The worldwide popularity of Basketball is due to its physical and educational values as well as to its tremendous dynamics.

In Basketball, the special feature of the concept of play and of rules makes high demands on sportsmen. Basketball commands an eminent place within the social system of physical education and sports. Because of its versatility it is often played and included in the extended training programme of many other sports. It is also a part of the Physical Education Curriculum. Basketball helps to develop speed, dexterity, strength, endurance and reaction ability. As a team game it is an important means of developing moral qualities, will power, etc. In almost no other game is the action of the individual so close to collective thinking and action.

PRINCIPLES OF BASKETBALL

BASIC PRINCIPLES
The basic principles, which Dr. James Nai Smith kept in mind to invent the Basketball game, are as follows. 1. Tackling should be avoided and not to run with the ball. 2. Ball should be bigger in size (association football) 3. Goal should be horizontal and elevated from the ground.

FIVE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
1. l. The game should be played with the round ball; it should be large, light and easy to handle with the hands. 2. Traveling or running with the ball is not allowed 3. Any player at any time can take any position on the court. 4. There should not be any personal contact between players. 5. Goal used should be horizontal and elevated above the court.

Besides the above-mentioned principles, following points should be kept in mind while changing or framing rules. 1. Spectator interest. 2. Safety measures. 3. Fundamental principles.

ORIGINAL BASKETBALL RULES

Thirteen (13) original rules framed by Dr. James Nai Smith in January 15, 1892 are as follows.

1. The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. 2. The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands (never with the fist). 3. A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches ig allowance to be made for-a man who catches the ball when running at a good speed if he tries to stop. 4. The ball must be held in or between the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it. 5. No shouldering, holding, pushing or tripping or striking in any way the person of an opponent shall be allowed; the first infringement of this rule by any player shall be called as foul, the second shall disqualify to injure the person for the whole of the game, no substitute will be allowed. 6. A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violation of rules 3 and 4 such as described in rule 5. 7. If either side makes 3 consecutive fouls, it shall count a goal for the opponent (consecutive means without the opponents in the mean time making a foul. 8. A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges and the opponent moves the basket, it shall count as goal.

double foul defined. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals. pivoting allowed. 1911 . 1893 . 12. The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made.Basic out-of-bounds and throw-in rules adopted. time-out allowed for sickness or accident.1991 A list of some of the changes and modifications made in basketball rules since 1891 follows. In case of dispute the umpire shall call a foul on that side. l9l0 . 10. 1904 . He shall have power to disqualify men according to rule 5.Free throw line put on court at 15 feet. When the ball goes out of bounds the person first touching it shall throw it into the field of play. 1909 . and shall keep time. showing how the game changed through the years.Three points for a goal and I for each foul called. 1905 . player could advance with I foot without traveling. the game may.Glass Backboards legalized.9. 11.Double dribble prohibited. 3-man officiating plan adopted. In case of a draw. 2-handed dribble eliminated. . and to which side it belongs. 1895 . 13.Player with 4 fouls disqualified. two 20minute halves. The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner. center jump initiated. in bounds. ball out-of-bounds goes to the opponents.Two-shot foul adopted.Wood backboards adopted. 1908 . by agreement of the captains. be continued until another goal is made. CHRONOLOGY OF BASKETBALL RULES From 1891 . backboard introduced. 5-man team suggested. blocking prohibited. The time shall be 2 fifteen minutes halves with 5 minutes of rest in between. with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee.

1825 -Players on the same team could not wear duplicate numbers. 1937 . 1949 .Jump ball after each goal was eliminated. front and back numbering on uniform. recommend home team wear light-colored suits. waiving of free throw not allowed in last part of the game. 1938 . fan-shaped backboard legalized. clock is stopped for alljumps. basics of goal tending rule adopted. technical foul free throws may not be waived. 1942 . player permitted to re -enter any number of times. 1923 . free throw lane space marking adopted.The referee to toss the ball to start the game. 1946 -Legahzed transparent backboards. 5 timeouts allowed in high school play.l92l . only 2 overtime periods are provided for high school play. substitute may enter only when the ball is dead and the clock is stopped.Recommended that player who fouls should hold his hand above his head. 3-minute overtime for high school play. double free throw violation results in jump ball.Captain could call time-out only when his team had possession. 1950 . player prohibited from touching the ball or basket while the ball is directly above the basket. 1947 -Rectangular target required on backboard.The player fouled must shoot the free throw.Five fouls permitted prior to disqualification. no offrcial's time-outs in the 2nd . 1944 .Ten second backcourt rule adopted. 1948 .Recommended players be numbered from (3) upward. clock starts when the ball is tossed on jump or crosses line on a throw-in. 1940 . 1932 .Modeled ball mandatory."Sudden death" to decide tie games in first overtime for high school play.' he can pivot on either foot. if a player stops with neither foot in advance.All periods started with a center jump. all jump balls must occur at least 6 feet inside a sideline. clock stopped for each dead ball in last 3 minutes of the 4th period.

