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Control lectures by Lubn Moin

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**From last class
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Sketching the Root Locus for a given system Determine the stability of the system based on the R-L sketch

Control lectures by Lubn Moin

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Today’s class

Sketching a bode diagram for a given system

Control lectures by Lubn Moin

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students should be able to: Sketch the bode diagram for a given system Identify the system’s stability based on the determined Gain Margin & Phase Margin Control lectures by Lubn Moin 4 .Learning Outcomes At the end of this lecture.

Control lectures by Lubn Moin 5 . Link between frequency and time domains is indirect. Frequency response is readily determined experimentally in sinusoidal testing. where ω is the input frequency).Frequency Response Method Frequency response analysis and design methods consider response to sinusoids methods rather than steps and ramps. Design criteria help obtain good transient time response. Frequency response is readily obtained from the system transfer function (s = jω) .

and can be plotted for a single frequency. but with the same frequency as the input. but differing in amplitude and phase angle (there is a phase shift in the output). and can be plotted for a range of frequencies.Frequency Response Method The frequency response of a system is steady-state response of the system to a sinusoidal input signal. Control lectures by Lubn Moin 6 . The frequency response can be computed for a single frequency. For linear dynamic systems. the steady state output of the system is a sinusoid with the same frequency as the input.

2 . is assigned.Decibels Note that the quantities V2 I P . V1 I1 P1 However. when scaled logs of the quantities are taken. and 2 are unitless quantities. the unit of decibels (dB). 2 0 lo g 1 0 2 0 lo g 1 0 1 0 lo g 1 0 V2 V1 I2 I1 P2 P1 = lo g -m ag n itu d e (L M ) o f th e v o ltag e g ain in d B = lo g -m ag n itu d e (L M ) o f th e cu rren t g ain in d B = lo g -m ag n itu d e (L M ) o f th e p o w er g ain in d B Control lectures by Lubn Moin 7 .

LM versus w (with w on a log scale) The Bode straight-line approximation to the phase plot. φ(w) versus w (with w on a log scale) Control lectures by Lubn Moin 8 .There are two types of Bode plots: The Bode straight-line approximation to the logmagnitude (LM) plot.

den) Control lectures by Lubn Moin 9 .Num=[a b] Den=[c d] Bode(num.

” K(s + z1 )(s + z 2 ) ⋅⋅⋅ (s + z N ) H(s) = (s + p1 )(s + p 2 ) ⋅⋅⋅ (s + p M ) 1 G ( s) = τs + 1 1 G( jω) = τjω +1 Control lectures by Lubn Moin 10 .Standard form for H(jw) Before drawing a Bode plot. it is necessary to find H(jw) and put it in “standard form.

Five types of terms in H(jw) 1) K (a constant) 2) w 1+j w1 1 or (a zero) w 1 + j w1 (a pole) 3) jw (a zero) or 1/jw (a pole) 4) Any of the terms raised to a positive integer power. For example. w 1 + j w1 2 (a double zero) 5) Complex zero/poles 2α w w2 1+j 2 (a complex zero) 2 w0 w0 or Control lectures by Lubn Moin 1 2α w w2 1+j 2 2 w0 w0 (a complex pole) 11 .

Constant term in H(jw) If H(jw) = K = K/0° Then LM = 20log(K) and φ(w) = 0° .1. so the LM and phase responses are LM (dB) 20log(K) φ(w) 0o 0 1 10 100 w w Summary: A constant in H(jw): • Adds a constant value to the LM graph (shifts the entire graph up or down) • Has no effect on the phase Control lectures by Lubn Moin 12 .

K |G(jw)| /G(jw) LM (dB) 20log(K) φ(w) 0o 0 1 10 100 w w Control lectures by Lubn Moin 13 .Factor Constant .

A) 1 + jw/w1 (a zero): The straight-line approximations are: w If H(jw) = 1 + j = w1 w -1 w 1 + ∠tan w1 w1 2 2 1 + w and φ (w) = tan -1 w Then LM = 20log w1 w1 To determine the LM and phase responses. consider 3 ranges for w: 1) w << w1 2) w >> w1 3) w = w1 Control lectures by Lubn Moin 14 .2.

