You are on page 1of 10

imyj mv.

-Gi hy‡M gw`bvi mgvR


iƒc I ˆewkó¨ (1g LÐ)

g~j
W. AvKivg wRqv Avj Dgix

wemwgjøvwni ivngvwbi ivwng

mg¯Í cÖksmv gnvwe‡k¦i ie Avjøvni Rb¨ Ges


Zuvi †kl bwe I imyj mv.-Gi cÖwZ mvjvg I `yiƒ`|
Abyev`
†gv: mv¾v`yj Bmjvg

evsjv‡`k Bbw÷wUDU Ae BmjvwgK _¨U (weAvBAvBwU)


imyj mv.-Gi hy‡M gw`bvi mgvR
iƒc I ˆewkó¨ (1g LÐ)
†jLK: W. AvKivg wRqv Avj Dgix
Abyev`K: †gv: mv¾v`yj Bmjvg

ISBN: 984-8203-13-3

cÖKvkbvq
evsjv‡`k Bbw÷wUDU Ae BmjvwgK _¨U (weAvBAvBwU)
evwo # 04, †ivW # 02, †m±i # 09, DËiv g‡Wj UvDb
XvKv-1230, evsjv‡`k|
†dvb: 02-58957509, 02-58954256
B‡gj: biit_org@yahoo.com

cÖKvkKvj: 2020
cÖ”Q`: Gg G AvKvk

gy`ªY
Gg. G. MÖvwd· K¨v¤úvm
gMevRvi, XvKv

g~j¨: 150.00 UvKv


Rasuler (sm) Jooge Madinar Samaj is a Bengali translation of Medinan
Society at the Time of the Prophet- Its Characteristics and Organisation
Vol. 1, by Akram Diya al Umari and translated into Bengali by Md.
Sajjadul Islam and published by Bangladesh Institute of Islamic Thought,
Dhaka Banglades, Phone: 02-58957509, 02-58954256, Email:
biit_org@yahoo.com, Price: Tk. 150.00 US$ 10.00
vi

beg Aa¨vq
m~wPcÎ mggh©v`vi wfwˇZ abx I Mwi‡ei HK¨e× msMÖvg 95

gyLeÜ 7 `kg Aa¨vq


f‚wgKv 11 gw`bvi mb` 113
†jL‡Ki K_v 19
Bmjv‡gi cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi BwZnvm iPbv m¤úwK©Z cÖ¯vÍ ebv 21 GKv`k Aa¨vq
Bûw`‡`i Pzw³ f½ Ges gw`bv †_‡K Zv‡`i ewn®‹vi 145
cÖ_g Aa¨vq
BwZnvm we‡køl‡Y Bmjvwg ˆewkó¨ 25 Øv`k Aa¨vq
Lvqei I †nRv‡Ri Aewkó Bûw` NuvwU Rq 167
wØZxq Aa¨vq
nvw`m wekvi`M‡Yi g~jbxwZ cÖ‡qv‡Mi †¶‡Î bgbxqZv cwiwkó
Aej¤^‡bi Avek¨KZv 39 cwiwkó GK: Avnj Avj myddvn m¤úwK©Z m~Î 186

Z…Zxq Aa¨vq cwiwkó `yB: gw`bvi mb` m¤úwK© M‡elYv m~Î 188
gnvbwei mv. Avg‡j gw`bvi mgvR:
ˆewkó¨ I cÖv_wgK KvVv‡gv 63

PZz_© Aa¨vq
gw`bvi mgv‡R Bmjv‡gi cÖfve 68

cÂg Aa¨vq
wnRiZ I gw`bvi mgvR KvVv‡gvq Zvi cÖfve 71

lô Aa¨vq
gnvbwei mv. hy‡M gyqvLvn&i (cvi¯úwiK åvZ…‡Z¡i) weavb 77

mßg Aa¨vq
gvbe m¤ú‡K©i eywbqv` n‡”Q ag©wek¦vm 88

Aóg Aa¨vq
gw`bvi mgv‡Ri wfwË fv‡jvevmv 92
8 ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ)

eøvw¼bwk‡ci †jLv f‚wgKv Ges ¯^qs †jL‡Ki ÒBmjv‡gi cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi


