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CAC BAI lOAN llCH PHAN CO NHIEU CACH GIAI

De gitip cho cac em co each nhin sau sac hon ve cac phirong phap va each tlurc giai nhtr dii trinh bay 6 phan thir nhat, ciing nhu giiip cho cac em co the nr duy mot bai toan nhanh nhat dap irng duoc yeu cau d6i rnoi cua viec h9C va thi do la sir sang tao trong lam bai, tu duy nhanh va d9C lap. Chung toi gioi thieu t6i cac em 50 bai tap co 100i giai rna moi bai tap 6 day duoc sir dung toi thieu la 2 each tinh. Day cling la mot each tlnrc ren luyen de chuan bi tot cho 19 trinh thi trac nghiem VI trac nghiem ve ban chat doi hoi cac em h9C sinh mot nr dllY nhanh va ap dung mot each giai ngan nhat cho mot bai toano

Viec dira ra toi thieu Ia 2 each tinh 6 day ta phai hieu la co the 1 bai toan cluing toi se trinh bay tci thieu bang 2 phuong phap giai hoac trong cung 1 phtrong phap giai nhirng 14;1i co nhieu hinh thirc giiii khac nhau. Di;ic bier nhirng each giai rna cluing toi trinh bay 6 day khong phai d1:l la her tat ca cac phirong phap tinh cua bai toan, cac em nen suy luan d~ tim toi cac phirong phap tinh khac. Can err vao hinh thirc cua ham so diroi dau tich ph an rna cluing toi chia thanh tirng nhom sau :

_ ._ , ~ .... J_?

I - NHUNG SAl lOAN VE HAM SO HUU 11

Bdi 1 :

J3 3 Tinh tich phan 1 = J x2 dx . o x +1

Gidi :

each J : Dung d6i bien bang bien phap luong giac hoa.

Dat x = tant ~ dx = (1 + tan 2 t) dt.

57

D6i can x = 0 ~ t = 0 : x = J3 ~ t = 7!.

. . 3

IT

IT

IT

IT

)) ). 3

1= ftan) tdt = ftan t.( tan2 t + 1-1 )dt = ftan t.( tan2 t + 1 )dt - ftan tdt

o 0 0 0

IT IT

IT

) ) d ( cos t) tan 2 t --- 3

= ftantd (tan t) + f· = (--+ Inlcostl) ) = - +ln 2.

o 0 cost 2 2

o

C dch 2 : Dung tich phan nrng phan.

{X2 = It {dll = 2xdx

D~t = xdx ~ In ( x2 + 1 )

dv 2 v = .

x +1 2

.Jj

voi J = f In(x2 + l)d(x2 + 1). o

_ {In ( x2 + 1) = II jdll = d ( x2 + 1 )

D~t 2 ~ x2 + 1

dv = d(x + 1) 2

V=X +1.

1 3

= 3In 2 - - (8In 2 - 3) = - - In 2.

2 2

Cach 3 : Chia nr so cho mau so M tach thanh 2 tich ph an

58

J3 ( ) J3 J3 ( ) 2 J3 1 J3 d ( x2 + 1 )

1= f x __ x_ dx= f(x)dx- f ._X_ dx=!_ -- f--'-=:---'-

o x2 + 1 0 ° x2 + 1 2 0 2 ° x2 + 1

= ~-ln2.

2

NhuV4Y cac em & dang nhan thay each 3 het sue don gian va ngan gQn.

Bili 2:

o 2

Tfnh tich ph an 1 = f x dx 3

-1(x2+1)

cuu .

each 1 " D6i bien bang bien phap luong giac hoa.

Dat x = tan t => dx = ( tan 2 t + 1) dt

D6i can x = -1 => t =* - 1t ; X = 0 => t = O.

. 4

o tan2t(tan2t+l)dt ° tan2tdt

1= f = f--

-1'[ (tan2t+lt -1'[(tan2t+lt

4 4

o °

= f dt - f dt

-1'[ (tan2 t + 1) -1'[ (tan2 t + 1 t

4 4

o °

= f cos2 tdt - f cos4 tdt

-1'[ -1'[

4 4

1 0 1 °

= 2" f (1 + cos 2t ) dt -"4 f (1 + cos 2t)2 dt

-1'[ -1'[

4 4

1° 1° 1° 10 1°

=2" f dt+2" f cos2tdt-"4 f dt-2" f cos2tdt-"4 f cos2 2tdt

-1'[ -1'[ -1'[ -1'[ -1'[

4

4

4

4

4

59

1° 1° 1° 1°

=- fdt-- f(l+cos4t)dt=- fdt-- fcos4td4t

4 8 8 32

-TI -TI -TI-TI

4 4 4 4

o

t 1 . 4 7t

=(---sm t) =

. 8 32 -TI 32

4

C ach 2 : Dung tfch phan tung phan.

D6i can x = -1 ~ t = - 7t ; X = 0 ~ t = O.

. 4

-1 1 0 dt -1 1 °

1=-+- J ( (-+- f cos2 tdt

16 4 -TI tan2 t+ 1 16 4_TI

~ --

4 4

-1 1 () -1 1 ° 1 ()

= - + - f ( I + cos 2t ) dt = - + - f dt + - f cos 2td ( 2t )

16 8 16 8 16

-TI -TI-TI

4

_.

4

4

Bili 3:

2

Tfnh tich phan I = f :x .

I x +1

60

cuu .

each 1 : Ta tach tfch ph an bang bien phap them bot ket hop voi ;in phu,

1 = _!_ f 2dx = f( x2 + 1) - (x2 -1) dx = _!_ [s x' + 1 dx _ S x2 ~ 1 dX] = _!_ (A - B).

2 I x4 + 1 I x4 + 1 2 I x4 + 1 I x4 + 1 2

* Gidi A : Chia ca nr so va rnau so cho x2•

1 1

D<;it x - - = r, d(x - - ) = dt.

x x

. 3

D6i can x = 1 ~ r = 0 . x = 2 => t = - .

. , 2

3

2 dr

A = Ir2 +2· o

D<;it t = J2 tan II ~ dt = J2 ( 1 + tan 2 ll) du .

.33 D6i can t = 0 ~ II = 0 ; t = - ~ u = acrtan r;::; .

. 2 2-v2

3

arctan -- ... 3

1 2Ji 1 arctan 2li

A = J2 I du = J2 1I =

o

* Gidi B : Chia ca nr so va mau so cho x2.

3 arctan- .

2J2

61

I I

D~t x + - = t => d(x + -) = dt .

x x

D"'·' I 2 2 5

01 can x = => t = ; x = => t = -

. 2

5 5 [5 5 I

2 dt 2 dt I 2 dt 2 dt

B= It2-2 = !(t-Fl)(T+Fl) = 2Fl It-Fl- It+Fl

'i .

=_1_1n t-Fl ~ =_I_(ln 5-2Fl +ln 2-Fl)

2Fl t+Fl 2Fl 5+2Fl 2+Fl·

2

3 arctan

VayI= 2Fl __ I_(ln5-2Fl_In2-Fl).

. 2Fl 4Fl 5+2Fl 2+Fl

Cdch 2 : Ta tach tfch phan theo cong thirc tach tich phan. Ta phan tfch xf + 1 =x4+2x2+ 1-2x2=(x2+ 1)2_2x2

= (x2 -Flx+ 1 )(x2 +Flx+ I)

I Ax+B Cx+D

--= +--=--

x 4 + I x2 - Flx + I x2 + Flx + I

<=> I = x3 (A +C)+ x2 (B + FlA + D -Flc)+ x( BFl + A -FlD +C )+(B + D)

B=D=}_

2

-1 A= 2Fl

I C= 2Fl.

A+C=O B+D+FlA-Flc = 0

<=> <=>

FlB-FlD+A+C = 0

B+D=l

62

* Gidi A :

( 1) 1 dt

D~it x - r;:; = r;:; tan t => dx = t: 2

"\/ 2 "\/ 2 "\/ 2 cos t

D6i can

x = 1 => f = n (n = arctan ( Ji - 1 ) ) ; x = 2 => f = m ( m = arctan ( 2 Ji - 1 ) ) . * Gidi B :

1 2 (LX + Ji)dx I 2 dx

B = 2 ! x2 + Jix + 1 + Ji ! x2 + Jix + I

1 2 d ( x2 + Jix + I ) 1 2 dx

~2 f x2 +J2x+! + J2 f( x+* )\~

df

= _!_ In jx2 + Jix + 111 ~ + _1_ fIji cos2 f .

2 Ji a ~ ( tan 2 t + 1 )

( I) I dt

Dat X + r;:; = r;:; tan t => dx = r: 2·

"\/2"\/2 "\/2 cos t

63

D6i can

x = J => r = a ( a = arctan ( 12 + 1 ) ) ; x = 2 => t = ~ (~ = arctan ( 2 12 + 1 ) ) .

B = _!_ In ( 5 + 212 J + rJ3 dt = _!_ In ( 5 + 212] + (~ - a) .

2 2+12 2 2+12

a

, -J 1 (5-212J 1 (5+212J

VC;lY 1= 212 ("2In 2-12 -(m-n) - "2In 2+12 -(~-a)).

Trong bai toan nay cac em can chu y rang each 1 thi ngan gon hem each 2 I

nhirng neu ta d6i can cua bai toan Ia J :x thi each 1 hoan toan khong th~ XU OX + 1

If diroc VI khi dat x - ..!_ = t thi khong d6i diroc can, tuy nhien each 2 lai thirc x

hien mot each binh thirong.

Bai 4:

I

Tfnh tfch phan 1= J x3 (3 - 2x4)3 dx. o

Gidi :

Cdch 1 : Neu suy nghi mot each thong thuong ta co tM khai trien thanh tong cac tich phan nhu sau :

I 1

1= Jx3(27 - 54x4 + 36x8 - 8xl2)dx = J(27 x3 -54x7 + 36xll -8xI5)dx

o 0

1 =(27 x4 _ 54 xX + 36 xl2 _!_xI6) = 5

4 8 12 16 0 2

C del! 2 : D6i bien

Dat t = 3-2x4 => dr = -8x3dx.

D6i can : x = 0 => r = 3 ; x = 1 => t = 1. 3

1 1 3 1 t4 5

1= -8 It dt = 84 1 = 2

64

Cacti 3 : Str dung vi phan

D;>'h" Id(3 24) 3/ A 'I" .,. h

eyt ay -- - X =X ex nentaco O'lglatn usau:

8

Bai toan nay c6 ve kha de dang voi nhieu ban tuy nhien ta de y rang trong bai to an tren neu bac cua (3 - 2x4) khong phai Hi 3 rna cao hon nira. VI du nhu bac 200 chang han, khi d6 each 1 se qua kh6 khan de thuc hien duoc, nlnrng neu sir dung phuong phap nhir each 2 hoac each 3 thi bai toan lai duoc thirc hien mot each de dang. Va a day phirong phap dung vi ph an thea each 3 la dan gian va hieu qua hon.

Bili 5:

I 2

Tlnh tich ph an 1= f 4x -~ dx.

I x(x +3x +2)

2

Gidi :

Cach 1 : Dung each thirc tach tich phan. " Nhan thay mau so ph an tfch duoc thanh :

x(x4 + 3x2 + 2) = x(x2 + I )(x2 + 2) , do vay ta lai sir dung phtrong phap tach phan thirc :

x2 -3 A Bx+C Dx+E

------ = - + + -----,---

x(x4+3x2+2) x x2+1 x2+2

den day, ban c6 the nhan thay neu tiep tuc lam nhir vay se kha dai dong, mac du ve mat If thuyet thl chac chan thuc hien diroc,

Cach 2 : Dung each thuc tach tich ph an nhirng ket hop voi d6i bien. Nhan ca tv va mau cua ham duoi dau tfch phan voi x .

