HA M RA DI O IN P L AIN ENG LI SH A Step-By-Step Guide For Regular Peopl" by Randy Pryor Ham Radio In Plain English 1

You do not have resell rights or giveaway rights to this book. Only customers th at have purchased this material are authorized to view it. If you think you may have an illegally distributed copy of this book, please contact us immediately. Please email support@cliksecrets.com to report any illegal distribution. Copyright Notice Copyright © 2005 Randy Pryor All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electron ic, including photocopying and recording, or by information storage and retrieva l system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Requests for permiss ion or further information should be emailed to: Support@ClikSecrets.com Legal Notices While all attempts have been made to verify information provided in this publica tion, neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for errors , omissions or contrary interpretation of the subject matter herein. The Publish er wants to stress that the information contained herein may be subject to varyi ng state and/or local laws or regulations. All users are advised to retain compe tent counsel to determine what state and/or local laws or regulations may apply to the user’s particular operation. The purchaser or reader of this publication as sumes responsibility for the use of these materials and information. Adherence t o all applicable laws and regulations, both federal and state and local, governi ng professional licensing, operation practices, and all other aspects of operati on in the United States or any other jurisdiction is the sole responsibility of the purchaser or reader. The publisher and author assume no responsibility or li ability whatsoever on the behalf of any purchaser or reader of these materials. Any perceived slights of specific people or organizations is unintentional. Ham Radio In Plain English 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Meet the Gang 11 14 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 20! 21! 21! 21! 21!

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CHAPTER 1 - THE WORLD OF AMATEUR RADIO! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Purpose of Amateur Radio ! ! ! ! Operating a Ham Radio: Making Contacts! Ragchews! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nets! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Traffic Nets ! ! ! ! ! ! Emergency Service Nets! ! ! ! ALE Mailboxes an d Bulletin Boards ! ! Full Duplex Operation! ! ! ! ! Swap Nets! ! ! ! ! ! ! DX-i ng, Contests, and Awards! ! ! Ham Radio and Ordinary Radio! ! ! Transceiver! ! ! ! ! ! Cost of Equipment! ! ! ! ! Setting Up Ham Radio Equipment! ! ! Bandwidth Selection! ! ! ! ! Some Points for Beginners! ! ! ! ‘To Listen’ is the Phrase! ! ! ! Contacting Your Nearest Club! ! ! Finding One in the Same Boat ! ! ! Know Your Equipment! ! ! ! ! Use All Resources ! ! ! ! ! Practice Courtesy! ! ! ! ! Be Coo l ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Ham and Phonetics! ! ! ! ! Operation Using Computers ! ! ! ! Sat ellites! ! ! ! ! ! ! Amateur Radio on Boats! ! ! ! Ham Radio In Plain English 3

TRANSMISSION THEORY Transfer of Radio Waves from the Transmitter to the Antenna Transmission Line Th eory Ham Radio In Plain English 4 .BASICS OF RADIO WAVE TRANSMISSION Mode of Radio Wave Transmission Propagation of VHF Signal Reflection of VHF/UHF Signals The Process of Ionization in the Ionosphere The Ionosphere Layers The F Layer The E Layer The D Layer Critical Frequency CHAPTER 3 .! ! Signal Reports (the RST code)! ! ! ! ! International Q-Code (Extract)! ! ! ! ! C ontinuous Wave Transmitter Web Sites for Buying Equipment and Electronic Circuit s Buying Old Equipment The Statistics of Ham Radio Users Making of a Simple QRP Rig ! ! 25! 26 27 27 27 30 30 31 31 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 36 CHAPTER 2 .FACTORS AFFECTING RADIO WAVE TRANSMISSION 37 Factors Affecting Radio Waves Absorption Fading Losses Due to Ground Reflection Free Space Loss Electromagnetic Interference Radio Waves and Weather Ducting Ear th Moon Earth Satellite Sunspots 37 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 42 CHAPTER 4 .