gyLeÜ BwZnvm iPbvi c×wZi m¤úwK©Z cÖ¯vÍ ebvÓ kxl©K wbe‡Ü Gc×wZi we¯ÍvwiZ
weeiY Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q|
B›Uvib¨vkbvj Bbw÷wUDU Ae BmjvwgK _¨U W. AvKivg wRqv Avj Øxb
Avj Dgixi †jLv cÖ_g Bs‡iwR ms¯‹iY ‘Madinan Society at the e¯‘Z : mgmvgwqK gymwjg we‡klÁM‡Yi mvg‡b me‡P‡q ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kv‡Ri
Time of the Prophet’ cÖKvk K‡i‡Q| Gi ga¨ w`‡q Bbw÷wUDU Øxb
g‡a¨ wbtm‡›`‡n Ab¨Zg cÖavb welq n‡”Q Bmjv‡gi BwZnvm iPbv| G
m¤ú‡K© Z_¨ D`&NvU‡b myMfxi M‡elYvq Drmvn`vb Ae¨vnZ †i‡L‡Q| e¨vcv‡i mK‡jB GKgZ †h Bmjv‡gi BwZnvm we‡kl K‡i cÖgvYcwÄ,
gymjgvb‡`i eZ©gvb wPšÍvaviv ms¯‹v‡ii Rb¨ G ai‡bi ÁvbMf© M‡elYv hvPvB-evQvB I we‡køl‡Yi †¶‡Î †h Mfxi g‡bvwb‡ek I h‡Zœi `vwe`vi, Zv
AZ¨šÍ Riæwi| gnvbwe nhiZ gynv¤§` mvjøvjøvû AvjvBwn Iqv mvjøv‡gi Kiv nqwb| AZx‡Z G e¨vcv‡i Ae‡njvi Kvi‡Y Bmjv‡gi BwZnv‡mi Dci
wmiv‡Zi Zvrch© Acwimxg| mKj ¸iæZ¡c~Y© HwZnvwmK weeiY G‡K †K›`ª Kv‡jv QvqvcvZ n‡q‡Q, G‡Z Bmjvg m¤úwK©Z ¸iæZ¡c~Y© NUbvewj m¤ú‡K©
K‡iB iwPZ n‡q‡Q| mybœvn‡K Aek¨B Zvi mwVK †cÖ¶vc‡U we‡ePbv Ki‡Z wfwËnxb aviYvi AeZviYv Ges gymjgvb‡`i g‡a¨ A‰b‡K¨i m„wó n‡q‡Q|
n‡e Ges †mR‡b¨ wmivZ Aa¨q‡bi †¶‡Î mybœvni mgv‡jvPbvg~jK Dcjwä GK_v mZ¨ †h, gymwjg we‡klÁMY cÖ_g †_‡KB Bmjv‡gi cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi
Acwinvh©| W. Avj Dgixi MÖ‡š’ G welqwU mgwaK ¸iæZ¡ †c‡q‡Q| cÖwZ Mfxi g‡bv‡hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb Ges cÖK…wZMZ w`K †_‡K GB g‡bv‡hvM
Wt Avj Dgixi iPbvi Av‡iKwU mgv‡jvPbvg~jK `„wó‡KvY i‡q‡Q| Zv n‡jv wQj AvBb msµvšÍ ev kiqx wel‡qi cÖwZ| ZvB AvBb msµvšÍ wel‡q
c×wZMZ w`K| GB ˆewk‡ó¨i Kvi‡Y Bbw÷wUDU Bs‡iwR fvlvi cvVK nvw`‡mi weeiY AZ¨šÍ h‡Zœi m‡½ we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q Ges †m¸‡jv mwnn
mgv‡Ri mvg‡b MÖš’Lvwb Zz‡j ai‡Z AvMÖnx n‡q‡Q| nIqv ev mwnn bv nIqvi gvb`Ð AZ¨šÍ K‡Vvi I ˆeÁvwbK cš’vq LyeB
mZK©Zvi m‡½ wbYx©Z n‡q‡Q| Gi cvkvcvwk HwZnvwmK NUbv I welq
HwZnvwmKfv‡e wmivZ we‡klÁ I nvw`m‡eËvM‡Yi mgv‡jvPbvg~jK c×wZi eY©bvq wkw_jZv cÖ`k©b Kiv n‡q‡Q; Avi G ai‡bi cÖkqÖ `v‡bi d‡jB
g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ we`¨gvb| GKc¶ †hme weeiY MÖnY‡hvM¨ we‡ePbv K‡i‡Qb Bmjv‡gi cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi BwZnvm eY©bvq Am¤ú~Y©Zv I weåvwšÍi m„wó