.fi 2

1= f x(x -3) dx

I x2(x4 +3x2 +2) .

65

')

Dat t = x- => dt = 2xdx.

D6i can : x = 1 => t = 1 ; x = .fi => 1 = 2. 2

I =_!_ J (t-3)dt

2 I t(t2 + 31 + 2) .

Den day Slr dung tach tfch phan thi thirc hien d~ dang hon nhieu :

t-3 ABC

---- =-+--+-- ¢:::> t-3 = A(t+ 1)(t+2)+Bt(t+2)+Ct(t+ 1).

t(t+1)(t+2) t t+1 t+2

3 Chot=O => -3=A(0+ 1)(0+2)+B.0+C.0 => -3=2A=>A=--. 2

Cho t = - 1 => -4 = A.O + B( -1)( -1 + 2) + e.0 => -4 = -B => B = 4.

S Cho t = -2 => -S = A.O + B.O + C(-2)(-2 + 1) => -S = 2C=> C = --. 2

1[2-3/2 2 4 2_S/2]

1=- J-dt+ J-dt+ J-dt

2 I t 11+1 I 1+2

= _!_[-3In I t 112 +41n I t+ 111~ + -SIn I t+2112]

2 2 I 2 I

= -21 In 2 + .!2ln 3.

4 4

Cac em hru y thong qua bai toan nay cluing ta thay viec dong nhat 2 ve M tim A, B, C khong nhat thiet phai giai h~ 3 phirong trinh 3 an nhu cluing toi dii d6 cap a phan thtr nhat rna cac em co the sir dung each chon doi so d~ tim fa A, B, C nhir bai toan tren.

Bai 6 :

I

Tinh tich phan I = J 2 2x +; dx.

o(x +3x+2)(x +7x+12)

Gidi :

C aeh I : Dung each tlnrc tach tfch phan.

Ta nhan thay day la dang tich phan hfru ti rna mau so cua phan thirc ph an tfch diroc thanh tlch cac da thirc bac nhat

66

(x2 + 3x + 2)(x2 + 7 x + 12) = (x + l)(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4), do vay ta se sir dung phirong phap tach ph an thirc cu th~ nhir sau :

2x+5 ABC D

_-------- = --+--+--+--

(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)(x+4) x+1 x+2 x+3 x+4

~ 2x + 5 = A(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4) + B(x+ l)(x+ 3)(x + 4)

+C(x + 1 )(x + 2)(x + 4) + D(x + l)(x + 2)(x + 3).

Vi dang thirc tren phai thoa man vci moi x nen cfing thoa man voi nhirng gia tri x bat ki

Chox= -1 => 3 == A(-l + 2)(-i + 3)(-1 + 4) +B.O + C.O + D.O

=> 3 = 6A => A = ..!_.

2

Cho x = -2 => 1 = A.O + B(-2 + 1)(-2 + 3)(-2 + 4) + C.O + D.O

=> 1 = - 2B => B = -..!_.

2

Cho x = -3 => -1 = A.O + B.O + q-3 + 1)(-3 + 2)(-3 + 4) + D.O

=> -I = 2C => C = -..!_.

2

Cho x = -4 => -3 = A.O + B.O + e.0 + D(-4 + 1)(-4 + 2)(-4 + 3)

=> -3 = -6D => D = ..!_.

2

Vay tich phan can tinh se diroc tach thanh 4 tich phan don gian sau :

I ~ ,[ ~ -j_-j_+j_}lX

({l x+1 x+2 x+3 x+4

=..!_[Sd(X+l) _ Sd(X+2) _ Sd(X+3) + Sd(X+4)]

2 0 x+1 0 x+2 0 x+3 0 x+4

= ~ [ In I x + lll~ -In I x + 2 II~ -In I x + 3 II~ + In I x + 4 II~ ]

= ..!_ (2In 2 - 2In 4 + In 5) = ..!_ In (~).

2 2 4

67

Ca ell 2 : Dung phuong phap d6i bien, ket hop voi tach tich phan.

Cach I giai quyet diroc bai toan nlurng co ve kha dai, neu ta d~ y mot chut thi se co duoc each lam khac ngan gon han. Nhan xet thay I!lau so viet lai duoc nhu sau :

(x2 + 3x + 2)(x2 + 7 x + 12) = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4) = (x+ 1)(x+4)(x+2)(x+3)

=(x2 +5x+4)(x2 +5x+6).

Den day ta lai thay : d(x2 + 5x) = (2x + 5)dx do do ta se d~t (= x2 +5x =:> dt = (2x+5)dx.

D6i can x = 0 =:> 1 = 0 ; x = I =:> t = 6.

6 6 [6

/_ dt _ _!_ (t+6)-(t+4)d1 _ _!_ d(t+4)

-1(t+4)(t+6) - 21 (1+4)(1+6) - 2 f 1+4

I[ (, 6] 1 (5)

= 2 In I t + 4 II (J +In I 1 + 6 110 = 21n "4 .

fd(t+6)]

o (+6

each 3 : Tuy nhien, neu d~ y diroc ding

d(x2 + 5x + 4) = d(x2 + 5x + 6) = (2x + 5)dx,

ta co th~ giai bai tap nay mot each ngan han nita nhu sau :

I 1 (2x+5)[(x2 +5x+6)-(x2 +5x+4)]

/ = f2 dx

o (x2 +5x+4)(x2 +5x+6)

=_!_[fd(~2 +5x+4) _ fd(~2 +5X+6)]

2 0 x +5x+4 0 x +5x+6

=_!_[In x2+5x+4 Il=.!_ln(~).

2 x2 + Sr+6 2 4

- . 0

Cach nay qua that kheo leo ve each them bot va str dung vi phan d~ tach fa thanh hai tich phan phai khong cac ban!

68

Bdi 7 :

I 2

T' h ich ha I f x - 2

ill tIC P an = 4 :l 2 dx.

I x +2x- +5x +4x+4

2

Gidi :

Cciclz I :

Ta ph an tich rnau so cua bieu thirc duoi dau tich phan :

x4 +2x3 +5x2 +4x+4 =(x4 +2x3 +x2)+4(x2 +x)+4 = (x2 + x)2 + 4(x2 + x) + 4

= (x2 + x + 2)2.

Dung phuong phap tach tich phan ta co phan tich :

x2 -2 x2-2

---------= = + .

x4 +2x3 +5x2 +4x+4 (x2 +x+2)2 (x2 +x+2) (x2 +x+2)2

Ax+B

Cx+D

Sau do sir dung phirong phap dong nhat he so ta se tim duoc A, B, C, D.

Tuy nhien ta thay rang mac du van co th~ di den loi giai nhung thuc hien thea phuong phap nay kha dai va phirc tap,

Cdch 2 :

Chia ca ttr va mau cho x2

I 1- 2

f x2

1= 4 2 dx.

I (x2 + 2 )+2(x+- )+5

2 x x

2 2

D~t t = x + - => dt = (1 - 2 )dx .

x x

" 1 9

D6i can x = - => t = - . x = 1 => l = 3.

. 2 2 '

9 9

I = f dt = _ fd(t + 1) = _I_Ii =_l_

9 t2 + 2t + 1 3 (t + 1)2 f + 1 3 44'

2

69

Cach 3 : Neu mot h9C sinh kha hon va thuan thuc ki nang dira bieu thirc vao vi phan co thti thirc hien nhtr sau :

I 1- :2 If d(x +x~) •

1= f dx

4 2 = 22 2

I (x2 + 2)+2(x+)+S I (x+ ) +2(x+ )+1

2 x x 2 x x

3 44

Bai 8:

~I f dx .

11m =

x( 1 + x2(08)

Gidi:

C ach I : Trong ph an 1 cac em dii diroc xem mot each giai bang phirong phap them bot kha dan gian do la :

(X2008 + 1 _ x2008 ) dx ( 1 + x2008 ) ( x2008 )

I ~ f x ( I + x2OO8 ) ~ J x ( I + x2008 ) dx - f x ( I + x2()()') dx

( 2007)d

= fdx -f( x ) ~lnlxl-_l_1n(l+x2008)+c.

x 1 + x2008 2008

Tuy nhien bai toan nay ciing bang phirong phap them bot theo cong tlurc tach sau (dii diroc d~ cap b phan thrr nhat la :

f(x) 1 [f(X) f(x) 1 (a,b E Rm E ]':J*) thi ta

( X III - a) ( X 1/1 - b) = a - b (XIII - a) - ( XIII - b)

con co th~ giai bai toan nhtr sau :

70

cs-« 2 :

1 _ x 2007 dx _ x2007 dx .,(2007 dx

- f x2008 ( x2008 + 1) - f x2008 - f ( x2008 + 1 )

dx 1 d ( x2008 + 1 ) 1 2008

.~ J~- 200S f (x2008+1) ~lnlxl- 200s1n(x +1)+C.

Ca hai each tren cung la phirong phap them bot d~ tach tich phan nhirng each 2 lai mang tfnh cong tlurc cao hon va neu cac em thuoc cong thirc tach nay thi se giai quyet diroc rat nhieu bai toan khac,

Bai 9:

x2dx

Tim 1 = f 2008 .

(1- x)

Gidi:

C aeh 1 : D6i bien

D<;U (1 - x) = 1 ~ x = 1 - t => dx = =dt .

f( 1 - t)2 dt fl- 21 + (2 f dt f dt f dt

1 = - (2008 = - t2008 dt = - t2008 + 2 t2007 - t2006

= - ft-2008 dt + 2 ft-2007 dt - ft-2006 dt

t-2007 t-2006 t-2005

=--+2 +C

2007 -2006 -2005

2007 (1- x )2007

1 1

------+ 0 +C.

1003(I_x)2006 2005(I-x)205

=------

Cach 2 : Them bot d~ tach tlch phan.

Neu ta phan tich x2 thea luy thira cua 1 - x, ta co x2 = (1 - x)2 - 2(1 - x) + 1 thl ta co

f( 1 - x)2 dx f (1- x) dx f dx

1- -2 +

- ( 1 - x )2008 ( 1 - x l008 ( 1 _ x )2008

- f dx - 2 f dx +f dx

- (l_x/006 (l_x)2007 (l_x)2008

71

f( )-2006 ( ) f( )-2007 ( ) f( )-2008 ( )

=- I-x d I-x +2 I-x d I-x - I-x d I-x

= 1 _ 1 + 1 +C

2007 (1 - x )2007 1003 ( 1- x )2006 2005 ( 1 _ x )2005. .

Phuong phap them bot 6 each 2 moi nhin thi c6 ve kh6 nhirng neu cac em bier sit dung n6 thi se la mot each hfru hieu M ap dung cho viec giai cac bai tinh tich phan sau nay 6 cac loai ham khac nhu ham vo ti, hrong giac, ...

Bili 10:

J3 2 1 Tinh tich ph an I = f : - 2 dx .

I x +x

Gidi :

Cach I : Dung them bot vao nr so d<i tach tich phan

J3) J32 J3 J322

I = f x- -1 dx = f (x + 1) - 2 dx = f dx + 2 f x - (x + 1) dx

I x4 +x2 I x2(x2 +1) I x2 I x2(x2 +1)

J3 J3 J3

= f dx + 2 f __!!!__ - 2 f dx

x2 x2 + 1 x2

I I· I

J3 dx J3 dx IIJ3

=- f 2+2 f-2-=- +21.

IX Ix+l XI

cu: 1:

DiH x = tant => dx = (1 + tan2t)dt.