Lumped Constants Distributed Constants Inductance of a Transmission Line Capacit ance of a Transmission Line Resistance of a Transmission Line DC Applied to a Tr ansmission Line AC Applied to a Transmission Line 42 43 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 49 49 50 51 52 52 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 58 59 59 59 59 ! ! ! 5 CHAPTER 5 .ANTENNA Antennas The Basic Antenna Energy Distribution on an Antenna Radio Wave Modulati on Morse Code Modulation Radiation of Electromagnetic Energy Antenna Gain Antenn a Reciprocity Radiation Resistance Isotropic Radiation Anisotropic Radiation Ant enna Loading Antenna Positioning Types of Different Antennas Half –wave Antennas! ! ! ! Quarter –wave Antennas! ! ! Horizontal Dipole Inverted V Folded Dipole Direc tional Antennas Parasitic Antenna Yagi Antenna One Antenna for Different Bands T erminology Used in Array Antennas Driven Element Parasitic Element Driven Array ! ! ! ! ! Ham Radio In Plain English ! ! .

HAM RADIO LICENSE FCC Control Operator Amateur Radio License License Classes Renewal of the Licens e Changes Made by the FCC in 2000 Expired License VHF/UHF Bands VHF Bands Image Transmissions Station Licensee Identification Third Party Communications Frequen cy Sharing Power Limits Language Beacons Distress Transmission and Dummy Load Re peaters Station License Required Control Operator Required Operator License Stat ions aboard Ships or Aircraft Restrictions on Station Locations Station Antenna Structures Application for New License or Reciprocal Permit for Alien Amateur Li censee Application for a Modified or Renewed License Mailing Address License Ter m FCC Modification of Station License Ham Radio In Plain English .Bi-directional Array Unidirectional Array 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 61 61 62 63 64 64 64 65 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 67 69 69 70 70 70 72 73 74 75 75 6 CHAPTER 6 .

Replacement License Document 76 Subpart B--Station Operation Standards 76 Genera l Standards 76 Station Licensee Responsibilities 76 Control Operator Duties 77 A lien Control Operator Privileges 77 Station Control 78 Authorized Transmissions 79 Prohibited Transmissions 80 Third Party Communications 81 International Commu nications 82 Station Identification 83 Restricted Operation 84 Subpart C--Specia l Operations 85 Auxiliary Station 85 Beacon Station 86 Repeater Station 87 Space Station 88 Earth Station 89 Space Telecommand Station 90 Telecommand of an Amat eur Station 90 Telecommand of Model Craft 91 Telemetry 91 Message Forwarding Sys tem 91 Subpart D--Technical Standards 92 Frequency Sharing Requirements 92 Emiss ion Standards 97 RTTY and Data Emission Codes 100 SS Emission Types 101 Transmit ter Power Standards 103 Type Acceptance of External RF Power Amplifiers 104 Stan dards for Type Acceptance of External RF Power Amplifiers 105 CHAPTER 7 .AMATEUR RADIO PRACTICE Safety Lightning Damage Ham Radio In Plain English 108 108 108 7 .

H ow Are They Rated? Fixing a Bad SWR Reading Lengthening Shortening Meters and Me asurements Voltmeter Ammeter Multimeter RF Wattmeter Directional Wattmeter Peak Reading Wattmeter Oscilloscope Audio Wave Modulation Morse Code Modulation ! ! ! ! 108 108 108 108 108 109 109 109 109 110 110 110 110 110 111 111 111 111 111 111 112 112 112 112 112 113 Chapter 8 .ELEMENTARY ELECTRICITY ! ‘God of Small Things’! ! ! Points to Remember Cells Connected in Series Cells Conn ected in Parallel The Direction of Current Flow What is Electric Current? Proper ties of Electric Current Conductors Ham Radio In Plain English ! ! ! ! ! 113 114 114 115 115 116 116 117 8 .! Safety of the Station Grounding What is a Ground? ! ! ! ! Power Line Ground DC G round (Safety Ground) RF Ground High Voltage Power Supplies Antenna Safety Safet y of the Equipment Hazardous Voltages Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) SWR Readings .

