INTRODUCTION WELL COMPLETION The word “completion” itself means conclusion, and more particularly in the case we are

concerned with, the conclusion of a borehole that has just been drilled. Completion is therefore the link between drilling the borehole as such as producing phase. As a result, completion involves all of the operations designed to make the well produce, in particular connecting the borehole and the pay zone, treating the pay zone (if any treatment), equipping the well, putting it on stream and assessing it. Pay zone is a zone consisting of reservoir rocks which contain oil and/or gas that can be recovered. Generally speaking, it is usually considered that certain measurement and maintenance operations in the well along with any workover jobs that might be required also come under the heading of completion. Completion is highly dependent on the phases that precede and follow it and is often even an integral part of them. We can therefore say that completion begins with well positioning and ends only at well abandonment. Whatever the operational entity in charge of well completion and workover, its actions are greatly influenced by the way that has been designed and drilled and by the production problems the reservoir might cause. The “completion man” will therefore have to work in close cooperation with the “driller” and also with reservoir engineers and production technical staff. Lower completion This refers to the portion of the well across the production or injection zone. The well designer has many tools and options available to design the lower completion according to the conditions of the reservoir. Typically, the lower completion is set across the productive zone using a liner hanger system, which anchors the lower completion to the production casing string. The broad categories of lower completion are listed below. Open hole completion Open hole completion is that completions where the tubulars across the production zone are not cemented in place. Openhole completions have seen significant uptake in recent years, and there are many configurations, often developed to address specific reservoir challenges. There have

been many recent developments which has boosted the success of openhole completions, and they also tend to be popular in horizontal wells, where cemented liners are more expensive and technically more difficult. The common options for openhole completions are; 1) pre-holed liner (also often called pre-drilled liner). The liner is prepared with multiple small drilled holes, then set across the production zone to provide wellbore stability and an intervention conduit. Pre-holed liner is often combined with openhole packers, such as swelling elastomers, mechanical packers or external casing packers, to provide zonal segregation and isolation. It is now quite common to see a combination of pre-holed liner, solid liner and swelling elastomer packers to provide an initial isolation of unwanted water or gas zones. Multiple sliding sleeves can also be used in conjunction with openhole packers to provide considerable flexibility in zonal flow control for the life of the wellbore. This type of completion is also being adopted in some water injection wells, although these require a much greater performance envelope for openhole packers, due to the considerable pressure and temperature changes that occur in water injectors. Openhole completions (in comparison with cemented liners) require better understanding of formation damage, wellbore clean-up and fluid loss control. A key difference is that perforating penetrates through the first 6-18inches (15-45cm) of formation around the wellbore, whilst openhole completions require the reservoir fluids to flow through all of the filtrate-invaded zone around the wellbore and lift-off of the mud filter cake. Many openhole completions will incorporate fluid loss valves at the top of the liner to provide well control whilst the upper completion is run. There are an increasing number of ideas coming into the market place to extend the options for openhole completions; for example, electronics can be used to provide a self-opening or selfclosing liner valve. This might be used in an openhole completion to improve clean-up, by bringing the well onto production from the toe-end for 100 days, then self-opening the heel-end. Inflow control devices and intelligent completions are also installed as openhole completions. Pre-holed liner may provide some basic control of solids production, where the wellbore is thought to fail in aggregated chunks of rubble, but it is not typically regarded as a sand control completion.

2) Slotted liner can be selected as an alternate to pre-holed liner, sometimes as a personal preference or from established practice on a field. It can also be selected to provide a low cost control of sand/solids production. The slotted liner is machined with multiple longitudinal slots, for example 2 mm x 50mm, spread across the length and circumference of each joint. Recent advances in laser cutting means that slotting can now be done much cheaper to much smaller slot widths and in some situation slotted liner is now used for the same functionality as sand control screens. 3) Openhole sand control is selected where the liner is required to mechanically hold-back the movement of formation sand. There are many variants of openhole sand control, the three popular choices being stand-alone screens, openhole gravel packs (also known as external gravel packs, where a sized sand 'gravel' is placed as an annulus around the sand control screen) and expandable screens. Screen designs are mainly wire-wrap or premium; wire-wrap screens use spiral-welded corrosion-resistant wire wrapped around a drilled basepipe to provide a consistent small spiral gap (such as 0.012-inch (0.30 mm), termed 12 gauge). Premium screens use a woven metal cloth wrapped around a basepipe. Expandable screens are run to depth before being mechanically swaged to a larger diameter. Ideally, expandable screens will be swaged until they contact the wellbore wall. Cased hole completion This involves running casing or a liner down through the production zone, and cementing it in place. Connection between the well bore and the formation is made by perforating. Because perforation intervals can be precisely positioned, this type of completion affords good control of fluid flow, although it relies on the quality of the cement to prevent fluid flow behind the liner. As such it is the most common form of completion... Completion components The upper completion refers to all components from the bottom of the production tubing upwards. Proper design of this "completion string" is essential to ensure the well can flow properly given the reservoir conditions and to permit any operations as are deemed necessary for enhancing production and safety.

Where wellheads are located on the production oil platforms/onshore they are called a surface wellhead. condensate well and other types of wells. Whilst drilling the oil well the surface pressure control is provided by a Blowout preventer or 'BOP'. gas well. and has isolation valves and choke equipment to control the flow of well fluids during production. used for an oil well. The primary purpose of a wellhead is to provide the suspension point and pressure seals for the casing strings that run from the bottom of the hole sections to the surface pressure control equipment. It was named for its crude resemblance to a decorated tree. Wellheads are typically cemented in place during drilling operations and form an integral structure of the well. and if located beneath the water then are referred to as a subsea wellhead or mudline wellhead Christmas Tree This is the main assembly of valves that controls flow from the well to the process plant (or the other way round for injection wells) and allows access for chemical squeezes and well interventions. wellhead and BOP. gas injection well. In petroleum and natural gas extraction. a Christmas tree. and fittings. . water disposal well. the wellhead may be recovered for refurbishment and re-use. or "Tree". The surface pressure control is provided by a christmas tree which is installed on top of the wellhead. (not "Wellhead" as sometimes incorrectly referred to) is an assembly of valves. Once the well has been drilled. spools. A wellhead is a general term used to describe the component at the surface of an oil well that provides the structural and pressure containing interface for the drilling and production equipment. In exploration wells which are abandoned. a completion is placed in the well that provides an interface with the reservoir rock and the tubular conduit for the well fluids.Wellhead This is the pressure containing equipment at the surface of the well where casing strings are suspended and the Blowout preventer or Christmas tree (oil well) is connected. water injection well. then a well blowout can occur. If the pressure is not contained during drilling operations by the casings.