Ab¨c¶ Zv cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i‡Qb Ges †Kvb nvw`m mwnn wKbv Zv wbiƒc‡Yi n‡q‡Q|
Rb¨ nvw`m‡eËvMY †h c×wZ AbymiY K‡i‡Qb gnvbwei (m.) wmivZ
iPwqZvMY cÖvqB Zv D‡c¶v K‡i‡Qb| Gfv‡e eû cÖvPxb BwZnvm MÖ‡š’i G cwiw¯’wZ‡Z A‡bK gymwjg HwZnvwmK Bmjvwg AvBb we‡klÁM‡Yi
g‡Zv wmivZ MÖš’¸‡jv‡Z †h AmsL¨ Z_¨ Qwo‡q i‡q‡Q Zv GKvšÍfv‡e Abym„Z c×wZ I gvb`ЇK GKvšÍfv‡e HwZnvwmK welq wbf©i‡hvM¨, ¯^í
cÖv‡qvwMK †cÖ¶vc‡Ui Kvi‡Y mwnn ch©v‡q DbœxZ n‡Z cv‡iwb| gynvwÏmM‡Yi wbf©i‡hvM¨, m‡›`nRbK A_ev Rvj wKbv Zv hvPvB Kivi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvM Kivi
K‡Vvi gvb`‡Ð Gme weeiY mivmwi mwVK bq e‡j cÖZxqgvb bv n‡jI wPšÍv K‡ib| weªwUk fvi‡Zi wewkó Av‡jg Avjøvgv wkejx †bvgvbx I Zuvi
wKQyUv msk‡qi D‡`ªK K‡i| QvÎ mvB‡q` †mvjvqgvb b`fx cÖgyL nvw`m‡eËvM‡Yi g~jbxwZ I gvb`Ð
me©cÖ_g cÖ‡qv‡Mi K…wZ‡Z¡i `vwe`vi| Zv‡`i cÖ‡Póvi †mvbvjx dmj nj D`y©
wmivZ M‡elYvi GB ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †¶‡Î W. Avj Dgixi K…wZZ¡ n‡jv wmiv‡Zi fvlvq iwPZ QÕL‡Ð mgvß imy‡ji Rxebx MÖš’ ÒwmivZzbwœ e (m.)Ó| Zv‡`i
eywbqvw` welq¸‡jv nvw`m mgv‡jvPbvi cÖPwjZ c×wZ Ges Bmjvwg cš’v AbymiY K‡i Aveyj eiKZ Avãyi iDd ˆRbcyix D`~© fvlvq iPbv
†cª¶vc‡U AvaywbK cwðgv BwZnvm M‡elYvq mgwš^Z cÖ‡qvM| W. Lvwj`
ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ) 9 10 ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ)

K‡ib Ògvmvn Avj mvBqviÓ| fwel¨‡Z BwZnv‡mi wfwË wK n‡e †m m¤ú‡K©


W. Avj Dgix Av`k© bgybv D¤§vni mvg‡b Zz‡j aivi Av‡M Ab¨vb¨
fvlvfvlx cvVK-cvwVKvMY Zv‡`i g~j¨evb iPbv †_‡K dvq`v AR©‡bi
my‡hvM cvbwb|
e¯‘Z: G cÖKí n‡jv W. Avj Dgixi Mfxi AvMÖn, wbôv I Z¨v‡Mi dmj|
wZwb Zvi K‡qKRb my‡hvM¨ MÖvRy‡qU Qv·K mn‡hvMx wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡ib,
hviv Bmjv‡gi BwZnv‡mi Ab¨vb¨ hyM m¤ú‡K©I GKB bxwZgvjv I gvb`Û
cÖ‡qv‡Mi KvR ïiæ K‡i‡Qb|
Gfv‡e cvVK-cvwVKv‡`i `„wó AvKl©‡Yi gva¨‡g Bmjv‡gi BwZnv‡mi GKwU
µvwšÍKvj Aa¨qb Ges wmivZ (m.)-g~j¨vq‡b ¸iæZ¡&c~Y© c×wZMZ Ae`vb
wn‡m‡e W. Avj Dgixi G g~j¨evb MÖš’Lvwb Aa¨q‡bi Rb¨ Avwg Zv‡`i cÖwZ
Avgš¿Y RvbvB|
cwi‡k‡l imyj (m.)-Gi AvMg‡bi kvk¦Z mZ¨ cwiùzU‡b hviv AK¬všÍ
cwikÖg K‡i‡Qb Zviv Avjøvni Amxg ing‡Z Awfwl³ †nvb, GB †`vqv
Kwi|