D6i can x = 1 => t = 1t ; X = J3 => t = 1t . ·43

1"[

3 1t

1 = fdt =12·

1"[

4

1 1t

Yay 1=--1+-.

. J3 6

72

Cacli 2 : Dung d6i bien bang bien phap hrong giac hoi. D:;i.t x = cot u ~ dx = -(1 + cot 2 u )du .

D6i bien: x = 1 ~ II = 'IT ,x = J3 ~ u = 'IT •

4 6

TC

TC

624

J cot II - 1 2 J 2 2

I = - 2 2 (1 + cot II 'ydu = - (1 - cot u) tan u.du

TC cot u(cot II + 1) TC

4

6

TC

TC

4 4

= - J(tan2 ll-l)du = - J(tan2 u + 1- 2)du

TC 6

TC

6

TC

4() TC

1 .... 1 'IT

= - J - 2 du = - ( tan II - 211 )\ ~ = - - 1 + - .

TC cos2 u 6 J3 6

6

Bui 11 :

2

Tinh tich phan I = J :) dx 3' I x +x

Gidi:

Cdch 1 : Sl'r dung cong thiic de tach tich phan.

S" d han ti h 1 ABC Dx + E '., d

ir ung p an tic 3 2 = -+2+3+ 2 r01 SU ung phirong

x (x + 1) x x x x + 1

phap dong nhat he so d~ tim ra A, B, C, D. Tuy nhien each nay kha dai dong. Ta co th~ lam don gian viec tim cac he so A. B, C, D bang each them bot tren tir so cua bieu thirc diroi dau tich phan nhir each 2 sau day:

Cacti 2 : Sir dung them bot d~ tach tich phan.

2 2 2 ~ )

1 = s(x + 1)-x dx = _1 1_. dx

x:) + x3 x3 x3 + x

I I

73

= 2t ~_ (I+X2)-X2Idx = 2r(_1 _ _!_+_X_)dX

~ l X X3 + X) ~ l X3 X X2 + 1

12 2 2 12

-1 2 1 d(x + 1) 3 1 2

=-2 -lnlxll] +- J 2 =--ln2+-1n(x +1)

2x ] 2] x + 1 8 2 I

3 1 (5)

="8-ln2+2In 2 .

Cach 3 :

2

Nh "" " - ". 1 hi I J xdx

an ca ttr so va mau so V<1! irong x t 1 = 4 2 .

] x (x + 1)

Dat T = x2 + 1 => dt = 2xdx .

D6i bien: x = 1 => 1 = 2, x = 2 => t = 5 .

I - _!_ Sf dt _ _!_ Sft - (t -l)dt _ _!_ sf dt _ _!_ sf dt

22t(1-1)2 22 t(t_1)2 22(t-l)222t(t-l)

= _!_ f dt - _!_ ft - (I -1)dt = _!_ fd(t -1) _!_ f~ + _!_ fdt

22(t-I)2 22 t(t-I) 22(1-1)2 22(t-I) 221

= -1 S -_!_lnlt-1f +_!_lnltIIS =~-ln2+_!_ln(~).

2(1 - 1) 2 2 2 2 2 8 2 2

_ " , ~ .... lit! _.,

II - NHUNG BAI TOAN VE HAM SO VO TI

Hili 12 :

3

Tfnh tich ph an I = f ~ . 2 x -1

Gidi :

Cach 1 : Dung d6i bien bang bien phap hrong giac hoa.

D- 1 d sin tdt

at x=--=> X=--.

. cost cos2 t

74

D;?·, 2 rt (1)

01 can x = => t = - ; x = 3 => t = a arccos - = a .

. 3 3

sin tdt dt

n c: tgt - n n

I = f cos2 t = f-cos t = f __!!_!_ = f cos tdt

TI ~ TI M TI cost TI I-sin2 t

3 ~C~s2t-l 3 3 3

[n a I

= _ _!_ f ~os tdt _ f ~os tdt

2 sin f - 1 sm t + 1

TI TI

3 3

1 I sin t - 11 all (sin a -1) ( 13 + 2) J

=-2'In sint+I ;=-2' In (sina+I)(13-2) .

Cdch 2 " Ta them bot mot IUQ'l1g vao ca til s6 va mau s6 cua ham s6 diroi dau tich phan

3 ( x + ) x2 - 1 ) dx 3 d ( x + ) x2 - 1 ) 1 r;: 13 3 + 2 J2

I = f = f = In (x + '1/ x~ - 1 ) 12 = In .

2 ( x + ) x2 - 1 )) x2 - 1 2 (x + ) x2 -I ) 2 + 13

Tir each 2 cac em co the rat de thay bai toan duCJC giai thirc su sang tao. khong nhirng the no con dira ra mot chu y quan trong la khi g~p ho nguyen ham

f dx

dang ~ thi ta chi viec them bot vao cii til s6 Hin mau s6 IUCJng

'1/ x2 + k

d( x+)x2 +k)

x +) x2 + k va ho nguyen ham nay se co dang f f;2;k va ket qua x+ x2 +k

cua honguyen ham la Injx+)x2 +kj+C(k E JR.).

Bdi 13 :

'T":1m I -_ f xdx (vo . 1 )

1 J vat x < - .

2oo~I_3x 3

75

cut .

Cach I : D6i bien.

2008 2007

D- 20()8~1 '1 1 3 2008 1- t d -2008t dt

at \/1 - _;x = l <=> - . x = I <=> x = => .t = -----

. 3 3

(1 (2008) (2007 dt

1= -2~08 f - ( = -2~08[ft2006dt_ ft4014dtJ

= _2008[,2007 _ (4015 ]+C

9 2007 4015

= -2008 r 200~(1- 3x )2007 200~(I - 3x )4015 J + C.

9 l 2007 4015

C ach 2 : Them bot d~ tach tich phan.

Ta phan tich x = ~1 (1 - 3x) + * thi 1 diroc tach thanh :

-1 J( 1 - 3x) dx 1 J dx

1 =:3 2oo~h -3x +3 20o~I_3x

20(J7 -I

- 1 f 200X 1 f 200X

=:3 ( 1 - 3x ) dx + 3 ( 1 - 3x) dx

2007

-I

1 f 2()()X 1 f 20()X

="9 ( 1 - 3x ) d ( 1 - 3x) -"9 (1 - 3x ) d (1 - 3x )

4()1) 2007
( ) 2()()X ( . ) 200X
1 1-3x 1-3x
= - +C
9 4015 2007
2008 2008 = _2008[200~(I-3X/007 _ 200~(I-3xtOI51+c.

9 2007 4015

Bilil4 :

Tfnh 1= fx"f2-5xdx.

76

Gidi:

co-« J : Dbi bien.

2

a=>: 2 2-t -2tdt

Dat yL-:JX = I¢::> 2-5x = t ¢::> x =--:::::> dx =-·55

2

J2-t -2tdt -2 J( 2) 2 -2 f( 2 4)

J = --.t.-- =- 2-f t dt =- 2t -t dt

5 5 25 25

= -2[2t3 _t5)+c= _2[2~(2-5x)3 _ ~(2-5XfJ+c.

25 3 5 25 3 5

C ach 2 : Them bot d~ tach tich phan,

Ta phan tich x = ~l (2 - 5x) + ~ thi tich phan I diroc tach thanh

1= fxJz-5xdx =-* {(Z-5x)i -2(2-5X)~}X =_1 l(2-5X)~ -2(2-5X)i}J(2-5X)

25 '.

2 5 4 3 8 + 30x I 3

=125(2-5x)2-75(2-5x)2+C=- 375 ,,(2-5x) +C.

Nhu cluing toi dii nhan xet a hili 9 a phan thrr hai thi each 2 cua hili 13 va hili 14 chfnh la each thirc Slt dung them bot d~ tach tfch phan trong ham vo ti a ca 2 dang la ham vo tl co phan thtrc va khong co phan thirc. Sau mot so vi du tren chac cac em dfl ur dira rut ra cho minh mot bien phap tach phan thtrc rat dan gian phai khong!

Bdi 15 :

2

Tinh tfch phan I = J ~.

Jix x -1

Gidi:

Cach J : Dbi bien.

Dat ~ = t ¢::> x2 = t2 + 1 :::::> xdx = tdt.

77

D6i can x = 2 ~ t = Jj;x = J2 ~ t = 1.

2 fj fj

1= L2~= !t(t~d:r !(/:I)

du D~t t = tanu ~ dt = --2 - .

cos II

TC du TC

3 -- ... 3 TC

I = J cos2 II = J du = u 3 = 1t _ 1t = ~.

TC tan 2 II + 1 TC TC 3 4 12 4

4 4

C dell 2 : D6i bien.

I dx

Dat -=/~-=-dt .

. x x2

" 1 t: 1

Doi can x = 2 ~ I = -; x = ,,2 ~ I = r: :

. 2 ,,2

1 1

2 ~ E

I = f dx = - f dt ') = f dt 2 .

.J2x'Ji-;, j,M :,M

Dat t = sinu ~ dt = cos udu.

>. 1 rt 1 1t

DOl can t = - ~ II = -' t = - ~ II = -

. J2 4' 2 6

TC

TC

6 cs-» 3 : D6i bien.

D- 1 d suvtdt

at X=--~ X=--.

. cost cos2 I

6

78

D:!" r::::2 rt 2 rt

01 can x =" L. ~ t = _, x = ~ t = _,

, 4' 3

n sin tdt ~ 7t

3 .. ---2 3, 3 n •

1 = f cos t = f sm t dt = f dt = t 3 = 7t _ 7t = ~ ,

7t~I-cos2t 7tlsinll 7t : 3 4 12

4 cos2 t 4 4

Ca ba each giai tren vf ban chat chi la phirong phap d6i bien tuy nhien viec d6i bien a each nao thuan lei thi cac em nr danh gia,

2J3

De' thi tuyen sinh dai hoc, cao dcing nam 2003 - khdi A : 1 = f ~

.J5 X x2 + 4

(ket qua 1 = ~ In % ) cling co each tlnrc giai wong ur nhir bai toan nay, df nghi cac em nr giai.

Bai 16 :

I 2

Tfnh tfch ph an 1 = f ~ dx 2 ' I x-x

4

Gidi :

Cacli 1 : D6i bien,

Dat x = sin 2 f ~ dx = 2 sin t cos tdt.

'., 1 7t 1 7t

DOl can x = - ~ t = _, x = - ~ t = _,

, 4 6' 2 4

7t

7t

7t

1=

-

4 2' d 42' d 4

f smtcost t = f ~l,nfcost t = 2 fdt = 2t

~~sin2t(1-sin2t) 2! smtcost 7[

666

Cdch 2 : D6i bien.

1 = f dx

I ~x-x2 4

79

Dat (x - _!_) = _!_ sin t =:> dx = _!_ cos tdt.

. 2 2 2

1 rt 1 _

D6i can x=-=:>t=--;x=-=:>t-O.

. 4 6 2

1 0
() costdt () rr
1= J 2 = J dt = t = - ..
-7t 6
1 1 . 2 -7t ---
-7t - SIO I 6
6 4 4 6 Bili 17 :

2 Vx-x3dx

Tinh tich ph an 1 = J 4 .

I X

Gidi:

Cdch 1 : D6i bien.

1 =dt

Dat x = - =:> dx = -2-

. t t

1 D6i can x = 1 =:> t = 1; x = 2 =:> t = 2.'

2 Cach 2 : Su dung vi phan.

2 ,w dx 2 3~dX I ~ l)j ( __ 1 )

f~··;3·· _f~x2-1 =-- 1-2 d 1 2

1= 3 - 3 2 x X

I x I x I

3.3~(1_12)4 2 9

=_V~ll_-xx_2)_ =--W.