etc. TFL (Through Flow Line). flow rate. It is common to identify the type of tree as either "Subsea Tree" or "Surface Tree". side valve. corrosion. A tree burning excess natural gas particularly looks like a Christmas tree. erosion. . This is especially true in subsea applications where the resemblance to Christmas Trees no longer exists given the frame and support systems into which the main valve block is integrated.A tree and wellhead are separate pieces of equipment not to be mistaken as the same piece. mudline horizontal. or Floating Production and Offloading Vessel or FPSO or other combination of structures). Producing surface wells that require pumps (pump jacks. nodding donkeys. and also for riser tie-back situations which would then have a tree included at riser top. tree and well monitoring points (such as pressure. A tree may also be used to control the injection of gas or water injection application on a producing or non-producing well in order to sustain economic "production" volumes of oil from other well(s) in the area (field). mono bore. sand detection. The primary function of a tree is to control the flow into or out of the well. well. mudline. Tree complexity has increased over the last few decades. usually oil or gas. storage depot and or other pipeline eventually leading to a refinery or distribution center (for gas). and facilities are ready to produce and receive oil or gas. and TBT (Through Bore Tree) trees. Each of these classifications has a number or varieties within them. valves are opened and the release of the formation fluids is allowed to flow into and through a pipeline. A tree often provides numerous additional functions including chemical injection points. well intervention means. dual bore. temperature. etc. valve and choke position feedback.) frequently do not utilize any tree due to NO pressure containment requirement. They are frequently manufactured from blocks of steel containing multiple valves rather than made from multiple flanged valves. The pipeline then leads to a processing facility. For clarity. connection points for devices such as down hole pressure and temperature transducer (DHPT). flow composition. pressure relief means (eg annulus vent). horizontal. When the operator. or Floating Processing Unit (FPU). though wet Christmas trees never do this. Subsea examples include conventional. Subsea wells and thus trees usually flow through flowlines to a fixed or floating production platform or to a storage vessel (known as a Floating Storage Offloading vessel (FSO). a wellhead must be present in order to utilize a Christmas Tree and a wellhead is used WITHOUT a Christmas Tree during drilling operations.

measure. which well fluids must take to get to surface. and react to sensor outputs on the tree or even down the well bore.000 psi). allowing it to be a means of well control while an actuated wing valve is normally the primary well remotely (from control room or control panel) controlled valve. meaning they require active hydraulic pressure to stay open. The two lower valves are called the master valves (upper and lower respectively) because they lie in the flow path. The right hand valve is often called the flow wing valve or the production wing valve.On producing wells. Christmas trees are used on both subsea (current technical limits are up to around 3000 metres and working temperatures of -50°F to 350°F with a pressure rating up to 15. Examples are identified in API Specifications 6A and 17D. Valves in Chrirstmass Tree Subsea and Surface Trees have a large variety of valve configurations and combinations of manual and/or actuated (hydraulic or pneumatic) valves. normally arranged in a crucifix type pattern (hence the endurance of the term "Christmas tree"). sssv. Hydraulic tree wing valves are usually built to be fail safe closed. because it is in the flowpath the hydrocarbons take to production facilities (or the path water or gas will take from production to the well in the case of injection wells). Functionality may be extended further by using the control system on a subsea tree to monitor. dhsv. The deepest installed subsea tree is in the USA Gulf of Mexico at approximately 9000 feet. while the upper master valve is often hydraulically actuated. The lower master valve will normally be manually operated. The CONTROL SYSTEM attached to the tree controls the downhole safety valve (scssv. . A basic surface tree consists of two or three manual valves (usually gate valves because of their robustness) A typical sophisticated surface tree will have at least four or five valves. etc) while the tree acts as an attachment and conduit means of the control system to the downhole safety valve. injection of chemicals or alcohols or oil distillates to prevent and or solve production problems (such as blockages) may be used.

a lubricator is rigged up onto the top of the tree and the wire or coil is lowered through the lubricator. It is set in the tree or the wellhead and suspends the production tubing and/or casing. Some trees have a second swab valve. deepwater (>3000 feet) guidelineless applications. as well as chemical injection. single phase flow such as Water or Gas. Monobore. forcing the well to be shut in for a day during rig down operations. A tubing hanger is a component used in the completion of oil and gas production wells. the two arranged one on top of the other. . concentric. a floline connection interface (hub. Subsea trees are available in either Vertical or Horizontal configurations with further speciality available such as Dual Bore. For such operations. MultiPhase flow. Subsea trees contain many additional valves and accessories compared to Surface trees. or electric) and sensors for gathering data such as pressure. sand flow. Drill-Through. In the North Sea. This valve is typically manually operated. Guidlineless or Guideline. With only a single swab valve. which sits on top of the wellhead and serves as the main support for the production tubing. the upper master valve is usually closed to act as the second barrier. Typically a Subsea tree would have a Choke (permits control of flow). Subsea Trees may range in size and weight from a few tons to approximatley 70 tons for high pressure. Mudline. subsea control interface (direct hydraulic. The valve at the top is called the swab valve and lies in the path used for well interventions like wireline and coiled tubing. past the swab valve and into the well. temperature. It is typically manually operated. electro hydraulic. flange or other connection). It is primarily used for injection of fluids such as corrosion inhibitors or methanol to prevent hydrate formation. Sometimes it provides porting to allow the communication of hydraulic. erosion. avoiding delaying production for a day is usually too small a gain to be worth the extra expense of a having a Xmas tree with a second swab valve.The left hand valve is often called the kill wing valve. electric and other downhole functions. It also serves to seal-in the annulus and production areas. However. Tubing hanger This is the component. The intention is to allow rigging down equipment from the top of the tree with the well flowing while still preserving the Two barrier rule. it is called the non-active side arm (NASA).