offrcial book to remain at the table during halftime.Offensive goal tending adopted.Player may dunk except before the game or during intermission. minimum court dimensions deleted. piping around neck and arm opening limited to 1-inch. placing a hand on the backboard to gain an advantage is a technical foul bench technical are also charged to the head coach. thrower may not leave the circle until restrictions end. 3 minute overtime periods. l96l . substitutes no longer have to report by position 1967 . .No dunking during warm-ups l97l . all specific rules for the last 2 minutes of the 2nd half were removed.Mid court lines established. padding on bottom of the backboard is mandatory.Bonus penalty for common fouls. S-second closely guarded count in forecourt. timeout may be requested when the ball is dead or in control of a player of the requesting team. no free throw for a player control foul. 2 free throws for any intentional foul. 1952 . 1956 . the single numbers I and2or a number greater then 5 are illegal. coach can instruct or signal players to call a time out. 1970 . dunking illegal. S-second count for holding and /or dribbling in the mid court while closely guarded result in jump ball. no hanging on the ring.Two free throws for no shooting foul in the last 3 minutes of the game and overtime. players benches required on side of scorers' and timers' table. starters must be designated at least 3 minutes before the game. 1957 . 1954 . lg76 . consecutive time-outs by the same team are prohibited. bench technical are 2 shots.Solid colored shirts mandatory.Two time-outs per half non accumulative. numbers must be I single contrasting color. 1983 .National Federation published a rulebook for girls'competition. attention called to dribbler's responsibility for avoiding contact."sudden death" overtime eliminated.Twelve-foot lane mandatory. ball color must be tan or yellow. except last 3 minute overtime periods. fouled player must raise hand above head. head decorations eliminated. 1973 .and 4th quarter.

stop. 2. ahead of the body to make the movement easy. Ankle. Basic stance is little different from one player to another as it depends upon the comfortable and most effective body position from where a player can move.each state may adopt scoring 3:Fojn-ts fo.Ball Handling Exercises Ball handling or ball juggling exercises are specially designed to develop the ball sense as well as ball hand coordination. BASIC FTINDAMENTALS 1-Basic Stance Player basic stance with ball or without ball is an important body position on which whole body balance is maintained. knees and hip joint are fixed.Three free throws to shooter attempting three-point shot.goal from beyond a l9-foot arc. . Weight should be equally distributed on both the feet. The main mechanics of player basic stance is:       Stand in a comfortable position feet apart with hip and shoulder width.1985 . Slightly bend forward Jo keep the c. adopted the "alternating possession" throw in for all jump or held ball situations except the start of the game and each extra period.after position.11. g. jump and change direction easily.A I -inch smaller and 2-ounce lighter ball adopted for high school girls which will become mandatory in 1988-89. coaches must remain seated while the clock is running or stopped except for limited specific situations fouled player may grasp the basket to prevent injury 1991 . One foot little ahead to make fore .

But after the air dribble. except that one dribble may be made. it becomes violation or double dribble.Passing And Receiving There are two important factors to transfer of possession of the ball from one player to another player of his team is called passing and receiving that is why the basketball is exactly called the transfer of the ball from one player to another player in order to be nearer to the scoring basket and make the basket more sure. when it is out of his control has touched another player or the opponent basket or backboard or batted out of his control by an opponent. Player should not make second dribble after having completed a dribble. Dribbling is made when a player gains control of the ball. once the ball comes in rest either hands or both hands. 5. 2 Confidence 3 Concentration 4 Good temperament .3. player can not passes the ball.Dribbling This is one of the important fundamentals of basketball game. 4.Shooting Shooting fundamentals are elaborated as below 1 Relaxation of body as a whole. unless the ball. He cannot dribble it again. In a dribble the ball must come in contact with the floor. As the passing has got the responsibility even receiver too has specific duties. gives impetus to it by and player to touches it again before it touches another player.