! Extrinsic Semiconductors – P and N Type! Pn Junction Diodes Pn Junctions Formation of Pn Junction Properties of Pn Junction Transistors Base Emitter and Collector Layers Vacuum Tubes ! ! ! 118 119 119 119 120 121 121 121 121 123 123 123 123 124 126 126 126 128 129 130 130 131 131 132 132 135 135 135 136 138 139 142 142 143 9 Chapter 9 .MAGNETISM AND BASIC ELECTRIC DEVICES Electric Potential Potential Difference Resistance Capacitors Schematic Symbol f or a Capacitor Equivalent Series Resistance of a Capacitor (ESR) Film Capacitors Electrolytic Capacitors Capacitor and Voltage Electric Field Alternating Curren t Magnetism Types of Magnets Magnetic Poles and Forces Magnetic Fields Circuit T heory Types of Circuits Circuit Components The Objective of a Resistor Light Dep endent Resistor Capacitor Temperature Sensors Microphone Switch Ham Radio In Plain English .

A PEEP INTO THE ATMOSPHERE What Is Atmosphere? Troposphere Stratosphere Ionosphere Conclusion Ham Radio In Plain English 10 .TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICITY Structure of Electric Power Systems Distribution Transmission and Distribution Chapter 11 .ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND RADIO WAVES Electromagnetic Waves Basics of Wave Motion Wavelength Amplitude Frequency Radio Waves Units of Frequency Bandwidth The Factors Affecting Radio Waves Chapter 12 .Fuse Voltmeter Ammeter Multimeter Circuit Equations 144 144 144 144 146 148 148 150 150 151 151 151 151 152 152 152 152 153 154 155 155 155 156 156 157 Chapter 10 .

they create the perfect hobby amateur radio. British mathematician 1897 People’s interest s range from the fun to the weird to the downright bizarre.HA M RA DI O IN P L AIN ENG LI SH A Step-By-Step Guide For Regular Peopl" Introduction “The radio has no future. A hob by is a reflection of a person’s character. What exactly explains the popular. and convenience.” ~ Lord Kelvin. others col lect porcelain knickknacks. Some jog. while still others investigate the paranormal. Since humans are the most social of al l animals. It could b e the satisfaction and accomplishment that arises when a person establishes cont act with a fellow human being on the other side of the world with a gadget that seems much less Ham Radio In Plain English 11 . When these two elements are joined together. cult-like following to ham radio? Perhaps it’s the unique mix of fun entertainment. there is an inherent desire to establish contact and maintain relatio nships with others. public service.

sophisticated than the Internet. regula tions. Hams are a very mixed bunch. truck drivers. Amateur radio is as old as the history of radio itself but the reason why amateur radio operators are called “hams” is rather obscure. Perhaps i t’s the idea of something old-fashioned in a modern world of high tech or maybe it’s the efficiency and simplicity that go hand in hand with the operation of amateu r radio. and operating principles that apply to radio in the first place. Some people prefer Morse code on an old brass telegraph via a low power transmitter. Their ages and interests are as varied as their careers.The whole world within your reach Ham Radio In Plain English 12 . movie stars. These individuals come from all walks of life. but that doe s not take away the irresistible and timeless appeal of amateur radio. A set of Antennas . others opt for voice communicat ion on a hand-held radio. The Inte rnet has greatly impacted the world with a new level of technology. but they all have a basic knowledge of the technology. but the appeal certainly has stood the test of time and space. There are various reasons why hams get involved in amateur radio. and still others get their kicks from computer message s transmitted through satellites. sailors. The two common things that hams share is the interest of what is happening in the world around them and using a radio to reach out. They’re students. and every profession imagi nable.

you may be relieved to know that just about anyone can learn enough to acquire a license easily. Amateur radio could offer a pool of exp erts providing backup emergency communications in the face of critical times. The radio has the ability to transmit life saving messages globall y.It may sound like all fun and games. Ham Radio In Plain English 13 . Imagine yourself by the side of one of these. Ham radio operators all over India became a lifeline as they helped locat e and reunite countless families and assist in relief operations in the wake of the tsunami disaster. including ham bands. Congress passed the first laws regulating radio transmissions in the U. and boost international good will.S. floods in Indonesia. and epidemics in Africa. Most rec ently. The FCC created the Amateur Radio Serv ice to lend a serious side to the hobby. This philosophy has definitely paid off. In addition. so setting up a system to relay messages from coast to coast had become a necessity. By 1914. but the amateur radio set up is a very seri ous business. If you’re wondering how hard is it to learn amateur radio. Countless lives have been saved b ecause skilled hobbyists have acted as emergency communicators to render aid dur ing earthquakes in Japan. the FCC acknowledged that amateur radio had the ability to enhance co mmunication. Only b asic electronics and basic knowledge of radio operations are required. In 1912. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was created by Congress in 1927. amateur experimenters were up to their ears in this hobby and wer e communicating nationwide. and consequently. specific frequencies were assign ed for various uses. improve the technical skills of radio.