. It is usually between five and ten centimeters in diameter and is held inside the casing through the use of expandable packing devices. This means that when closed. It is almost always installed as a vital component on the completion. It is placed as far below the surface as is deemed safe from any possible surface disturbance including cratering caused by the wipeout of the platform. If there is more than one zone of production in the well. up to four lines of production tubing can be run. such that the flow of wellbore fluids try to push it shut. Production tubing is run into the drilled well after the casing is run and cemented in place. Production tubing is a tubular used in a wellbore through which production fluids are produced.Production tubing Production tubing is the main conduit for transporting hydrocarbons from the reservoir to surface (or injection material the other way). Operation These valves are commonly uni-directional flapper valves which open downwards. while pressure from surface pushes it open. It runs from the tubing hanger at the top of the wellhead down to a point generally just above the top of the production zone. it provides a continuous bore from the production zone to the wellhead through which oil and gas can be produced. Downhole safety valve A downhole safety valve refers to a component on an oil and gas well. it will isolate the reservoir fluids from surface. Along with other components that constitute the production string. it is installed in the production tubing and is held in the open position by hydraulic pressure from surface contained in a 1/4" control line that is attached to the DHSV's hydraulic chamber and terminated at surface to an hydraulic actuator. This component is intended as a last resort method of protecting the surface from the uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons. This allows fluids to pass up or be pumped down the production tubing. It is a cylindrical valve with either a ball or flapper closing mechanism . When closed the DHSV forms a barrier in the direction of hydrocarbon flow. but fluids can still be pumped down for well kill operations. which acts as a failsafe to prevent the uncontrolled release of reservoir fluids in the event of a worst case scenario surface disaster.

abbreviated to TR-SCSSV. there is more fluid to be spilled causing environmental damage. . meaning they are opened using a hydraulic connection linked directly to a well control panel. not above the seabed. it is failsafe and will isolate the wellbore in the event of a loss of the wellhead. i. The full designation for a typical valve is 'tubing retrievable. then the weight of the hydraulic fluid alone may apply sufficient pressure to keep the valve open. Another reason relates to the hydraulic control line. the hydraulic pressure forces a sleeve within the valve to slide downwards. in offshore wells. However. the spring pushes the sleeve back up and causes the flapper to shut. then the portion of the control line below the surface is larger. MMS regulations state that the valve must be placed no less than 100' below the mudlin Reasons to keep it high The further down the well the DHSV is located. There is also the risk of cratering in the event of a catastrophic loss of the topside facility. When hydraulic pressure is removed. If it is too large. When hydraulic pressure is applied down a control line. or in the worst case. Positioning The location of the downhole safety valve within the completion is a precisely determined parameter intended to optimise safety. more fuel for a fire. In this way.e. surface controlled. Therefore. The valve is specifically placed below the maximum depth where cratering is expected to be a risk. it is necessary for the valve to be positioned away from the well where it could potentially come to harm. Hydraulic pressure is required to keep the valve open as part of the failsafe design. even with the loss of surface pressurisation. This means that in the event of loss of containment at surface. This implies that it must be placed subsurface in all circumstances. subsurface safety valve'. There are arguments against it either being too high or too low in the well and so the final depth is a compromise of all factors. the greater the potential inventory of hydrocarbons above it when closed. if the valve is too far down the well. Reasons to keep it low As part of the role of the DHSV to isolate the surface from wellbore fluids. This movement compresses a large spring and pushes the flapper downwards to open the valve.Most downhole safety valves are controlled hydraulically from surface. placing the valve higher limits this hazard.

it is often a requirement to install a safety valve in the 'A' annulus of the well to ensure that the surface is protected from a loss of annulus containment. Graphic images of oril wells in Kuwait on fire after the First Gulf War after their wellheads were removed. requires a workover. The full name for this most common type of downhole safety valve is a Tubing Retrievable Surface Controlled Sub-Surface Valve. In the United Kingdom. However. no law mandates the use of DHSVs. Retrieving the valve. but merely sets out the requirement that the goal be achieved. It is up to the oil companies to decide how to achieve it and DHSVs are an important component of that decision. This means that they are installed as a component of the completion string and run in during completion. Issues While the DHSV isolates the production tubing. should it malfunction.If there is a risk of methane hydrate (clathrate) plugs forming as the pressure changes through the valve due to Joule-Thomson cooling. However. where the rock is warmer than 30 C. it is company policy for many operators in the UKCS. shortened in completion diagrams to TRSCSSV. Deploying and retrieving Most downhole safety valves installed as part of the completion design are classed as "tubing retrievable". This type of valve can fit inside the production tubing and is deployed on wireline after the old valve has been straddled open. the 1974 Health & Safety at Work Act requires that measures are taken to ensure that the uncontrolled release of wellbore fluids is prevented even in the worst case. not a direct legal requirement in many places. these valves are not as common and . The brilliance of the act is that it does not issue prescriptive guideline for how to achieve the goal of health and safety. It is. Legal requirement The importance of DHSVs is undisputed. then this is a reason to keep it low. however. rather than go to the expense of a workover. demonstrate the perils of not using the components (at the time. If a tubing retrievable valve fails. they were deemed unnecessary because they were onshore wells). As such. although not a legal requirement. a loss of integrity could allow wellbore fluid to bypass the valve and escape to surface through the annurlus. a "wireline retrievable" valve may be used instead. For wells using gas lift.

Side pocket mandrel This is a welded/machined product which contains a 'side-pocket' alongside the main tubular conduit. many operators consider it prudent to install a valve. which allows hydrocarbon gas from the 'A' annulus to be injected into the flow stream. Working Principle A system of mechanical seals are used to prevent the fluid being pumped from entering the motor and causing a short circuit. thereby connecting it to the delivery pipework . This device is used for artificial lift to help provide energy to drive hydrocarbons to surface if reservoir pressure is insufficient. Submersibles are more efficient than jet pumps. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. flexible hose or lowered down guide rails or wires so that the pump sits on a "ducks foot" coupling.they are not necessarily installed at the same position in the well. The side pocket. Submersible pumps push water to the surface as opposed to jet pumps having to pull water. The pump can either be connected to a pipe. Annular safety valve On wells with gas lift capability. meaning it is possible that fluids could snake their way around the valves to surface. typically 1" or 1½" diameter is designed to contain gas lift valve. which will isolate the 'A' annulus for the same reasons a DHSV may be needed to isolate the production tubing in order to prevent the inventory of natural gas downhole from becoming a hazard as it became on Piper Alpha. The main advantage of this type of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation. Electrical submersible pump A submersible pump (or electric submersible pump (ESP)) is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. a problem associated with a high elevation difference between pump and the fluid surface.

By decreasing the pressure at the bottom of the well (by lowering bottomhole flowing pressure. so hot water and flammable liquids should be avoided. for example an oil platform) and sub-surface components (found in the well hole). It can also be used out of the water. Each stage consists of a driven impeller and a diffuser which directs flow to the next stage of the pump. Subsurface components typically include the pump. Pumps come in diameters from 90mm (3. general industrial pumping and slurry pumping. seal and cables. able to operate across a broad range of flow rates and depths. The motor used to drive the pump is typically a three phase.Applications Submersible pumps are found in many applications. Special attention to the type of ESP is required when using certain types of liquids. Multiple stage submersible pumps are typically lowered down a borehole and used for water abstraction or in water wells.7 metres (29 ft) in length. .5 inches) to 254mm (10 inches) and vary between 1 metre (3 ft) and 8. or increasing drawdown). sewage pumping. The pumps are typically electrically powered and referred to as Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP). squirrel cage induction motor. There is a possibility that the gasoline will leak into the pump causing a fire or destroying the pump.5 kW to 560 kW (at 60 Hz). The pump itself is a multi-stage unit with the number of stages being determined by the operating requirements. taking suction with a 2-1/2 inch non-collapsible hose. Single stage pumps are used for drainage. surface cables and transformers. Surface components include the motor controller (often a variable speed controller). with a nameplate power rating in the range 7. significantly more oil can be produced from the well when compared with natural production. ESP usage in oil wells Submersible pumps are used in oil production to provide a relatively efficient form of "artificial lift". ESP systems consist of both surface components (housed in the production facility. motor. These use a 440 volt A/C motor that operates a small centrifugal pump. They are also popular with aquarium filters. The pumped liquid is circulated around the motor for cooling purposes. A gas separator is sometimes installed. ESP's commonly used on board naval vessels cannot be used to dewater contaminated flooded spaces.

