among computers and peripherals. and data for transmission to the specified destination.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Lesson 3. After completing this lesson. This technology can carry video. are used to establish network connectivity. and satellite provide high-speed Internet connectivity.5 Mbps downstream and 128 Kbps to 512 Kbps upstream. Australia and most of the rest of the world with the slightly higher capacity E1. DSL DSL describes the broad category of Internet access technologies that use telephone wire to transmit signals to and from the Internet. ISDN. typically a computer or device is configured to act as a gateway. DSL connections use standard RJ-11 connectors between the modem and the ISP. such as LAN/WAN. Cable Cable modem-based Internet connections always use standard coaxial cable to establish a direct connection to the Internet. ISDN lines have a faster call setup than LANs because both channels are separate. 8 . An advantage of DSL is that the existing UTP telephone cables can be used to connect the DSL modem to an RJ-11 wall socket. you can use a dial-up connection and then distribute the Internet connectivity among multiple computers. The primary task of a gateway is to perform routing between networked computers and the Internet. DSL. and VoIP. broadband. Basic Rate Interface (BRI) — Consists of two B channels which provide a data transfer speed of 64 Kbps and one D channel which provides the data transfer speed of 16 Kbps.

or restaurants where customers can use the access points to connect to the Internet.4 GHz. The satellites and receiving dishes need to be aligned. Class III: provides communication at short distance and is rarely used today. is a wireless network protocol intended to provide convergence between wireless-enabled devices such as computers.11b wireless network adapters and vice-versa. and satellite dishes. One-way uses a dial-up modem and an ISP. Wireless Wireless devices connect to the Internet through an access point. Dial-up networking uses analog modems that convert the parallel digital signals generated by a computer into serial analog signals suitable for transmission over telephone wires. There are several wireless specifications: • • • • The 802. or the signal will be noisy and weak. ITU.4 GHz. Bluetooth Bluetooth. 802. mice. 9 . An external modem uses the interfacing circuitry of the serial port. A common problem with satellite communication is delay. printers. The 802. For dial-up networking. Dial-up connections can transmit data at speeds up to 56. The Bluetooth wireless standard supports a maximum speed of 400 Kbps at a frequency of 2.11g access points can work with 802. The 802. defined by the IEEE as standard 802.11g standard is compatible with the 802. ensuring backward compatibility. This delay is known as latency. Bad weather also affects communications using satellite technology. It connects to a serial port of the computer using an RS232 cable. An external modem is installed outside the computer.15. and PDAs.6 Kbps. Bluetooth wireless range depends on the class of the Bluetooth device: • • • Class I: provides communication with a maximum distance of 100 meters.4 GHz. Dial-Up Access Dial-up access uses the telephone system to allow communication between computers. which connects through a coaxial cable to the satellite dish. or DSL. In a one-way connection the computer connects to an Indoor Receive Unit (IRU). This type of Internet connectivity is often a paid service. A two-way uses two satellites to send and receive information. an Indoor Transmit Unit (ITU) is used along with an IRU. keyboards. ISDN.11a wireless standard supports a maximum speed of 54 Mbps at a frequency of 5 GHz. Signals take time to reach and then return from the satellite. cellular telephones. Bluetooth is the best wireless communication technology to communicate with multiple devices. The disadvantage of satellite technology is that it is slower than cable.11b wireless standard supports a maximum speed of 11 Mbps at a frequency of 2. Wireless-based Internet connectivity is used in hotels. There are two types of satellite-based connections: one-way and two-way.11b standard.11g wireless standard supports a maximum speed of 54 Mbps at a frequency of 2. An internal modem is installed inside the computer's system case in an expansion slot on the motherboard. Class II: provides communication with a maximum distance of 10 meters. you can use either an internal or external modem. In a two-way connection. It's equipped with its own interfacing circuitry. airports.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Satellite Satellite technology can cover large geographic areas because no cables are required for its implementation. A coaxial cable can be used with the IRU. The 802.

