(WO/2007/017906) NOVEL FLASH PROCESS AND WASHING TECHNIQUE OF WET PROCESSING OF TEXTILES FOR SAVING OF ENERGY, TIME

AND WATER
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WO 2007017906 20070215 TITLE : NOVEL FLASH PROCESS AND WASHING TECHNIQUE OF WET PROCESSING OF TEXTILES FOR SAVING OF ENERGY, TIME AND WATER. FIELD OF INVENTION This invention is related to wet processing ( Preparation ) of Textile fabrics by the way of process methodology of various tasks and the subsequent washing methodology to remove reaction residues from the substrate. With the looming, water scarcity, need for conservation, energy crisis, time factors, pollution potential of process effluent water, ease of effluent treatment, scope for reuse - a comprehensive technology and machinery system is derived to accomplish the above requirements, mainly saving of energy, time and water. A brief note on various preparatory processes: PREPARATORYPROCESSES FOR 100% COTTON: 1. Singeing: The removal of protruding fibres from yarns of fabric surface. The principle is burning of protruding fibres from yarn surface by subjection to hot gas flame under speed. This treatment gives a smooth surface to the fabric. Singeing can be done at yarn stage or fabric stage, depending upon requirement Singeing is proceeded by shearing and cropping in order to raise and release the hairy fibres from fabric surface. 2. * Desizing: The process of removal of warp size on fabric by solubilisation. Starch based sizes are removed by Acid hydrolysis or by rot steeping ( swelling by soaking in water ) or by enzymatic treatment ( Digestion and hydrolysis of starch to soluble fragments ). In case of polyvinyl alcohol or acrylic sizes, alkaline boil will solublize and remove size matter. A post washing removes the reaction products and leaves fabric free of size. 3. * Scouring: The process of removal of hydrophobic ( Insoluble )traces like oils, waxes, pectins, proteins, etc. from cellulosic cotton substrate, thereby improving its absorbency and improved reactivity with chemicals, dyes in further processing. The principle is boiling treatment with alkali, along with surfactants which convert many of the above hydrophobic residues to soluble fragments, which are washed and removed. In case of synthetic fibres like polyester desizing, scouring can be accomplished by a single alkaline boil. 4. Mercerizing: The process of swelling of cotton by impregnation in caustic solution under tension. This process imparts strength, dimensional stability, luster and improved dye uptake of cotton and fastness.

5. * Bleaching: The process of removal of natural colouring matter in cotton by subjecting to oxidative / reductive destruction of colouring matter and obtaining a better whiteness. Optical brightening agents (OBA) are normally added to improve whiteness. * Marked processes are relevant to the invention. SYNTHETICS & BLENDED FABRICS: Ih case of synthetic fibres like polyester, nylon, acrylic etc. and their blends of cotton or viscose - Singeing, desizing, scouring, bleaching operations are designed as per type of fibre apart from heat setting. A NOTE ON WASHING PROCESS: Irrespective of type of preparatory process, at the end of each process, it is necessary to wash off ( clean ) the adhering reaction residues from substrate fabric, suitable for further processes like colouration ( Dyeing / Printing ), finishing etc. Current industrial batch wet processing activities like desizing, scouring, bleaching, etc., consume considerable time, energy and large quantities of water towards effective achievement of process end results. As a matter of improvement, continuous process techniques using high energy, short time &reduced water consumption are in practice. The above methods involve steam as heating medium. Washing is the essential activity in domestic as well as textile wet processing industry. All process involved in preparation, dyeing, printing and washing involves tremendous quantities of water for washing, by way of over flow wash, cold wash, hot wash, hot soaping, speciality treatments like oxidation, reduction clearing dye fixing treatments etc. Current attempts at machinery manufactures level involves suitable modifications to reduce water consumption. However, due to very high cost of such equipments and lack of proper effectiveness of such systems, the goal of reduced water consumption is not practically achieved. Literally in most existing machines, washing is merely passage of material through water. All the above preparatory processes and washing are currently done by the following ways: i) BATCH PROCESS:Using Tanks, Winches, Jiggers, Kiers, Drum washers etc. ii) COMBINED PROCESS :- applying one or more process activity in a single stage. iii) SEMI CONTINUOUS METHODS: Batch reaction followed by continuous washings iv) CONTINUOUS PROCESS METHODS: Preparation process and washing in a continuous manner The invention prescribes a novel system of preparatory and washing process of Textile fabrics by a methodology in which Time, Energy, water and pollution load are saved drastically. PRIORART REVIEW ON CURRENT PREPARATORY PRACTICES: Now a days the pre-treatment in wet processing is done by batch and continuous processes. DESIZING: Desizing using enzymes is the most effective and wildly used method for the removal of starch. Fig.2 Jigger In the batch process by exhaust method, desizing can be done using amylases at required pH and temperature conditions according to the type of enzymes used. Depending on the type of amylase used the concentration required for desizing varies from 0.5-8% taken on weight of the material. The fabric is treated under the above conditions in a jigger or winch for a period of 30-90minutes.