The energy to turn the pump comes from a high-voltage (3 to 5 kV) alternating-current source to drive a special motor that can work at high temperatures of up to 300 °F (149 °C) and high pressures of up to 5. ESPs have dramatically lower efficiencies with significant fractions of gas. There are two main categories of sliding sleeves: open/close and choking. It is also a useful marker for depths in the well. from deep wells of up to 12. Mechanically actuated sleeves are simple and inexpensive but require actuation by a "lock.000 feet (3. They are used to shut off flow from a zone for economic reasons or to shut off a zone that is depleting or producing too much water. The ESP system consists of a number of components that turn a staged series of centrifugal pumps to increase the pressure of the well fluid and push it to the surface. Open/close sleeves are shifted between a full open position and a closed position. In multi-zone wells.New varieties of ESP can include a water/oil separator which permits the water to be reinjected into the reservoir without the need to lift it to the surface. Woodgroup's ESP. A sliding sleeve is a standard component for the completion of an oil or gas well. Sliding sleeve The sliding sleeve is hydraulically or mechanically actuated to allow communication between the tubing and the 'A' annulus. This cable had to be wrapped around jointed tubing and connected at each joint.000 psi (34 MPa). which can be difficult to accurately determine. Major brands are Schlumberger's Reda. they are used to regulate which zones to produce from and which ones to shut off. Their main uses are to shut off flow from one or more reservoir zones or to regulate pressure between zones. Until recently. Weatherford BORETS and Baker Hughes' Centrilift. they are not very tolerant of solids such as sand.7 km) deep with high energy requirements of up to about 1000 horsepower (750 kW). ESPs had been highly costly to install due to the requirement of an electric cable downhole. greater than about 10% volume at the pump intake. Given their high rotational speed of up to 4000 rpm (67 Hz) and tight clearances." . They are often used in multiple reservoir wells to regulate flow to and from the zones. Landing nipple This is a receptacle to receive wireline tools. New coiled tubing umbilicals allow for both the piping and electric cable to deployed with a single conventional coiled tubing unit.

King sleeves can be used to regulate the pressure between two or more zones. packers are used in injection wells to isolate the zones into which the water must be injected. In general. Sliding sleeve supports the lead for precise lines and retracts as the pencil is used. casing leaks or squeezed perforations. Hydraulically actuated sleeves are more complicated but can be actuated from a small pump at surface. The sleeve is designed to protect the lead and minimize lead breakage. They are also used to regulate the flow of fluid into a well during proppant fracturing or hydraulic fracturing operations. or with a slow burning chemical charge. high volume wells that are produced both up the tubing and annulus will not include a packer. 4. . well completions may not incorporate a packer when the annular space is used as a production conduit. In these situations. Packers may also be used to protect the casing from pressure and produced fluids. Choking sleeves are all hydraulically actuated and have a much more complex design than open/close sleeves. A packer is run in the casing on production tubing or wireline. isolate sections of corroded casing. mechanically. a sliding sleeve would be used to select which zone to produce. Rod pumped wells are not normally run with packers because the associated gas is produced up the annulus. Once the desired depth is reached. There are occasions in which running a packer may not be desirable. Ideal for heavy-handed writers needing to use fine lead Production packer The packer is the sealing device that isolates and contains produced fluids and pressures within the wellbore to protect the casing and other formations above or below the producing zone. The axial loads are applied hydraulically. In waterflooding developments in which water is injected into the reservoir.which must be run in the well on wireline or coiled tubing. 2. This is essential to the basic functioning of most wells. In wells with multiple reservoir zones. packers are used to isolate the perforations for each zone. and isolate or temporarily abandon producing zones. causing it to expand outward. It is usually run in close to the bottom end of the production tubing and set at a point above the top perforations or sand screens. Axial loads are applied to push the slips up a ramp and to compress the element. For example. the slips and element must be expanded out to contact the casing. Part of a pencil for heavy-handed users. A "sliding sleeve is also: 1. 3.

Protect the annular casing from corrosion from produced fluids and high pressures. by using gas energy for natural flow. • Friction springs. Limit well control to the tubing at the surface for safety purposes. Provide a means of separation of multiple producing zones. Aid in forming the annular volume (casing/tubing/packer) required for gas lift or subsurface hydraulic pumping systems. packer fluids) in the casing annulus. • Friction blocks. Support some of the weight of the tubing string. • Circulating valve. ELEMENTS OF PACKER Packers have following main elements: • Slip • Cone • Packing element system • Body or mandrel. Slip: The SLIP is wedge-shaped device with wickers or teeth on its face. preventing fluid and pressure contamination. . • Keep gas mixed with liquids. Hold well servicing fluid (kill fluids.PURPOSE • • • • • • • • Prevent down hole movement of the tubing string. Often improve well flow and production rate. which penetrate and grip the casing wall when the packer is set. • Separate producing zones.

the slips are held in a closed position until the packer has been lowered to the proper position in the well. Normally. Friction springs: These are similar to the springs on casing centralizer. This may be a disadvantage if (1) It is desired to circulate drilling mud out of the annulus. (2) It is desired to equalize pressures before unseating the packer. pulling up. fracturing. Under certain conditions this provides a more effective pack-off with less pressure than a single element. This valve can be opened by drill pipe or tubing manipulation (rotation. The slips are then released. Packing element system and body: Once the slips have anchored into the casing wall. With the valve open communication is established between the inside of the tubing and the casing annulus. (3) It is desired to circulate fluids while cementing. additional applied setting force energizes the PACKING-ELEMENT SYSTEM and create a seal between the packer BODY and the inside diameter of the casing. the packer body rotates at the same time but the friction springs provide sufficient drag so that the packer does not turn as the tubing is rotated. treating. Circulating valve: Once the sealing element is expanded. It permits the use of rubber of different degrees of hardness. however. In a three element packer. These outside elements will bear most of the abrasion while the tool is being run in the hole. usually by rotation of the tubing in a right hand direction. and the softer middle elements will not be damaged. or testing a well. Thus the release . For these reasons most packers are equipped with circulating valve (sometimes called an equalizing valve) located above the sealing element. pushing down or a combination of these operations). the hole below the packer is isolated from the casing annulus. On packers. They serve a different purpose. Most of the sealing action is obtained as a result of compression of the central element.Cone: The CONE is beveled to match the back of the slip and forms a ramp that drives the slip outwards and into the casing wall when setting force is applied to the packer. the uppermost and lowermost elements are usually harder than the middle element.