TDMA technology divides time slots among different users so they can share the same radio frequency. VoIP Voice over IP (VoIP) technology is used to carry voice signals over IP telephony. CDMA technology uses wide frequency channels to send messages that are decoded at the receiving end.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Infrared Infrared technology is a wireless technology used to send and receive information by using electromagnetic radiation in the infrared band. Infrared is the cheapest wireless technology. This technology allows you to make voice calls through a broadband Internet connection. you learned about the different types of network technologies used to establish connectivity.1 Exercises Exercise 1 Consider the electronic devices you use. a laptop. and so on. Cellular Cellular technology is a radio technology made up of many cells. The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) is the authority that defines protocol standards and specifications for short-range communication using infrared light. Modern laptops come with built-in support for infrared. a PDA. a wireless keyboard and mouse. for example a desktop PC. In this lesson. This technology is useful for sending and receiving e-mail and for browsing the Web. Several types of cellular technology can be used. which provide radio coverage over a wide area. VoIP calls costs less than calls made through the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). a cell phone. 10 . GPRS technology operates at a speed of 115 Kbps. Determine what type of networking technology each device employs. Networking Technologies The important concepts are: VoIP Allows you to make voice calls through a broadband Internet connection Infrared Used to send and receive information by using electromagnetic radiation Dial-Up Access Uses the telephone communication system to allow communication between computers ISDN Uses two separate channels for in-band and out-of-band signaling Topic 3. Infrared provides relatively shortrange communication up to 12 feet with a data transfer rate of less than 4 Mbps. General Packet Radio Service General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a wireless technology used in mobile devices to transfer data. such as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). A transmitter is used to serve these cells. but VoIP voice quality is reduced.

After completing this lesson. Let's examine the steps for configuring a NIC in a Windows XP computer that has a static IP address. you need a cable modem. usually provided by your ISP. double-click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) in the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box. Some wireless devices. A cable modem is pre-configured. and default gateway of the computer. subnet mask. and Windows XP support Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA). You can use wireless technology to connect a computer to a wireless network. APIPA enables DHCP clients to automatically configure their IP addresses and subnet masks. A client configured with APIPA will periodically attempt to locate a DHCP server. It provides faster Internet download speeds than dial-up access. Note: When a router has been used to connect two computers to a single broadband connection. and then click Properties. subnet mask. and mice. such as printers. attach the NIC to any available PCI slot on the motherboard and install appropriate network card drivers with the Device Manager. To begin. static assignment. Automatic Private IP Addressing Windows 98. click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box. you don't need to perform any additional configurations. Select the Use the following IP address radio button. You can assign an IP address to the computer by using dynamic IP address assignment. Click OK to save the settings. In a Windows network. or Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA). the IP address. The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box opens. When you configure a NIC. you must install a NIC in the computer. double-click Local Area Connection. Once the DHCP server is found. right-click My Network Places. Finally. To configure cable broadband on your computer.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Lesson 4. Double-click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). you should be able to: • Install and configure networks Installing and Configuring a Cable Broadband Connection A cable broadband connection provides fast Internet access through coaxial cable. Note that a network administrator does not need to configure any settings if a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server exists on the network. Installing and Configuring Networks To connect a computer to a network. you can use the Web browser running on one of the computers to configure the router. keyboards. 11 . We've completed this step for you. and default gateway must be specified to configure a host on the network. Enter the IP address. To configure the host IP addresses manually . The NIC has been configured with a static IP address. Next. Windows 2000. If a client can't communicate with a DHCP server at startup. Configuring a NIC with a Static IP Address To configure a network interface card (NIC) on a Windows XP computer. use Bluetooth or infrared wireless technology to connect to a computer. the client computer is set to dynamically obtain an IP address by default. APIPA is not used. A cable broadband connection is relatively cheaper than other broadband connections.