8 64

80

Qua hai each giai tren thi cac em deu thay viec ap dung vi phan so vci dat an phu Iii hieu qua han rat nhieu

BiJi 18 :

Tinh tich phan I ~ f~ ,x dx. , x + 1

2

Gidi :

C ach 1 .' Dbi bien.

r::I 3 1 2 -2tdt

D~t f::.= ~ 1 -t- ~ <=> X = t2 -1 => 3x dx = (t2 -1 t .

Dat t = xE <=> t2 = x3 => 2tdt = 3x2 dx.

D ? 1 1 1 1

01 can x = - => t = --; x = => t = .

. 2 2J2

I ~ f ..Jx.xJ-; dx ~ ~ f tdt ~ ~ f ( l+ ft2-:;:'}t

I~( ,)2 3I .. t.j;2;l 31_(t+.j;2;l).j;2;l

2' x.....; x. x-s x + 1

2J2 2J2

81

Bili 19:

2008

Tfnh tich ph an / = f J 200S2 - x2 dx . o

cu«.

Cdch 1 : Tich phan tirng phan ket hop voi d6i bien.

D,t{J200S2-x2=u {dU=J -x~x 2

a => 200S -x

dx=dv

v= x.

r---- 2008 2008 2

/ = x.J200S2 - x2 + f x dx

o 0 J200S2 - x2

2008 2008

= - f J200S2 - x2 dx + 200S2 f I d~ 2·

o 0 \j 200S - x

Dat x = 200S sin t => dx = 200S cos rdt .

D6i can x = 0 => t = 0; x = 200S => t = 7t .

. 2

1t

/ = -t + 200S2 f 200S cos tdt

o J200S2 - 200S2 sin2 t

n

=> 2/ = 200S2 f dt => / = 7t200S2

o 4

ca.« 2 : D6i bien.

82

Dat x = 2008 sin f => dx = 2008 cos tdt .

D6i can x = 0 => t = 0; x = 2008 => t = 7t .

· 2

7t

7t

2 20082 2

1= 20082 f cos2 tdt = f(1 + cos 2t )dt

020

n

7t

20082 2fd 20082 2f 2 d(2 )

= t + cos t t

2 0 4 0

(20082 20082. 2 J i 200827t

= t+ SIn f = .

2 4 4

o

Qua 2 each tren ta nhan thay viec d6i bien hrong giac ngay se Him bai toan ngan han.

Boi 20:

J3

Tfnh tich phan I = f b· o 3+x

Gidi :

each 1 : D6i bien.

Dat x = J3 tan f => dx = J3(tan2 t + 1)dt.

v , r;; 7t

DOl can: x = 0 => f = 0, x = '" 3 => t = -.

· 4

7t

7t

7t

4 (tan2 t + 1) 4 ~ 4 1

l=J3f~ df=f tan2t+ldt=f-dt.

o 3(tan2 t+l) 0 0 cost

D~t II = sin t => du = cos tdt.

D v , 0 0 7t 1

01 can : f = => II = ,t = - => U = r;;.

· 4 ",2

83

I I I I

Ji. JiJi Ji

1= f du =_!_ f(l+ll)+O-U)du= _ _!_ fd(l-U)+_!_ fd(l+ll)

() (I-I?) 2 0 (I -li)(1 + II) 2 () l-ll. 2 0 1 + u

I

1 Il+lliJi t:

= -In -- = In( ",2 + 1).

2 1-[( 0

Cach 2 : D6i bien.

c=: x+~3+x2 tdx dt dx

Dat t = x + V j + x~ => dt = dx = => - = .

. ~ 3 + x2 ~ 3 + x2 t J 3 + x2

D6i din: x = ° => t = J3, x = J3 => t = J3 + 16.

J3+16 d J3 16

1= f __!_=InltIIA+ 6=ln(J2+1). fj t

C dch 3 : Dung vi phan,

fj d fj ~3 2 fj d(X+~3+x2)

I = f x = f x + -rs + x~ dx = f ------'--===_-'-

o J3 + x2 0 (x + J3 + x2 ) J3 + x2 0 x + J3 + x2

~ Inlx+ J3+ x21 J3 ~ In(1 +,/2\

o

Gifi'a each 2 va each 3 cac em de thay cluing chi la mot nhung neu cac em biet sir dung tich phan a each 3 thea chu y a bal 12 phan tlur hai thl se don gian hon rat nhieu,

Bai 21 :

fj 2

Tinh tich phan I = f h dx. o 3+x

Gidi :

Cdcli I : VI bieu thirc dtrol dau tich ph an c6 ~3 + x2 nen ta c6 th~ sir dung each dat x = J3 tan t , cac em c6 thegiai tiep tuc nhu bai so 20, nhirng cac em cling din hru y la each giai nay kha dai,

84

each 2 : Dung tich phan tung phan.

{ll = x {dU = dx

D:;U: dv = x d . => ~

I?:3 x v = vx2 +3.

~1.J3 13 r=r: 13 2 3

1 = xv x2 + 3 - f V x2 + 3dx = 3J3 - f J--i-;; dx

o 0 0 x2 +3

.J3 2 .J3 3 .J3 3

= 3J3 - f iz;; dx + f I?:3 dx = 3J3 - 1 + f I?:3 dx

o x + 3 0 x + 3 0 x2 + 3

13 dx

=> 21 = 3J3 +3 f I?:3.

o x +3

Den day ta str dung ket qua cua bai 20 tren se ra duoc

t; c: 3 J3 3 t:

21 = 3-v _) + 31n( -v2 + 1) => 1 = - +-In( -v2 + 1).

2 2

nos 22:

I

Tinh tich phan 1 = f x2 ~ x2 + 4dx. o

Gidi:

each J :

Theo each thong thirong ta co the d~t x = 2 tan t de dira ve tich phan ham luong giac, viec giai tiep gianh cho ban d9C VI day la phuong phap d6i bien bang bien phap IUQ'ng giac quen thuoc rna cluing toi dil trinh bay 6 nit nhieu bai tnroc.

each 2 :

I I 2 2 I 2

1 = f(x2 +1)~x2 +4dx- f Ji-:4dX- f [;2;4dx

o 0 x +4 0 x +4

~ N±X~(x2 +4)3)_ H1xN+4)- H21n(wJx2 +4»)

85

=J_X~(X2 +4)311 .i.;; +411 -2In(x+~x2 +4)/1

4 0 2 0 0

315 t: t:

= - - 21n(l + ",5) + 21n ",2.

4

III - NHUNG BAI loAN VE HAM 56 LUQNG GIAc

Bili 23 :

~ I f dx (vci I' h' ~)

1 1m =. . VO'l a a ang so .

smx-sma

Gidi :

C' I I T' d" h' Ini ( x - a x + a )

ac I : tr ong n at t ire cosa = cos -2---2- .

=--

2cosa

2

=--

2cosa

86

Cacti 2 :

_ x dx (2 x) 2dt

DC;lt tg-=t~ =dt~ l+fg - dx=2dt~dx=---.

2 2 cos 2 x 2 . 1 + t2

2

2dt

1 - cos a x 1 - cos a

= _I_In I_f_-_=sl=nc.;ca'--I + C = _I_In tg -2 --~~i~ + C.

1 + cos a cos a x 1 + cos a

t - tg - -------

sma 2 sina

cosa

Bili 24:

'r': I f sin xdx 11m =

sinx + cosx

Cac em theo doi bai toan nay a ph an thrr nhat thi cluing toi da trinh bay each giai bai toan nay bang 2 each thirc, Mot each a bai 36 va mot each a bal 37, tuy nhien 2 each tfnh nay chi cung sir dung mot phirong phap la dung tfch phan lien ket co khac chang chi la viec neu day la tlch ph an xac dinh (tich phan) thl cac em se dung viec d~t &n phu dac biet d~ tlm fa tich phan lien ket voi tfch ph an A con neu Ia tfch phan bat dinh (ho nguyen ham) thi ta 11! phai di 11m tich phan lien ket voi no. Den day cluing toi tiep tuc trinh bay them 3 each tinh khac nira.

Cach 3 :

sm x = A sin x + cos x + B cos x - sin x

sin x + cos x sin x + cos x sin x + cos x

87

. ( B. {A - B = 1 {A = 0,5

<=> SIIU = A - )SIllX + (A + B)cosx <=> . <=>

A+B=O B=-0,5.

I - 1 fd 1 fCOS x - sin x . _ 1 1 fd ( sin x + GOS x) .

-- x-- dx --x-- +C

2 2 sin x + cos x 2 2 sin x + cos x

. 1

= -( x +In Isin x + cosxl)+ C. 2

Cach'_;' :

1= f sin xdx .

J2 cos( x-;)

n

Dat x - - = I => dx = dt. . 4

. ( n)d

Sill t+ t

I = f 4 = _!_ fin t + cos t dt = _!_ fin tdt + _!_ f dt

J2 cost 2 cost 2 cost 2

-1 fd ( cos t) 1

=- +-t+C

2 cost 2

-1 1 -1 (n) 1 ( n)

=-Inlcostl+-t+C=-ln cos x-- +- x-- +C.

2 2 2 4 2 4

Cach 5 :

x 2dt , . 2t 1 - t2

Dat tan- = t =>dx= --va SIllX= --;cosx =--.

. 2 1 + (2 1 + t2 1 + (2

Nhu vay ta se d6i bien x thanh bien t tuy nhien day la mot each giai rat dai va plnrc tap, trong qua trinh tfnh toan cac em khong nen dung va cluing toi chi htrong dan a day voi tinh chat tham khao rna khong giai ra cu the VI tinh hieu qua khong cao. Thong qua 5 each giai tren thi cac em se nhan thay diroc tinh hieu qua cua each tlurc nao khi giai cac bai tfnh tfch phan ham lirong giac rna ham nay chi chua roan sinx, cosx bac nhat.

Bili 25 :

f dx

Tim 1= .

sin 2008x

88

Gidi .'

Cach. I .'

D~t tan(l 004x) ~ t z:» dx ~ ( d) va sin (2008x) = ~.

1 + [2 1004 1 + I

dt

( 2)

1 + t 1004 1 dt 1 1

1= f 2 =-f-=-lnltl+C=~lnltan(1004x)l+c.

, 2008 t . 2008 2008

( 1 + (2)

Cach 2 .'

I = rin 2008xdx = _1_ f d ( cos 2008x) sin22008x 2008 cos2 2008x-1

1 f d(cos2008x)

= 2008 ( cos 2008x -1) ( cos 2008x + 1 )

= _!_._1_[ fd( cos2008x -1) _ fd (cos2008x + 1 )]

2 2008 cos 2008x - 1 cos 2008x + 1

= _1_lnlcoS2008X-II+c. 40) 6 cos 2008x + 1

Bdi 26 :

Tfnh tich ph an 1 = f . d: .