rules and reg ulations. nothing. its wheels spinning wildly. Rose’s quick thinking and critical desire to save a human l ife sent her dashing back to her car where she picked up her pocket-sized hand-h eld radio and radioed for help. She raced to the car but found it impossible to yank the doors open to rescue the hapless mother and child trapped inside. but lately her lonelin ess had been eating into the very vitals of her existence. and since then she has b een living a rather cloistered life. The higher the class l icense you have. The car was overturned. break the barricade. Within minutes. you can learn the basics or you can become an expert and still enjoy the hobby. no visitors. a lonely widow of 46. she witnessed a horrific scene. She has found two new friends who are f ellow hams. Both were ble eding and unconscious. Meet Josephine Williams. Although hams usually consider it to be a hobby. amateur radio can be more than that – it can prove to be a life altering experience. thanks to her radio. She lost her husband to cancer a year ago. While driving to her parents’ home. She watched another car lose control. and the other is an Indian male nurse working in Canada. Mrs. Rose stopp ed her car and dashed to the scene of the accident. So. Being lonely is a thi ng of the past now. Meet the Gang Here is a sampling of the individuals involved with amateur radio. No friends. police and an ambulance had arri ved at the spot and could rescue the victims.Over the years. Ham Radio In Plain English 14 . This is Rose Robin. Will iams had not been very social when her husband was alive. One is a 23 year old martial arts student in Japan. she was a witness to a motor accident along one of the national highways of our country . and speed off a cliff. as well as higher Morse code proficiency. But eac h higher-class license requires extensive knowledge of technology. three basic license classes have evolved. the more privileges and modes of operation you receive.

This is the sole reason why it is free for two hams to talk to each other. there is basic and there is innovative. Purpose of Ama teur Radio Amateur radio stations’ key functions include self-training in radio co mmunications. Th e individuals taking part in these activities should only get involved for perso nal reasons and not do it with any monetary interests in mind.Chapter 1 The World of Amateur Radio “Radio is just a fashion contrivance that will soon die out. Also. The attitude or t he essence of the amateur radio is the grouping together of people from differen t walks of life towards a common goal without any financial aims. even across the globe. It is obvious that th ere never will be invented a proper receiver!” ~ Thomas Edison Amateur radio has o vercome many obstacles since its invention. This is a very important aspect since most people will do just about anything for money. if a disaster like an earthquake occurs. One with an interest in electronics and technolo gy can really indulge in the realms of technical wizardry. hams can provid e critical help when most communication facilities are destroyed. The basic involves dire ct current electronics while the innovative concerns cutting edge radio frequenc y techniques. Ham Radio In Plain English 15 . In fact. intercommunication. the system has learned to cope with the technologies. A fine example is the contact made by two stations assisted by computers. Advances in technology have never hi ndered its path. When opening the hood of a ham radio. The co mmercialization that has overtaken many other fields has not affected the hams. We ca n state the purpose of ham radio in simple terms as to increase the number of tr ained radio operators and electronic experts by encouraging experimentation and enhance international goodwill. and investigations in radio communications.

