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LEADERSHIP 1. The success of any organization depends upon its Man power. 2. Effective utilisation of Human resources in an organization depends upon its Management.
Management can get results from the people in the organization in two different ways. (1) By exercising the authority it has and (2) By winning the support of its workers.
4. The second method is ideally suitable for any organization in the long run. 5. To what extent the management can win the support of the People to attain its objectives depends on effective Leadership.
Definition of Leadership: - Leadership is defined as the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group for goal achievement in a given situation.
Characteristics of Leadership: 1. Leadership is basically a personal quality, which motivates the individuals to be with leaders.
Leader is one who exercises his Leadership qualities to try and influence the behavior of individuals around him to attain certain. Predetermined objectives. Leadership is a continuous process of influencing behavior.
4. Leadership is exercised according to the situation and the variables in the situation also affect the effectiveness of Leadership. Difference between a Leader and a Manager: 1. Some social scientists treat Leader and a Manager to be one and the same.
However, there is a difference between the two and the key difference between these two lies in the word organisation.
a person can be a leader of a completely unorganized group. 8. 6. Peter Drunker has rightly said that business Leaders are the basic and most scarce resource of any business enterprise. Leadership is viewed as the capacity of an individual to influence the behavior of an individual or a group regardless of reasons. Organizing. 7. Where as an informal leader is one who is perceived by other members as being the best person who is capable of satisfying the needs of the group. Directing and control in some measure or the other. Another difference between the two concepts his in the context of scope of functions performed. Formal and informal Leaders: 1. 5. Importance of Leadership: 1. 2. Leadership is a part of Management. On the other hand Managers only exist where organized structures create such roles. .-2- 3. Leaders could be formal or informal. A formal leader is one who occupies his place by virtue of his position. It is not an over statement to say that the success of an organization depends upon the quality of its Leadership. 2. Motivating Employees : a) Capability of a person to extract the will and the abilities of the Subordinates to perform the best possible work is the most essential quality of a leader. 4. Therefore. Staffing. A Manager has to perform all the five functions of Management of planning. The following are some of the good qualities of a Leader: 1.
: a leader should be a friend and not a boss. management and voluntary and willful cooperation by them towards the objectives of the firm. 2.-3- b) A good leader constantly motivates his subordinates to reach new heights. Trait theory : a) Trait is defined as an enduring quality of an individual. high productivity and greater c) Therefore leaders should build the Morale of the subordinates. b b) Traits theory is one which attributes the success of a leader to his c own personal characteristics. e. Building Morale : a) Morale is expressed as attitudes. of employees towards organization. b) So a leader is one who should infuse confidence among his subordinates and should advice and help them to perform better in an organization.: strike is something unknown in the history of TISCO. Creating confidence : a) Some people in the organization fail to recognize their own qualities and capabilities. . 3. b) High Morale leads of organizational stability.g.g. e. c) Good Leadership in the organization itself is a motivating factor for the subordinates. This is because of effective leadership and high Morale of employees. Theories of Leadership: There are essentially three theories of leadership namely (1) Trait theory (2) Behavioral theory and (3) Situational theory. 1.
A leader should know how to deal with and get along with people and subordinates.Talkative. 6. E. Surgency: . persistence and ambition. 1. Intelligence: . 5. IAcquired qualities of a leader are those that he has acquired by virtue of his experience and learning process. Dominance. alertness and originality. 2) Human Relations: . 7. . ability to express him self.Ability to get along with people and mingle with them informally. beliefs. 3.heights.g. Gandhi.g. 2. Will: .: some Managers try to be arrogant or talk in an insulting tone to their subordinates before others. Self confidence. 3) Empathy: . Empathy requires respect for other persons. Physical and constitutional factors: .Initiative. should be consistent in action. 1) Emotional stability: . Sociability: . Physique.Generally expressed as mental ability.This quality relates to observing the things or situations from others point of view.-4- c) From the beginning people have emphasised that a particular individual was a successful leader because of certain of his good qualities. d) According to the researchers the following are some of the good traits of a successful leader. Among the traits of leaders some are innate qualities like (a) Physical appearance and (2) Intelligence and some are acquired qualities. weight. values and feelings. cheerful. 4. should be a patient listener and restrain from loosing temper. E.A leader should be free from bias. appearance. The following are some of the acquired qualities. their rights.
