This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dynamic routing performs the same function as static routing except it is more robust. Static routing allows routing tables in specific routers to be set up in a static manner so network routes for packets are set. If a router on the route goes down the destination may become unreachable. Dynamic routing allows routing tables in routers to change as the possible routes change. There are several protocols used to support dynamic routing including RIP and OSPF.
Counting route cost is based on one of the following calculations:
Hop count - How many routers the message must go through to reach the recipient. Tic count - The time to route in 1/18 seconds (ticks).
Dynamic routing protocols do not change how routing is done. They just allow for dynamic altering of routing tables. There are two classifications of protocols: 1. IGP - Interior Gateway Protocol. The name used to describe the fact that each system on the internet can choose its own routing protocol. RIP and OSPF are interior gateway protocols. 2. EGP - Exterior Gateway Protocol. Used between routers of different systems. There are two of these, the first having the same name as this protocol description: 1. EGP - Exterior Gateway Protocol 2. BGP - Border Gateway Protocol. The daemen "routed" uses RIP. The daemon "gated" supports IGP's and EGP's.
Route Discovery Methods
Distance vector - Periodically sends route table to other routers. Works best on LANs, not WANs. Link-state - Routing tables are broadcast at startup and then only when they change. OSPF uses link-state.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
The RIP RFC is 1058. The routing daemon daemon adds a routing policy to the system. If there are multiple routes to a destination, it chooses the best one. The RIP message can con contain information on up to 25 routes. The RIP message contains the following components: 1. Command 2. Version - Normally 1 but set to 2 for RIP version 2.
3. family - Set to 2 for IP addresses. 4. IP address - 32 bit IP address 5. Metrics - Indicate the number of hops to a given network, the hop count. RIP sends periodically broadcasts its routing table to neighboring routers. The RIP message format contains the following commands:
• • • • •
1 - request 2 - reply 3 & 4 - obsolete 5 - poll entry 6 - Asks for system to send all or part of routing table
When the daemon "routed" starts, it sends a request out all its interfaces for other router's routing tables. The request is broadcast if the network supports it. For TCP/IP the address family in the message is normally 2, but the initial request has address family set to 0 with the metric set to 16. Regular routing updates are sent every 30 seconds with all or part of the route table. As each router sends routing tables (advertises routes to networks its NICs interface to) routes are determined to each network. Drawbacks of RIP:
• • •
RIP has no knowledge of subnet addressing It takes a long time to stabilize after a router or link failure. Uses more broadcasting than OSPF requiring more network bandwidth.
RIP Version 2
Defined by RFC 1388. It passes further information in some of the fields that are set to 0 for the RIP protocol. These additional fields include a 32 bit subnet mask and a next hop IP address, a routing domain, and route tag. The routing domain is an identifier of the daemon the packet belongs to. The route tags supports EGPs.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
OSPF (RFC 1257) is a link state protocol rather than a distance vector protocol. It tests the status of its link to each of its neighbors and sends the acquired information to them. It stabilizes after a route or link failure faster than a distance vector protocol based system. OSPF uses IP directly, not relying on TCP or UDP. OSPF can:
• • • •
Have routes based on IP type of service (part of IP header message) such as FTP or Telnet. Support subnets. Assign cost to each interface based on reliability, round trip time, etc. Distribute traffic evenly over equal cost routes.
they establish a TCP connection. The administrator enters the default route. It exchanges information about reachable networks with other BGP systems including the full path of systems that are between them. Adjacent routers swap information instead of broadcasting to all routers.is the process by which a network adapts automatically to the changes in topology or traffic as those changes occur. and it becomes the default path the router uses to forward packets for which it knows no other route to use.are fixed routes that are manually entered by the administrator into the router's configuration. • Static routes .• Uses multicasting. a routed protocol can be routed. which are routing protocols. In other words. and 1497. • Dynamic routing . which means that it can be forwarded from one router to another. A routed protocol contains the data elements required for a packet to be sent outside of its host netowkr or network segment. Examples of routed protocols are IP and IPX. then send each other their BGP routing tables. but not routed protocols. As far as the CCNA exam goes. and examples of routing protocfols are RIP and IGRP. It uses TCP as a transport protocol. dynamic. Protocols used to communicate routing information between routers within an autonomous system are Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP). Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Described by RFC 1267. Costs for specific hops can be set by administrators. A routed protocol can be routed by a router. Routing Protocols A routing protocol sends and receives routing information packets to and from other routers. • Default routes . 1268. It detects failures by sending periodic keep alive messages to its neighbors every 30 seconds. Routed vs. packets with unknown destinations are dripped. BGP uses distance vectoring. Without a default route. there are three types of routing: static. When two systems are using BGP. and default. A static route is configured on the router with a command like this: ip route [destination_network] [mask] [next_hop_address or exit interface] [administrative- .are very much like static route.