1w1 w1 slope = +45 deg/dec (for 2 decades) w 10w1 0dB Summary: A 1 + jw/w1 (zero) term in H(jw): • Causes an upward break at w = w1 in the LM plot.So the Bode approximations (LM and phase) for 1 + jw/w1 are shown below. • Adds 90° to the phase plot over a 2 decade range beginning a decade before w1 and endinglectures by Lubn Moin w1 . There is a 0dB effect before the break and a slope of +20dB/dec or +6dB/oct after the break. LM 20dB φ(w) 90o slope = + 6dB/oct 45o = +20dB/dec w1 10w1 w 0o 0. Control a decade after 15 .

actual LM 20dB slope = + 6dB/oct = +20dB/dec 3dB 0dB w1 asymptotic approximation 10w1 w 16 Control lectures by Lubn Moin .

1w1 w1 slope = +45 deg/dec (for 2 decades) w 10w1 0dB Control lectures by Lubn Moin 17 .Factor 1+ jω ω1 (a zero): /G(jw) |G(jw)| LM 20dB φ(w) 90o slope = + 6dB/oct 45o = +20dB/dec w1 10w1 w 0o 0.

consider 3 ranges for w: 1) w << w1 2) w >> w1 3) w = w1 Control lectures by Lubn Moin 18 .2) B are: 1 w 1 + j w 1 (a pole): The straight-line approximations If H(jw) = 1 w 1+j w1 = 1∠0 w -1 w 1 + ∠tan w1 w1 2 = w ∠− tan 2 w1 w 1 + w1 1 -1 1 -1 w Then LM = 20log and φ(w) = -tan 2 w1 w 1 + w1 To determine the LM and phase responses.

• Adds -90° to the phase plot over a 2 decade range beginning a decade before w1 and ending a decade after w1 . LM 0dB w1 10w1 slope = -20dB/dec -45o = .1 So the Bode approximations (LM and phase) for are shown below.6dB/oct w φ(w) 0. There is a 0dB effect before the break and a slope of -20dB/dec or 6dB/oct after the break. Control lectures by Lubn Moin 19 .1w1 o 0 w1 w 1 + j w1 10w1 w -20dB slope = -45 deg/dec (for 2 decades) -90o Summary: A 1 + jw/w1 (zero) term in H(jw): • Causes an downward break at w = w1 in the LM plot.

1w1 o 0 w1 10w1 w slope = -45 deg/dec (for 2 decades) -90o Control lectures by Lubn Moin 20 .6dB/oct -45 w φ(w) 0.Factor 1+ 1 jω (a pole) /G(jw) ω1 |G(jw)| LM 0dB w1 10w1 -20dB slope = -20dB/dec o = .

asymptotic approximation LM 0dB w1 -3dB 10w1 -20dB slope = -20dB/dec = .6dB/oct w Control lectures by Lubn Moin actual 21 .

Lets try! Plot a bode plot for a transfer function:- 1) 20 ( s + 1 ) G (s)H (s) = s(s + 2) 2) 100 ( s + 1 ) G (s)H (s) = s ( s + 10 ) Control lectures by Lubn Moin 22 .

Reminder!!! Don’t forget to bring:Ruler Pencil Eraser For Bode Plot Sketching… Control lectures by Lubn Moin 23 .

Plot a Bode Plot! 200( s + 1)( s + 10) G (s) H (s) = s ( s + 100) Control lectures by Lubn Moin 24 .

Replace s=jw into G(s)H(s) G ( jω ) H ( jω ) = 200 j ω ( j ω + 2 )( j ω + 10 ) Rearrange form:10 2 )( 1 + j G ( jω ) H ( jω ) = j ω (1 + j ω ω 10 ) Control lectures by Lubn Moin 25 .

Factor 1 jω iii. Factor 1 1+ j ω 2 1 1+ j ω 10 Sketch for magnitude and phase! Control lectures by Lubn Moin 26 . K=10 ii. Factor Constant. Factor iv.This transfer function has 4 forms:i.

Control lectures by Lubn Moin 27 .

Stability Gain Margin G M = − 20 log G ( j ω ) ω = ω Phase Margin GM = − LM (ω G M ) φM = 180 + ∠G ( jω ) ω =ω o The system is stable if BOTH φM G M M > 0 > 0 Control lectures by Lubn Moin 28 φ .

5) = 29.5dB Since G M M > 0 > 0 φ ΦM STABLE φ M = 180 o + ( − 117 o ) = 63 o Control lectures by Lubn Moin 29 .Example : Determine the system’s stability GM GM = −(−29.

8) = 20.8dB ΦM Since G M M φ M = 180 + ( − 253 ) = − 73 o o o > 0 < 0 φ UN-STABLE Control lectures by Lubn Moin 30 .Example : Determine the system’s stability GM GM = −(−20.

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