thereby eliminating the need to broadcast the identity and availability of the wireless network. you should provide the IP address and gateway address in wireless access point settings.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks When a computer uses APIPA. Data is sent in compressed binary packets. To ensure the security of the network. WEP can be effective when used with other security methods. Service Set Identifier A Service Set Identifier (SSID) is a network name that is broadcast in clear text. authentication. Let's examine the terminology and technology involved with configuring wireless access points. To configure wireless access points. Service Set Identifier Identifies the presence of a wireless network to any wireless client within range by broadcasting the network name in clear text. In a large wireless LAN. Wireless Transport Layer Security Provides security for WAP applications in the form of data integrity. WEP can be used to secure transmissions after authentication. In secure environments wireless clients can be configured with the SSID for their network. authentication.255.255. Virtual Private Networks (VPN). Wireless Access Points Wireless access points are used in wireless networks for connecting wireless devices. APIPA addresses range from 169. Wireless transactions require strict security measures because of their vulnerability to data interception. privacy. you should specify the SSID in the user computers. and bandwidth. Wireless Application Protocol The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) uses Wireless Markup Language (WML) to format data to fit into smaller displays. Wired Equivalent Privacy Encrypts data as it is transmitted between the wireless client and the access point. you should also change the password while configuring a wireless access point.254. 12 . and Denial-of-Service (DoS) protection.254. WEP does not provide encryption during authentication.0. You can use wireless access points as a router and a DHCP. memory. and encryption of all data transmissions. with a subnet mask of 255. such as passwords. you may have to install a number of wireless access points to establish connectivity.0. such as those found in Personal Communication System (PCS) phones and PDAs. and it allows user credentials to be broadcast in clear text. Wireless Transport Layer Security The Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) is based on the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol and derived from the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol. WTLS provides an optimized handshake mechanism that allows keys to be changed periodically during a wireless session.255. When you configure a wireless access point as a router and a DHCP. privacy. Wired Equivalent Privacy The Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encrypts data as it is transmitted between a wireless client and the access point.0. and Denial-of-Service (DoS) protection. WTLS provides security for WAP applications in the form of data integrity.0 through 169. authentication. The SSID identifies the presence of a wireless network to any wireless client that is in range. Windows determines the IP address in reverse order. Each access point supports connections up to a specified distance. Wireless Access Point Technologies The important concepts are: Wireless Application Protocol Uses Wireless Markup Language (WML) to format data to fit into smaller displays. WTLS helps address wireless issues such as limited processing power.

13 . and what subnet mask or masks? Do you employ APIPA? In this lesson. dial-up. you learned to install and configure a NIC for network connectivity. or something else? Are IP addresses assigned manually or automatically at your place of business? What range of IP addresses do you use.1 Exercises Exercise 1 Try identifying your network configuration at your place of business: Do you have cable broadband. wireless. You also examined terminology and technology involved with configuring wireless access points.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Topic 4.

and techniques for troubleshooting networks Wireless Connection Speed and Strength If you are not able to connect to the Internet or network resources on a wireless network.x range. Troubleshooting Internet Access Problems To troubleshoot Internet access problems you should check whether the NIC is configured properly. use a loopback device.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Lesson 5. You can check the cable itself with a LAN tester tool or by replacing the cable. Connection speed and strength. the computer is unable to contact the DHCP server. 14 . diagnostic procedures. DNS DNS is a distributed addressing system that resolves a domain name into its numeric IP address. attach the NIC to any available PCI slot on the motherboard and install the appropriate network card drivers using the Device Manager. DHCP. Troubleshooting Networks There are many techniques to troubleshoot wired and wireless network problems. If you're connecting dissimilar devices. Each domain is an independent namespace that corresponds to a particular organization. problems in the NIC.FONT> Troubleshooting a NIC To configure a NIC on a Windows XP computer. such as two computers. and access problems are a few of the issues you will learn to troubleshoot in this lesson. A patch cable can be a crossed cable or a straight cable. such as a computer and a hub or switch. you should verify wireless connection speed and strength. you should use a straight patch cable. Device Manager is used to install device drivers and verify that a device is functioning properly. Note: If a user can't access the LAN from a computer configured to obtain IP addresses automatically. the DHCP server could be down. A patch cable is a UTP cable used to connect two devices on a network. you should check to see whether the link lights are present on a network card. you should use a crossed patch cable. To verify that the NIC is working properly on a computer. You can check these items from the Wireless NIC Properties dialog box. To troubleshoot NIC problems. make sure the network patch cable is plugged into the wall socket and the computer's NIC. Click the Wireless Link icon. You can also double-click the Wireless Link icon on the right of the taskbar on a Windows XP computer to perform the same function. To troubleshoot NIC problems. and DNS servers manage requests for information regarding the IP addresses of particular DNS domains. you should be able to: • Identify tools.254. You should connect the NIC to a hub or a switch by using a patch cable. You should check the DNS. If the problem persists. If you're connecting similar devices. and default gateway settings to troubleshoot Internet access problems. Use Device Manager to check the status of a NIC. you should first verify the IP address of the computer. DNS allows you to use the Internet without the need to remember long lists of cryptic numbers.x. After completing this lesson. If you run the IPCONFIG command and observe that the computer is using an IP address in the 169.