When packers are inflated in a wellbore. the packing elements and the slips can loss their grips on the casing and the fluid seal of the packer is lost. the pressures above and below the packer can exerts upward or downward force against the packer. Classification based on mode of setting: (1) Mechanical set packer (compression or tension). This is called unseating the packer.mechanism is actuated and the slips are allowed to spread out against the casing. (2) Hydraulic set packer. If the force is great enough . Friction blocks: These perform the same function as function as friction springs but are thin blocks having cylindrical surfaces that drag on the inside of the casing and prevent rotation of the packer during the slip release operation. Application of tubing weight will complete the setting of the slips. Classification of packer based on retrievability: (1) Retrievable packer. (2) Permanent packer. . FIG 1: PACKER ELEMENTS TYPES OF PACKER Packers can be classified in several ways.

1 RETRIEVABLE PACKERS: Retrieval is usually accomplished by some form of tubing manipulation. Classification based on use: (1) Testing. (4) Straddle.(3) Wireline set packer.1. General classification: 1. a retrievable packer must be used. The retrievable packers may or may not be resettable. deployment and setting . the differential pressure and temperature requirements of the applications must be considered. The well depth. Hook-wall packers 3. they can be reused.1 Classification of packer based on retrievability: 4. When selecting a packer for cased hole completion. To unset the tool. either a metal ring is sheared or a sleeve is shifted to disengage connecting components. (2) Production. re-completions. (3) Injection. Retrievable packers have a more complicated design and generally lower sealing and gripping capabilities. Disk-wall packers 4. Hydraulic packers 4. or to change out the production tubing. removal from the wellbore normally does not require milling. Anchor packers 2. This may necessitate rotation or require pulling tension on the tubing string. In situations where a packer must be easily removed from the well. but after removal and subsequent servicing. such as secondary recoveries. however. Tension packers 5. Permanent-completion packers 6.

TO SET THE PACKER: The packer is set by picking up. . TO RELEASE THE PACKER: Picking up the tubing releases the packer (no rotation required). The various operational models (flowing. the J-pins (on the bottom sub) are oriented for automatic re-engagement. Set-down weight closes and seals the bypass valve. the bypass valve opens to permit circulation through and around the packer. rotating to the right and then slacking off on the tubing.method desired and final tubing landing conditions are also factors that come into play. When the tubing string is raised the full length of the packer. injection and stimulation) that are anticipated over the entire life of the well are critical and must be considered carefully in the design phase. By then lowering the tubing slightly. the J-pin engages the J-slot thus assuring complete release and preventing accidental resetting while retrieving the packer. Understanding the uses and constraints of the different types of packers will help clarify the factors to consider when making a selection. The changes in the operational modes that influence changes in temperature. shut in. When the tubing is raised. sets the slips and packs-off the packing element. differential pressure and axial loads all have a direct impact on the packer.

FIG 2: Running in of Retrievable packer RETRIEVABLE TENSION PACKER: Retrievable tension packers generally are used when pressure below the packer is greater than the annulus pressure above the packer. These types of packer should be avoided in deeper application for which hydrostatic pressure and differential pressures can be greater. These packers also are used in shallow wells where the tubing weight is insufficient to set a compression packer properly. . The tension packer is suited for applications in which pressure below the packer is always greater than the annulus pressure at the tool such as in an injection well or low-pressure and – volume treating. Constant tubing tension must be maintained to keep the packer set and the packing element energized. Because high differential pressure can make the packers difficult to release because of the forces created by the pressure acting on the cross sectional area of the packer. Tension packers typically are set mechanically and are release by means of tubing rotation. While right hand torque is applied. such as in an injection well or low-pressure and –volume treating. Right hand torque is applied to the tubing.The tension packer has a single set of unidirectional slips that grip only the casing when the tubing is pulled in tension. the tubing is picked up and the appropriate amount of tension is applied to the tubing. The packer does not have an equalizing (or bypass) valve to aid in pressure equalization between the tubing and annulus to facilitate the retrieval of the packer.

RETRIEVABLE TENSION PACKER SCHEMATIC. 2. Packer could release if a change in the operational mode results in a temperature increase. Tubing could part if a change in the operational mode results in a temperature decrease.Constraints of the solid-head retrievable tension packer are: 1. 3. . Release is difficult with high differential pressure across the packer.

Tubing may corkscrew permanently if a change in the operational mode results in a tubing temperature increase (tubing lengthens). by picking up the tubing without moving the packer. this packer holds pressure from above only. The constraints of a retrievable compression packer are: 1. 3. Once . It is not suitable for injection wells or low-volume and pressure treating. Packer may unseat if a change in the operational mode results in a tubing temperature decrease (tubing shortens). It is opened.RETRIEVABLE TENSION PACKER SOLID HEAD RETRIEVABLE COMPRESSION PACKER: Retrievable compression (weight-set solid-head) packers are applied when annulus pressure above the packer exceeds pressure below the packer. 2. as in a producing well with a full annulus. The retrievable compression packer with fluid-bypass valve is also recommended for low to medium pressure/medium temperature oil or gas production applications. As with the solid-head packer. Packer release can be hampered by high differential pressure across packer. equalizing the pressure across the packer. using tubing weight. RETERIEVABLE COMPRESSION PACKER WITH BYPASS: The control-head retrievable compression packer has a bypass valve to alleviate the packer release problem resulting from excessive differential pressure. This situation precludes gas lift. The valve is on top of the packer. HEAD RERETRIEVABLE COMPRESSION PACKER SCHEMATIC. The packer is prevented from setting by means of a mechanical interlock while it is being run in the hole.

