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Original Title: Drying

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Drying

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• Batch:

o Material is inserted into the drying equipment

and drying proceed for a given period of time

• Continuous:

o The material is continuously added to the dryer

and dried material continuously removed

and remove water vapor:

o Heat is added by direct contact with the heated

air at atm pressure, an the water vapor formed is

removed by the air

o Vacuum drying: the evaporation of water via low

pressure, heat by contact with a metal wall or by

radiation

o Freeze drying: water is sublimed from the frozen

material

• To estimate the size of dryer needed, various

operating conditions of humidity and temperature of

the air used, and the time needed

• Experimental determination of rate of drying

Drying 1

• For constant drying condition:

W − WS

Xt =

WS

different times t hours in the drying period

W = weight of the wet solid (kg)

WS = weight of the dry solid (kg)

X = Xt – X*

solid)

X* = the equilibrium moisture content (kg

equilibrium H2O / kg dry solid)

• Method 1: plot X vs t

L S dX

R=−

A dt

R = the drying rate (kg H2O / h.m2

LS = dry solid used (kg)

A = exposed surface area (m2)

L S ∆X

R=−

A ∆t

The R is the average over the period ∆t and plotted at

the average concentration X

Drying 2

• Plot of rate-of-drying curve:

t=0 A or A’

A to B evaporation rate increases

B to C constant-rate-of-drying period

C to D falling-rate period (often linear)

C critical free moisture content XC

D to E falls more rapidly

E the equilibrium moisture content X*

• The surface of the solid is initially very wet

• A continuous film of water on the drying surface

• The rate of evaporation is independent of the solid –

the same as the rate from a free liquid surface

• Increased roughness – higher rates

• At critical free moisture content XC – insufficient

water on the surface to maintain a continuous film of

water

• Surface is no longer wetted

• Wetted area – continuous decreases until complete

dryness at D

• After D – the plane of evaporation recedes from the

surface

• Heat is transferred through the solid to the

vaporization zone

• The amount of moisture removed – relatively small

• The time required – long

Drying 3

Moisture Movement in Solids

the liquid

material

freeze drying

vaporization rates exceed the rate of vapour transport

through the solid to the surroundings

o Granular & porous solids (e.g.: clays, sand, soil

etc)

o Capillary action (not by diffusion) – provides

driving force for moving water through the pores

to the surface

• Effect of shrinkage

o Colloidal and fibrous materials (e.g. vegetables)

o Development of a hard layer – blaockage &

slows the drying rate (case hardening)

Drying 4

Calculation Methods for Constant-Rate Drying

Period

Example:

A solid whose drying curve is represented by

(Figure) is to be dried from a free moisture content

X1 = 0.38 kg H2O/kg dry solid to X2 = 0.25 kg

H2O/kg dry solid. Estimate the time required.

X1 = 0.38 t1 = 1.28 h

X2 = 0.25 t2 = 3.08 h

The time required: t = t2 – t1 = 1.80 h

rate period

L S dX

R=−

A dt

t2 =t X

L S 1 dX

t = ∫ dt =

t =0 A X∫ R

1 2

R = constant = RC

LS

t= (X1 − X 2 )

AR C

Drying 5

Calculation Methods for Falling-Rate Drying Period

• Method using graphical integration

X

L S 1 dX

A X∫ R

t=

2

• Simple heat and material balances

free moisture content X1 and TS1

Exit: X2, TS2

Gas enters at rate G kg dry air/h, having a humidity

H2 kg H2O/kg dry air, TG2

• The enthalpy of gas H’G in kJ/kg dry air.K

Drying 6

λ0 = latent heat of water at T0oC (2501 kJ/kg at 0oC)

cS = humid heat (kJ/kg dry air.K)

cS = 1.005 + 1.88H

solid.K)

cpA = heat capacity of the liquid moisture (kJ/kg

H2O.K)

• A heat balance on the dryer:

For adiabatic process: Q = 0 and if heat is added, Q is

negative

• Example

Drying 7

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