3 Continuous Desizing Most commonly used way to express the efficiency of the enzyme is by the term enzyme activity.5% Wg (on weight of good) mineral acid (eg. Mostly it is done at atmospheric pressure. With a amylase having an activity of 120. Fabric Fig. This is done at Jigger. Continuous process: The fabric can also be stored in J . The time of storage may even go to 12hrs as heating is nor possible here. Liquor ratio employed is 1:4.25-0. The fabric is then passed through an infra red heating zone (preheating) and into a steam chamber inside which the fabric is batched on a roll. Alternatively batching can be done in concrete pits by storing it in layers. The roll is kept rotating in the chamber for 4-8 hours at the required temperature. Desizing can also done using 0. Concentration of Enzymes used in various machines Advantages: ‡ The time of treatment is very less and hence high production rate ‡ Most efficient and complete removal of starch compared to the other processes ‡ The fabric is not affected by the enzyme. Scouring by batch process: Scouring can also be done using jigger for smaller lots. NCE) for 30-60 minits at Room Temperature. Although there are jiggers available which permit operating under pressure (closed jiggers). winch. The dwell time in the storage box may vary from 20seconds to 20minutes 0 0 depending on the temperature range of 100 C to 65 C maintained in the storage box. the degradation products of starch (sugars) are relatively easy to remove from the fabric as they are water soluble. After the desizing is completed. A hot wash will give more efficient removal of starch than cold wash. the quantity of enzyme required for the use in various machines are given. The top layer is covered by sacks or polythene bags. SCOURING: The scouring of cotton fabrics can be done in rope or open width form in batch and continuous processes. Recipe: Caustic soda . by winding it from one roller to other roller. Enzyme at corresponding temperature and pH.Desizing can be done using pad-roll-storage method by padding the fabric with 4-5gpl. pad-roll machineries. Steaming can also be done using an open width steamer. the fabric is circulated through the scouring liquor taken in the trough. a rope washing machine or an open width washing range is preferred depending upon the form (rope or open width) in which it is processed.5% . For washing purpose. It is defined as the amount of enzyme required to catalyze the conversion of one mole of substrate into products per minute. During the scouring process.box where steaming to maintain temperature is also possible. The time of treatment is about 2-4hours.

0. If the regularity of pilling is not achieved there will be preferential bath circulation. This liquor is pumped from bottom to the desired volume in order to sweep out the air. A valve is left open for the air from inside of Kier to get displaced by steam. J . Normally a liquor ratio of 1:3 is employed.1% Soda ash . After the boiling is over the scouring liquor is run off by opening the bottom valve. and 130-1350C) for a period of 612 hours depending on the type of fabric. Improved versions of jiggers which can process higher capacities if 500-750kgs. After that hot and cold washes are given to complete the process.5% Wetting agent . Kiers are huge vertical cylindrical vessels made up of cast iron. The circulation of hot alkaline liquor through the fabric is carried out under pressure (at 25-30 psi. in order to avoid raising of fabrics when the pressure inside develops.Tri sodium phosphate . Typical treatment for atmospheric scouring process (open Kiering) are at 95-980C for 4-6 hrs.4 hrs M:L ratio . at the same time. The top of the fabric is covered by a jute fabric and heavy stones are placed over that. Kier boiling may be carried out either at atmospheric pressure in a open Kier or under pressure when closed. Fig. It is available in various processing capacities of 250 kgs to 5000 kgs of fabrics. Pilling should be regular without air gaps.0.1. Filling to the fullest capacity may create hydraulic pressure.4High Pressure Kier The wet fabric in rope form is loaded by mechanical pilling or manually to about 80% of capacity. man conventional jiggers which can process only 100kg are available these days. Scouring liquor is prepared separately by mixing caustic soda and other assistances in appropriate quantities with water.Box: 0 . and treatment irregularity in the less packed areas. which will give false reading in the pressure gauge. Scouring by continuous process: The continuous process used two designs of machines such as J-Box and steaming chambers for the caustic impregnated fabric to be processed while J-box works in atmospheric pressure and the steaming chamber in high pressure.1:4 In order to avoid air induced cellulose de gradation it is preferable to maintain a liquor level up to half of the fabric rolls. an equal amount of hot water is let in from the top till the concentration of caustic soda is diluted.10 Temperature . Heating and circulation of scour liquor is done externally by passing through a multi tubular heater where indirect stream is used for heating. This is done to avoid the top layer of fabric to get into contact with air.9O C Time .5% Soap . Kier: Kier is a traditional pressure vessel used to provide the conditions needed for through scouring of cotton goods.75% pH .