The foot position on stationary shot.Rebounding Rebounding is one of the main elements in fundamental skills of Basketball. The hand and wrist movement. Characteristics l. 6. 3.5 Naturalness 6 Physical condition 7 Good balance 8 Finger tips 9 Wrist action l0 Ball position I I Near ring target 12 Medium target 13 Natural English 14 Follow through l5 Follow up l6 Strong shooting This one hand variety of shots are used commonly in the game because of its nature it should have the highest percentage of conversions of all shots. It is a basketball sign to miss short shot. 2. The teams with more number of rebounds can easily . The arm movement. It is nothing but the recovery of reiterative method of ball from the board either in defensive or offensive position.

The ability of the player to use the proper footwork will be of great importance to execute the other fundamentals of the game. . Ball protection and landing on the floor etc. arm and shoulder power strength. stability equilibrium and sense of adjustment in the air with fall. explosive strength. 7-Individual Defense Basketball is mainly associated with two types of techniques or tactics called as offensive and defensive.Foot Work Basketball is the game where skill starts with or without the ball in hand therefore it is necessary that player must have control over his or her own body. All individuals together collect the defense towards the group is called as team collective defense. As a team of basketball. rebounding and defensive skill effectively. where as defensive team can reduce it by 3 points. It is not sure that each and every ball enters into the basket at each trial so that offensive team is good in rebound can add 6 points at a time. good leap timing. passing. change of direction and some times stops and jumps for shooting. defensive tactics starts from an individual to combine them to team defense. 8. good mobility on joints. Specific qualities required for a good rebounding are leg strength.score more points than the weaker rebounding team. It always varies from coach to coach that someone starts with shooting and others start with dribbling first. The player is a great one who is good and sound and has fundamentals in defense as well as offense. As it is quite obvious that the basketball game is quite faster and requires sudden stop. turn. Now it is necessary to know that why we practice footwork because we know that without the effective footwork we can not perform the dribbling. shooting. muscle fiber cross rebound arrangement.

start to pick up your pace. In the fraction of a second after the ball in your right hand has hit the floor.MAIN PART To be a top-flight ball handler (which is key to being a great point guard) one must be able to survey the floor while handling the ball. In other words. WEAK HAND STRENGTHENER Description :-Get very good with your weak hand. Continue in this fashion down the court. bounce the right ball. Instructions :-Play for I week with your weak hand and you will improve greatly. Everyone on the team relies on the ballhandler to get the ball down the floor and be the catalyst toward making something happen for the team. The ball-handler cannot afford to be concerned with whether he/she is going to be able to control the ball at high speeds especially while running a break. bouncing the ball in your right hand first. As you begin to feel more comfortable doing the drill. bounce the left ball. In the fraction of a second after the left ball hits the floor. then mastering one thing will be much easier. Don't underestimate the importance of this ball handling tip! It sounds simple. and it is. if you can handle two balls at high speeds while keeping your eyes looking ahead. Hold one basketball in each hand. handling one will be a piece of cake DRILL-Stand at one end of the court. so make sure to master ball handling and you're on your way to a great basketball career! 1. Players Tips :-1 :-Don't cheat . you will eventually be able to sprint down the floor. bouncing both balls with equal skill. Begin to walk forward toward the opposite baseline. A classic rule of life applies here: If you can handle two of something. Ideally.

It will develop your ball handling. Push your self harder and harder. not far away. Variations :-You may also dribble down court and back as many times you want until you get used to both hands. Skills :-Ball handling 3. QUICK DRIBBLE Description :-Stand up against a wall and dribble very fast against the wall. Players Tips Skills :-1 :-Dribble close to the wall.Skills :-Weak hand developer 2. Instructions time! Players :-Get two basketballs. one in each hand and dribble at the same :-l Tips :-Look up! Never look at the balls or you will never get better at dribbling and your ball handling skills. :-Dribbling and ball handling . use a defender to make harder. DRIBBLE WITH BOTH HAIIDS Description :-Develops focus and great ball handling skills. Also.