Constant compression or tubing weight must be maintained to sustain the pack off and keep the bypass valve closed. The packer is released simply by picking up on the tubing string-a desirable feature. the drag blocks on the packer are used to hold the packer in place and provide the resistance to set it. the tubing string is lowered to close the bypass seal and set the slips.the packer has been run to the desired depth. compression packers generally are not suitable for injection wells or low volume pressure treating operations. The packing element system is enhanced over that of the tension packer to make it suitable for moderately higher pressures and temperatures. Once the interlock system is released. As the tubing is being rotated. The addition of the integral bypass valve assists equalization of pressures in the tubing and the annulus and aids in releasing the packer. CONTROL HEAD COMPRESSION PACKER SCHEMATIC . the tubing string is rotated to initiate the setting sequence. The continued application of slackoff force energizes the packing element system and creates a seal. The valve can be opened by picking up on the tubing string without releasing the packer. Because of these design constraints.

TUBING RETRIEVABLE PACKER: On the top of wire line set packer a special nipple is located.RETEIEVABLE COMPRESSION PACKER WITH BYPASS Constraints are: (1) The bypass or equalizing valve could open if an operational mode change results in a tubing temperature decrease. Once the packer is installed and the wireline is retrieved a seal housing is run in the hole on the bottom of the production tubing. The housing has internal seals that. The electric wireline setting tool provides the force necessary to anchor the slips in the casing wall and energize the packing element. The nipple has a polished seal surface on its OD and has j-jugs that are used to anchor a seal housing or washer shoe in place. when landed on the polished nipple. This allows the installation of a slickline retrievable blanking plug if desired. . WIRELINE SET. and (2) Tubing could corkscrew permanently if an operational mode change results in a tubing temperature increase. The polished nipple also has a landing nipple profile in its ID. The packer is first run and set on electric wireline.

WIRELINE SET. the packer will act as a temporary bridge plug for well control while the tubing string and seal housing are run and landed. the electric line is removed.TUBING RETRIEVABLE PACKER The main advantage of this system is that it can be run and set under pressure on electric wireline (with a blanking plug preinstalled in the nipple profile) in a live oil or gas well. or (if desired) the packer can be released and retrieved mechanically with the tubing. The tubing can be retrieved from the wellbore at any time without disturbing the packer by unjaying the seal housing from the polished nipple. Once the packer is set. The housing also has an internal j profile that engages the lugs of the nipple and anchors the tubing string to the packer.creates a seal between the tubing and the annulus. And the pressure above the packer can be bleed off. Because the plug is located near the top of the packer . With the plug in place.

A bypass valve is present to aid in equalization and the release of the packer. Once the element is sealed off and the packoff force is mechanically locked in place. Applications • • • • • High formation. Once the tree has been installed. . as well as in completion for which well stimulation is planned. This group of mechanical set retrievable packers will vary greatly in design and performance and may require tension. compression or a combination of both to set and pack off the element. it can be circulated free of any debris before landing the tubing. the plug is removed with slickline. the tubing string may be landed in compression. unloading differential. and the well is placed on production. Slips located above and below the packing element (or a single set of bidirectional slips) are design to hold axial tubing loads from either direction to keep the packer anchored in place. These packers are suitable for HP/HT applications. where tubing manipulation or getting packoff force to the tool may present a problem. and it is almost universal in application. compression or neutral are the most common types of mechanical set retrievable packers run today. An internal lock system mechanically traps the packoff force and keeps the element energized until the packer is released. Care must be taken to ensure that tubing movement during production or injection operation does not exceed the tensile or compression limitations of either the packer or the tubing string.assembly. It can be used in production or injection applications. The only constraint is in deep deviated wells. or stimulation pressure areas Pulling tubing without unseating packers High bottomhole temperatures Downhole conditions demanding special running clearance Twin-flow chemical injections systems RETRIEVABLE TENSION/COMPRESSION SET VERSATILE LANDING: Tension or compression set packers that allow the tubing to be landed in tension. tension or neutral.

. Once the packer is set. It is set by applying the hydraulic pressure in the tubing to some preset level above hydrostatic pressure.RETRIEVABLE TENSION/COMPRESSION SET VERSATILE LANDING RETRIEVABLE HYDRAULIC-SET SINGLE STRING PACKER: The retrievable hydraulic-set packer has slips above and below the packing element. The force created by this action sets the slips and packs the element off. Some models have an atmospheric setting chamber and use the hydrostatic pressure of the well to boost the packoff force. Once the packer is set. or left neutral. Regardless of design. all of the force generated during the setting process is mechanically locked in place until the packer is later released. It is recommended for deviated wells where conditions are not suitable for mechanical or wireline setting packers. the tubing may be put in limited tension. It is universally applicable. The applied hydraulic pressure acts against a piston chamber in the packer. the tubing may be landed in tension (limited by shear release value of the packer). No tubing movement is required or generated to set the packer. the only constraint being its high cost. The packer generally is released with tension-actuated shear pins. compression. compression or neutral. To achieve a pressure differential at the packer and set it. a temporary plugging device must be run in the tail pipe below the packer.

This promotes safety and allows better control of the well while displacing tubing and annulus fluid. FIG 10: RETRIEVABLE HYDRAULIC-SET SINGLE STRING PACKER SCHEMATIC . The hydraulic set packer can be run in a single packer installation. It is ideal for highly deviated wells in which conditions are not suitable for mechanical set packers.It can be set easily after the wellhead has been flanged up and the tubing has been displaced.

Most models also have a built-in bypass system that allows the pressures in the tubing and annulus to equalize. FEATURES AND BENEFITS • • • • • • Sets securely in any hardness casing. The tension load required to release the packer must be considered carefully in the initial completion design and in the selection of the shear-ring value. Retrieval of the hydraulic set single string packer is accomplished by pulling tension with the tubing string to shear a shear ring.Special considerations include the following: • Well stimulation must be planned carefully to avoid premature shear release of the packer. • Maximum tensile capabilities of the tubing string when selecting the shear-release value of the packer are required. or shear pins. The shear-release value must not be set too high so that it will not be beyond the tensile capabilities of the tubing string. • A temporary plugging device must always be incorporated below the lowermost hydraulic set packer to facilitate hydraulic setting of the packer. as the packer is released. including premium grades Recommended for deviated wells Tubing pressure actuated Three piece packing element system Straight pull or rotational release Bi-directional one-piece slips below the packing . but it must be high enough so that the packer will not release prematurely during any of the planned operational modes over the life of the completion. located within the packer. or balance.