Only atmospheric pressure scouring is recommended. The speed of the fabric may vary from 60180m/min. it is passed through the scouring liquor kept in a saturator containing 400 60gpl of caustic soda at 50-60 C.box systems. Called j .Recipe: I chamber: (Scouring) Caustic soda . In the J0 box. Batch process: 0 .5 Continuous Scouring Using J .Box should be accordingly chosen. Scouring and bleaching can be carried out successively and continuously by using 2 j .4% II Chamber: (Bleaching) Temperature . In which the fabric is fed into long arm of j and is insulated or jacketed for steam heating.Box Finer fabrics made out of fine yams and fabrics with coloured threads either in warp weft (Dhoties. For impregnation of the fabric. BLEACHING: ‡ The bleaching of cotton fabrics can be done at rope and open width form in batch and continuous processes. the fabric is squeezed to a constant and uniform pick.60 mins Sodium silicate 2-3 ml/lit M:L ratio . Sarees & striped shirting) are not to be scoured under pressure. closely woven cotton fabrics. the fabric is piled and resides for a period of 1. the fabric is taken for washing. Fabric Fig.up white processing in the form of rope. ‡ Batch process is done in Jigger. The impregnated fabric is allowed through a pre-heater.up is higher compared to open width.: heavy.section. me liquor pick. before it enters the J. The capacity of J . J -Box is an open ended tube of rectangular cross.9O0C Hydrogen peroxide 10-20 ml/lit Time .width and rope from.box.Shaped fabric storage and steaming unit. winch and soft flow. In j . ‡ Continuous processes are done in vapourloc chamber. They provide a longer immersion path for the fabric than a padding mangle. Saturator ensures sufficient dwell time to bring about liquor interchange. depending on the type of fabric. Medium and course varieties of cotton can withstand strong alkaline conditions at high pressure and therefore they can be scoured at high pressure.1:4 Sodium hydroxide 3-5 gpl Wet pick up .g.60-80% Time 60 mins Temperature 9O C M:L ratio 1:4 Wet pick up 60-80% J . J-box.box the fabric can be treated in open.box. arranged in sequence. In both processes after the necessary period of time in steaming chamber or J-Box. After leaving the saturator. Continuous scouring in rope form is not suitable for varieties lot laborites mat have a tendency to crease e.l/2hrs at 95-100 C. can be used for scouring as well as for bleaching with hydrogen peroxide.

9O C Sodium hydroxide . then stored in J-box for 1-2 hours at 85-9O0C and washed thoroughly in open soaper. 3-5 gpl organic stabilizer.60 mins M:L ratio .The use of jigger for bleaching cotton is widely practiced.1 . Continuous process: In an open width J-box bleaching the fabric is padded at room temperature with 20-30 ml/litre H2O2 (35%).4% Sodium silicate . Bleaching in jiggers has the advantages of easier removal of stabilizers at a liquor ratio of about 1:5. In another method.6 Continuous Scouring and Bleaching Using J Box Recipe: chamber: 0 I chamber: Hydrogen peroxide .9O C Wet pick up .1:4 Temperature . In this kind of process.11 M:L ratio 1:4 It is added over two ends and temperature is raised gradually to 80-950C and the bleaching is carried out for 1-3 hours. and then washed thoroughly over two ends in hot water and several ends in warm water. Organic stabilizer. bleaching in J-box can be done with extended time and reduced concentration of chemicals.2% wetting agent. one tank at 6O0C and one tank of cold water.3-5 gpl Time . 0.5% Caustic 1% Temp 8O C Time l'/z hrs pH 10.60-80% M:L ratio . with two tanks at 950C.2% Sodium silicate 0. particularly organic stabilizers of typical recipe used in Jigger consists of 25% H2O2 (35%). Fig.60-80% 0 0 .5% Soda ash 0. Recipe: Hydrogen peroxide . 5-10 gpl 0 sodium silicate or organic stabilizer. 1-1. After bleaching for 20 minutes at 95-100 C in J-box. 3-5 gpl NaOH and a wetting agent. the fabric is padded with 10-20 ml/lit OfH2O2 (45%).10-20 ml/lit Caustic soda .1:4 Wet pick up . 2-3 ml/lit sodium silicate. 3-6 gpl NaOH and a wetting agent.2-3 mMit Temperature .5-1.5%.60mins Time .1-0. the fabric is washed in an open soaper.5% NaOH and 0.

WASH . scouring. the fabric is impregnated with the requisite chemicals by padding followed by transport to steamer unit.Caustic scouring and hydrogen peroxide bleaching can be done by having two J-boxes in tandem. Manual washing in rope form ² suitable for cold wash only 2. water consumption. Open width form Rope form: 1.DRY PROCESS Currently fabric preparation is done by in open width form using Pad-Steam-wash process. The Process Sequence Is As Follows: 1. REVIEW ON CURRENT WASHING PRACTICES: The textile fabric after processing treatments like desizing. soaponified oils. the washed fabric is saturated in open width and piled in the J-box in twistless rope form / open width. it is taken for washing in series of tanks and dried finally.wash . pollution load of wash water etc. Current washing practices: The current washing methods are conducted in two forms of fabric handling. bleaching agents etc. are being done. Wash off in water Pad . Productivity Disadvantages: Steam energy cost. inferior washing efficiency. Unlike J-Box. hot. surfactants.house. pectins etc. fats. gums etc. in order to remove hydrolysed size mater (after desizing ). Steam for 60 min. bleaching (additional after dyeing and colour fixation. 1. neutralizing. The cloth is transported in a tensionless manner on slow moving rollers or conveyor belt and subjected to steaming for 30 to 60 minutes. waxes. alkali. ( after dyeing / printing and colour fixation ) to make the fabric suitable for further process. They are. After leaving steamer.STEAM . corMerun 1. additives. wetting agents.Dry process PAD . The above system is presently adopted in most of the continuous process units. Normally over flow washing ( cold ). after printing and colour fixation) needs thorough washing. unfixed dyes. In the process. proteins. ( after bleaching ). process efficiency. Hot wash and cool 4. Advantages: Speed.steam . Tight rope washing machine 0 . Pad with 4% caustic soda at 7O C 2. ( after scouring ). Rope washing machines Two types of machines are generally used for washing the fabrics in rope form in a bleach . at 95-990C 3. Pad with H2O2 (30%) 3-5% at 4O0C 5. soaping etc. Rope form 2. at 95-990C 6. Steam in J-box for at least 60 min.