15 . subnet mask. Note: If you are able to PING to a public IP address but are not able to PING the same IP address by using a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN). The client sends a DHCPREQUEST packet to the DHCP server to accept the IP address. if the IP address is unique on the network. the client will request another address. If the DHCP server discovers an IP address conflict. The procedure involves the following steps: Step 1 2 Action Open TCP/IP Properties from the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box. When half of the lease time expires. enter the DNS server's IP address in the Preferred DNS Server field. The TCP/IP stack sends a DHCPDISCOVER packet to request configuration parameters from a DHCP server. Upgrade slow networks by using faster devices to connect to the network is one of them. known as the address lease period. specify the DNS address provided by your ISP.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks To configure DNS on a client computer. and it's better to use switches. which contains an IP address the client can use. Bridges In the past. In the General tab of the TCP/IP Properties dialog box. DHCP DHCP is a protocol that dynamically delivers IP address configuration information from a central server. If you are using hubs your network performance might be slower than it could be. The client accepts the first DHCPOFFER packet it receives and configures itself with that IP address. it responds with a negative acknowledgement. Clients that decline DHCPOFFER packets send DHCPDECLINE packets to the appropriate servers. and DNS server address to the client computers. The DHCPNACK packet revokes the IP address and forces the client to send a new request for an IP address. The client can use the IP address for a limited time. But bridges have become obsolete and are not used today. bridges were used to connect two different network segments in a LAN and increase the performance of a network. Switches Switches have replaced hubs. you should verify the DNS IP settings. Bridges operated at the data link layer of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model. Switches operate at the data link layer of the OSI model. known as a DHCPACK packet. The client discovers that configuration of TCP/IP is set to automatic. known as a DHCPNACK packet. The DHCP server responds with a positive acknowledgement. DHCP automatically assigns the IP address. because switches provide faster transmission speeds. Each DHCP server on the network responds with a DHCPOFFER packet. 3 4 5 6 7 Network Devices There are a number of things you can do to increase the performance of a network. Let's look at some of these devices. A DHCP client performs the following tasks to configure TCP/IP addresses: Step 1 2 Action The client starts and enables TCP/IP.

you have learned techniques to troubleshoot network problems. Status Indicators You can check the status of network devices such as NICs or switches by looking at their status indicator lights. If the NIC is not properly connected to the network. The process is known as routing. hubs. MAC Address A MAC address is the 48-bit physical address of a NIC. problems in the NIC.1 Exercises Exercise 1 Try making a list of bridges. the link indicator or activity indicator may be off. and how they're used. Troubleshooting a NIC The important concepts are: LAN tester tool Checks that a patch cable is working Device Manager Helps install device drivers and verify that a device is functioning properly Loopback device Verifies that a NIC is working properly on a computer Link indicator Confirms that a NIC is properly connected to a network Activity indicator Shows that data is being sent and received over a network Topic 5. think about what tools you have available for configuring and troubleshooting networks. Routers operate at the network layer of the OSI model. where they are. the link status will be green. 16 . A blinking activity indicator shows that data is being sent and received over the network. routers.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Router A router is a networking device used to forward IP packets to a host on a different network. and switches you have. and access problems as being potential trouble spots in a network. Once you've done that. To determine the MAC address of a computer. If the NIC is properly connected to the network. you can use the IPCONFIG /ALL command from the command prompt. In this lesson. You examined connection speed and strength. This is a unique address assigned to the NIC by the vendor. A NIC has two indicators: a link indicator and an activity indicator. An illuminated indicator light on a NIC card shows that the network cable is connected properly to another Ethernet connection.

Course in Review This lesson lets you review the CompTIA A+ Essentials principles and practices. It reviews the course material through questions. All Rights Reserved. 17 . Inc.CompTIA A+ Essentials 220-601: Networks Lesson 6. © 2008 MindLeaders.

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