Technical doctors can dissect the equipment. The communication can be done bet ween continents. New designs are created ever y day and hams have contributed many new variations to the antenna designer s ar t. Ragchews can happen between co ntinents or just across town. sunspots. propagation o f radio waves. and b arge into the nuances of radio operations. Hams ar e also helpful in supporting other areas such as radio control (R/C). and a soldering iron. Voice and Morse code communication are still the most used routes. Today’s popular home station config uration is a hybrid of the computer and radio. aviation. All that is required is some wire. solar cycles. This is one of the intriguing factors of ham radio. and balloons. Ham Radio In Plain English 16   . model rock etry. they can use the Internet along with radios to create hi-tech hybrid systems . It can vary from a simple co nversation to contesting. a feed line. beaming back pictures from heights of hundreds and even thousands of feet. Miniature ham radio video transmitters are flown in model aircraft. Ragchews Hams mostly engage in conversation. rockets. Operating a Ham Radio: Making Contacts If you can tune to a radio across the ham bands. make amends with many things. Man’s desire to learn is another aspect. This is c alled “chewing the rag. Age is not a barrier since many familiarize themselves with antennas. which facilitates the progression of this hobby.” Contacts are named ragchews. auto racing. Antennas have bec ome a real obsession for people who love to invent. but compute r-based digital operation is gaining momentum. With the help of some types of softwa re. you will understand the activities of hams. and rallies. and meteorology. and similar activities. Ham radio data links also lend a helping hand in th e fields of astronomy.

They are the organized air meetings. Emergency Service Nets When disaster strikes. which can range from the mundane to the most urgent. and business is generally conducted over the phone once the parties have been put in contact with each other. hams who are trained for these pur poses organize and provide decisive communications into and out of the affected areas until normality is restored. Swap Nets Like flea markets. Here a computer system monitors a frequency all the time so that oth ers can connect to it and send or retrieve messages. through ham radio. sc heduled for hams with similar interests or purposes. A net control station overlooks and moderates the process . Operators exchange messages. Ham Radio In Plain English 17 .Nets “Nets” is an abbreviation for networks. a weekly swap net allows hams to list items for sal e or things they need. ALE Mailboxes and Bulletin Boards ALE is the abbreviation for Automatic Link Est ablishment. Full Duplex Operation Full duplex is a communication mode in which a radio can t ransmit and receive at the same time by using two different frequencies. Traffic Nets This is the sy stem that passes text messages or traffic.

DX-ing, Contests, and Awards DX is short for distance. The thrill of making cont acts at a very long distance from home has lured many a ham. Competitions are or ganized for hams, in which they compete to contact faraway stations and to log c ontacts with every country. Ham radio contests are events in which one earns poi nts for each contact made. Through these exchanges, hams often contact a specifi c area, use a certain band, find a special station and try to communicate with a s many stations as possible. When two hams make contact, they usually confirm co ntact by using QSL cards. A ham collects all of the QSL cards received from time to time. Those who make maximum numbers of contacts are given awards in the com petitions. Ham fests are often conducted by Amateur Radio Clubs. At a ham fest, one can buy or sell radio equipment and meet people in person after having commu nicated with them on the air. Ham Radio and Ordinary Radio Ordinary radio sets are designed to receive either Amplitude Modulated (AM) or Frequency Modulated (FM) broadcast. Ham radio operat ors use Single Side Band (SSB) transmission for their communication requirements . Ham radio stations use very low power, less than 100 watts. But a broadcast st ation uses power in the kilowatts range. Many broadcast band radio receivers cov er some of the frequencies earmarked for the ham radio stations. A four band rad io set usually covers some popular ham radio frequencies like 7 to 7.1 MHz (i.e. 7000 to 7100 kHz), 14 to 14.350 MHz (i.e. 14,000 to 14,350 kHz) and 21 to 21.45 0 MHz (i.e. 21,000 to 21,450 kHz). This kind of receiver can be improvised to re ceive ham radio transmissions with very little effort. While hearing ham radio s tations in ordinary radio sets, the sound will resemble a duck quacking. Transce iver The term transceiver is used to identify the equipment. Both transmitters a nd receivers are assembled in one unit to perform two basic roles. The transmitt er generates a radio frequency signal of required power at the desired frequency . It should have Ham Radio In Plain English 18

some means of changing or modulating the basic frequency, so that it can carry a feasible signal. The receiver must be able to select the required frequency, re jecting all unwanted frequencies. Also, the receiver should have the capacity to amplify the weak incoming signal to prevail over the losses the signal suffers in its journey through space. In a radio receiver, the modulated signal is recei ved after the conversion of the original modulated carrier signal into another c arrier modulated by the same modulation waveform but at a much lower frequency. This mixing is done with another locally generated sine wave signal. At the outp ut of the non-linear mixet, the difference frequency, called intermediate freque ncy, is selected by a tuned circuit. (If this sounds like gobbledygook, don’t worr y, keep reading!) Transceiver Cost of Equipment An endearing factor for an aspiring ham is that the necessary equipment needed to get started in this field should not cost an arm and a leg. Start up can begin with less than $200. Depending on your pocketbook, you can se lect a wide range of equipment which varies from $100 to $2,000. You can easily shop from e-shops on the Internet or from some of the ham stores in town. Ham Radio In Plain English 19