chemicals. Two ropes of cloth are generally washed at a time. The machine has a shallow wooden trough or tank for holding water and two freely rotating tank guide rolls and wood or ebonite. Open width washing machine: They are used to wash the fabric in open width form.2. batch process. water consumption. Draw Backs .8 Tight rope washing machine The former is suitable for ordinary goods. This affords better removal of dirt by squeezing. Roller washing machine: Pressure by lever and weight is not sufficiently elastic for squeezing delicate fabrics. This is overcome by replacing levered pressure by spring pressure. M:L ratio varies from ( 1 : 15 to 1 : 5 ). Hence the tension is minimum. Drawback: Time consumption. But in this machine. 4) Soft flow / over flow / Air flow . this is suited for knits and delicate goods. This improves washing efficiency and speed of washing Draw back: More water consumption. considerable water consumption. Slack Rope washing machine: It is nearly similar to tight rope washing machine. Open width washing gives more uniform results. Nozzle water jets give better washing.9 In this system the fabric in rope form is cycled in a slant trey with excentrix plaiting fall into water. where it leaves the machine and gives it a final rinse. M:L ratio 1 : 4. 5) Jet washing: The fabric is transported in ducts. ineffective washing etc. It is therefore suitable for delicate fabrics. OPEN WIDTH FORM 1) Jigger (Refer Fig. passes through water and is wound on II roll and the sequence in reversed. Fabric tension is reduced compared to winch. 3. The machine consists of two cast iron side frames and a pair of heavy and wide squeezing bowls made of wood. passes into the nip of the squeezing bowls. A strong dose of water plays on the cloth at the point.High M : L ratio ( 1 : 20 ). and chance for fabric entanglement etc. along with water and water jets. the rope is in slack form. The pressure is applied by simple lever and weight. Simple system for open width washing in batches. Draw back: Consumes more water. Due to less tension. more time requirement etc.2) Cloth Form I roll. Winch WINCH WASHING MACHINE FIG. while the later is suitable for delicate goods. but the open width form permits higher speeds. poor efficiency of washing ( left over residues on substrate ) . Slack rope washing machine fabric Fig.The fabric in rope form in carried through water jets from nozzles and driven reel into washing tube. One rope enters at each end of the machine through a pot eye. than the rope form.

After leaving each tank. winches.dry systems etc. Few of the features of current washing machines are. Disadvantages a) Time consuming b) Consumes more water for process and washing c) Batch process lacks continuity d) Higher energy by increased time and water. 1. Improved heating 6. Drawbacks: More water consumption by way of overflow. These systems give the advantages of reduced time and continuity. Comments on current practices of Fabric preparation process: i) Batch process: The preparatory processes like desizing. Vacuum suction prior to washing etc. Scouring and Bleaching etc. scouring and bleaching can be carried out by continuous process and washing by J-Box ( rope / open width ). Material to liquor ( water ) ranges from 1 : 4 to 1 : 20 depending on machine type. the cloth in squeezed and enters other tanks and finally dried.2) Continuous open width washing machines: (Refer Washing Tank units in continuous Scouring and Bleaching Using J Box Fig.6) Series of tanks with guide rolls for cloth passage are arranged. e) Poor energy utilization leading to wastage of energy. Counter current washing 4. Synchronized drive 7. in a discontinuous manner. ) Continuous Process: The preparatory process like desizing. f) More laborious g) Process and wash water pose treatment problem of effluent due to imparted suspended and dissolved solids. The invention results in major savings of energy. scouring. Water jet application 3. bleaching by batch process are done in jiggers. e) Not suitable for small lots. Disadvantages a) Very huge energy cost b) Steaming chamber consumes 30 -60 minutes leading to steam energy c) Washing units are only dip wash units consuming more water d) Increased pollution potential of process and wash water. less pollution load and more reuse scope of process water ( effluent ) . and the subsequent washing method. pad-steam-wash . Low bath volume 5. water. kiers. f) Poor energy utlisation g) More water consumption SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention is related to a novel method of wet processing of Textile fabrics namely Desizing. scope of contamination from one bath to another. time.. Tension controls 2. but suffers the following disadvantages. soft flow machines or tanks etc. energy losses etc. ineffective washing (mere dip wash only ). reasonably effective and scope for continuous washing and drying. Advantages: Continuous multi effect washing.