1[ sm x

4

ou: .'

each 1 : Dung tfch ph an tirng phan,

+=ll {d _ -2sinx.cosxdx

Sill x u-.

dx => sm4 x

--=dv v=-cotx.

sin2 x

89

n n n

1 = - cot x 2 _ 2f2 sin x. cos x. cot xdx = 2 _ 2 2f( cos2 x) dx

. 2 . 4 . 4

sm x 7t 7t sm x n sin x

4 4

4

4

4

4

7t 7t

7t

2 ~ 2 ~ 2

== 2-2 f--+2 f-- = 2-2/-2cotx

. 4 . 2

7t sin x n sm x 7t

4 => 31 = 2 + 2 <=> 1 = -. 3

ca.» 2 :

7t dx 7t 7t

2 ,4 2 ( 1 + tan 2 x ) d ( tan x) :2

1 = fCOS x = f = f(tan-4 x+tan-2 x)d{tanx)

tan" x tan4 x

n n 7t

4

4

4

n

(-1 -1 ) 3

= 3 tan 3 x + tan x 7t = 3

4

4

Qua 2 each giai tren thi each 2 dan gian va hieu qua han nhieu, Tuong ttl cac em co the rna rong them mot each khac do la d6i bien thong qua viec d~t cotx = I, tuy nhien each giai nay cluing toi d6 nghi cac em ttl giai vi no kha dan gian

Bili 27 :

n

2

Tfnh tich phan 1 == f . d~ . 7t sm x

3

oui .

C deli 1 : D6i bien.

Vi ham diroi dau tfch phan la ham Ie d6i voi sinx nen Dat 1 = cosx => dt = +sin xdx.

90

D"'· rt 1 7t 0 01 can: x = - ::::> t = - x = - ::::> t = .

. 3 2' 2

I

1 =-f dt - f( 1 )2 1 f(O+t)+O-t»)'2

I (1 - t2)2 - 0 (1- t)(1 + t) = "40 (1- t)(1 + t)

2

C ach 2 : D6i bien.

x 1 2 x 1 2 2dt

Dat f=tan-::::>dt=-(tan -+I)dx=-(t +I)dx::::>dx= 2 .

2 2 2 2 (t +1)

s- 7t 1 rt

DOl can : x = "3 ::::> t = J3' x = "2 ::::> t = 1.

fl 2dl .: If(__!_+~. +t)dl='!'( -I +2Inltl+.C)1

1 2 8t3 4 1 13 t 4 2t2 2 1

r:;3 (t + 1) 2 3{;; J3

v » (t +1) ",3 .

1=

1 1 =-+-ln3. 3 4

Cdch 3 :

1 = fsin2 ~+3cos2 x dx = f ~x + fC~S: x dx = f_d_X_+1.

SIn x 1t SIn X 1t SIn x 1t SIn X

333

(* )

3

91

1t

2 ,2

S' d lch ha h'" h J fCOS X

U ung tIC p an tung p an C 0 = ,3 dx.

1tSIn X

3

_ ,{II = COS X {dU = -sin xdx

Dat : cosx => -1

dv=--dx v= .

. 3 2 . 2

SIn X SIn X

1t

n

1t

.I = - COS X 12 _.!. f dx =.!. -.!. f dx

2sin2x; 2;Sinx 32;sinx

1t

, 1 12fdX 1

Thay J vao (*) ta diroc : 1=-+- -- =-+ K.

. 3 2 n sin X 3

--

3

1t

Ta tiep tuc tfnh K = f ~x d6i bien. 1t SIn X

3

D~t t = cosx => dt = -sinxdx.

D" , 1t 1 1t 0 01 can: X = - => t = - X = - => t = .

. 3 2' 2

I I I

K--J dt -.!.f(l+t)+(I-t)dt-.!.f~+.!.f~

- I (l-t2) - 2 0 (l-t)(l+t) - 2 0 (l-t) 20 (l+t)

2

I

= .!.In 11 + ll2 = .!.In 3.

2 I-to 2

V fry I = .!. + .!.In 3.

. 3 4

each 4 : Dung tich ph an tirng phan.

92

D~t :

1 1

U=-- cosx

sinx {dU=---dX

=> sin2 x

1

dv = -.-2 -dx v = -cot X.

SIn X

1t

1t

1=- c~tx.li _ fCOS2 X dx,

SIn x1t 1t sin:' X

3 3

den day lam giong nlur each 3 (ta dung tich ph an tirng phan cho

1t

J = fcos2 X dx ). 1t sin3 X

3

Bdi 28 :

1t

4

Tfnh tich phan A = fcos2 x.cos2xdx. o

cui.

each 1 :

1t

4

Lien ket A voi B = fsin2 x.cos2xdx. o

Taco

1t

1t

4 4

A + B = f( sin2 x+cos2 x ).cos2xdx = fcos2xdx

o 0

1t

I 4 1 ~ I

= - f cos 2xd (2x ) = - sin 2x = -.

20 2 0 2

(1)

93

11

11

11

4 4 4

A-B= f(-sin2 X+COS2 x).cos2xdx= fCos22xdx=! f(1+cos4x)dx.

o 0 2.0

11 11

4 4 ( )11

A-B=! fdx+! fcos4xd4x= X + sin4x 4. = n.

20 80 2 8 8

o

(2)

Taiay(1)+(2) =>2A=n+!=>A=_1 (4+n).

8 2 16

Cach 2 :

11

11

11

1 4 1 4 1 4

A = - f(1 + cos2x ).cos2xdx = - fcos2xdx +- fcos2 2xdx

20 20 20

11

11

1 4 1 4

= - fcos2xd(2x) +- f(1 + cos4x )dx

40 40

11 11

1 11 1 4 1 4

=-sin2x d +- fdx+- fcos4xd(4x)

4 40 16 0

11

= (!sin2x+_!_x+_l sin4x) 4 =_1 (4+n).

4 4 16 16

o

Bai 29:

11

Tfnh tfch phan 1= jtan(x+ n J.cot(x+ n)dX.

o 3 J 6

Gidi :

ca-» 1 :

11. n rt ~. n.n

4 sm(x + )cos(x + -) 2 sm(2x + -) + sm--

I=f 3 6 dx=f 2 6dx

n. n . 2 n) . n

ocos(x+ )sm(x+-) 1Ism( x+-- -sm-

3 6 3 2 6

94

7t

7t

= 12 cos 2x + I dx = 1 (2 cos 2x - I) + 2 dx

o 2 cos 2x - I 0 2 cos 2x - I

7t 7t

7t

4 4 d 7t

= f dx + 2 f , x _ = x 4 + 21 = - + 21.

o () 2 cos 2x - 1 4

o

Ta tinh 1:

D~t t = tan x=> dt = (tan2 x + I)dx = (t2 + l)dx.

• 7t

Dei can: x = ° => t = 0, x = - => t = I.

. 4

I I I t: r;

1=f dt =f dt =..!_f(1+'J3t)+(I-,,3t)dt

o 2 (l-t2 ) 01-3t2 20 (l-.J3t)(I+.J3t)

(l+t) 2·· -I

1+ t2

I If dt 1 If dt

= 2 0 o-.J3t) +20 (1 + J3t)

= _I_In 1 +.J3t I = _1_1n[<1 +J3)2 J.

2J3 I-J3t 0 2J3 2

Yay /= 7t+_1_1n[(l+J3)2J.

. 4 J3 2

each 2 :

7t( 7t 7t

4 sin(x + ) cos(x +)

/ = f 3 6

o cos(x +1T)sin(x + 7t)

3 6

:[Sin(x+ ~)cos(x+ ~)-cos(x+ 7t)sin(x+ 7t) J

= f 3 6 3 6 +1 dx

7t . ( 7t)

o cos(x+~·)sm x+-

3 6

95

TI 7t 7t. 7t. 7t

I 4 COS(X+ )COS(X+· )+sm(x+-)sm(x+--)

=_ f 3 6 3 6 dx+ 7t

J3 0 cos(x+ 7t)sin(x+-7t) 4

3 6

TI 7t TI 7t

1 4 cos(x+) 1 4 sin(x+-)

=-f 6 dx+-f 3 dx+7t

J3osin(x+7t) J3ocos(x+~) 4

6 3

TI rt TI 7t

I 4 d(sin(x +» I 4 d(cos(x + »

=-_ f 6 --f 3 dx+7t

J3 0 sin(x+ 7t) J3 0 cos(x+ 7t) 4

6 3

I . 7t I ~ 1 TI rt 7t 1 ((1 + J3)2 J

= r;:; In 1 sm(x + -) 1 - r;:; In 1 cos(x + 7t / 3) 116 + - = - + r;:; In .

'\/3 6 0 '\/3 4 4 '\/3 2

Bili 30:

3TI

40 d

Tinh tlch phan I = f . 2 x 2 .

TI sin 5x.cos 5x

40

Gidi :

each I : SiI dung bien d6i.

3TI 3TI 3TI

40 dx 40 dx 4 40 d(lOx) 2 3TI 4

I = 4 f = 4 f = - f = - - cot ( lOx) 40 = - .

TI 4sin2 5xcos2 5x TI sin2lOx 10 11 sin210x 5 4TIO 5

~ ~ ~

96

each 2 :

Dat tan Sx = t => Sdx = dt. cos2 Sx

:?, n rt 3n 3n

DOl can x = - => t = a(tan- = a);x:::: - => t = p(tan- = P).

. 40 8 40 8

1+ tan2 Sx

tan2 Sx .

V6"i--sin2 Sx

1 fl 1 + t2 1 fl -2 1 _I fl 1 (1 1 )

1=- f--dt=- f(t +l)dt=-(-t +t) =- p---a+- .

S r2 S S 5 P a

a a a

each 3 :

37t

37t

37t

40 dx 40 dx 1 40 4

1= f . 2 + f 2 =-(tanSx-cotSx) =-.

7t SIn Sx 7t cos Sx S 7t S

. -

~ ~ ~

Nhir vay voi sir phat hien cong thirc sin2Sx + cos2Sx = thl bai toan lai diroc giai (} each 3 mot each don gian va hieu qua.

Bili 31 : (De' thi Dr;zi /U)C Md dia chdt ndm 2000)

7t

Tinh tich phan I ~ f . . ( 7r )"

7t smx.sm x+-- 6 6

Gidi :

each 1 :

I ~ I ~ Si+ - ( x + ~ ) ] dx

. (n) . . ( n)

SIn - 6 ~ smxsm x+-6

~ -2 ~( Sinxcos( x+ ~ )-COSXSin( X+ ~) )<h

. . ( n)

~ smxsm x+6

97

; cos(x + 1t )dX ~ ~ d[Sin(X + 1t)] ; d(. )

f 6 f cos xdx f 6 f SIn X

=-2 . ( 1t) +2 sinx =-2 . ( 1t) +2 sinx

1[ SIn X +- 1[ 1[ SIn X + 1[

6 6 6 6 6 6

~ [-2In Sin( x+ :) + 2lnlSinXI] ~ ~ 21n%

6

Cach 2 :

1[

1[

1[

I = J dx = J dx = J dx

1[ SinxSin(x+~) ~ Sinx(.f3__sinx+!cosxJ .11: sin2 x(J3 + 1 cotx)

6 66 2 2 6 22

1[ 1[ 1[

= J 2dx =j-2.d(J3+cotx) =-21n .s.;«. -3 =2In~.

, sin 2 x ( ,J3 + cot x ) , ( ,J3 + cot x) I I , 2

6 6 6

Qua each 2 cua bai toan nay thi mot 1<1n nira cac em lai thay viec phat hien mot cong thirc hrong giac d~ dung trong qua trinh giai mot bai tinh tich phan ham hrong giac la mot viec lam rat quan trong VI no se quyet dinh each giai dai hay ngan mot bai toano Tuy nhien M xet tinh quan trong thi each 1 lai dua ra mot

phirong phap giai tong quat cho nhieu loai ham dang . ( )1. ( )

sm x+a SIn x+b

1 1

--,------,-------:----,-- thong qua viec them bot d~ tach

cos ( x + a) cos ( x + h) 'sin ( x + a) cos ( x + h)

tich phan.

Bai 32,,: (De' thi D(_li hoc Thuong mai nam 2000)

1[

2f 4sinxdx

Tinh tich ph an I = 3 .

o ( sin x + cos x )-

(1)

Gidi :

Cacli I :

1[

1= _1_ J 4sinxdx .