1.168. The higher the number. the route is automatically discarded from the routing table. • destination address: in this example. • submet mask: 192.243 is the IP address of the destination network.distance] [permanent] Example: RouterA(config)#ip route 192.255. • Cost: A arbitrary value assigned by the administrator for the crossing and intersection of networks. • Delay (latency): A group of factors such as congestion or distance. Routers use a series of calculations and metric-based decisions to determine the most efficient and economical router for a packet to use to reach its destination.168.255.1 3 Using the previous command example the key elements of the static router configuration command are: • ip route: This is the command used to designate a static route. • It's not feasible in large networks because it would be a full-time job.0 255.0 • next hop: Following the subnet mask is the address of the next hop router.93. • permanent: if the interface is shut down or the router cannot communicate to the next hop router. In general. 209. Here are some of the metrics used to determine the better route: • Bandwidth: Maximum throughput speed in bits-per-second.255. Choosing the permanent option keeps the entry in the routing table no matter what happens. 192.1.1. • If on network is added to the internetwork. the lower the trust.169. 255. Static routing has the following benefits: • No overhead on the router CPU • No bandwidth usage between routers • Security (because the administrator only allows routing to certain networks) Static routing has the following disadvantages: • The administrator must really understand the internetwork and how each router is connected to configure the routes correctly. these calculations and decisions are embedded in an algorithm.0 is a Class C IP address and is using the default subnet mask for Class C addresses. the administrator must add a route to it on all routers. . • Load: The measure of traffic that flows through a router.1.1 • administrative distance: This is a number between 0 and 255 that indicates how well the route can be trusted.168.255.0 192. • Hop Count: The number of routers a packet passes through to reach its destination.220.
• Reliability: A value representing the amount of downtime for a network. Because an IPX address includes the MAC address of a node. or the number of routers that a packet must pass through to reach its destination. in terms of hops and other metrics. Both are distance-vector routing protocols and interior routing protocols. The IGRP router command requires an autonomous system number to be assigned to the network entries included in the command. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) is a classful. As such. the routing table lists a remote network and also the number of hops required to get to it. and hold-downs. route poisoning. it uses information provided to it by its neighboring routers to maintain information in a routing table about the cost. of a particular route. RIP uses a maximum hop count of 15 and IGRP uses a maximum hop count of 255. distance-vector routing protocol. For the CCNA exam. An IPX network address is an 80-bit number that is made up of a 32-bit network ID and the 48bit MAC address.• MTUs (maximum transmission unit): The largest message size allowed on all routes to the destination. you should remember that a distance-vector algorithm is concerned primarily with hop count. where one tick is 1/18 of a second. based on the clock in a personal computer. there's no need for ARP translations on an IPX network. Novell encapsulations and their Cisco equivalents: Interface Ethernet FDDI Serial Cisco Command Word novell-ehter snap hdlc Token Ring sap Novell Frame Types and Their Cisco Equivalents: Novell Ethernet_802. It's used as part of the metric in IPX (Novell) RIP. Three mechanisms used with distance-vector protocols to control routing (count to infinity) loops are split horizon. For the CCNA exam focus on adding RIP statements to the router. RIP and IGRP use distance-vector algorighms. • Ticks: A measurement of delay. In each of these routing protocols.2 Cisco sap .
Verifies that a network connection is reachable. Displays a detailed view of an interface's IPX settings.Ethernet_802. Displays messages regarding SAP updates. Displays messages about each routing update. Displays all IPX entries in the routing table or just one entry if the network value is entered. Displays IPX traffic statistics.2 Token-Ring novell-ether (default) snap arpa snap (default) novell-fddi sap sap (default) Token-Rint_snap snap Cisco Commands used to Monitor Router Operations: Command Privileged Exec Mode ping show ipx traffic show ipx route show ipx interface show ipx servers debug ipx sap debug ipx routing Action You must be in this mode to use the remaining commands in this table. Back . Lists the IPX servers discovered through SAP advertisements.3 Ethernet_snap Ethernet_II FDDI_snap FDDI_raw FDDI_802.
0. To find a layer-3 path to a destination network 2. Routers basically have two functions: 1. with the best distance being 0 and the worst. To move packets from one interface to another to get a packet to its destination In order to accomplish the first function. to each protocol.Where a static route specifies a path a router should use to reach a specific destination.CCNA Routing Layer-3 devices are generically called routers.Maintain the most up-to-date routing information about how to reach destination networks Types of Routes A router can learn a route via one of two methods: static and dynamic.0.Find locations of destination network numbers . Dynamic routes are routes that a router learns by running a routing protocol.0.0 interface_to_exit [administrative_distance] . A smaller distance is more believable by a router.0. a router will need to: . a default route specifies a path the router should use if it doesn't know how to reach the destination. 255.0 0. or weight. A static route is a route that is manually configured on the router. assigning a value.0.Choose a best path to each destination .0 0. Router(config)# ip route 0.0. Routing protocols will learn about routes from other neighboring routers running the same routing protocol. Distances can range from 0 to 255.0.0 IP_address_of_next_hop_neighbor [administrative distance] Or Router(config)# ip route 0. Administrative Distance Administrative distance ranks the IP routing protocols.Learn about routers it is connected to in order to learn the networks that they know about .0. Static Route Configuration Router(config)# ip route destination_network_# [subnet_mask] IP_address_of_next_hop_neighbor [administrative_distance] or Router(config)# ip route destination_network_# [subnet_mask] interface_to_exit [administrative_distance] Default Route Configuration A default route is a special type of static route.