W. Zvnv Rvwei Avj AvjIqvbx


†cÖwm‡W›U
B›Uvib¨vkbvj Bbw÷wUDU Ae BmjvwgK _¨U
nvb©Wb, fvwR©wbqv, Ryb 1991
12 ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ)

cÖ_gZ Zviv mKj HwZnvwmK NUbvi D‡Ïk¨ m¤ú‡K© e¯‘MZ j¶¨ AR©‡bi
f‚wgKv
w`K ms‡hvR‡bi †Póv K‡i‡Qb| Zv‡`i GB gvbwmKZvq HwZnvwmK m‡Z¨i
mgmvgwqK gymwjg we‡klÁ AvKivg wRqv Avj Dgix Zvi Òimyj (m.)-Gi †P‡q Av`wk©K `„wó‡KvYB my¯úófv‡e cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| Ab¨vb¨ GjvKv I
hy‡M gw`bvi mgvRÓ MÖ‡š’ Bmjvg m¤ú‡K© cwðgv we‡klÁ Ges gymwjg hy‡Mi gvby‡li `„wófw½ cwðgv‡`i gvbwmKZvi †P‡q †h m¤ú~Y© wfbœZi,
we‡k¦ Zv‡`i cÖwZc‡¶i KwZcq †gŠwjK aviYv P¨v‡jÄ K‡i Bmjv‡gi †mwU‡K Zviv D‡c¶v K‡i †M‡Qb| Avi G Kvi‡YB Zviv Bmjv‡gi cÖv_wgK
wk¶Yxq cÖv_wgK hyM m¤ú‡K© M‡elYvq bZzb I g~j¨evb Ae`vb †i‡L‡Qb| hy‡Mi mvgwiK weRq‡K (dzZznv) MwYg‡Zi gv‡ji †jv‡f cwiPvwjZ jovB
e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb| MwYg‡Zi gvj jv‡fi AvKv•¶vq wbtm‡›`‡n Gi
Aa¨vcK wn‡m‡e Avj Dgix Zvi MÖ‡š’ †`wL‡q‡Qb †h, cwðgv BwZnvm
†cQ‡b KviY wQj, KziAv‡b hvi ¯úó cÖgvY i‡q‡Q| wKš‘ MwYg‡Zi gvj
we‡klÁMY Bmjv‡gi BwZnvm we‡køl‡Yi c×wZ we‡kl K‡i cÖv_wgK hyM
jvf Kiv‡K cÖv_wgK D‡Ïk¨ wn‡m‡e cÖwZcbœ Kivi gva¨‡g Bmjv‡g ewY©Z
m¤ú‡K© GL‡bv weåvwšÍi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Qb| mvaviYfv‡e mZ¨vbymÜv‡bi j‡¶¨ ÒmgMÖ Rwg‡b Avjøvni kvmb cÖwZôvÓ1 j‡¶¨i ¸iæZ¡‡K Gwo‡q hvIqvi †Póv
e¯‘wbôZvi D”PZg gvb mgybœZ ivLvi cwðgv HwZnvwmK HwZn¨ m‡Ë¡I Kiv n‡q‡Q| DgvBqv Lwjdv‡`i Avg‡j AvMÖnx gyRvwn`‡`i wb‡q MwVZ
Bmjv‡gi cÖv_wgK hyM m¤ú‡K© Zv‡`i AvPi‡Yi †¶‡Î AZx‡Zi Ab¨vb¨ †mbvevwnbx‡K G‡Ki ci GK wbtm¤ú` I MwYg‡Zi gv‡ji m¤¢vebvnxb
agx©q HwZn¨, we‡kl K‡i Bûw` I wLªóvb a‡g©i e¨vcv‡i Zv‡`i Avwe®‹…Z Kveywj¯Ív‡bi g‡Zv Dli cve©Z¨ GjvKvq Awfhv‡b †cÖi‡Yi NUbvewj‡Z
m‡›`nRbK NUbvewji Øviv Zv‡`i cÖfvevwš^Z nIqvi cÖeYZv we‡klfv‡e e¯‘MZ jv‡fi AvKv•¶v bq, Avjøvni c‡_ wRnv‡` Suvwc‡q covi Rb¨
j¶Yxq| Gi mv‡_ †hvM n‡q‡Q Bmjvwg `ywbqv I BD‡iv‡ci ga¨Kvi cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi gymjgvb‡`i ¯^vfvweK †PZbviB cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q|2
`xN©w`‡bi wZ³ m¤úK© Ges A‡bK we‡kl‡Ái e¨w³MZ c¶cvZg~jK
AwaKvsk cwðgv we‡klÁ Ges gymjgvb‡`i g‡a¨ `„wófw½MZ cv_©‡K¨i
`„wófw½| Gme Kvi‡Y Ab¨ †h‡Kv‡bv Acwðgv BwZnv‡mi †¶‡Î cwðgv
welqwU AwaKZi ¸iæZ¡c~Y©, KviY GwU HwZnvwmK NUbvi D‡Ïk¨ m¤úwK©Z
M‡elYvi Zzjbvq Bmjv‡gi wewfbœ w`K m¤ú‡K© Zv‡`i Av‡jvPbv A‡bK aviYvi m‡½ bq, HwZnvwmK Z_¨m~‡Îi m‡½ mswkøó, Zv n‡jv cÖ_gZ
wbgœgv‡bi| Gme cÖwZeÜKZv QvovI Bmjvg m¤ú‡K© cwðgv we‡klÁ‡`i nvw`‡mi weï×Zv Ges wØZxqZ : HwZnvwmK m~Î wn‡m‡e Gi gvb`Ð m¤ú‡K©
AvPi‡Yi Av‡iKwU A™¢~Z w`K n‡jv, bZzb wKQy D™¢veb Ges †h‡Kvb bZzb we‡iva|
djvdjB DËg; Zv‡`i GB `„wófw½I ¯^xK…Z a¨vbaviYvi m‡½ m½wZc~Y©
GB we‡iva imy‡j (m.)-Gi gw`bvi Rxe‡bi †¶‡Î AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©, †Kbbv
bq| Bmjv‡gi †¶‡Î GB cÖeYZv m¤ú~Y© KvíwbK I Aev¯Íe| KíbvcÖm~Z
AwaKvsk nvw`m GB hyM m¤úwK©Z|
aviYv‡K iƒc`v‡b Zv‡`i †Póv wech©q m„wó K‡i‡Q, hv Zv‡`i we‡klÁ
we‡kl‡Yi m‡½ †gv‡UB gvbvbmB bq| nvw`mmg~n wej‡¤^ wjwLZ nIqv Ges `xN© mgq a‡i †gŠwLKfv‡e ewY©Z n‡Z
_vKvi Kvi‡Y cwðgv we‡klÁMY cieZx©Kv‡j D™¢vweZ e‡j nvw`m‡K
gnvbwe (m.) gw`bvi Rxeb m¤ú‡K© cwðgv we‡klÁ‡`i DuPygv‡bi †Kvb
cÖZ¨vL¨vb Kivi †Pó K‡i‡Qb|3 Gi gva¨‡g Zviv ga¨hy‡M nvw`‡mi h_v_©Zv
iPbv †h G‡Kev‡iB †bB, Avgiv †mK_v ejwQ bv| Z‡e mvaviYZ Zv‡`i cÖwZcbœ Kivi Rb¨ Abym„Z cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi nvw`m‡eËvM‡Yi cÖwZwôZ wePv‡ii
†kÖô iPbv‡ZI `yÕwU c~e©aviYvi cÖwZdjb j¶ Kiv hvq, hv gymjgvb‡`i gvcKvwV Z_v mgv‡jvPbv c×wZ‡K cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i‡Qb| GK_v mZ¨ †h,
`„wó‡KvY †_‡K †Kej Am½wZc~Y©B bq, Dciš‘ Zv‡`i cvwÐZ¨ m¤ú‡K© nvw`m we‡klÁMY Zv‡`i M‡elYvq mnvqK wn‡m‡e AvaywbK cÖhyw³ myweav
m‡›`nvZxZ msk‡qi D‡`ªK K‡i| cÖ‡qv‡Mi my‡hvM cvbwb, Zv m‡Ë¡I Zv‡`i M‡elYvi djvdj‡K cÖZ¨vL¨vb
ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ) 13 14 ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ)