loyalty and willingness to Co-operate with him for his and organisational welfare. informative and stimulating. it should be persuasive.A leader should understand people and know their strengths and weaknesses.g.What a leader does should be based on relevant facts and information rather than be carried away by wrong information fed by certain individuals. F. 5) Motivating skills:. Communication skills: .g.A leader should have a perfect understanding About the needs. there are four basic elements – leaders. display of emotional immaturity.W. 4) Leadership acts may be viewed in two ways. A leader should have the ability to work with people and conduct himself in such a way that he gains their confidence. A leader should know more about the work than the worker. they are also influenced by followers.A leader should know how to communicate effectively. motives and behavior of subordinates and by virtue of this knowledge he should be able to motivate the subordinates to higher performance. poor human relations and poor communication. 3) Therefore. Communication is viewed as a great force in getting the acceptance of the subordinates. goals and environment.Should have technical skill about the job. goals and the environment in which they operate. For the communication to be effective. which affect each other in determining suitable behaviour. a) Functional acts (favourable) to leadership and (b) dysfunctional acts (unfavorable) e.-5- 4) Objectivity: . Taylor. 6) Technical skill: . followers. He conducted various studies to prove that he knew more about the work than the worker. 7) 8) Social skills:. 2) Though acts are influenced by traits. .: inability to accept subordinates ideas. E. II Behavioural Approach: 1) As per this approach Leadership is shown more by a persons acts than his traits.
E.It depends on the quality of followers. Leadership tends to defer according to the type of organization.Organizations differ on the basis of their size. E.-6- 5) According to Behavioural approach a leader should use three skills technical. Difference between jobs: .White collar job require less control than the blue collar jobs at the lower level. 3. (1) Cultural environment (2) Differences between individuals (3) Differences between jobs and (4) Differences between organisations. 3. If people tend to have more qualities of theory ‘X’ authoritarian leadership would be more appropriate. ownership pattern and Managerial pattern.g. The leadership pattern in a Military or a government organization is entirely different from that of a business organization. 2) The essential contention of this approach is that in one situation a particular style of leadership may be successful. a) Technical skills – refer to a person’s knowledge and proficiency in any type of process or technique. human and conceptual to lead his followers. while in others it may not be.The type of leadership to be adopted also depends on cultural Environment. 1. In such a culture leadership can be more participative. where workers take pride in their work. Difference between organisations: .: Indira Gandhi and Emergency.g. According to a research group there are four situational variables that affect the performance of leadership. 2.: The Japanese culture is absolutely different. Cultural Environment: . Difference between individuals: . b) Human skills – is the ability to interact effectively with people and to build team work and c) Conceptual skills – is the ability to devise plans and set up constructive models for their effective implementation. .Situational Approach: 1) The prime attention in this approach is given to the situation in which leadership is exercised. III . age.
E. 3. Benevolent Autocrat: . Disadvantages:1. I . 2. People in the organization dislike it where it is highly authoritative and negative motivational techniques are used. Leadership styles are essentially the patterns of behaviour which a leader adopts to influence the behaviour of his subordinates.-7- Leadership Styles: 1. Advantages of Autocratic Style: This style is a success where subordinates prefer to work under centralised authority. 2. Quick decision is taken as the power is centralised.Here the leader centralises the decision making power for himself.: Theory X.He is a strict follower of the autocratic style where he adopts negative motivation techniques like. criticising subordinates or imposing penalties on them to influence their behaviour. but adopts positive motivation techniques to influence the behaviour of his subordinates. The following are the three Leadership styles. . This is also known as authoritarian or a directive style where a leader Centralises decision making power for himself. Under this style the work is highly structured by the leader and the subordinates are just asked to do what they are told.Autocratic Leadership:1. Strict Autocrat: . Autocratic Leadership style can further be divided into two categories (1) Strict Autocrat (2) Benevolent autocrat.g.
-8- 2. the leader emphasises on consultation and participation of his subordinates. Subordinates try to share the responsibility with the superior and also try to protect him. Indira Gandhi’s style of functioning.: Mrs. Lack of motivation. This is called democratic or consultative style where the leader decentralises the decision making process. E. 2. 2. but he really does not prefer it in practice. Free – Rein Leadership (or) Laisser – Faire: 1. 3. 3. This technique gives complete freedom to its subordinates. The participation might be real or pseudo. 3.g. Subordinates are broadly informed about the conditions affecting them and their work. There is very little or no scope for the leaders to develop from the power levels. 2. There is greater organisational stability due to high morale and commitment. Under this style the superior once determines the policies programmes and limitations to actions and then the entire process is left to the subordinates . 2. In practice this style is rarely found where it creates confusion in the organization due to excess decentralisation. low morale and frustration among the subordinates effect the efficiency of the organization. 4. The productivity and commitment of the subordinates is increased as they are a party to the decision. Advantages:1. . In some cases the leader preaches participation in theory. II – Participative Leadership: 1. Instead of taking unilateral decisions. 4. It is a highly motivating technique to the subordinates as their ideas & suggestions are given weight in the decision making.
9. 5. Work accomplishment is from committed people with interdependence through common stake in organization purpose and with trust and respect.1. 1 9.5. 1 impoverished Task 9.1. 9. 9.5 Middle road 1.9. Adequate performance through balance of work requirements and maintain satisfactory morale. Exertion of minimum effort to get work done and sustain organization morale. . Thoughtful attention to needs of people leads to a friendly and comfortable organization atmosphere. Efficiency results from arranging work in such a way that human elements have little effect.9 country club 5.-9- MANAGERIAL GRID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Concern for people 1.9 team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION 9 2. 1.