Scouring. Due to the presence of higher boiling point fluid. better diffusion of chemicals. FABRIC FEEDING UNIT B. WASHING UNIT To totally remove reaction product residues from textile substrate F. PRE-CLEANINGUNIT E. FEED UNIT To feed fabric in open width form B. hot flue or steam cylinders dried and taken to further process. FLASH PROCESS REACTION UNIT D. intense and penetrated reactivity are enhanced.) in the chemical pad recipe. results in effective residues removal from substrate. The washing unit comprise of tanks filled with water. DRYING UNIT To dry the wet fabric after washing. Counter current washing have been implemented with this system. The chemical pad liquor is designed as per process requirement like Desizing. This specific technique reduces drastically water consumption. DEG. PRE-CLEANINGUNIT CONSISTING i) Water sprinkler Unit To wet out process completed fabric ii) Vacuum suction unit To remove reaction products from substrate by vacuum suction E. bleaching or combined process dosage. SPECIALWASHINGUNIT F. The passage of material through various units is illustrated. CHEMICAL IMPREGNATION UNIT C. After process reaction. The reaction is specific and accomplished in a very short span of time. Benefits? BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS & ILLUSTRATIONS Figure in sheet (1) illustrates the total configuration of COMBINED CONFIGURATION OF FLASH PROCESS AND SPECIAL WASHING UNIT. mild reaction ( for e. PEG or propylene glycol etc. apart from induction of a higher boiling point fluid (glycerin. DRIER . Principle and Working Method The fabric in open width form is fed to chemical padder unit from feed unit. ammonium salt instead of acid ) organics in place of during flash heat application. Finally the fabric is vacuum suctioned. CHEMICAL IMPREGNATION UNIT For application of chemicals as per process requirement by padding C. the reaction residues are solublized by water sprinkling on substrate followed by vacuum suction. The chemical padded fabric (pickup as per requirement) is taken to flash head unit. Unlike water jet washing the air jet is capable of performing fluid impact function. followed by vacuum suction for both faces of fabric and similar treatment in various tanks removes totally any residues from substrate. NAMES OF COMPONENTS (Main Units) A. the evaporation is restricted. The passage of material over perforated cylinders immersed in water and side way passing of air at regulated pressure. FLASH HEAT APPLICATION UNIT To supply required heat energy for process reaction D. dry heat is directly applied on chemical padded substrate.g. In the flash heat application unit. This process removes maximum contaminants from wet substrate and enhance less washing load.The overall system comprises of the following units: A.

SPECIAL WASHING UNIT E1. PRE-CLEANING UNIT D1 .Water Sprinklers D2. C2 "Hot Air Blower fans C3. FABRIC FEEDING UNIT S . Flash process reaction unit ' . A. The total system is composed of the following units. The presented system is one of the feasible configurations (linear) with alternate face flash heater units.Steam Heated Drying Cylinders F13 .Vacuum Suction E6 . C4 Heat Exchanger Radiators D. E2 . .Padding mangle.Squeezing rolls F. CHEMICAL IMPREGNATION UNIT B19 B2 .Pad Liquor Troughs B3 . E5.Fabric Plaiter F14 .Air nozzles E4. FLASH PROCESS REACTION UNIT C1. C.Fabric A1 .NAMES OF COMPONENTS OF INDIVIDUAL UNITS A. Fabric Batch roll A2 . Tension Bars B. Fabric Feeding Unit B.Immersion rolls E3 . DRIER Fi to Fi2 .Vacuum Suction E. D3 . Chemical Impregnation Unit C.Fabric Collection Trolley DETAILED DESCRIPTION The configuration of overall system is presented in sheet 1.

Drier:. desizing or scouring or bleaching or combined process.. Special washing Unit:. Rubber mangles in pressure contact with each other or with ebonite / steel mangles are used for this purpose. Pre-cleaning Unit E. the fabric is drawn over series of supporting rolls. desizing or scouring or bleaching or combined ) and squeezed to remove excess pad liquor C. ‡ The squeezing pressure depends on pad chemical liquor pick up requirement. control panel. D.The washed fabric is dried to make it free of moisture to proceed for further processing.D. 1/1/1) can be adopted suitably. Drier. Pre-cleaning Unit:. Through contact drive roll. Number of supporting rolls and tension bars. B. ie. 2/1. varies according to the type of process to be under taken. ‡ The squeezing pressure can be pneumatic or hydraulic or mechanical.The fabric is impregnated with the process chemical mixture ( depending on type of process e. E. Special washing unit F. open width form from fabric batch roll to unit B B.The chemical padded wet fabric is subjected to heat energy to the required time to activate chemical reaction with substrate. Chemical Impregnation Unit:This unit comprise of bottom trough / troughs to hold chemical pad liquor to be impregnated on to fabric. Electrical and mechanical drive elements. indicators can be suitably designed and installed. The principle is discussed later on flash process principle. Fabric Feeding Unit :The fabric to be processed is taken in batch rolls. Tension bars using selvedge guiders to the chemical impregnation unit B. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EACH COMPONENT OF THE SYSTEM: A.g.The fabric to be processed is fed to the machine in a crease free. ) F. The recipe and composition. The infeed speed is proportional to the flash process time and speed. ‡ The hardness of rubber mangles. . type of guiders depends on fabric type. Chemical Impregnation Unit:. The fabric from feed unit enters through the impregnation trough.The reaction residues on fabric are given a soaking (wetting) treatment for solubllisation and are partially removed by vacuum suction. Soaping etc. Multi-layers of fabrics in layers can also be fed to increase heat utility and productivity. Fabric Feeding Unit:. operation keys and switches. ‡ Proper dosing arrangements for chemical pad liquor infeed can be installed according to the speed of processing. Flash Process reaction chamber:. absorbs pad chemical liquor and is squeezed to the required pick up ( 60 -100 % )and leaves to the flash reaction chamber. Function of each unit: A. Hot wash.Further residues on fabric is removed by washing in series of tanks ( Cold wash. numbers (1/1.