2J2 ocos3(x-l)

98

7t

Dat x--=t=>dx=dt. . 4

D)/·, 0 7t 7t 7t

01 can x = => t = - -; x = - => t = -.

. 4 2 4

~ 4Sin(t + 7t)dt

1 = _1_ f 4 = 1 (sin t + c~s t) dt = 1 ( sin t 1 dt + 1 ( cos? dt

2J2 -7t cos ' t -7t cos t -7t cos t -7t cos t

7t

7t

n

4

~.~-

4

- .. -

4

4

IT IT

=-1 cos-3 td(cost)+ 1 ~=( 1 2 +tantJI:,~2.

~7t -IT cos t 2cos t 1-4

4 4

Cacti 2 :

D:;U (; - x J = t => dx = -dt.

" 7t 7t

D6i din x = 0 => t = -' x = - => t = O.

. 2' 2

IT

IT

---

2 2

1 = f 4costdt = f 4cosxdx .

o ( cos t + sin t)3 0 ( cos x + sin x)3

(2)

n

IT

IT

2 dx 2 dx (7tJ ')

0)+(2)=>2/= f . 2 =2f ( 7t .... )=2tan x-4 ~ =4.

o ( cos x + SIn x) 0 cos2 x - -- 0

4

=> 1 = 2. Cdch 3 :

Cac em co th~ de dang nhan thay I co mot tfch phan lien ket voi n6 Hi

IT

J 2f 4 cos tdt " d- d' .? hIT 'I J d? , fch hA 1

= . 3 va cac em e ang glaI ~ +. va - e tim ra tic p an ,

o ( cos t + SIn t)

each nay ve ban chat khong khac nhieu so voi each 2 nen chiing toi khong trlnh

99

bay cu the, d~ nghi cac em xem lai phan li thuyet a phan thtr nhat d~ nr giai quyet tiep,

Bili 33 :

T[

2 6

Tfnh tich ph an I = fc~s4 x dx.

T[SIn X

4

Gidi:

Cach I :

Ham dtroi dau tfch phan la ham chan voi ca sinx va cosx nen ta co th~ dat t = tanr, tuy nhien neu thirc hien thea each d6i bien nay, ta se diln den tich phan cua mot ham hfru ti rat kho. Tuy nhien neu thirc hien bien d6i hrong giac ham diroi dau tich phan ta se co duoc mot each giai khac nhanh va ngan hon,

cs-« 2 :

Ta se kheo leo tach tfch ph an nay ra thanh cac tich phan tfnh diroc :

T[

T[

1= 2f[COS x(l- sin2 x)]2 dx = 2fcos2 x - 2cos2 xsin2 x + cos2 xsin4 x

. 4 . 4

T[ SIn X T[ SIll X

4 4

1t

1t

1t

2 1 2 2

= f cot2 x -.-2 - dx - 2 f cot2 xdx + f cos2 xdx

1t sin x 1t 1t

4 4 4

1t

1t

1t

2 2 1 2

=- fcot2 xd(cotx)-2 f[(cot2 x+l)-l]dx+2" fO+cos2x)dx

1t 1t 1t

- _.-

4

4

4

4

4

1t

1t

1t

= -cot3 x 2 -2 1(+-l)dx+_!_(x+ sin2X) 2

3 T[ SIll X 2 2 1t

_ 1t

4

100

4

=*-2( -4n + 1 )+~(: -~) = 58n - ~~.

Bai 34 :

TC

4 . d

T' h ' h ha I f Sin X X d

In tic p an = 3 x.

o (sinx+2cosx)

Gidi :

C dch 1 : D6i bien.

1

Di;H t = tanx=>dt = --2--dx.

cos x

D:I' A 0 0 n 1

01 can: x = => t = ; x = - => t = .

. 4

I_IS tdt _IS(t+2)-2dt-IS dt _21S dt

- o(t+2)3 - 0 (1+2)3 - 0(t+2)2 O(t+2)3

-1 I -1 1

=-- -2 =

(t+2) 0 2(t+2)2o 36

Cdch 2 : Dung vi phan.

TC

TC

TC

1= j sinxdx = j tanxdx = j(tanx+2)-2 d(tanx+2)

o cos ' x(tan x + 2)3 0 cos2 x(tan x + 2)3 0 (tan x + 2)3

TC

4( 1 2)

= - d(tanx+2)

I (tanx+2)2 (tanx+2)3

TC

( -1 -1) 4 1

- 2 -

- tanx+2 - 2(tanx+2)2 0 - 36'

101

Cdch 3 : D6i bien.

Cac em hru y co th~ bien d6i mau so cua ham so dtroi dau tich ph an :

sin x + 2 cos x = 15 ( Js sin x + 3s cos x ) = 15 cos ( x' - a)

( /. 1 . 2 ) T' d / / / h:! d C / h l' ,

val r;:: = sma; r;:: = cosa. U 0 cac em co t e ~t t = x-a. ac am nay

...;5 ...;5

wang tv nhir each I hili 32, tuy nhien each giai nay cluing toi khong trinh bay rna de nghi cac em tv giai tiep.

Bai toan nay thoat dau moi nhin qua thl cac em lai d~ nham rang da duoc giai tai hili 32 nhung neu quan sat ki thl bai to an nay khac bai toan tnroc d can Clla tick phdn va neu tich ph an co can nay thl cac em xem each giai dat

x = : - t hoac each giai tim tich phan lien ket thi co diroc chang. Chung toi goi Y M cac em tv giai vi co nhir vay cac em moi hieu dung ban chat cua nhirng each dung tich phan lien ket.

Bili 35 :

7t

4 1-2sin2 x

Tinh tfch ph an I = f 4 dx.

o (sin x+cos r)

Gidi:

C acli J : D6i bien.

7t

Bien d6i I = j cos 2x dx , den day ta thay ham diroi dau tich phan la 0(1 + sin 2x)2

ham le doi vci cos2x nen ta sir dung cong thirc d6i bien so.

D~t t = sin2x => dt = 2cos2xdx.

• n

D6i can: x = 0 => t = 0 ; x = - => t = 1.

. 4

1 1 0 )-1 1 ( 1 ) 1

Yay I=.!. f dt =.!. fO+t)-2d(l+1)=.!.. +t 0=--21 -2-!1 =-4·

. 2o(l+t)2 20 2 -1

102

Cdcli 2 :

7t

7t

4 2 . 2 4 .

B',' d)/' I f c. os x - SIn X d f cos x - SIn X d

len 01 = X = x. .

o (sin x+cos x)" 0 (sin r +cos r):'

D~t t = sinx + cosx =:') dt = (cosx - sinx)dx.

D6i din: x = 0 =:') t = 1 ; x = 1t =:') t = J2.

. 4

J2 dt 1 J2 1

V~yI= fl=-2t2 =4"'

I . I

Cacli 3 :

Tuy nhien bai tren co th~ sir dung phuong phap dira vao vi phan clnr khong nhat thiet phai sir dung d6i bien so, goi y

rt

n

- -

_ 4f cos2x .: 4fd(1+Sin2x)

1- . 2dx- 2'

o (1 + SIn 2x) 2 0 (1 + sin 2x )

Cac em thir thirc hien xem sao. Ca biet cac em co th~ bien d6i

7t

I 4f cos2x d "'d hi bi , " 'h)/ iai d

= 2 x rot ~t tanx = ttl at toan van co t e gtai ucc.

0(1 + sin2x)

each 4 :

Ngoai ra ta co th~ siX dung mot each khac ntra, goi y :

7t

n

4f cos2x d 4f cos2x.dx " , h' d 1t

I =. 4 X = (1t) va cac em co t e ~t x - 4 = t

o (sin x +cos r) 04cos4 x--

4

va cac em giai nhu each 1 hal 32. D~ nghi cac em tv giai tiep. Bai 36:

7t

2

T' h ich h I f 1 - cos x d

In tic p an = x.

7t 1 + cosx

~

3

103

Gidi :

Cach 1 :

VI ham diroi dau tfch ph an la ham khong chan khong Ie vci ca sinx va cosx nen ta co th~ sir dung each d~t f = tan ;. Cac ban thir thirc hien tiep nhe.

Cach 2 : Sii dung nhan lien hop.

n

1t

2 2 2 ( )

1 f (I - cos x) d f 1 2 cos x 2. d

= x = -- - + cot x x

. 2 . 2 . 2

TC Sill X TC sm x Sill x

3

3

n

TC

TC

3

3

3

1 2 2 2 2 1t

=-+-. - +( -cotx-x) = 2- r;;3 --6'

J3 Sill X TC -v j

3

3

TC

1t

cs.» 3 :

TC X TC

2 sin2 2

I = f 2 dx = ftan 2 x dx

2X 2

TC cos TC

3 2 3

1t( J 1t

2 1 x 2 2 1t

= f x-I dX=(2tan"2-x) =2---6

1t cos2 ~~ TC J3

3 2 ~3

Bai 37 :

TC

3

Tinh tich phan 1= ftan3 xdx.

TC

4

104

Giai:

Cach 1 :

n

3

1 = f(tan3 x + tan x - tan x)dx

1t

4

n

n

1t

1t

3f 2 3f 3 1. 3 sin x

= tanx(tan x+l)dx- tanxdx= ftanx. 2 dx- f-,-dx

1t n 1t cos X n cos X

4 4 4 4

1t

n

3f 3fd(COSX) tan2 x 1t 1t 1

= tanx.d(tanx)+ =-- 3 +lnlcosxl 3 =1--ln2.

cosx 2 1t 1t 2

1t n 4 4

4 4

C ach 2 : D6i bien.

Dat t = tanx=> dt = 2 dx = (tan2 x + l)dx = (t2 + l)dx => dx = ---f!-.

cos x t + 1

,,7t rt t:

Dei can x = - => t = 1 . x = - => t = ,,3.

. 4 '3

fj, 3 s, fj, fj, 2

1= f-2-t -dt= ft ;t-tdt= ftdt-_!_ fd(~ +1)

I t +1 I t +1 I 2 I t +1

2fj, fj,

= !_ - _!_ In I t2 + 111 = 1- _!_ In 2.

2 I 2 I 2

ca.« 3 : D6i bien.

D~t t = cosx => dt = - sinxdx.

e- A 7t J2 7t 1

DOl can x = - => t = - ; x = - => (= -.

. 4 2 3 2

1t I

3 . 3 2 2

I = f SIn X dx = - f (1 - t ) dt =

1t cos3 x J2 t3

--

4 2

J2

2f 1 1 (1 ) 2 1

(---)dt= ---lnt =1--ln2.

(3 t 2t2 I 2

I -

2

2

105

Cdch J tuy khong dan gian nhir cac each sau nhirng cac em co th~ d~ nhan thay day la each tlnrc kha tong quat dung d~ giai cac tich phan rna ham so diroi

dau tich phan co dang tan"x hoac cd'x voi n E N* ; n ~ 3 . Tuy nhien n cling khong th~ qua Ian VI moi bin tach tich ph an chi giam diroc 2 bac.

Bai 38 :

7t

2

Tinh tfch phan I = f sin 3 xdx. o

ouu .

C ach J : Dung tich phan tung phan.

_ {sin2 x = U {dU = 2 sin x cos xdx

Dat =>

. sin xdx = dv v = - cos x.