it performs these steps: 1. reset the timer for the entry in the routing table (in other words. Distance vector routing protocols use the distance and direction (vector) to find paths to destinations. Dynamic routing protocols fall under one of three categories: distance vector. the router already learned about this route from the same neighbor). the router will add it to the routing table along with the old one. If the neighbor's information is worse. Processing Updates When a distance vector protocol receives a routing update. 5. If the neighbor's information is exactly the same as the entry already in the table. to find the best path to a destination.Dynamic Routing Protocols Dynamic routing protocols learn about destination networks from neighboring routers. and hybrid.255. place it in the routing table and remove the old entry. This assumes you have not exceeded the maximum number of equal-cost paths for this destination network number. link state protocols use multicasts. Examples of link state protocols include IP's OSPF. but with the same metric as the existing network in the routing table. Some examples of IP routing protocols that are distance vector are RIPv1 and IGRP. Because of the differences between the various routing protocol types. If the neighbor's information is a different path to a known destination network. link state. Link State Protocols Link state protocols use an algorithm called the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm. The six steps are generally referred to as the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Whereas distance vector protocols use local broadcasts to disseminate routing information. Distance Vector Protocols Distance vector protocols are the simplest. If the neighbor's information is better. 6. each has advantages and disadvantages.255.255 to share routing information. Link state protocols are smarter. which is a piece of routing information that contains who originated the advertisement and what the network number is. Most distance vector protocols use the BellmanFord algorithm for finding paths to networking destinations. A distance protocol will send out its routing table religiously on its periodic interval whether there are changes or not. 3. LSAs are typically generated only when there are changes in the network. invented by Dijkstra. Compare the network numbers in the routing update from the neighbor to what the router has in its routing table. They multicast what is called a Link State Advertisement (LSA). 4. add 1 to the hop count). Increment the metrics of the incoming routes in the advertisement (for IP RIP. Distance vector protocols periodically use local broadcasts with a destination IP address of 255. link state routers . ignore it. 2.
EIGRP. distance vector protocols use two mechanisms to deal with large routing loop problems: route poisoning and hold down timers. Examples of hybrid protocols include RIPv2. by default. Split horizon states that if a neighboring router sends a route to a router. and IGRP allows a hop count of 100. Solution: Split Horizon Split horizon is used with small routing loops. Typically. Advantage that link state protocols have over distance vector protocols is that they support route classless routing [VLSM]. Hybrid Protocols A hybrid protocol takes the advantages of both distance vector and link state protocols and merges them into a new protocol. thus making it an unreachable network. In IP RIP. the route is assigned a hop count of 16 (15 is the maximum). Problem: Routing Loops A routing loop is a layer-3 loop in the network. When a router detects that one of its connected routes has failed. in routing terms. Solution: Maximum Hop Count: IP RIP set a hop count limit of 15. it is a disagreement about how to reach a destination network. the receiving router will not propagate this route back to the advertising router on the same interface. Problems with Distance Vector Protocols Problem: Convergence The term convergence. Solution: Triggered Updates You actually have two solutions that you can use in order to speed convergence: change the periodic timer interval and/or use triggered updates. the router will poison the route by assigning an infinite metric to it. refers to the time it takes for all of the routers to understand the current topology of the network. Basically. . hybrid protocols are based on a distance vector protocol but contain many of the features and advantages of link state protocols.send out only incremental updates. Link state protocols tend to converge very quickly. Route poisoning is a derivative of split horizon. Solution: Route Poisoning Whereas split horizon is used to solve small routing loop problems. while distance vector protocols tent to converge slowly. Packet Loops in the Network.