Variations :-Then dribble at same time.4. 5.Depending on what hand you are (right or left) dribble down the court with that hand.Patience. Players : . you use your good hand and spin around keeping the ball in front of you dribbling once while turning.You run down court and when approaching a defender.You only need yourself to do it Tips : . keep ball in same hand. 360 SPIN Description : . PHELPS BOTJNCE Description :-Take two balls and dribble Instructions :-Take Two balls and hold in each hand run down court and do alternate dribbling Players :-1 or more. Instructions : . Show the player the move slow and step by step . and spin clockwise if right-handed and counter-clockwise if left. this move takes practice. When you come up to a defender. do not put your hand on the bottom. Dribble once while turning and remember.

Player Variations :-2 :-Just practice.5. 6. STREET MOVE Description :. Then you should have the ball in your dominant hand. As easy as that. All right first you dribble up so you at least have a 4-foot gap between you and your opponent. This always works with me but you need to practice it a lot.you bounce the ball between both of your legs then through your opponents to trick them out. So what you do is put spin on the ball so it goes through both of your legs on one bounce. ZIG ZAG Description :-Ball handling drill Instructions :-Take two dribbles to the right crossover two dribbles to the right crossover keep going Players :-1 Variations Skills :-Do different moves like a spin or behind the back :-Handles . Instructions :-First you need one guy on offence and one guy on defense. So first you would d-o a regular between the legs move with spin on the ball then when the ball comes back just step over it so it goes between the other leg. Then just push the ball through your opponent's legs.

Bounce one ball sideways to the opposite hand while passing the other ball to the opposite hand. TRIANGLE Description:-Making a triangle while bouncing and passing in front of you. Do this for about 2 and a half minutes Players :-1 Tips :-Try to keep going even if it bums Skills :-Ball handling and fingertip strength 8.7. Instructions:-Have one basketball in each hand at chest level. Instructions :-Put both of your arms straight up in the air and lock them so they don't bend. TAP BACK Description :-A good drill to improve fingertip strength and ball handling. Very hard for non-ball handlers. Then tap the ball back and forth with your fingertips. Example: Right hand bounces the ball in front of them (sideways) to the left hand while the left hand passes it to the right hand. . Players :-1 Tips :-Make sure the balls have about the same air pressure. Should make a triangle.

. Dribble the ball in and out like a half crossover and then once it's out come out with a quick smooth crossover. And that's it! Instructions :-What your going to do is bounce one tennis ball with one hand and bounce it off the wall and you are going to catch it. Players :-1-2 Tips :-Practice with both hands and do it at your pace and then move forward with a faster pace. it can give you a step or two. 11. . Players :-1 Tips :-Don t give up. Sounds simple right? But at the same time you're going to bounce the other tennis ball with the other hand.. Instructions :-With the left or right hand. And you do this for about a half hour every day. TENNIS BALLS Description :-All you need to do is take two tennis balls and a really big wall.. And you keep rotating.. IN AND OUT CROSSOVER Description :-A good fake out and crossover in one. then just use one ball and slowly incorporate the other.Variations :-If it is too hard. It will be hard at first but eventually (If your doing it enough) you'll get the hang of it. IO.

IN AND OUTS Description :-A great technique for people trying to team to dribble. Instructions :-With left or right hand. Dribble the ball in like a half cross over and then out again. In and out. CIRCLE ROTATIONS Instructions :-Try to get the ball around your body 40 times in 30 seconds. Players :-1 Tips :-Do this at your own pace. I know from experience.. :-Dribbling all around your body .Skills :-Ball handling and explosiveness 12. Start slow and as you progress it gets easier and easier. Variations :-Left or right hand..... Players Tips Variations Skills :-l :-Helps players become better players. 14. :-Rotate which way you go every ten seconds.. Skills :-Ball handling....

Instructions :-Have the ball handler make a drive into a big man on the strong side.14. SPEED DRIBBLE Description :-As fast as you can dribble the ball in between your legs while your going down the court Instructions :-Dribble the ball in between your legs going down the court. Skills :-Coordination. WINDMILL Description :-A great way to split a double team on a drive. Then. hold the ball in both hands and hold it above your head and finish with a lay-up or dunk. Players :-l Tips :-Go as fast as you can do the drill correctly. Variations :-Flip sides. . once the weak side defender does that. ball handling 15. Players Tips :-3-10 :-Learn to hold the ball firmly. use as a practice drill or game move. have a weak side defender come and swat at the ball.

have the defender only get in the way. Players :-l . Players Tips Variations Skills :-2 :-To practice it.Skills :-Ball handling smoothness and an easier behind the back dribble. Once the defender moves his feet. crossover. 19. crossing over quickly. :-Using both hands. MASHBTJRN Description :-This move is for more advanced players but if mastered the player can get by any defender. Instructions :-Have one person defend. Instructions :-Take one dribble with either hand with that same hand the player flips the ball behind their back and between their leg all in one swift smooth motion. 18. Repeat until defender's feet cross. KTLLER CROSSOVER (MY VERSTON) Description :-Hard. but works very well. :-Do it as fast as you can. not try to steal it. Start with the ball in one hand.