7t

~-~

7t 2

J = -sin2 x.cosx 2 + f2sinxcos2 xdx o 0

7t

7t

2 -2cos3 x 2 2

=-2 fcos2 xd(cosx)= =-.

o 3 3

o

ca.« 2 :

Sir dung cong thirc sin3x = 3sinx - 4sin3 x, ta co :

7t

7t

7t

-

1 2 32 1 2

1=- f(3sin x-sin3x )dx = - f(sin x )dx -- f( sin3x )d(3x)

40 40 120

Cdch 3 :

Dung vi phan sau khi bien d6i sin2x = 1 - cos2x.

106

1t

n

1t

2 2 2

1 = f( 1- cos2 x) sin xdx = f sin xdx - f cos2 x sin xdx

o 0 0

1t 1t

2 2

= fsinxdx+ fcos2 xd(cosx)

o 0

[ cos3 xJ ; 1 2

= - cos x + 3 = 1 - 3" = 3" .

o

Biii 39: (De' thi DC;li JU!C Kach khoa na N(Ji ndm 1999)

Tim 2 s6 A, B d~ ham s6 hex) =

sin 2x c6 th~ bieu dien diroc duoi

2 .

(2 +sinx)

o

d~ng:h(x)= Acosx + Bcosx ,tud6tfnhtfchphan/= fh(x)dx.

(2 + sin x )2 (2 + sin x) -1t

2

Nhtr vay bai toan nay d~ bai da huong dan mot phtrong phap tach cu th~ va ta chi viec SLr dung guy dong mau thirc chung cho hai ve roi dong nhat hai nr s6 ta se diroc :

2sinxcosx = (A+2B)cosx+Bsinxcosx <=>{A+2B=O <=>{A=-4

(2+sinx)2 (2+sinx)2 B=2 B=2.

o 0

f h(x)dx = f -4cosxdx

-1t :-_7t (2 + sin x )2

2 2

o

+ f 2cosxdx

=-~ ( 2 + sin x) 2

o

= -4 f (2+sinxr2 d(2+sinx)

2

Of d (2 + sin x) +2

:-_'IT. (2 + sin x) 2

-1t

o

= [( 4.) + 2In I( 2 + sin x )1] = 2In 2 - 2.

2+smx -1t

2

107

Trong bai 30 phan thir nhat thi cac em da diroc xem xet each tinh tich o

phan 1 = J h (x) dx r6i nhirng tren thuc te thi each giai nay chi mang tinh chat

-IT

2

la ap dung huang dan cua dau bai rna chua dat duoc tinh ngan gon, cluing toi xin d6 cap mot each giai bai toan nay don gian hon sau day:

Cach 2 :

o . 2

1 = f SIn X 2 dx,

-IT (2 + sin x)

2

Dat 2 + sinx = t => cos xdx = dt.

" -1t

D6i can x = - => l = I' x = 0 => t = 2.

. 2 '

0'2 o. 22 2d 24

1= J SIn x dx=2 J SInXCOSX dX=2f!"'=__dt=2f_:- J-dt

-IT (2 + sin x)2 =_IT (2 + sin x)2 I t2 I t I r2

2 2

=( 2In\l\ +7) ~ = (2In2+ 2)-(2In 1 +4) = 2In2-2.

Ba! 40,'

TIm J = fs~nxcosxdx.

SIn x+ cos.x

Gidi :

Cach J :

1 = _1_ f sin 2xdx .

2 J2 cos( x - ; )

1t

Dat .x - - = t => dx = dt.

. 4

108

sin 2(t + 71: )dt 2

/ __ 1_ f 4 __ 1_ fcoS2tdt __ 1_ f2cos t -1 dt

- 2J2 cost - 2J2 cost - 2J2 cost

= _1_ fcos tdt - _1_ f__!!!_

J2 2J2 cost

1 . C 1 f cos tdt 1. C 1 [ f cos tdt f cos tdt ]

=-Slllt+ +-_ =-SIllt+ +-_ -

J2 2J2 sin2 t-l J2 4J2 sint-l sin r+ 1

. ( 71:)

1 . 1 I sint - 11 1 . ( 71: ) 1 SIll X - 4 - 1

= r;; Sill t + C + r;; In. = r;; SIll X - - + r;; In ( ) + C.

,,2 4,,2 SIll t + 1 ,,2 4 4,,2 . 71:1

SIll x- +

4

cs.« 2 :

S' d d ' ha hirc si 1 ( . )2 1

U ung ong n at t ire sin x cos x ="2 sm x + cos x -"2.

If· If dx

/ =_ (smx+cosx)dx-- -.----

2 2 SIllX+COSX

d(X-2: )

=.!( -cosx+sinx)+ C __ 1_ f 4

2 2 J2 cos ( x _ : )

COS (x - 71:) d (x _ 71:)

1 . 1 f 4 4

= _ ( - cos x + Sill x) + C + -_ --'-----,--:.__-7--~

2 2J2 sin2(x-:)-1

=.!(-cosx+sinx)+C+ lr;;

2 4,,2

f cos ( x - : H x -~ ) _ f cos ( x - : ) + - : )

sin ( x - : ) -1 sin ( x - : ) + 1

sin ( x - 71: ) - 1

=.!.(-cosx+sinx)+ If,;" In ( 4) +c.

2 4,,2 . 71:

SIll x--- + 1

4

109

x

Cac em co th~ dung each dat tan - = t nhirng kha phirc tap, VI vay cluing toi

2

khong trinh bay 6' day. Bai 41 :

1t

4

Tfnh tich phan 1 = f cos6 xdx.

o

Gidi:

C dch 1 : Dung bien d6i va tach tich phan.

1t

1t

4 4( )2

1- f( 3 )2d - f cos3x+3cosx d

- cos x x - I x

o 0 \ 4

1t

1 4f 2 2

=- (cos 3x+6cos3xcosx+9cos x)dx

16 0

1t

1 4f 1 + cos6x 1 + cos2x

=- ( +3(cos4x+cos2x)+9 )dx

160 2 2

1t

1 4f cos6x 15

= - ( +3cos4x+-cos2x+5)dx

160 2 2

1t

=_1 (sin6x + 3sin4x + 15sin2x +5X)4 =.!.!_+ 15n.

16 12 4 4 0 48 192

Cacli 2 : Dung tich phan tirng phan,

D~t {u=cos5 x =>{dU=-5sinxcos4 xdx

dv=cos xdx v=sinx.

1t

t:

1t 4 4

1 =sinxcos5 xl4 +5 fsin2 xcos4 xdx=.!.+5 f(l-cos2 x)cos4 xdx

o 0 8 0

110

1t

1 4

= - + 5 f cos 4 xdx - 5 I 8 0

1t

154

=> I =-+- fcos4 xdx . 48 60

1t

4

Tfnh J:=: f COS4 xdx. o

Di;lt {U = COS3 x => {dll = -3sinxcos2 xdx

dv=cos xdx v=sinx.

1t

1t

1t 4 4

J =sinxcos3 Xl~ +3 fsin2 xcos2 xdx=.!+3 f(l-cos2 x)cos4 xdx

o 4 0

1t

1 4

=-+3 fcos2 xdx-3J 4 0

1t

1t

1 34 2 1 34

=> J = -+- fCOS xdx = -+- f(l +cos2x)dx

16 40 16 80

Cac em hru y thi ta co the sir dung cong thirc sau cos6x = (cos2x)3 va tiep

di lui h b d? '( 2)3 (1 + cos 2x)3 '. khai -.» h'

tuc ung cong t ire a ~c e co cos x = 2 roi ai tnen ang

d~ng thirc d6 va tach thanh nhieu tfch phan nho, Tuy nhien each giai nay dai

111

hem cticli 1 va lai cling kieu bien d6i nen cluing toi khong trinh bay 6 day rna chi nen nen de cac em tham khao.

Btli 42 :

TI

2 31 . 3 .

T' h Ich h I f\Jsm x-smx

m tic p an = . 3 .cotxdx.

TI sm x

6

Gidi:

each 1 :

De dang nh~n thay ham duci dau tich phan diroc viet lai la

31 . 3 .

cos r.vsm x-smx do l' 'h' I'd''" ,.. ,- l' l' ,. d de

. 4 0 a mot am e 01 vor smr va cung a e VO'l cosx, 0 0

sin x

ta co th~ d~t I = sinx hoac t = cosx nhirng tinh y mot chiit ta se thay VI ham nay co nhieu sinx hon nen sii dung each d~t t = sinx thl thuc hien se de dang hon each d~t f = cosx.

Dat f = sinx => dt = cosxdx.

r , 1t 1 1t

D61 can: x = - => t = - . x = - => t = 1.

. 6 2' 2

n

I 3 3 I

I = f~ dt = f dt.

{4 t3

1 1

2

2

R 1 2

D~t u = => u3 = 1-2 => 3ll2du = 3dt.

t t

" 1 3r:;

D6i can: t = - => u = -,,3 ; t = 1 => U = O.

. 2

112

Cac em chu y bai toan 6 bien t cac em co th~ tham khao each giai 6 bai 17

h·' th' h . , 'd" 1" h'" , h ' h I If~ t3 - t l

P an U at va nr ay cae em <;11 co n leu eac tin = 4 ct.

I t

-~

2

cs» 2 :

Sir dung -+dx = d(cot x), ta se co each giai kha ngan gon nhtr sau : sm x

; sin X.~1-:12m i

1= f ' 3 sm x cotxdx = fVeot2 x.cotx .d~

7t sin x 7t sm x

6 6

7t

n 8 2

') ~

2f . -3cot3 x

= - cot ' xd(cot x) = 8

6

9~ 8

n

7t

Bai 43 :

7t

4 ~ 3

T' h ' h ha I f cos x - cos x d

m tic p an = 3 x.

o cos x

Gidi:

cs.« I :

dx D~t t = tan x => dt = -_-

eos2 x

1t

D6i can : x = ° => t = 0, x = - => t = 1.

4

cosx.[£~ _ tanx

cos ' x - cos2 x

~eosx-coS3 x

I 2 I

=> I = ftdt = !_

o 2 0

1 2

v ~ ban chat cac em co th~ bien d6i

113

31 COSX.~ 1 --I

vcosx-cos3 x cos2 x tan x

= =---

cos3 x cos3 x cos2 x

roi dung vi phan chir khong nhat thiet phai d~t an phu. each 2 :

I ~ 1 cosx.~ dx ~ 1 tan,x dx ~ 1 Si~x dx

o cos x 0 cos x 0 cos x

IT

IT

jd(COSX) 1 14 1

= - 0 cos ' x = 2 cos2 x 0 = 2".

ell 2 each giai tren tuy c6 each thirc giai tirong tv nhau nhung a day chung toi muon d~ cap toi viec cac em can phai linh hoat khi sir dung cong thirc hrong giac thi cac bai toan giai se hieu qua hon.

Bai 44:

Tim 1 = f.Jtanxdx.

Gidi :

each 1 :

Dat t = .Jtanx ~ t2 = tanx ~ 2tdt = (1 +tan2 x)dx ~ dx = ~dt. l+t

2

1 = 2 f-:f--dt den day ta lam thea phirong phap giai cua hili 3 phan thtr t + 1

hai. Ban doc c6 the giai tiep tuc, each 2 :

1 = fJSinx dx = f 2~in2 x

cosx sm2x

J2 f(sinx+cosx)-(cosx-sinx)d ( ,.

= - X VOl I sin x I = sin x)

2 .Jsin 2x

=_l_(rinx+cosx dx= fcosx-sinx dx]=_I_U1 +/2).

J2 .Jsin2x .Jsin2x J2

114

Tinh I, : Df y rang ~sin2x = JI-(sinx-cosx)2.

Nen ta d~t sin t = sin x - cos x ~ costdt = (cosx + sin x)dx.

I f cos tdt fd C ..