Kiv AZ¨šÍ åvwšÍKi n‡e, KviY Zviv GKwU K‡Vvi gvb`Ð cÖwZôv K‡i m¤ú‡K© msk‡qi AeKvk i‡q‡Q, †Kbbv Dfq cÖKvi MÖ‡š’i cÖ‡YZvMY GKB
nvw`‡mi wekvj fvÐvi †_‡K Pvjybxi b¨vq †Qu‡K †Qu‡K mwnn nvw`mmg~n †kÖYxi we‡klÁM‡Yi AšÍf©y³ wQ‡jb| Dciš‘ eY©bvKvix‡`i avivµ‡g
Avjv`v K‡i‡Qb| cix¶vi gva¨‡g HwZnvwmK NUbv eY©bvq h_v_©Zvi cÖwZ nvw`‡mi
wKZvemg~n A‡c¶vK…Z AwaK hZœkxj| ÎæwU-wePz¨wZ gy³ _vKvi wbðqZv bv
e¯‘Z nvw`m mgv‡jvPbvi †¶‡Î gymwjg we‡klÁMY †h c×wZ AbymiY
_vK‡jI we‡ePbv I g~j¨vqb‡hvM¨ BwZnvm m~‡Îi g‡a¨ nvw`‡mi GKwU ¯’vb
K‡ib, Zvi A‡bK c‡i cvðv‡Z¨ BwZnvm mgv‡jvPbvq Abyiƒc c×wZi
Aek¨B _vKv DwPZ| cÖK…Zc‡¶ DËg I c~Y© mb`mn weeiYmg~n cÖ_‡g
weKvk N‡U; Dfq c×wZi j¶¨ wKš‘ GKB, m‡Z¨i mÜvb| nvw`‡mi
we‡ePbv Kiv hyw³m½Z n‡e, †Kbbv G¸‡jv my¯úó Ges AwZmn‡R Gi m~Î
wbf©i‡hvM¨ m~Î wbY©‡qi ¶gZvi Kvi‡Y cÖ_g `„wó‡ZB gymjgvb‡`i eywbqv`
hvPvB Kiv m¤¢e|
wn‡m‡e Zv‡K MÖnY Kiv m¤ú~Y© hyw³hy³| eZ©gv‡b cwðgv BwZnvm
RxebxKviMY Herodotus, Thucydides A_ev Tacitus Gi mZ¨Zv Avb‡›`i welq †h, Aa¨vcK Avj Dgix imy‡ji (m.) mg‡qi HwZnvwmK m~Î
hvPvB Kivi Rb¨ Abyiƒc c×wZ AbymiY K‡i‡Qb| gymwjg we‡klÁ‡`i wKQy wn‡m‡e nvw`m‡K h_v_© ¯’vb w`‡q wmivZ Aa¨q‡bi fvimvg¨ cybtcÖwZôv
wKQy fyjÎæwU _vKv wewPÎ bq, Avi †mKvi‡Y Zv‡`i c×wZ‡K g~j¨nxb ev K‡i‡Qb| ga¨hy‡Mi gymjgvb‡`i D™¢vweZ c×wZ AbymiY K‡i Avj Dgix
VvÆvi welq e‡j g‡b Kivi †Kv‡bv KviY †bB| Zrm‡Ë¡I †Kv‡bv we‡kl eY©bvi avivµ‡gi DrKl© Zz‡j a‡i cÖ‡Z¨K NUbv m¤ú‡K© cÖwZwU weei‡Yi
`„óvšÍ cix¶vi †¶‡Î me mgqB Zv m~²fv‡e hvPvB Kiv n‡q‡Q, Avi GB wek¦vm‡hvM¨Zv mycÖwZwôZ K‡i‡Qb| gymjgvb‡`i Kv‡Q AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© e‡j
cÖwµqvq KzL¨vZ mvBd Be‡b Dgvi Avj DmvBwq`xi RvwjqvwZi welq MY¨ eyLvwi kixd I gymwjg kix‡di Dci wbf©i K‡i wZwb GB KvR
Wellhausen I Zvi A‡bK cwðgv DËim~wi h_v_©B wb›`v K‡i‡Qb| Zvi m¤úv`b K‡ib| GB `yÕwU wKZve mvaviYfv‡e mwnn e‡j MY¨ Kiv n‡q
weei‡Yi cÖK…wZ‡Z ¯úóZ mywbœ ˆewkó¨ dz‡U IVv m‡Ë¡I K‡qK kZvãx _v‡K| mwnn eyLvwii GKwU weivU Ask we‡kl K‡i gvMvwR m¤úwK©Z
Av‡MB ga¨ hy‡Mi gymjgvbMY AZ¨šÍ K‡Vvi fvlvq Zvi wb›`v K‡ib|4 nvw`mg~‡ni HwZnvwmK cÖm½ ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| GQvov Avj Dgix Ab¨vb¨
QÕLvwb mwnn nvw`‡mi wKZveÑ we‡kl K‡i eyLvwi kwid I gymwjg kwi‡di nvw`m msKjb Ges wewfbœ HwZnvwmK m~ÎI Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| weei‡Yi
weï×Zv m¤ú‡K© gymjgvb‡`i Mfxi wek¦vm i‡q‡Q| P~ovšÍ h_v_©Zv m¤ú‡K© D”Pgvb wbY©‡qi Rb¨ wZwb eY©bvKvix‡`i gvb wbY©‡qi ga¨hyMxq MÖš’-
†h hvB fveyK bv †Kb, nvw`m msKjb¸‡jv imy‡ji (m.) wmivZ m¤ú‡K© wKZveyj wiRv‡ji kiYvcbœ n‡q‡Qb Ges Zvi wbR¯^ AwfgZ m¤ú‡K© evi
mKj ÒHwZnvwmKÓ Dr‡mi †P‡q cyi‡bv A_ev A‡c¶vK…Z cyiv‡bv| me‡P‡q evi we¯ÍvwiZ cv`UxKv cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb| GB cÖwµqvq wZwb NUbvi me‡P‡q
cÖvPxb cuvPLvwb HwZnvwmK MÖ‡š’i iPbvKvj n‡jv, Avj IqvwKw` (wn. wek¦vm‡hvM¨ ms¯‹iY mycÖwZwôZ Kivi cÖqvm †c‡q‡Qb|
207/823), Be‡b †Zvgvb wnkvg (wn. 218/834), Be‡b mvÕ` (wn. Avj Dgixi iPbv `yÕwU L‡Ð wef³| cÖ_g L‡Ûi Dc-wk‡ivbvg ÒwRnv`
230/845), Avj evjv`yix (wn. 279/892) Avj Zvevwi (wn. 311/923)|5 G‡MBb&÷ gykwiKxbÓ (gykwiK‡`i weiæ‡× wRnv`)| GB L‡Ûi cy‡iv Ask
GB BwZnvm MÖš’¸‡jv iPbvi mg‡q eyLvwi kwid (wn. 256/870) gymwjg Ry‡o imy‡ji (m.) mvgwiK Awfhv‡bi (gvMvwR) welq ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| GB
kixd (wn. 261/875) msKwjZ Kiv nq| Bgvg gvwjK (wn. 179/794) L‡Ð mvgwiK Awfhv‡bi Ici wfwË K‡i cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi wmivZ
Ges Be‡b nv¤^‡ji (wn. 241/855) g‡Zv A‡b‡K GiI Av‡M nvw`m we‡klÁM‡Yi wbiƒwcZ Kvjvbyµg Abyhvqx imy‡ji (m.) gw`bvi Rxe‡bi
msKwjZ K‡ib| AwaKvsk ivR‰bwZK NUbvI ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q|
e¯‘Zc‡¶ BwZnv‡mi m~Î wn‡m‡e nvw`m AwaKZi ZË¡wbf©i GB ARynvZ HwZnvwmK c×wZi msw¶ß cwiwPwZ Aa¨v‡q †jLK nvw`m mgv‡jvPbvi
†`wL‡q BwZnvm MÖš’ I nvw`‡mi wKZv‡ei g‡a¨ e¨eavb Kiv hv‡e wK-bv †m Bmjvwg HwZ‡n¨i m‡½ cwðgv Av`‡k©i AvaywbK ixwZi mgv‡jvPbvg~jK
ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ) 15 16 ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ)