33 Z'S Description :-You stand up with your hands at your sides. :-The skill that is used is being able to go anywhere on the court and 20. This drill will help your players to improve their quickness and speed with their hands. ROB 'EM BLIND . Skills :-This is to work on speed and quickness 22. You have someone place the ball on your lower neck upper back and whenever he/she wants they let go of the ball. Players Tips :-2 or more (must need a even number) :-This is a great drill to do. It was one done by Pistol Pete. Skills deception. CROSSOVER Instructions :-Put ball in I hand and cross over to other hand as hard and as fast as you can do for several minutes(try to keep control of ball) Skills :-Will give you a quicker crossover 21. you then as fast as you can clap in front and try to grip the ball before it hits the ground.Variations :-switching hands and performing the drill from one end of the court to the other.

Keeping them selves in-between the cone and the ball.degree tilt from the tub square. If they go to their direct neighbor's tub. Skills :-Quickness. RICOCHET Instructions :-Hold the ball at chest height with both hands. 23.Description :-Kids in a square. For the second variation with the defensive players. Variations :-Loose the bigger cone square for younger players so they don\t have to dribble to the outside after they steal the ball. For older kids. dribbling and conditioning. Winner has the most balls and stays in while the players on the sideline jump in Players :-4 Tips :-Make sure they are dribbling with the outside hand as they dribble around the cones. they just have one cone to dribble around the diagonal player would be two cones. in the middle of each tub to make a bigger square that's at a 45. they can try to knock the ball away. catching the ball behind your back. When coach says go. Attempt to slam the ball through your legs as hard as you can. make sure dribblers stay close and not dribble so far out. Move both hands from front to back. put defensive players at the cones and have them restricted to staying at the cones but as players dribble by. You then bounce the ball between your legs. Go for about a minute or minute and a half. Put two balls in each tub and have a player stand at each tub. the players have to go to another player's tub and take a ball and then dribble it on the outside of the cones square until they can get to their tub. Put cones on the outsides of the tubs about 10 feet away. trying to steal each others basketballsInstructions :-Put 4 tubs (or small baskets) in a square. The object is to collect as many balls as possible. . Tubs at the corners.

quickness 24. Run down the court throwing the ball under the legs! If you drop the ball while running up and down the court you are out the last player still performing the drill is named the Champion! Players Tips :-1 or more :-Make the losers run sprints and give the winner a water break! Variations :-Run backwards! Skills :-Ball handling/Speed/Endurance/Hand-Eye Coordination 25. Skills :-Coordination. Instructions :-Every player has a ball and everyone is confined to the inside of the 3 point arc. rotate the hands above your head and catch the ball on the back of your neck.Players Variations :-l :-Instead of catching the ball behind the back. PING*PONG* Description :-Very good ball handling drill! Instructions :-Start at one end of the court with ball in either hand. KNOCK OUT Description :-Control your ball and go for the steal to win. Each player dribbles their ball and simultaneously tries to knock other .

The greatest players. whether big or small. It's as common to the success of an individual player as teamwork is to the success of a team. every player must develop ball-handling skills. dribbling skills are essential to move around bigger players. Larry Bird and Magic Johnson. fast or slow. or dribbling. shielding. . strength and pure natural ability can take a player only so far. set up the offense and avoid the defense. Last person with control of their ball wins. are those who master the basics. like former NBA stars Michael Jordan. ball handling skills can be the difference between becoming a very good player and an excellent one. For smaller player's. and fast hands. In other words. One of most basic building blocks in a player's development is ball handling. Size. CONCLUSION Success at any level of basketball relies on the effective execution of fundamental. It teaches ball control. Solid ball handlers are needed to run the fast brake.player's balls out of the arc. Having effective ball handlers is also a key for any team offense.

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