with a hold-down period of 180 seconds. which allows you to use more than one subnet mask for a given class network number. A second major enhancement that RIPv2 has is that it is a classless protocol. RIPv2 supports variable-length subnet masking (VLSM). And to speed up convergence. RIPv2 supports triggered updates-when a change occurs. the routers will freeze the poisoned route in their routing tables for the period of the hold-down timer.When a router advertises a poised route to its neighbors. RIPv2 uses multicasts. which is typically three times the interval of the routing broadcast update. RIPv2 One major enhancement to RIPv2 pertains to how it deals with routing updates. Hold-Down Timers In order to give the routers enough time to propagate the poisoned route and to ensure that no routing loops occur while propagation is occurring. Instead of using broadcasts. the routers implement a hold-down mechanism. Version 1 is a distance vector protocol. its neighbors break the rule of split horizon and send back to the originator the same poisoned route. RIPv1 is a classful protocol. by default. This ensures that everyone received the original update of the poisoned route. The default is actually four paths. Version 2 is a hybrid protocol. but this can be increased up to a maximum of six. every 30 seconds. During this period. called a poison reverse. RIPv1 uses local broadcasts to share routing information. which is not always the best metric to use. a RIPv2 router will immediately propagate its routing information to its connected neighbors. 180 Sec's RIP (Routing Information Protocol) IP RIP (Routing Information Protocol) comes in two different versions: 1 and 2. occurring. Another interesting feature is that RIP supports up to six equal-cost paths to a single destination. These updates are periodic in nature. Both versions of RIP use hop count as a metric. Configuring IP RIP Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)# network IP_network_# Specifying RIP Version 1 and 2 Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)# version 1|2 Troubleshooting IP RIP show ip protocols show ip route debug ip rip debug ip rip IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) .
also supports unequal-cost paths. but this feature is disabled by default. delay. and MTU.It uses the SPF algorithm. where IGRP supports up to six equal-cost paths (four by default) to a single destination in the IP routing table. load. they must be in the same AS. . IGRP supports both equal. The variance feature allows you to include equal. OSPF is very popular in many corporate networks today and has many advantages. By default. IGRP. Like IP RIPv1. you don't need to configure anything to enable equal-cost load balancing. Because it is based on an open standard.It provides fast convergence with triggered. . . Equal-cost paths are enabled by default.and unequal-cost IGRP routes in the routing table. For routers to share routing information. however. Router(config-router)# variance multiplier Troubleshooting IP IGRP show ip protocols show ip route debug ip igrp events debug ip igrp transactions OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a link state protocol that handles routing for IP traffic. the algorithm uses only bandwidth and delay Configuring IP IGRP Router(config)# router igrp autonomous_system_# Router(config-router)# network IP_network_# Unlike RIP. incremental updates via Link State Advertisements . it is a distance vector protocol. . IGRP uses a composite metric. when choosing paths to a destination.and unequal-cost paths for load balancing to a single destination.It will run on most routers.It supports unequal-cost load balancing to a single destination.It uses a sophisticated metric based on bandwidth and delay. including these: . it scales better than RIP because of these advantages: . Load Balancing With RIP. since it is based on an open standard. and RIP doesn't support unequal-cost load balancing. reliability.It uses triggered updates to speed-up convergence. which includes bandwidth. However. to provide a loop-free topology. IGRP understands the concept of an autonomous system and requires you to configure the autonomous system number in the routing process. developed by Dijkstra.The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a Cisco-proprietary routing protocol for IP.
OSPF does have its share of disadvantages: . OSPF supports load balancing of up to six equal-cost paths to a single destination. topology (a link state database containing all of the routers and their routes). perhaps a flapping route problem. you should be able to summarize routing information between areas. Basically. OSPF implements a two-layer hierarchy: the backbone (area 0) and areas off of the backbone. Cost is actually the inverse of the bandwidth of a link: the faster the speed of the connection. . Hierarchical Design: Areas Areas are used to provide hierarchical routing. So it requires more memory to hold the adjacency (list of OSPF neighbors). areas are used to control when and how much routing information is shared across your network. This is included in any OSPF messages the router generates. Router Identities Each router in an OSPF network needs a unique ID. the lower the cost. it requires careful design to break up the network into an appropriate hierarchical design by separating routers into different areas. The router ID is chosen according to one of the two following criteria: . With a correctly designed hierarchical network.(LSAs). Metric Structure Unlike RIP. By using cost as a metric. these changes can be contained within a single area. By performing this summarization.It requires extra CPU processing to run the SPF algorithm. Given its advantages. In flat network designs. it affects every router in the entire network.The highest IP address on its active interfaces . which uses hop count as a metric.The highest IP address on its loop back interfaces (this is a logical interface on a router) .It is a classless protocol and allows for a hierarchical design with VLSM and route summarization. which is especially true when you first turn on your routers and they are initially building the adjacency and topology tables. if a change occurs on one router.OSPF maintains three types of tables. Through a correct IP addressing design. OSPF uses cost.For large networks. . The default measurement that Cisco uses in calculating the cost metric is: cost = 10 ^8/(interface bandwidth). The ID is used to provide a unique identity to the OSPF router. the routers have a smaller topology database (they know only about links in their own area and the summarized routes) and their routing tables are smaller (they know only about their own area's routes and the summarized routes). such as IP RIP. The most preferred path is the one with the lowest cost. and routing tables. OSPF will choose more intelligent paths than RIP.It is complex to configure and more difficult to troubleshoot. . .