10. Pre-cleaning unit prior to washing:The fabric after leaving flash process reaction chamber enters the pre-cleaning unit. the fabric enters vacuum suction unit by which the water. The placement can be horizontal. 6. Time of process is drastically reduced. 2. The dwell time or reaction time' is decided by cloth speed and length of heater unit. ) are suction cleared from substrate. The higher boiling fluid under heat readily helps in diffusion of chemicals into fibre polymer system. glycol derivatives) in the chemical pad liquor. The overall flash heat unit can be insulated to prevent heat loss from entry to exit. Specific heat application on substrate reduces total energy requirement. The exhaust heat can be recovered for use in washing or drying units. the reaction phase is speeded up. By incorporation of a fluid with higher boiling point than water ( e.cleaning method removes maximum suspended solids and dissolved solids from substrate without being carried out to washing. C. The temperature of hot air varies according to process ( 40° . The heating unit can be arranged in single face series or alternately top and bottom. 8. hydrolised polymers etc.compared to many hours or minutes by other process methods. Application of elevated temperature. Suction / circulation fans. The dripping water from back face of fabric is collected by treys and released to drain.g. solublized residues ( organic & inorganics. The above pre. The combined effect of temperature and higher boiling point fluid reduces reaction time to few seconds .200 C or more ). This enables better heat utility. The length of heater unit depends on production capacity and process time. 4. heat exchanger design can be engineered suitably. even if water evaporates. The reaction vapours can be evacuated by exhaust unit. 3. 11. reflector plates etc. On the moving wet fabric. washing/cleaning ‡ arrangement and controls. The settings between substrates. In case of single face heaters. By application of heat energy ( hot air ) directly on the chemical impregnated wet fabric. In normal washing methods the residues or let into baths leading to suspended solids and TDS. c) Reduced time of process reaction d) Optimization of process temperature 5. padding recipe is modified by: a) Reduced dosage b) Milder chemicals or use of ammonium salts instead of direct acids as per process. D. Shutter arrangements for heat release slit during width changes. Principle of Flash Process: 1. The heat energy source can be either one of 1) Electrical Heaters 2) Steam heaters 3) INFRARED Heaters or of 4) Radio 0 frequency waves or 5) Micro waves. . This reduces pollution. The boiling of water to vapour also contributes for flash reactivity. heat energy ( hot air ) is forced through from heat exchanger unit damper slits or perforations. water contamination and enables ease of effluent treatment. To prevent the degradation (strength loss) of fabric. Material to liquor ratio (1:1) is kept at the lowest level.‡ Electrical and mechanical driving elements. can be tuned as per requirement 7. mangle pressure control keys. heat ejection slit surface. Series of nozzles sprinkle water (cold. 9. After getting sprinkled with water. moist heat energy is retained on substrate. Flash Process reaction chamber:This unit comprise of series of supporting rolls to carry fabric through the flash heat reaction chamber. reduces time and facilitates higher speed of reaction. vertical or both. warm or hot) to wet out the semi dry substrate and the reaction residues are solublized for easy removal. heat reflectors can be used at the opposite face of the heat ejection slits to reflect back heat on to substrate.

keys and switches. can be suitably designed based on width of unit. heat recovery from flash heat reaction chamber. mechanical and electrical drive elements can be suitably designed. Each tank consists of 2 cloth immersion rolls. Direct / indirect heating arrangements for heating water. Vacuum pressure. scroll rolls and squeezing mangles prior to passage into successive tanks. number of tanks. Pre-cleaning of substrate prior to washing. 2. capacity of tanks. vacuum suction unit. Further residues are removed efficiently by immersion in water and by air jets under water. The diameter of immersion drums. These feature reduces water consumption and improves washing performance. the fabric in first immersed and residues are transferred to water by soaking. The numbers. nozzles design. speed varion keys and switches. The wash water from the washing unit is less contaminated. The speciality of post washing unit developed in this report features the following. expanders. types and shapes of perforations. The post suction operation at the end of each tank reduces further contamination to be carried to successive tanks. after filter can be used for subsequent immersion air washing units. rolls. having less contamination on substrate. The mode of washing is fabric immersion into water bath over open mesh cylinders and impingement of air jets from serious of nozzles on to fabric. By pass arrangement can also be done to divert over flow water from each washing unit. control panel boards. pressure settings etc. quantity of water. Single or both side vacuum suction can be installed. . Depending on requirement 3 or 4 tanks or more can be arranged in serial. ( Perforated or wire mesh covered) water inlet and outlet valves. The water from last tank flows backward to each preceeding washing unit. vacuum application mechanism. This units consists of 3 . After drying the fabric is plaited on trolleys or batched as per convenience. Each tank is kept at higher base level to ensure gravity flow of counter current washing. removes directly residues from substrate interms of suspended and dissolved solids. This concept reduces water consumption and improves washing efficiency. The number of cylinders accounts for efficiency. sprinkler type etc.. air nozzles. temperature indicators.The feeble residues on substrate is washed off by special washing unit E. Special Washing unit:The fibre residues from wet fabric are washed off by this process. 5. shutter arrangement can be done. in feed and drain valves. only the last tank is fed in with fresh water. This decides the temperature and speed of drying. The drier unit can be of hot flue type or steam heated drying range. electrical and mechanical drive element can be engineered suitably.4 or more individual tanks kept in series. In counter current washing system.The speed of sprinkling. In case of hot cylinders. Pressure control valves. E. temperature of drying. The vacuum suction before leaving each tank. The vacuum suction air. bye-pass valves. Literally instead of water . spacings of series. Drier Unit : The wet fabric after final vacuum suction and squeezing is carried to drier unit. surface speed synchronization between various elements. When width changes. This is again a special feature of this washing system. can be designed suitably. In normal washing systems. In this system maximum impurities are directly removed by suction and by pre-cleaning unit. air is being used for forcing out impurities adhering onto fabric substrate. can be suitably ascertained. speed. 3. contact slits etc. pressure regulators. water / steam control valves. washing chemicals dosing arrangements. 4. Temperature control valves and indicators. capacity and type of compressors. This technique is adaptable to existing washing units by modification and even to domestic washing machine F. reduced pollution load and ease of effluent water treatment and more reuse scope are enhanced. 1. requires minimum washing.

