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Literature Review of Health Promotions Seymour Ward September 12, 2010
These behaviors and activities include self-responsibility. health promotion is now an integral part of the nursing profession. However. These activities do not be assistance of a member of the health care team. compare and contrast the three levels of health promotion prevention. This paper will analyze: 1. Identify. This new paradigm emphasizes wellness rather than sickness. . a new paradigm has emerged. nutritional awareness and stress reduction and management. As a result in this change in focus. In their research for “Brunner and Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. How has the role of a nurse changed as the result of the emphasis on health promotion? 4. How are nurses implementing health promotion? 5. physical fitness. Health promotion simply stated are the activities and behaviors that help individuals stay healthy. How is health promotion defined? 2. It refers to the activities that a person does personally in the absence of symptoms in an attempt to remain healthy. What is the purpose of health promotion? 3.Literature Review Traditionally the United States health care system has been sicknessoriented. 2006). (Smeltzer & Bare. This research paper will review current literature from three professional sources relative to the nursing profession and health promotion. in the last two decades.” Smeltzer and Bare (2006) state “health promotion can be defined as activities that by accentuating the positive assist a person to develop those resources that will maintain or enhance well-being and improve the quality of life.
By emphasizing health promotion strategies such as selfresponsibility. In the article “Defining Nurse Practitioner Scope of Practice: Expanding Primary Care Services. lifestyle and environment in ways that will reduce risk and enhance health and will being. Brown. proper nutrition. That purpose according to Smeltzer and Bare (2006) is “to focus on the person's potential for wellness and to encourage him or her to alter personal habits. Nurses implement health promotion strategies in a variety of ways. (Sherwood. they greatly influence their patients with their passion.” Sherwood. behavioral science. 1997). Historically. exercise and stress management. counseling and advocacy in addition to patient assessment. clinical diagnosis and patientcase management. today that has all changed. nurses plant the seeds of wellness in the minds of their patients. nurses focused on the diagnosis and treatment of a disease. Nurses are now expected to expand their primary care services to include psychosocial nursing. and Wardell (1997) state “the role of the nurse practitioner continues to evolve in response to changing societal and health care needs as consumers in all settings seek increasing services”. sickness or condition and emphasis on health promotion was nonexistent. However.” The role of nurse’s has changed dramatically as a result of the emphasis on health promotion. Due to the high level of credibility nurse’s have with their patients.Health promotion in the United States has a single purpose. Brown and Wardell. it . advocacy. While ultimately.
There are three levels of health promotion prevention. Collins. Cargill and Huang (2007) .” Secondary prevention emphasizes early detection and intervention against illnesses and disease. According to Liburd. An example of a primary prevention intervention would be an immunization. secondary prevention and tertiary prevention. These levels are stages of the disease process during which preventive actions can be highly effective. public health researchers. The objective of secondary prevention strategies is to limit the spread of infectious diseases as well as treat those individuals identified with a disease or condition before the illness fully develops. Primary prevention focuses on preventing illness or trauma.is up to the individual to make healthy changes in their lives. the role of the nurse practitioner plays a huge role in motivating individuals to adopt healthy habits. have shifted their focus from the individual to the community in recognition that community-level changes will foster and sustain individual behavior change. et al (2007) “In the decades since chronic illnesses replaced infectious diseases as the leading causes of death. The majority of health promotion programs in the United States are implemented at this level. particularly those in the field of health promotion and chronic disease prevention. The objective of primary prevention strategies is to reach as many individuals (who may be at risk) as possible. They are the primary prevention. According to Peek. An example of a secondary prevention strategy would be a screening program. Giles.
now carries great weight among health care providers. which includes the responsibility of patients to follow their physician’s instructions and adhere to their treatment plan. Nurses are no longer limited to explaining to individuals how to get well but also how to remain healthy. Historically. and research settings participate in the advancement of health promotion not only to the mainstream but to the forefront of nursing practice. the focus must be on teaching people how to remain healthy.” Tertiary prevention focuses on recovery and rehabilitation after a disease. Their influence can be identified every step of the way. Votava and Tortoretti. improved health outcomes (such as diabetes control and reduced diabetes complications). condition or disease. The objective of tertiary prevention strategies is to prevent and limit further patient deterioration resulting from a sickness.” A careful review of the literature presented strongly indicates the fact that nurses are key components in the health promotion phenomenon.” (Chiverton. 2003). Joseph Betancourt and Joan Quinlan (2007) state “The paradigm of personal responsibility for one’s health. Votava and Tortoretti (2003) state “never before has health promotion been more important than it is today. practice.“health care interventions improved the quality of care for racial/ethnic minorities. nurse educators have taught patients how to manage illness. condition or illness has occurred. in the future. and possibly reduced health disparities in quality of care. . The importance of this change cannot be understated. In the article ‘The Future Role of Nursing in Health Promotion” the authors Chiverton. Nurses in education. Their roles have changed (expanded) significantly in the last ten years.
P. Quinlan J. The future role of nursing in health promotion. and the battle against chronic disease. National Library of Medicine. Prev Chronic Dis . & Tortoretti. Votava. D.S..R.References Chiverton.18(2):192-4 Betancourt. 2003 NovDec. Personal responsibility versus responsible options: health care. U. community health promotion. K. J. The National Institute of Health.
& Wardell. J. Retrieved from Peek. 1997 Volume 1 Number 2. S. M. Brown. Med Care Res Rev.. B. Prev Chronic Dis. (1996).. L. PA: Lippincott-Raven. Published online 2007 June 15. Available from: http://www.. Giles. Collins. 4(3): A68.gov/pcd/issues/2007/jul/07_0017. Philadelphia. G. Charting the Future of Community Health Promotion: Recommendations From the National Expert Panel on Community Health Promotion. C. Retrieved from Sherwood. Liburd. P. Voetsch..[serial online] 2007 Jul. and Huang.. In (8th ed. K. Brunner and Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. E. 2007 July. p. & Bare. D: Defining Nurse Practitioner Scope of Practice: Expanding Primary Care Services. Fay V.htm. Cargill. A. Diabetes Health Disparities: A Systematic Review of Health Care Interventions. 46). 2008 May 5.... . Retrieved from Smeltzer. M. G. and Navarro A.cdc. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice.
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