3. Once the routers have entered a two-way state. The OSPF router with the highest priority becomes the DR for the segment. OSPF routers will generate hello LSAs every 10 seconds. By default.0. Two-Way state the new router receives a unidirectional reply to its initial hello packet and adds the destination router to its neighbor database. The DR and the BDR talk to all routers using the 224. which defaults to 40 seconds. there is a DR and a BDR as well as other routers.0. If a neighbor is not seen within the dead interval time. the OSPF routers will go through three states called the exchange process: 1. When learning about the neighbors that a router is connected to. In this case. Finding Neighbors OSPF learns about its neighbors and builds its adjacency and topology tables by sharing LSAs. Note that communication is only unidirectional at this point. to other neighboring OSPF routers. as well as keeping tabs on known neighbors. 2. At this point.6. Designated and Backup Designated Routers An OSPF router will not form adjacencies to just any router. If there is a tie. the BDR is promoted to DR and another router is elected as the BDR. a client/server design is implemented in OSPF. only the change is shared with the DR. the router with the highest router ID will become the DR. When a neighbor is discovered and an adjacency is formed with the neighbor. a router expects to see hello messages from the neighbor.The area number and its type . OSPF routers share information about their connected routes with the . In order for two routers to become neighbors. For each network multi-access segment. When this occurs.The hello and dead interval timers Let's assume that you turned on all your routers simultaneously on a segment.5 multicast IP address. which will then share this information with other routers on the segment. the neighbor is declared dead.It is highly recommended that you use a loop back interface because it is always up and thus the router can obtain a router ID. If the DR fails. an election process takes place to elect the designated router (DR) and the backup designated router (BDR). There are different types of LSAs. the following must match on each router: . Any exchange of routing information is between these DR/BDR routers and the other OSPF neighbors on a segment (and vice versa). Instead. This means that whenever changes take place. When an OSPF router comes up. the router will advertise this information. it forms adjacencies with the DR and the BDR on each multi-access segment that it is connected to. An OSPF router talks to a DR using the IP multicast address of 224. they are considered neighbors. via an LSA message. all routers have a priority of 1 (priorities can range 0-255).0. Init state A destination router has received a new router's hello and adds it to its neighbor list (assuming that certain values match). Down state the new router has not exchanged any OSPF information with any other router.0. OSPF uses incremental updates.
the ID of the advertising router.0.0. use the following command: Router(config)# interface loopback port_# Router(config-if)# ip address IP_address subnet_mask Troubleshooting OSPF • show ip protocols • show ip route • show ip ospf interface • show ip ospf neighbor • debug ip ospf adj • debug ip ospf events • debug ip ospf packet EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) . since this interface is always up To create a loopback interface.0. A wildcard mask is 32 bits in length. which includes the link-state type. the cost of the advertised link. By default. but they can easily be created.DR.To use for testing purposes.255.255 Class C: 0. the router doesn't have any loopback interfaces.255 Class B: 0. and the sequence number of the link. and a 1 in a bit position means the router doesn't care. Here are some reasons you might want to create a loopback interface: .255. Actually. a wildcard mask is an inverted subnet mask.255. with the 1's and 0's switched.To assign a router ID to an OSPF router . Class A: 0.255 Loopback Interfaces A loopback interface is a logical. Configuring OSPF Router(config)# router ospf process_ID Router(config-router)# network IP_address wildcard_mask area area_# Note that process ID do not need to match between different routers and that they have nothing to do with autonomous system numbers. A 0 in a bit position means there must be a match.255. virtual interface on a router.
point-to-point.Multicast and incremental updates . reliability. .VLSM and route summarization . If a primary route in the routing table fails. EIGRP and IGRP use the same metric structure. The dead interval period is three times the hello interval. and multipoint connections with speeds of at least T1/E1 speeds. This algorithm can enable very fast convergence by storing a neighbor's routing information in a local topology table. By default. much as OSPF does. hellos are generated every 60 seconds.The AS number . . Interaction with Other EIGRP Routers EIGRP uses hello packets to discover and maintain neighbor relationships. APPLE TALK) Characteristics of EIGRP Both offer load balancing across six paths (equal or unequal). EIGRP uses the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) to update the routing table.10 for the destination in the hello packets. only bandwidth and delay are used in the metric computation. These characteristics include: . since it uses incremental updates.0. the following information must match: . EIGRP uses the multicast address of 224. For EIGRP routers to become neighbors.Routes for multiple routed protocols (Supports IP. delay. . DUAL can take a backup route from the topology table and place this into the routing table without necessarily having to talk to other EIGRP neighboring routers to find an alternative path to the destination. It's actually based on IGRP.The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Cisco-proprietary routing protocol for IP. routing information will automatically be shared between the two.0.Loop-free topology . Otherwise.They have similar metric structures. One interesting point about these protocols is that if you have some routers in your network running IGRP and others running EIGRP. with many enhancements built into it. and MTU when computing a best metric path to a destination. IPX. EIGRP generates hello packets every 5 seconds on LAN.The K-values (these enable/disable the different metric components) .EIGRP has faster convergence (triggered updates and saving a neighbor's routing table locally). and both sets have the same autonomous system number.Fast convergence .EIGRP has less network overhead. Both can use bandwidth.