c×wZi GKUv mgš^‡qi cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi K_v ¯^xKvi K‡i‡Qb| GK Aa¨vq wbeܸ‡jv m‡e©vrK…ó| gyqvLvn m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbvi mgq wZwb †`wL‡q‡Qb †h,
c‡i Avj Dgix Bmjv‡gi wRnv‡`i g~jbxwZi Zvrch© Zz‡j a‡i cÖ‡Z¨K g°v kwid †_‡K AvMZ gynvwRi Ges gw`bv g‡bvqvivi evwm›`v Avbmvi‡`i
Awfhvb m¤ú‡K© c„_K c„_Kfv‡e eY©bv Ges Gi mv‡_ mswkøó cÖwZwU g‡a¨ HK¨ M‡o †ZvjvB wQj Gi D‡Ïk¨, Avi †mKvi‡YB imyj (m.) I
weei‡Yi h_v_©Zv g~j¨vqb K‡i cÖwZwU †¶‡Î †Kvb& †Kvb& Bmjvwg AvBb ev Avjx iv.-Gi g‡a¨ Kw_Z cvi¯úwiK åvZ…‡Z¡i eÜb wnRi‡Zi mgq ¯’vwcZ
wewa cÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Q ZviI eY©bv w`‡q‡Qb| GB L‡Ð †KejgvÎ Avie nqwb, hw`I weL¨vZ m~‡Î GB wel‡qi D‡jøL i‡q‡Q| Avnj Avj myddvn
†e`yBb I evB‡R›UvB‡bi weiæ‡× Awfhv‡bi welq ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| Bûw`‡`i cÖm½ Av‡jvPbvi †¶‡Î wZwb Zv‡`i ga¨Kvi m¤ú~Y© AcwiwPZ K‡qKR‡bi
weiæ‡× Awfhv‡bi cÖm½ wØZxq L‡Ð ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| cwiPq cÖwZwôZ Kivi Rb¨ Avey b~qvB‡gi (wn. 430/1039) wnjvqvZ Avj
AvIwjqv MÖ‡š’ DwjøwLZ we¯ÍvwiZ ZvwjKv e¨envi K‡ib| Avnj Avj myddvn
“The Madinan Society at the Time the of Prophet”-Gi wØZxq
cieZx©Kv‡j D™¢vweZ e‡j cÖvP¨we`‡`i Awf‡hvM LÐb KivB n‡jv Gi
L‡Ði myMwVZ Aa¨vqmg~‡n wewPÎ cÖm½ Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| cÖ_g `yÕwU
D‡Ïk¨|6 †jLK gw`bvi mb` Av‡jvPbv K‡i Bûw`‡`i m‡½ m¤úvw`Z Pzw³
Aa¨v‡q wmivZ I nvw`m we‡ePbvi m‡e©vËg HwZnvwmK c×wZ Kx n‡e Zv
Ges gymjgvb‡`i ci¯ú‡ii g‡a¨ m¤úvw`Z Pzw³i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Zz‡j
wb‡q `xN© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| Avj Dgix BwZnvm we‡køl‡Y nvw`m
a‡i‡Qb|
mgv‡jvPbvi g~jbxwZ cÖ‡qvM Kivi mv‡_ mv‡_ G K_vI ¯^xKvi K‡ib †h,
GB bxwZ cÖ‡qv‡M bgbxqZv Aej¤^b Ki‡Z n‡e, †Kbbv, NUbvi Kvj †kl `ywU Aa¨v‡qi (11kÕ-12kÕ) Avj Dgix Bûw`‡`i weiæ‡× cwiPvwjZ
cybM©Vb Kivi Rb¨ †Kej mwnn I nvmvb nvw`m h‡_ó bq| Avj Dgixi Awfhv‡bi welq eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| GB Awfhv‡bi d‡j gw`bv †_‡K Bûw`‡`i
g‡Z NUbv cÖev‡ni †¶‡Î `ye©j eY©bv _vK‡Z cv‡i Ges kwiqZ I ewn®‹v‡ii c_ cÖk¯Í nq| wZwb Gme NUbv Av‡jvPbvq cÖPwjZ ixwZ AbymiY
AvnKv‡gi cÖm½ Avmvi c~e© ch©šÍ G¸‡jv MÖvn¨ n‡Z cv‡i, Z‡e †m‡¶‡Î K‡i‡Qb| eby KvqbyKv‡K ewn®‹v‡ii welq A¯^xKvi Kivi mv¤cÖwZK †Póv‡K
mwnn I nvmvb nvw`mmg~nB MÖnY‡hvM¨ we‡ewPZ n‡e| mwnn †iIqv‡Zi wZwb MÖnY K‡ibwb| GQvov eby KzivqRvi g„Zz¨`Ð Kvh©Ki Kivi NUbv‡KI
Afve I `ye©j eY©bvi Kvi‡Y wmiv‡Zi KwZcq HwZnvwmK NUbv m¤ú‡K© wZwb A¯^xKvi K‡ibwb|7
gZ‰ØaZvi m„wó n‡q‡Q| GKRb we‡klÁ wn‡m‡e Avj Dgix e¨vcK Avj Dgixi iPbvi Ab¨Zg cÖavb AvKl©Yxq w`K n‡”Q m~‡Îi eûj cÖ‡qvM|
†KŠZ‚nj cÖKvk K‡i NUbv we‡køl‡Y wewfbœ Drm †_‡K Z_¨ msMÖn I web¨vm Zvi weeiY I cv`UxKvq B‡Zvc~‡e© DwjøwLZ Av`k© ÔHwZnvwmKÕ wmivZ
K‡i‡Qb Ges A‡bK †¶‡Î †Kv‡bv NUbv m¤ú‡K© mywew`Z Awfg‡Zi †P‡q MÖš’mg~n QvovI AmsL¨ iPbvi cwiPq cvIqv †M‡Q| wZwb gw`bvi hy‡Mi
wfbœZi AwfgZ _vKvi K_v ¯^xKvi K‡i‡Qb| gymwjg we‡klÁMY wKfv‡e BwZnvm eY©bv Kivi Rb¨ †hLv‡bB m¤¢e †mLv‡bB KziAv‡bi Avqv‡Zi
e¯‘wbôZv I cvwЇZ¨i D”Pgvb AR©‡b m¶g n‡eb Zvi iPbvq ZviI my¯úó DׄwZ cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb| AwZ g~j¨evb Z‡_¨i Auvavi nvw`m kv‡¯¿ Zvi AMva
w`K wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q| Ávb Ges eZ©gv‡b wejyß Ab¨vb¨ MÖ‡š’i DׄwZ Zvi MÖš’‡K we‡kl
wØZxq L‡Ði ga¨eZx© Aa¨vqmg~‡n (3q-10g) gw`bvq gymjgvb‡`i †gŠwjK ˆewkó¨gwÐZ K‡i‡Q| Be‡b nvRi Avj AvmKvjvbxi wekvj iPbv ÔdZûj
ivR‰bwZK Rxe‡bi wewfbœ w`‡Ki we‡kølY Kiv n‡q‡Q| KwZcq we‡kl evixÓ-Gi †¶‡Î GB welqwU AwaKZi cÖ‡hvR¨| Avj Dgix evi evi GB
wel‡qiI wb®úwË Kiv n‡q‡Q| Zvn‡jv cvi¯úwiK åvZ…Z¡ (gyqvLvn), MÖ‡š’i DׄwZ †ck K‡i‡Qb| Zv Qvov wZwb Be‡b Kvwmi Ges LyeB cÖ_g
gmwR‡` Ae¯’vbKvix Mwie gymjgvbMY (Avnj Avj myddvn) Ges w`‡Ki weL¨vZ Lwjdv Be‡b LvBqvZ (wn. 240/854)-Gi g‡Zv D‡cw¶Z
mvaviYfv‡e gw`bvi mb` e‡j cwiwPZ `wjj| Avj Dgixi iPbvi GB HwZnvwmK m~θ‡jv cÖvqB cÖPzi cwigv‡Y Kv‡R jvwM‡q‡Qb| Avj Dgix
ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ) 17 18 ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ)