some models are designed to be set with pressure applied to the lower tubing (long string). shear-release pins are unaffected by differential pressure. improving reliability when running the packer in the wellbore. Dual string packers are generally set hydraulically because the tubing manipulation required to set a mechanical packer is not desirable or (often) not feasible in a dual string application. • All components are locked to prevent pressure buildup or debris from presetting the packer. • The compact design eases passage through doglegs and deviated wells to help prevent sticking and improve running efficiency. the mechanical-set dual packer can be set with applied slackoff force by the upper tubing string. Multiple packers are also used in tandem to isolate damaged casing. mechanical set models do exist. eliminating all critical O-rings after setting. The hydraulic set dual packers are released by applying tubing tension to shear an internal shear ring. however. • The setting cylinder is below the packing elements.DUAL STRING PACKERS: This is basically a “mid-string” isolation packer that is designed to seal off approximately two strings of tubing. however. chemical injection. The setting pressure typically is applied to the upper tubing string (short string). gas venting. some permanent models exist for use in HP/HT applications. The dual packer allows the simultaneous production of two zones while keeping them isolated. • The straight-pull. Applications: • Deviated and horizontal wells • High-volume instrumented applications • Well monitoring. Dual string packers are also use in electrical submersible pump applications in which both the electrical cable and the production tubing must pass through the packer. The dual string hydraulic set packer is set much the same as the hydraulic set single string packer. However. and in applications in which the tubing strings are run independently. enabling easy changes to the release force before running. . and hydraulic-line access • Multiple-zone isolation Features. Advantages and Benefits • The packer can be pressure tested on-site to save rig time. Most multiple-string packers are retrievable.

In most instances. The permanent packer is fairly simple and generally offers higher performance in both temperature and pressure ratings than does the retrievable packer. The permanent packer also offers the largest inside diameter (ID) to make it compatible with larger diameter tubing strings and monobore .• The packer has a cone design instead of hydraulic hold-down buttons to prevent pressureinduced packer release. The smaller OD and the compact design of the permanent packers help the tool negotiate through tight spots and deviations in the wellbore. DUAL STRING PACKER PERMANENT PACKER: Permanent packers can be removed from the wellbore only by milling. it has a smaller outside diameter (OD) offering greater running clearance inside the casing string than do retrievable packers.

1 SEALBORE PACKER: The polished sealbore packer is a permanent type or semipermanent packer that can be set with precision depth control on conductor wireline. creating a tubing retrieval problem .completion. The seal assembly may be a locator type which allows seal movement during production and treating operation. The decision about the best seal assembly to run depends on tubing movement and hydraulic calculations based on initial landing. . A tubing seal assembly with elastomeric packing forms the seal between the production tubing and the packer bore. a sealbore extension may be added to the packer. may never be required. flowing. as well as any stimulation or treatment that may be planned for the well. A locator sub and seal assembly is attached to the bottom of the tubing and is stung into the polished bore receptacle of the packer. the seal assembly is run on the production tubing after the packer is installed and stabbed into the packer bore downhole. Well isolation is accomplished by the fit of the elastomeric seals in the polished packer bore. There is one important constraint with this packer-if the tubing remains in a place for a long time at the same temperature and no movement occurs between the seals and the polished bore. the permanent sealbore packers. In case of the one-trip hydraulic-set sealbore packer system. Sealbore packers have a honed and polished internal sealbore. For the most part milling is not prohibitive and in many cases. The one disadvantage is that the permanent packer must be milled over to remove the packer from the wellbore.2. The removable seal assembly allows tubing to be retrieved for workover without the need of pulling and replacing the packer. which secures the seals in the packer bore and restricts tubing movement. the production tubing. or an anchor type. removal may be necessary if subsequent workover operations require full bore access to the casing below the packer or if a packer failure should occur. Isolation is achieved by the fit of the seals inside the polished bore. afford much higher performance in both temperature and pressure ratings than do any of the retrievable packers. both wireline and hydraulic set. the seals may stick to the polished bore surface. However. It also can be set mechanically or hydraulically on the tubing. The retrievable packer can be very basic for LP/LT applications or very complex in HP/HT applications. Generally. To accommodate longer seal lengths. 4. tubing seal assembly and packer are made up together and run as a unit. or shut in conditions.1. However if the packer is to be installed on electric wireline or set on a work spring.

In these instances. Once the packer is installed. However.SEALBORE PACKER SCHEMATIC SEALBORE PACKER METHODS OF CONVEYANCE For the most part. a . a packer is selected that can be run and set either on a workstring or on electric wireline. requiring no additional trips for installation. This one trip system is both cost effective and efficient. it may be necessary or desirable to install the packer in the wellbore first and then run the production tubing. both permanent and retrievable packers can be run and set on the production tubing string.

In this case.sealing device is attached to the end of the production tubing and connected to the packer downhole to form a seal. • The tubing is landed with a seal assembly and locator sub in the polished bore of a permanent or retrievable sealbore packer. a temporary plugging device is used in conjunction with the packer to allow the well pressure above the packer to be bled off once it is installed. First it offers fast installation and accurate placement of the packer. LANDING CONDITIONS: The tubing string is attached to the packer by two methods• It is latched or fixed to the packer by means of an anchor seal assembly (in the case of sealbore packer) or tubing thread (most retrievable packer). This will inflict damage to the element and lead to packer failure. whether run on tubing or electric line. Consideration should be given to the run in speed of the packer. THROUGH TUBING OPERATIONS: Considerations should be given to future through tubing operations such as coiled tubing operations. The term landing conditions refers to the amount of slackoff weight or tension that is left on the packer when the tree is landed and the wellhead is flanged up. Electric wireline setting of the packer affords several benefits. Running and setting the packer on a work string may be necessary in highly deviated wells in which the hole angle is too high to run the packer in on electric wireline. This is important in instances in which the packer must be set in very short interval or in cases in which the zones are very close together. Electric wireline deployment also can allow the packer to be installed and set under pressure in a live well without the need for a snubbing unit. it does afford the benefit of being able to hydraulically pressure test the packer and ensure that it is properly set before picking up and running the production tubing. swabbing. Although this method requires the most time for packer installation. Too fast of a run in speed in fluid can cause the rubber element to begin to pack off or swab. slickline or electric wireline work to ensure that the internal diameter of .

when properly equipped and set. CASING CLEANUP OPERATIONS: Any debris or obstruction that is present in the wellbore can cause most packers to malfunction. CONSIDERATIONS FOR PACKER SELECTION Packer selection requires an analysis of packer objectives or the anticipated well operations. the packer slip and element must take 100% contact with the casing wall. Retrievability will be enhanced greatly by using oil or solidfree water rather than mud for the packer fluid. Frequency of packer failures may be minimized by using the proper packer for the well condition and by anticipating future conditions when setting the packer. Initial investment and installation costs should not be the only criteria. They are used widely when reservoir pressures vary significantly between zones in multiple completions. Overall packer cost is related directly not only to retrievability and failure rate but to such diverse factors as formation damage during subsequent well operations or replacement of corkscrewed tubing. it is advisable to run a wireline junk basket and gauge ring. Considering both current and future well conditions. Weight-set tension types of retrievable packers will perform satisfactorily when the force on the packer is in one direction only and is not excessive. and . Permanent packers are by far the most reliable and. production stimulation. the packer with the minimum overall cost that will accomplish the objectives should be selected. PACKER MECHANICS The end result of most packer setting mechanisms is to (1) Drive a cone behind a tapered slip to force the slip into the casing wall and prevent packer movement.the completion equipment is adequate to allow passage of the tool. such as initial completions. and workover procedures. Before running any packer on electric wireline. To properly grip the casing and form a leak proof seal. It is advisable to run a casing scraper or other suitable casing cleanout tool and circulate the well clean before installing the production packer. the inside diameter of the packer should be equal to that of the tubing string to facilitate through-tubing operations. are excellent for resisting the high pressure differentials imposed during stimulation. The gauge ring has a slightly larger OD than the packer and gauges the hole to ensure that there are no tight spots that might cause the packer to become stuck. Ideally.