The first router responds with an ACK message. Even though EIGRP is classless.show ip route . 2. Troubleshooting EIGRP .show ip eigrp traffic . they go through the following process: 1.Query Asks a neighboring router to validate routing information .show ip protocols . no corresponding ACK is expected. Here are the message types for which an EIGRP router expects an ACK back: . the two routers have converged. Configuring EIGRP Setting up EIGRP is almost as simple as configuring IGRP: Router(config)# router eigrp autonomous_system_# Router(config-router)# network IP_network_# You must specify the AS number when configure EIGRP.show ip eigrp neighbors . you must configure it as a classful protocol when specifying your network numbers with the network command. the second router responds with an Update message with topology information.debug ip eigrp Siby.show ip eigrp topology . The first router generates a Hello with configuration information. The first router sends its topology to the second router via an Update message. At this point. 4. 5. the router declares the neighbor dead. After this. The second router responds back with an ACK.R I am working as a technical consultant .Update Contains a routing update . When a router sends a hello packet. acknowledging the receipt of the second's ACK.Reply Responds to a query message If an EIGRP router doesn't receive an ACK from these three packet types.When two routers determine whether they will become neighbors. If the configuration information matches. the router will try a total of 16 times to resend the information.T. 3.
IPX. · Routing information protocols (RIP) · Interior gateway routing protocol (IGRP) · Open shortest path first (OSPF) · Exterior gateway protocol (EGP) · Enhanced interior gateway routing protocol (EIGRP) · Border gateway protocol (BGP) · Intermediate system-to-intermediate system (IS-IS) Routing fundamentals · The network layer has two types of protocols like routing protocols and routed protocols. · In routed protocols any of the network protocols address a host and a destination on to the given network. latency. average error rates. and NetBEUI. and OSPF. Protocols like IP. · It depends on the router to choose the best path i. · There are different types of protocols of routing. bandwidth.i am a free land technical consultant i am interested to learn and publish my thoughts in ccna and system administration side. current network traffic etc. IGRP. i hope u will be enjoying my articles if u are a technical person or a technical student or willing to accept technical things. . Protocols like RIP. · They have many routes between them. · It can do different number of functions like hop number. Thanks&Regards Siby ROUTING PROTOCOLS ID:0217358 · These protocols that filter network traffic. EIGRP.e maintain routing table. · In routing protocols router share information with each other.
· It allows the internet work administrator to specify the information about the network. Default routing · In this technique they are defined by system administrator and define the path that is taken if there is no route known for destination. · They knows everything about the internet work. · Bandwidth · Delay · Load · Reliability · Hop count · Ticks · Cost Dynamic update · The knowledge is contained in the updates. · Different factors can be involved in dynamic routing. · Static routing. · They can do security concerns for the path selections. They are as follows.driven. Routing protocols technique . · Default routing. Static routing · In this type of routing system administrator can sets manual routes for the network. · It is send by two different methods · Broadcast method · Event . · When the router send the updates. · Dynamic routing. · This type of configuration can reduce overheads of dynamic routing. Dynamic routing · In dynamic routing monitor network can change their routing tables. · It tells us the location of the recipients updates.· Another thing is that basically there are two types of routing.
EIGRP) Distance -vector:· In this technique it use distance -vector algorithm which uses a direction to any link in the interconnection network to determine the best route. · Each router builts up a topological database with themselves at the top of the tree. IGRP) · Link -state examples are (OSPF. · It requires more memory to store LSA and topological database. · It uses the link state algorithm (LSA) to advertise the routing information from routers.· Basically there are three types of routing protocols technique. Problems with distance -vector · Different types of problems are. · Routers keep communicating with neighbours at latest state. · The main problem with distance -vector is that it updates the network step by step so it requires more bandwidth to process the information. EGP) · Hybrid examples are (IS-IS. Hybrid routing . Problem with link-state · It requires more processing power to communicate with each other.vector examples are (RIP. BGP. · Each router periodically send information to he neighbour on the cost to get to distance node. · Routing loops · Counting to infinity · Solutions · setting infinity values · split horizon · hold-down timers · same neighbour problem · different neighbour better metric · different neighbour poorer metric Link state:· It maintains a complex database on the topology of the network. · Link state updates · Scaling · It initially sends up high demand for updates. · Distance.