Avj IqvwKw`i KwZcq `ye©j w`‡Ki Av‡jvPbv K‡i †`wL‡q‡Qb †h, cÖvPxb Z_¨ myÎ
nIqv m‡Ë¡I Zvi iPbvq wKse`wšÍi A‡bK Dcv`vb AšÍf©y³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| 1. KziAvb, 2t193, 8t39|
`„k¨Z iPbvi K‡jei e„w×i Rb¨ wZwb B”QvK…Zfv‡e GUv K‡i‡Qb e‡j 2. dzZzn Avj eyj`vb, Avng` we Rvwei Avj evjv`yix, Kvq‡iv : `vi Avj bvn`vn Avj
Avfvm cvIqv †M‡Q| wZwb Av‡iv D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb †h, Avj IqvwKw`i QvÎ wgmwiqv 1956-7, c„ôv 490-3|
Be‡b mvÕ` Zvi I¯Ív‡`i ÎæwU m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb wQ‡jb Ges wZwb Zv cwinvi 3. Ignaz Goldzeher, Muslim Studies, tr. C.R. and S.M. Stern, London:
Kivi †Póv K‡i‡Qb| Gorge Allen and Unwin, 1971, 2q LÐ c„ôv 18-9 Ges Passim: J. Schact.
The Orgin of Muhammadan Jurisprudence, Oxford. Clarendon Press,
cvVKeM© Avj Dgixi iPbv †_‡K DcK…Z n‡Z cvi‡eb| G‡Z nvw`m 1950, c„ôv 4-5
mgv‡jvPbvi ¯^xK…Z g~jbxwZ Abymv‡i imyjyjøvn (m.) gw`bvi hy‡Mi j¶¨‡K 4. J. Wellhausen, “Prelegomena zur altesten Geschichte des Islams”
my¯úó Kivi GKUv mhZœ cÖqvm j¶ Kiv hvq| AvaywbK hy‡Mi gymjgvbiv Skizzen and Vorabeiten, Berlin, 1899, lô LÐ, c„ôv 3-7; L. Caetani,
GB j¶¨‡K mZ¨ I wbfy©j e‡j g‡bcÖv‡Y wek¦vm K‡ib| Avj Dgix Annalidell Islam. Milan, 1905-24, 2/1 LÐ, c„ôv 550-1, 553-4, 684-5
ga¨hy‡Mi gymwjg we‡klÁ‡`i wbiƒwcZ me‡P‡q wbf©i‡hvM¨ eY©bv A_ev BZ¨vw`| C. Brockelmann. Geschichte der Arebischen Litteretur. Leiden :
me‡P‡q wbf©i‡hvM¨ weeiY wbe©vPb, Zv‡`i AZxe DbœZ I weï× ˆewk‡ó¨i Brill. 1937 1g LÐ, c„ôv 213-4, Erling L. Petersen, Ali and Muawiyah
Ici wbf©i K‡i AwaKZi mwVK BwZnvm iPbvi †Póv K‡i‡Qb| Bs‡ivR in early Arabic Tradition, Odense: University Press- 1964 c„ôv, 78-82,
150-3; Avey gynv¤§` Avãyi ingvb Be‡b AvwenvwZg Avj ivRx (327 wn./939 L„.)
fvlvq Avi †Kv‡bv iPbvq GB ˆewkó¨ †Pv‡L c‡o bv| ga¨hy‡Mi Aviex
Avj Rvinv Avj Zvw`j, nvq`ªvev`, fviZ; `vqivZ Avj gvÕwid Avj Dmgvwbqv,
fvlvq iwPZ eû wmivZ Mª‡š’ mZ¨ D`NvU‡bi cÖ‡Póv cwijw¶Z n‡q‡Q,
1372/1952 2/1 LÐ, c„ôv 278; gynv¤§` we wneŸvb (354/965), Avj gvRiæwnb
Zv‡Z mvaviYZ kw³kvjx I `ye©j ixwZi wgkÖY N‡U‡Q| Avj Dgix Zvi wgb Avj gynvwÏmxb Iqvj Rqvdv Iqvj gvZiæwKb, gvngy` Beªvnxg Rv‡q` m¤úvw`Z,
gšÍ‡e¨ †m me iPbvi K_v e¨vcKfv‡e D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb| wmivZ iPbvi nvjve; Øvi Avj IqvB (ZvwiL wenxb) cÖ_g LÐ, c„ôv, 345; Avey Avãyjøvn gynv¤§`
cÖPwjZ ixwZi g~j †mªvZavivi Abymi‡Y Avj Dgix GKwU mvwe©K wPÎ AsKb web Avng` Avj `vnvex (748/1347), wgRvb Avj BwZ`vj wd bvK&` Avj wiRvj,
Ki‡jI cvVKeM© †`L‡Z cv‡eb †h, †jLK NUbv m¤ú‡K© m¤¢e me‡P‡q Avjx gynv¤§` Avj evRvex m¤úvw`Z, Kvq‡iv : Bmv Avjv evwe Avj nvjvwe, (ZvwiL
kw³kvjx I weï×Zg eY©bv Zz‡j aivi j‡¶¨ `ye©j eY©bv cwinvi A_ev Zv wenxb) 2q LÐ, c„ôv, 225; Avng` web Avjx Be‡b nvRi Avj Av¼vjvbx
UxKvi †eóbxi g‡a¨ Ave× ivLvi gva¨‡g NUbvmg~n mnR I mvejxjfv‡e (852/1448), ZvnwRe Avj ZvnwRe, nvq`ªvev`, fviZ : `vqivZ Avj gvÕwid Avj
Dmgvwbqv, (ZvwiL wenxb), 4_© LÐ, c„ôv, 295|
Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb|
Lvwj` Bqvwnqv eøvw¼bwkc 5. 1977 mv‡j J.MB. Marsden Jones e¨w³MZfv‡e Avgv‡K GB AwfgZ Rvbvb|