,= ~ = t=t+ =arcsm(smx-cosx)+C.

I-sin2 t

Tinh 12 :

I = s<sinx+cosx+~)(COSX-SinX) dx

2 (sin x + cos x + ~sin 2x )~sin 2x

= f(COS2 x-sin2 x)+~(cosx-sinx) dx (sinx + cosx + ~sin 2x)~sin2x

. cos2x

= fcosx-smx+.~ dx= fd(Sinx+cosx+~) dx

sin x + cosx+ ~sin2x sinx +cosx + ~sin2x

= In 1 sinx+cosx+~sin2x 1 -c.

Vay 1= ~ (arcsin(sinx-cosx)+ In 1 sinx + cos x+ ~sin 2x I) + C.

_ ..... f/I ~, J __

IV - NHUNG BAI TOAN VE HAM 50 51EU VI~T

Bai 45 :

1

Tfnh tich ph An I = f ~ dx .

o 2e2x + 2ex + 1

Gidi:

Cach J :

D:!· A 0 2 1 -I 1

olc~n X= ~t= ;x= ~t=e +.

115

( J;:) [e+I+)2e2+2e+I] e(2+J5).

= In 2 + '\j 5 - In = In .

e e+l+)2e2+2e+l

Cach 2 :

1 -dt

Dat -=t=>dx=-.

. eX t2

D6i can x = 0 => t = l;x = 1 => t = e-I•

-dt

I I

t = f dt = f dt

2(:y +~+I ,-'../12+21+2 ")(1+1)2+1

I (t+l+J(t+l)2 +1 )dt

~ J (1+ I +)(1+ 1)2 + 1))(1+ 1)2 + I

e(2+J5)

= In .

e + 1 + ) 2e2 + 2e + 1

Cach 3 :

I I xd

I--f dx --f ex '" h·'

hie nay cac em co t e d~t

o )2e2x + 2ex + 1 0 eX )2e2x + 2ex + 1

e' = t thl se diroc mot tich phan vo ti 6 dang quen thuoc. Tuy nhien do each nay dai nen cluing toi chi gioi thieu cho cac em nhir la 1 each thirc d~ tham khao,

116

Bdi 46 :

oui .

each 1 : SiX dung tfch phan lien keto I -xd

Lien kei A voi B = f ex.

eX + e-x

o

I

Ta co A + B = f dx = 1. o

(1)

I( X -x)d Id( X -x)

e -e x e +e I 2 1

VaA-B= f = f =In(ex +e-x) =ln~. (2)

o e' +e-x 0 eX +e-x 0 2e

, e2 + 1 1 e2 + 1

Ta lay (1) + (2) => 2A = 1+1n--=> A =-In--.

2e 2 2

each 2 :

<, 7t ( )

D6i can x = 0 => t = 4; x = 1 => t = a a = arctan e .

a

A = f dt = t 7t = a - : .

7t

4

a

4

each 3 :

117

D6i can x = 0 => t = 1: x = 1 => t = e.

v - NHUNG BAI loAN HaN HQP NHIEU LO~I HAM s6

Bai 47 :

e ~ 2

T' h Ich hA I fIn x 2 + In x A

In tic p an = --uX.

I X

Gidi:

cs-» J :

dx

D~t Inx = t => - = dt.

x

D6i can x = 1 => t = 0; x = e => t = 1.

ca.« 2 :

Sir dung vi ph an ta se dtroc loi giai ngan gon nhir sau :

e 1 e ~-----

/= fInx~2+ln2 xd(lnx)=- f\l2+ln2 xd(In2 x+2) 121

=! ~(ln2 x+2)4 e =~(3ifj-2lfi).

2 4/3 8

OlC em nen hru y tci viec sir dung vi phan con viec d6i bien nhtr each 1 thl cac em c6 quyen thuc hien rat nhieu kieu khac nhau nhir em c6 the dat In2x = t hoac 2 + In2x = t thi bai toan van ra duoc ket qua. Tuy nhien tren thirc te' de giai quyet mot bai toan c6 nhieu each cling la d6i bien thi ta nen chon hrong de dat an phu cang Ian thl bai toan cang don gian, don cir nhtr De' thi tuye"n sinh dai

118

hoc, cao ddng ndm 2004 - khoi B .' 1 = Slnx.Jl+31nx dx cac em co th~ d~t

1 X

lnr = t hoac dat I + 31nx = t, tuy nhien d~ bai toan don gian thl cluing ta nen di;lt

.JI + 31n x = t , d~ nghi cac em ur giai tiep (dap s6 : 1 = 116).

" 135

Bai 48 :

n

40

Tinh tich ph an 1 = J e2008x .cos20xdx.

o

Gidi .'

each 1 .' Dung tfch phan tirng phan.

{COS20X = U {dU = -20sin20xdx

D~t 2008 ~ 1 2008x

e x dx = dv v = -- e .

2008

7t

7t --

1 I 2008x 20 40 20 4JO 2008x . 20 d -1 20 I

=--e cos x +-- e SIn x X=--+--.

2008 2008 2008 2008

o 0

~ 20081 -20J =-1.

D6i voi .I ta tiep tuc dung tich phan tirng phan.

{. 20 {dU = 20 cos 20xdx

SIn x == U

D~t 2008 ~ 1 2008x

e x dx = dv v = -- e .

2008

(1)

7t 20087t

7t ~~

I~- 20 40 40 20

J = -- e2008x sin 20x 40 - -- J e2008x COS 20xdx = e - - 1

2008 2008 2008 2008

o 0

20087t ~2008J+201=e 40 .

(2)

119

Giai he (I) va (2) ta c61 = (2008/+ (20 )2 [ 20e 50:" - 2008} C deli 2 : Dung tich ph an tirng phan,

{ 2008x

_ {COS20XdX = dv du = 2008e dx

Dat 2008x ~ 1.

e = II V = -sIn20x.

20

TI

TI 40

1 1 2008x . 20 40 2008 f 2008x . 20 d

= -e .SIn x --- e SIn x X.

20 20 0

o

TI

40

Ta tiep tuc sir dung tich phan tirng phan doi voi tfch phan f e2008x sin 20xdx.

o

{sin 20xdx = dv {dll = 2008e2008x dx

Dat 2008x ~ 1

e = II V = --cos20x.

20

TI

TI TI 40

1 - 1 2008x.· 20 40 2008 ( 1 2008x 20 40 2008 f 2008x . 20 d')

--e .SIn x 0 --- --e .cos x 0 +-- e cos xax

20 20 20 20 0

TI

TI TI 2-

1 2008- (2008) 40

=_e2008x.sin20x 40 + __ e2008x.cos20x 40 - f e2008x cos20xdx

20 0 ( 20 )2 0 ( 20 )2 0

TI TI 2

1 2008 -- (2008)

= _. e2OO8x . sin 20x 40 + -- e2008x . cos 20x 40 - 1

20 0 (20)2 0 (20)2

2 2 TI TI

(2008) + ( 20 ) 1 2008x. 40 2008 2008x 40

--'----'---2::-'---"--1 = - e . SIn 20 x + --2 e . COS 20 x

( 20 ) 20 0 ( 20 ) 0

120

[50211 ]

I-

=> I = 2 2 20e 5 - 2008 .

(2008) +(20)

Ca hai each giai tren thoat nhin thi nrong chi la mot phuong phap dung tfch phan tung phan nhirng neu cac em tim hieu ki se thay nhirng bai tap d~ vira dat mot ph an la II va dat nguoc lai bang dv trong each tinh tich phan tirng phan khac la rat dac biet, De nghi cac em xem ki each giai cua bai nay d~ rut fa nhirng nhan xet quan trong cho minh.

Bai 49:

1

Trnh tich phan I = I eX x4 dx. o

Gidi :

cac« 1 :

Day la mot bai khong qua kho, bang each sir dung phirong phap tich phan tung phan ta co th~ giai diroc bai toan nay tuy nhien se kha dai VI phai Slr dung tfch phan tirng ph an 4 Ian. De nghi cac em d~t x4 = II va e'tlx = dv va tiep tuc giai.

ca.« 2 :

Ta co th~ giai bai nay bang each nhan xet nhir sau

Ta de thay : (j(x)ex) '= U(x) + f'(x»ex => IU(x) + f'(x))ex dx = j(xkx nen ta se giai bai tap nay nhir sau :

1

1 = Iex [(X4 + 4x3) -4(x3 + 3x2) + 12(x2 + 2x) - 24(x+ 1) + 24 Jdx o

I 1 I

= I eX [ x 4 + 4x3 J dx - 4 I eX [ x3 + 3x2 J dx + 12 I eX [ x2 + 2x J dx 000

1 I

- 24 I eX [ x + 1] dx + 24 I eX dx

o 0

= x4ex I:) _ 4x3exil + 12x2eXI' _ 24xexII + 24ex 1 = ge - 24.

o 0 0 0

121

Bili 50:

2 Tinh tich ph an I = fIn 2x .

IX

Gidi :

C acli 1 : D6i bien roi moi dung tfch phan tirng phan.

t dx

D~t Inx = t ¢:::> x = e ~ - = dt.

x

D6i can x = 1 ~ t = 0; x = 2 ~ t = In 2.

In2 . In2

1= f t~t = f e-ttdt.

o e 0

Dung tich phan tirng phan.

{t = U {dU = dt

Dar ~

. e -t dt = dv v = -e -( .

In2 In2

I . -t In2 f -td -In2 f -td( ) -In2 -t

= -te 0 + e t = -- - e -t = -- - e

o 2 0 2

Cach 2 : Dung tich ph an tirng phan.

In2 -In 2 1 =--+-.

2 2

o

{inX = 1.1 !dU = dx

Dat dx ~ x

. -=dv 1

x2 v=--.

x

I = _ In x 2 + f dx = _ In 2 _]_ 2 = _ In 2 + _!_ .

x I I x2 2 x I 2 2

Trang bai toan nay ca hai each deu dung tich phan tirng phan nhung each 2 thi hieu qua hon rat nhieu. Tuy nhien voi vai tro cua da phirong phap thi chung toi cling de nghi cac em tham khao them each dat tich ph an tirng phan nfra nhu

1

-=U

x

sau, dat ~

lnxdx = dv

x

-dx du=--

x2

In2 x v=--.

2

122

Tuy nhien day la mot each phirc tap va dai hon hai each kia rat nhieu. Cac em cling co the dira vao cac each giai tren de giai quyet bai toan trong De' thi 2

tuye'n sinh dai hoc, cao dang ndm 2008 - khoi D : Tinh tich phan 1= fIn x dx x3

1

(D ' .' I 3 - 2In 2 ) ap so: = .

16

V fli 50 bai tdp tren thi cluing toi deu co' gdng chi ra nhiing phuang phdp ((51 uu trong hdu /1('1 cdc bai gidi. DOl' viii nhiing cacti gidi qua dai hodc khong co tinh sang tao, trung ldp thi cluing toi chi huang dan cac em hodc thdm chi khong de' cap den. Vi¢c trinh bay phdn nay tuy co nhieu co' gdng nhung khong tranli khoi S(I xudt hade bo qua nhiing cacn gidi thu vi khac mong cdc em tu tim toi bd sung. D{ic biet fa cac vi du J tren co the' chua khdi quat hef duac vi can nhieu vi du khac hay han nhung viii mong muon fa tao su nhin nhdn dung vai tro cua tung phuong phap tinlz ciing nhu hieu qua cua tinh dao sail trong nghien cuu hoc tdp clio m6i hoc sinh nen chung toi dd co' gdng viet va tao nhiing each nhin nhdn mai han vephdn tinh ticli phdn nay.

123