A routing algorithm must. There are eight major IP routing protocols from which to choose. · It reports routing information when change occurs in topology . convergence. compensating for. an algorithm is a stepby-step procedure for solving a problem. · Enhance interior gateway routing protocol (EIGRP). and load balancing. for communications to occur the communicators must speak the same language. Obviously. Routing Protocol Basics All dynamic routing protocols are built around an algorithm. metrics. Generally. Dynamic routing protocols not only perform these path determination and route table update functions but also determine the next-best path if the best path to a destination becomes unusable.link-state. if one router speaks RIP and another speaks OSPF. specify the following: • • • • A procedure for passing reachability information about networks to other routers A procedure for receiving reachability information from other routers A procedure for determining optimal routes based on the reachability information it has and for recording this information in a route table A procedure for reacting to. Subsequent chapters examine all the IP routing protocols in current use." but first it is necessary to explore some characteristics and issues common to all routing protocols—IP or otherwise. · Intermediate system-to-intermediate system (IS-IS). The last chapter explained what a router needs to know to correctly switch packets to their respective destinations and how that information is put into the route table manually. · It uses distance -vector technique for more accurate metrics to determine the best path. This chapter shows how routers can discover this information automatically and share that information with other routers via dynamic routing protocols. A routing protocol is the language a router speaks with other routers in order to share information about the reachability and status of networks. The capability to compensate for topology changes is the most important advantage dynamic routing offers over static routing. and even consider how to make a router "bilingual. Path Determination . and advertising topology changes in an internetw_ork A few issues common to any routing protocol are path determination. at a minimum.· It uses a combination of both balance and hybrid routing. they cannot share routing information because they are not speaking the same language.
to routers B and C.0 from both router B and router C.168. along with some sort of flag indicating that the networks are directly connected." 4.168. so the router also knows the state of the network (up or down). 2. Router A knows about networks 192. For instance.22.214.171.124.0. If router A hears about network 192.168. pass B's routing information packet to C and pass C's packet to B? If router A does not forward the updates. router B knows about 192. 192. 126.96.36.199. along with the source address of the router that sent the update packet.0. Router A enters these networks into its route table.0 because it has interfaces on those networks with corresponding addresses and appropriate address masks. router C knows about 192.7. and wherever a router has an interface on a network that interface must have an address on the network.0. the information-sharing procedure seems simple. 192.1. • • • What should router A do with the updates from B and C after it has recorded the information in the route table? Should it. having performed the same steps.0. Likewise. 192.168. Each interface implements the data link and physical protocols of the network to which it is attached.0.6. information sharing may not be complete. 188.8.131.52. So why are routing protocols so much more complicated than this? Look again at Figure 4.186. have sent updates with their directly connected networks to A.5.186. Figure 4.0. Router A enters the received information into its route table. Router A places the information into a packet: "My directly connected networks are 192. and 192.6. 192.All networks within an internetwork must be connected to a router. 192.1.3. Router A examines its IP addresses and associated masks and deduces that it is attached to networks 192. and 198.1 Each router knows about its directly connected networks from its assigned addresses and masks.168.168.0. and 184.108.40.206. which router should be used to reach that network? Are they both valid? Which one is the best path? .3. This procedure does seem quite simple.0. Router A now knows about all the networks.0.0. Router A must forward the update information. Figure 220.127.116.11. This address is the originating point for reachability information.3.168.3. At first glance.168. 5. those two routers would not know about each other's networks.1 shows a simple three-router internetwork.4. for instance. Routers B and C.0. Router A transmits copies of these route information packets. but this step opens a whole new set of problems. and 192. and 192. or routing updates.168. if the link between B and C does not exist. and it knows the addresses of the routers to which they are attached. Look at router A: 1.0.
as will become clear in following sections and chapters.0 can be reached via either router B or router C.168.0 192. Should the routers still advertise these networks? These questions are almost as simplistic as the preceding preliminary explanation of routing protocols. and 18.104.22.168 192.2. A metric is a variable assigned to routes as a means of ranking them from best to worst or from most preferred to least preferred.7.0). Assuming that information sharing has properly occurred in the internetwork of Figure 4.168.0. but they should give you a feel for some of the issues that contribute to the complexity of the protocols.168.0. C This route table says that the first three networks are directly connected and that no routing is needed from router A to reach them. This information is also correct.0 192. Table 4. a router must have a mechanism for calculating the best path.5.0 Next-Hop Router Directly connected Directly connected Directly connected B.168.168.1 A rudimentary route table for router A of Figure 4.168. Metrics When there are multiple routes to the same destination.6. which path is the preferable path? Metrics are needed to rank the alternatives. C B.7. . according to this table. which is correct. Network 192.0 192. Consider the following example of why metrics are needed. The last four networks. can be reached via router B or router C. Each routing protocol addresses these questions one way or another.4.0 192.0 192. 192.168. router A might have a route table that looks like Table 4.168.1. But if network 192. C B.1.• • What mechanism will be used to ensure that all routers receive all routing information while preventing update packets from circulating endlessly through the internetwork? The routers share certain directly connected networks (192.1.3. C B.22.214.171.124.168.