flash heat temperature. Parallel processing of multi web processing and washing can also be installed to save energy. Continuous Bleaching .Drying of 100% Cotton fabrics . 4. The foundation. Mutual inter unit heat recovery and reuse is possible 6. level. The overall width of entire unit depends on width of fabric. 2. Material of construction of various elements can be suitably ascertained. Continuous scouring Washing . devices in case of stoppage etc. Continuous desizing .Washing .Drying of 100% Cotton fabrics 2. indicators.Apart from preparation process. suitable fabric guider systems can be introduced. 5) Uniform heat transfer to ensure by way of hot air circulation dynamics design. this washing unit can be used for washing of dyed or printed or other process goods in an efficient manner. Trouble shootings foreseen: 1) Fabric degration or strength loss can be controlled by chemical concentration. fabric cut off or seam cut off detection sensors. number of webs being processed. 10. The placement of various units can be horizontal or vertical or folded to save space requirement.GENERAL 1. regulatory valves for water. Entry to intermediate and exit. 8. to be suitably installed. Variable speed drive. air.Drying of 100% Cotton fabrics 4.Washing . The width of the unit.can be controlled by surface speed control and tension 3) Foam in washing unit due to air can be controlled by cleaning systems. 7. 11. Maintenance aspects of mechanical and electrical gadgets can be kept in view in the designing aspect. fabric tension etc. 12. temperature and pressure can be suitably installed. cross section depends on width of fabric to be processed. The overall speed of processing can be varied as per production requirement 14.Drying of 100% Cotton fabrics 3. support frames of individual units can be engineered as per requirement. 2) Abrasion . 5. 13. Controls. Surface speed synchronization between individual drives from unit A to Unit F and inter unit speed synchronization 3. heater unit temperature cut off.Washing . Combined desizing & scouring . 4) Emergency stops. APPLICATION SCOPE OF FLASH PROCESS AND SPECIAL AIR WASHING SYSTEM 1. time. 9.

11. EXPERIMENTAL PROOF METHODOLOGY ADOPTED Since. Reduced energy consumption (90-99% Savings) 3. time.Washing . manpower & improved productivity. Scouring. Scope for combined desizing. 100% sized. Clean technology option. 8. involve huge cost. FLASH PROCESS. Water.Drying of 100% Cotton fabrics 6. Time. bleaching . Scouring & Bleaching .fixation . 6. Excellent process efficiency. Reduced water consumption (60-70% Savings) 2.results in reduced cost of production and pollution problems. the applicant had adopted the following procedures to derive experimental proof. Scope for combined desizing & Scouring . energy. washing & improved fastness.Drying Cotton fabrics. ADVANTAGES 1.Washing for dye padded / printed fabrics. Combined scouring & Bleaching .5. reduced. 10. Saves energy. Synthetics & blends. Can be used for development of padded dye/ print by dry heat fixation & Washing . combined and continuous manner of processing and washing . Reduced pollution potential. Application scope to existing process / Washing unit by suitable modification.increased speed.dry . Easeir effluent treatment & water reuse scope rendered. Reduced time of process and increased speeds 4. Facility for multi layer fabric processing and parallel webs processing to achieve maximum productivity. cotton fabric . 9. 8. The reduced water. Internal heat recovery and reuse scope. woven.Drying of synthetics or blends 9. scouring. Pollution .Washing .Drying of synthetics or blends. 7. Combined desizing. the overall cost of engineering and final run of actual system.Washing . Scope for multi layer & Parallel webs processing for maximum productivity 5. man power & cost of production. PRECLEANING AND IMMERSION AIR WASHING MATERIALS & TOOLS USED 1.Drying can also be made feasible 7.Washing . 11. 10. Scope for preparation processes like desizing. 12.Washing . Scope for pad . bleaching .Drying by single stage or combined ( 2 in one or 3 in one etc) for 100% cotton.