†mUj, IqvwksUb 6. †`Lyb El2-G watt- Gi wbeÜ, Avnj Avj myddvn


24 iweDj AvIqvj 7. GB cÖm‡½ we‡klK‡i eiKZ Avng‡`i Muhammad and the Jews: A Re-
1409/3iv b‡f¤^i 1993 examination bqv w`jøx, fvBKm cvewjwms nvDR cÖv: wj: 1979| Avj Dgix
Aek¨ Zvi K_v D‡jøL K‡ibwb| eiKZ Avng`I Avj Dgixi Abyiƒc Bmjvwg
HwZnvwmK ixwZ AbymiY K‡ib, (†`Lyb Avng`, c„ôv 5)|
20 ivm~j (m.)-Gi hy‡M g`xbvi mgvR (1g LÐ)

gw`bv g‡bvqvivi Bmjvwg wek¦we`¨vj‡qi †cv÷ MÖvRy‡qU wefv‡Mi D‡`¨v‡M


†jL‡Ki K_v
Qq eQi a‡i GB M‡elYv cÖKí ev¯Íevqb Kiv nq| Avgvi g‡Z, GB
Avj nvg`ywjjøvn| mg¯Í cÖksmv GKgvÎ AvjøvniB Rb¨| `yiæ` I mvjvg M‡elYvi d‡j wmivZ m¤ú‡K© cÖvgvY¨ MÖš’ iPbvq GhveZKv‡ji g‡a¨
†kl bwe nhiZ gynv¤§` (m.)-Gi cÖwZ, Zuvi cwievieM©, mvnvev‡q †Kivg me‡P‡q eo mvdj¨ AwR©Z n‡q‡Q| †h‡Kv‡bv AMÖYx cÖ‡Póv mvaviYZ †h
Ges wKqvgZ ch©šÍ hviv gvbyl‡K Avjøvni c‡_ AvnŸvb Rvbv‡bvi Rb¨ Zvi ai‡bi KwVb evavwecwËi m¤§yLxb n‡q _v‡K G‡¶‡Î †ZgbwU nqwb| Avwg
Wv‡K mvov †`‡eb Zv‡`i cÖwZ| Avkvev`x †h, Avgiv GB cÖK‡íi Av‡iv DbœwZ weavb Ki‡Z m¶g n‡ev
Avwg `xN© mgq a‡i GB M‡elYv MÖš’Lvwb iPbv K‡iwQ Ges AZ¨šÍ mZK©Zvi hv‡Z HwZnvwmK NUbvi c~Y©v½ `wjjmn wmiv‡Zi mKj w`K m¤ú~Y©
mv‡_ Zv ch©v‡jvPbv K‡iwQ| Avwg HwZnvwmK weei‡Yi †¶‡Î bZzbfv‡e wjwLZ n‡e Ges Zv‡Z Bmjvwg `„wó‡KvY I Gi Abb¨ ˆewk‡ó¨i
nvw`m‡eËvM‡Yi mgv‡jvPbvg~jK c×wZi cÖ‡qvM Kivi †Póv K‡iwQ Ges cwic~Y© ¯^xK…wZ _vK‡e|
Avgvi wek¦vm, Avjøvni ing‡Z GB cÖ‡Póv djcÖm~ n‡q‡Q| Aek¨ gnvbwei Avjøvn Zvqvjv mKj D‡Ïk¨ m¤ú‡K© IqvwKdnvj Ges wZwb mwVK c‡_i
wmiv‡Zi mKj Aa¨vq Ges cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi LwjdvM‡Yi iv. mgqKv‡ji mKj GKgvÎ †n`v‡qZ`vZv|
NUbvi c~Y©v½ wPÎ Zvi mwVK †cÖ¶vc‡U AsK‡bi Rb¨ my`xN© mgq K‡Vvi
W. AvKivg wRqv Avj Dgix
cÖ‡Póvi cÖ‡qvRb| Avwg Avkv KiwQ †h, wkMwMiB welqwU Abyaveb Ki‡Z
cvi‡eb Ges BwZnv‡mi M‡elK I QvÎiv GB M‡elYv MÖš’Lvwb Av‡jvPbv
ch©v‡jvPbv Ges mgv‡jvPbvi `„wó‡Z g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| Zv‡`i mgv‡jvPbv
†_‡K Avgiv DcK…Z n‡Z cvi‡ev KviY mswkøó HwZnvwmK NUbv eY©bvq
mgv‡jvPbvg~jK M‡elYvi †¶‡Î Avgiv m‡egvÎ nvw`m‡eËvM‡Yi
mgv‡jvPbvg~jK c×wZi cÖ‡qvM ïiæ K‡iwQ| GwU GKwU KwVb KvR| GRb¨
GKw`‡K †hgb nvw`m kv‡¯¿ AMva Ávb I m~² we‡kølY ¶gZv Avek¨K,
†Zgwb Ab¨w`‡K HwZnvwmK eY©bv wePvi I Dcjwäi †¶‡Î bgbxqZv
Aej¤^b cÖ‡qvRb| Avwg †cv÷ MÖvRy‡qU ÷vwWR wefv‡M gv÷vi I wcGBPwW
Dfq †kÖYxi †ek K‡qKwU w_wmm-Gi wb‡`©kbv `vb I Z`viwKi `vwqZ¡
cvjb K‡iwQ| G‡Z nvw`‡mi wKZve, gvMvwR (mvgwiK Awfhvb) Ges wmivZ
MÖ‡š’ ewY©Z HwZnvwmK NUbvewji mgv‡jvPbvg~jK M‡elYv ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q|
GB M‡elYvi j¶¨ wQj, imy‡ji Rxeb m¤ú‡K© Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q †hme Z_¨
i‡q‡Q Zv hvPvB Kiv| w_wm‡mi K‡qKLvwb B‡Zvg‡a¨ m¤úbœ n‡q‡Q Ges
Ab¨¸‡jvi Dci GL‡bv M‡elYv Pj‡Q|