CO2 and chlorides at moderately high temperatures. are intended for use in both standard service and service in sour H2S environment. In some cases higher initial packer costs may be more than offset by the saving in rig time. design. cold worked 3% Mo high-nickel alloy steel and precipitationhardening nickel based alloys are suitable for some environments containing high levels of H2S. especially on deep wells using high-cost rigs. . The time cost should be examined carefully. • 22% chromium and 25% chromium duplex stainless steel are commonly used in some wet CO2 and mild H2S environments. some require wireline time. and some eliminate trips by hydraulic setting. There are three grades or levels. METALLURGY Some commonly used materials for manufacture of production packers are as follows: • Low alloy steel with minimum yield strength of 110psi are used for standard service in noncorrosive environments. ISO AND API STANDARDS The INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) and the AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API) have created a standard intended to established guidelines for manufacturers and end users in the selection. • Low alloy steel with maximum hardness of Rockwell 22C. Although the end result is relatively simple. 1% molybdenum and 13% chromium alloy steels are used in some wet CO2 environments. the means of accomplishing it and subsequent packer retrieval varies markedly between the several types of packers. • Martensitic steels such as 9% chromium. and laboratory testing of many types of packers available on today’s market. These materials are similar in property to P110 tubing and do not meet NACE MR-01-75 requirements for sour service. Some packers involve two or more round trips.(2) Compress a packing element to effect a seal. especially offshore. manufacture. established for quality control and six grades for design verification. • Austenitic stainless steels. which meet NACE MR-01-75 requirements.

GRADE V5 LIQUID TEST: In this grade. The testing parameters require that it be set with the minimum packoff force or pressure as specified by the manufacturer. the rate may not increase during the hold period. however. GRADE V6: This is the lowest grade established. The performance level in this instance is defined by the manufacturer for products that do not meet the testing criteria found in grades V0 through V5. and V1 represents the highest level of testing. During the hold period gas leak rate is not allowed. the packer must hold differential pressure in combination with compression and tensile loads. The packer must hold the maximum specified pressure at the upper and lower temperature limits in which the packer is design to work. GRADE V2 GAS TEST + AXIAL LOADS: The test medium is replaced with air or nitrogen. . GRADE V3 LIQUID TEST + AXIAL LOADS + TEMPERATURE CYCLING: To achieve V3 certification. with grade Q3 carrying the minimum requirements and Q1 outlining the highest level of inspection and manufacturing verification procedures. SPECIAL GRADE V0 GAS TEST + AXIAL LOADS + TEMPERATURE CYCLING+ BUBLE TIGHT GAS SEAL: This is a special validation grade that is added to meet customer specifications in which a tightgas seal is required. GRADE V1 GAS TEST + AXIAL LOADS+ TEMPERATURE CYCLING: The test is similar to V2 test. A leak rate of 20cm3 of gas over the hold period is acceptable. the packer must be set in the maximum ID casing it is rated for at the maximum recommended operating temperature. GRADE V4 LIQUID TEST+ AXIAL LOADS: In this grade. The six standard design-validation grades range from V6 to V1. A special V0 grade was included to meet special acceptance criteria requirements. V6 is the lowest grade.The quality standard range from grade Q3 to Q1. The pressure test is performed with water or hydraulic oil to the maximum differential pressure rating of the packer. the packer must pass a temperature cycle test.

Gauges use a 1/4" control line clamped onto the outside of the tubing string to provide an electrical or fibre optic communication to surface. for example. It consists of a large collar. It is intended to make pulling out wireline tools easier by offering a guiding surface for the toolstring to re-enter the tubing without getting caught on the side of the shoe. Their use is sporadic as they do not enjoy the best reputation for reliability when it comes to opening them at the end of the completion process.Downhole gauges This is an electronic or fibre optic sensor to provide continuous monitoring of downhole pressure and temperature. Perforated joint This is a length of tubing with holes punched into it. placed towards the foot of the completion string. by a stuck perforation gun. it will normally be positioned below the packer and will offer an alternative entry path for reservoir fluids into the tubing in case the shoe becomes blocked. Perforating and stimulating In cased hole completions (the majority of wells). This is done by running perforation guns to blast holes in the casing or liner to make a connection. If used. Modern perforations are made using shaped explosive charges. similar to the armor-penetrating charge used on antitank rockets (bazookas). once the completion string is in place. Formation isolation valve This component. is used to provide two way isolation from the formation for completion operations without the need for kill weight fluids. the final stage is to make a connection between the wellbore and the formation. . Wireline entry guide This component is often installed at the end of the tubing (the shoe). Centraliser In highly deviated wells. this components may be included towards the foot of the completion. which keeps the completion string centralised within the hole.

There are a number of stimulation techniques. thereby improving the flow of reservoir fluids. productivity may be hampered due to the residue of completion fluids. This may be done by either injecting fluids at high pressure (hydraulic fracturing). Acidising This involves the injection of chemicals to eat away at any skin damage. This is particularly a problem in gas wells. "cleaning up" the formation. further stimulation is necessary to achieve the planned productivity.900. Acidising and fracturing (combined method) This involves use of explosives and injection of chemicals to increase acid-rock contact. In these cases.000 Psi) and (propellent stimulation up to 4. heavy brines. coiled tubing may be used to pump nitrogen at high pressure into the bottom of the borehole to circulate out the brine. . Nitrogen circulation Sometimes. in the wellbore. Acid can also be used to clean the wellbore of some scales that form from mineral laden produced water. Fracturing This means creating and extending a fracture from the perforation tunnels deeper into the formation increasing the surface area for formation fluids to flow into the well as well as extending past any possible damage near the wellbore.Sometimes once the well is fully completed. injecting fluids laced with round granular material (proppant fracturing) or using explosives to generate a high pressure and high speed gas flow (TNT or PETN up to 1.000 Psi).