designing.5 . 4. Weighing balance. bleaching and various combination process were conducted. Steel wire mesh (As perforated immersion rolls) for fabric support during washing. test tubes for comparative assessment of wash. Comparative figures for consumption of energy.2. Wash bath continuation and next bath contamination after vacuum suction and squeezing were studied and recorded. Flash process experiments were conducted with suitable recipe formulations by studying various parameters based on (for designing.7.10 gpl Ammonium chloride .0. and requisite chemicals for recipe formulations.6 0 .6 hrs Non ionic soap .5. Buckets filled with water (for immersion wash tanks) 8. bleaching and combination processes for 100% cotton fabric) trails. Laboratory padding mangle (As squeezing mangle) 12.5 . Domestic vacuum cleaner (for vacuum application) 7. Domestic vacuum cleaner (For vacuum suction after air washing) 11. volume jars. 13.5 .60 . COMPARATIVE RECTPE MODIFICATIONS Normal desiring* Flash desizing Recipe Recipe Biocon (Enzyme) . Simultaneously normal bath based preparation processes for 100% cotton viz. Fabric Tensile strength Tester.10% Sodium chloride .6% pH . Followed by this the immersion air washing was conducted by keeping pre cleaned sample on wire mesh support into bucket of water and air washing was done by compressor air hose under water. scouring.5 Non ionic wetting agent . beakers. water.3% M:L ratio .l gpl DEG . wash fastness Testing bath with heating arrangement. Water sprayer (in place of pre-cleaning water sprinkler) 6.4 . crock meter. Comparative process efficiency tests were conducted and obtained results were recorded.1% Temperature . TDS meter.100 parts Time . 1000 W electrical room heater with blower /Electrical hair drier (for flash heat application) 5.2% Time .60 sees Temperature .70 C Emulsifier . water and time were assessed & recorded.1 : 4 Water . After flash process. 3. Laboratory 2 bowl padding mangle as chemical impregnator unit. the pre cleaning vacuum suction experiments were done by water sprayer and domestic vacuum suction. Mini compressor with hose (As air impingement nozzle) 9. scouring. Glass beakers.dry heat pH . 10.

0.1:1 SCOURING Normal scouring Flash scouring Recipe Recipe Caustic soda -5% M:L ratio -1:1 Tri sodium phosphate . FLASH SCOURING WITH HYDROS & FLASH BLEACHING: 0 0 .0.1.60 sees.M:L ratio .dry heat M:L ratio -1:4 pH -9-10 BLEACHING NORMAL FULL BLEACHING: Recipe bleaching (desizing & scouring as mentioned earlier): Wetting agent .0.0.2% Water .5% Caustic -1% Wetting agent .0.5% Caustic soda -3% Hydrogen peroxide -7% Defoamer .5% Soda ash -2% Soap .100 parts Sodium bisulphate .1-2 hours Temperature -9O C MLR -1:4 pH -10-11 FLASH DESIZING.4% Sequestering agent -1% Stabilizer .ionic wetting agent -1% Water .75% Non.1% DEG -5% Soda ash . Time -4hrs Temp .0.100 parts Time .5% pH -10 Water -100 parts Temperature -9O C Time .

5 Non ionic wetting agent -2% Time .100 parts pH -10 0 .60 sees.6 hrs Non ionic soap -1% Temperature -60-70 C Water -100 parts M:L ratio -1:4 Time -40 sees Temp -dry heat Scouring Recipe pH -6 Caustic soda -5% Tri sodium phosphate -1% Soda ash .10% Sodium chloride -5-10gpl Ammonium chloride -6% pH -5.Recipe Desizing Recipe Scouring Recipe for Bleaching DEG .75% Water .dry heat pH -10-11 PH -9-10 FLASH DESIZING CUM SCOURING AND FLASH BLEACHING: Flash desizing cum scouring Normal desizing and scouring Recipe Desizing Recipe M:L ratio -1:1 Biocon (Enzyme) -0.5% Water -100 parts Temperature .dry heat Water . M:L ratio -1:1 Temp .ionic wetting Sodium silicate .0.5-1 gpl DEG .4 .5-7.10% M: L ratio -1:1 M:L ratio -1:1 Ammonium chlorids .100 parts Temperature -dry heat pH -6 Time .1.100 parts Sodium bisulphate -0. -6% DEG -5% Sodium acetate -3% Non ionic wetting Soda ash -2% H2O2 -3% gent -2% Caustic -1% DEG -5% Non ionic soap -1% Non.5% Emulsifier -3% agent -1% Mercerizing wetting Water .5% Soap -0.60 sees. Time .60 sees Hydros .5% agent -1% Time .5% Wetting agent -0.0.

desizing cum scouring. stating that the washing was intense. TIME AND ENERGY 1 JIGGERDESIZING 3 KEER SCOURING 4 JIGGERBLEACHING 5) NORMAL CONTINUOUS SCOURING AND BLEACHING VS FLASH DESIZING CUM SCOURING WITH AND FLASH BLEACHING 6) NORMAL FULL BLEACHING VS FLASH DESIZING. FLASH SCOURING WITH HYDROS AND FLASH BLEACHING 7) NORMAL FULL BLEACHING VS FLASH DESIZING CUM SCOURING AND FLASH BLEACHING 8 NORMAL DESIZING AND SCOURING VS FLASH DESIZING CUM SCOURING 9) STRENGTH OF FABRICS AND PROCESS EFFICIENCY AND DYEABILITY a) DESIZING b) SCOURING: c) BLEACHING: d) COMBINED PROCESS DESIZING CUM SCOURING ‡ All the above test results shows that the flash process can be safely employed for efficient processes like desizing. Fastners of Dyed and Printed washed goods by immersion air wash samples were better than normal washed Dyed and printed goods. 2. 0 . A vacuum suctioned sample from first wash showed less contamination and clarity in Second wash bath than just squeezed first wash sample with vacuum suction. Suspended solids. bleaching without fabric degradation. 3. scouring. RESULTS OF WATER IMMERSION AIR WASHING TECHNIQUE 1. 4.Temperature -9O C Time -4hrs M:L ratio -1:4 Ih the same manner recipes for synthetics and blends can be formulated and set. The immersion air washed both showed more contamination and turbidity. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS COMPARATIVE FIGURES ON SAVINGS OF WATER. TDS levels of wash water of immersion air was sample found lesser than normal was sample.

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