the 2-hop route may actually be best because bandwidth plays a role in how efficiently traffic travels through the network. Reliability Reliability measures the likelihood that the link will fail in some way and can be either variable or fixed. If the metric changes too frequently.168.1 (through routers C and B). Each individual delay quantity would be an estimate based on the type of link to which the interface is connected.3.1 (through router B) and 2 hops if packets are sent out 192.1. and sometimes multiple.5. Examples of variable-reliability metrics are the number of times a link has failed or the . Assuming hop count is the only metric being applied. What if one or both of the T1 links are heavily loaded with other traffic and the 56K link is lightly loaded? Or what if the higherbandwidth link also has a higher delay? Load This metric reflects the amount of traffic utilizing the links along the path. metrics. in this case. the delay of a route may be not measured at all. and therefore the metric will change. However. route flapping—the frequent Delay Delay is a measure of the time a packet takes to traverse a route. A routing protocol using delay as a metric would choose the path with the least delay as the best path. A-B. RIP defines the "best" route as the one with Hop Count A hop count metric simply counts router hops. There may be many ways to measure delay. from router A it is 1 hop to network 192. Bandwidth A bandwidth metric would choose a higher-bandwidth path over a lower-bandwidth link.0 if packets are sent out interface 192.168. Unlike hop count and bandwidth. Care must be taken here. bandwidth by itself still may not be a good metric.Different routing protocols use different. For instance. Delay may take into account not only the delay of the links along the route but also such factors as router latency and queuing delay. But is the A-B link really the best path? If the A-B link is a DS-0 link and the A-C and C-B links are T-1 links.168. The best path is the one with the lowest load. On the other hand. it may be a sum of static quantities defined for each interface along the path. For example. the load on a route changes. the best route is the one with the fewest hops.
The link between the two left-most routers has failed. Fixed-reliability metrics are based on known qualities of a link as determined by the network administrator.5. and the process continues until all routers know about the change. The neighbors update their route tables accordingly and inform their neighbors. A further criteria for routing protocols is that the reachability information in the route tables of all routers in the internetwork must be consistent. Cost This metric is configured by a network administrator to reflect more. Further. being directly connected. A will again send them to C. The process of bringing all route tables to a state of consistency is called convergence.or less-preferred routes. While the internetwork is in an unconverged state." When used in this context.168. Convergence A dynamic routing protocol must include a set of procedures for a router to inform other routers about its directly connected networks. For example. Figure 4. Those three have old information and will . know about the failure from the data link protocol and proceed to inform their neighbors of the unavailable link.0 is via router C and if router C determines that the best path to the same network is through router A. router A will send packets destined for 192." Another generic term is shortest. If router A in Figure 4.0 to C. and so on. "RIP chooses the lowest-cost path based on hop count. but now a topology change has occurred. to receive and process the same information from other routers. Notice that at time t2 the three left-most routers know about the topology change but the three right-most routers have not yet heard the news. as in "RIP chooses the shortest path based on hop count. Cost may be defined by any policy or link characteristic or may reflect the arbitrary judgment of the network administrator. The term cost is often used as a generic term when speaking of route choices. The path with highest reliability would be selected as best. routers are susceptible to bad routing information. a routing protocol must define a metric by which best paths may be determined. and to pass along the information it receives from other routers.2 shows an internetwork that was converged.168. either lowest-cost (or highest-cost) and shortest (or longest) merely refer to a routing protocol's view of paths based on its specific metrics. This continuous circling of traffic between two or more destinations is referred to as a routing loop. both routers. C will send them back to A. The time it takes to share information across Figure 4.1 determines that the best path to network 192.2 Reconvergence after a topology change takes time.5.number of errors it has received within a certain time period.
continue to switch packets accordingly. Therefore convergence time is an important factor in any routing protocol.0. In both cases. As an example of the usefulness of load balancing. However. sending all packets on a single route probably is not the most efficient use of available bandwidth. If a device on 192.0 sends a stream of packets to a device on 192. Load Balancing Recall from Chapter 3. As noted in Chapter 3.1 again.168. load balancing should be implemented to alternate traffic between the two paths.6. the better. load balancing can be equal cost or unequal cost and per packet or per destination. consider Figure 4. "Static Routing." that load balancing is the practice of distributing traffic among multiple paths to the same destination in order to use bandwidth efficiently. It is during this intermediate time. . Instead.168. The faster a network can reconverge after a topology change. when the internetwork is in an unconverged state. the network is 1 hop away. router A may send them all via router B or router C. All the networks in Figure 4.1 are reachable from two paths. that routing errors may occur.2.