Setting Up Ham Radio Equipment Though there are no special rules regarding the mode of equipment for starting, it’s better to begin with the base station rather than going for mobile or handhel d. This way, you will have the opportunity to judge the niceties of a station op eration. To start the hobby, a simple short wave radio and a QRP transmitter are all that are required. If everything is available, it will only take a few hour s to get set up. Initially, most ham operators begin with a simple station. An H F radio, microphone, Morse code key, and a simple wire dipole antenna are all th at are required for your cruise on air. The step by step process is given below. 1. First, locate the place where you are going to keep the equipment. It is bet ter to keep the length of the coaxial cable to a minimum. Take special care whil e deciding the location, in order to bring the coaxial and ground wire in easily . 2. A desk or computer credenza is a perfect place for the equipment. 3. Instal l an eight foot copper ground wire into the ground. Lay a heavy wire from the gr ound rod to the grounding post on the ham radio. 4. Lay an antenna coax from the antenna to the radio shack. 5. Proper clearance should be kept on the rear side of the radio for air circulation. 6. Place an electrical surge protector betwee n the equipment and outlet. 7. Place an antenna lead to a switch enabling the sh unting circuit to ground. 8. Cover the radio to protect it from dust. Ham Radio In Plain English 20

2. Ham Radio In Plain English 21 . As you oper ate the function key. Ensure that power supply connections are securely made and proper polarity is available. listening is the most powerful and important way for a beginner to start. Contacting Yo ur Nearest Club Once you decide to join this hobby. 2. Set the band on which you want to operate.Bandwidth Selection The transceiver is equipped with a function key.they are open and public. The y will certainly help you. Meet as many people as possible in the nearest club. Some Points for Beginners “Nothing worth knowing can be understood with the mind. Before you start. Adjust the volume level of the audio. 4.” The re is no secrecy in ham communications .” ~ Woody Allen ‘To Listen’ Is th e Phrase As in intrapersonal communications. one can learn the techniques of many hardcore amateurs. The basic steps required to begin an operation are: 1. Turn the transceiver on. 3. Listening to air contacts is called “reading the mail. Adjust the operating frequency. ta ke these precautions: 1. Make sure that the antennas are connected t o the correct pigtails on the transceiver (mostly on the rear). take full advantage of the o pportunities it offers. you can select the desired bandwidth. This way.

Know Your Equipment A lot of equipment is available on the market." This way you can earn the goodwill of your cooperators.org/development.” and "Sorry.com/group/ha mradiohelpgroup/ Practice Courtesy Accustom yourself with the practice of saying polite words lik e "Please.” An Elmer knows the stuff required to pass the test and will often help you to prepare.yahoo. If yo u do not have a club near you (to take the test or meet an Elmer). Equipment manuals can assist with the understanding of your ins trument. Use All Resources Internet forums are available. at the bottom o f the learning curve. Ham Radio In Plain English 22 ." "Thanks.arrl. regarding the purchase of any adv anced equipment." "Excuse me. Keep the manual ready for any quick reference. Meet them on air and enjoy the proceedings together. One such help group is http://groups. such equipment differs from one another on performance and capabiliti es. Demos or tutorials are available so do not hesitate to check them out. contact the A RRL Development office at www. Finding One in the Same Boat Find a friend who is just like you.Hams often find great joy in helping the beginners. Depending on the price. They will have the informati on you need. Just join the forum and you can get many valuable tips. Such people are known as “Elme rs. It’s always best to consult with your elmer.

This pro blem sometimes necessitates hams to spell out certain words.” Operation Using Computers The use of computers in ham radio operations have enth used the younger generation. Victor. Thi s makes it difficult for the person to comprehend the words completely. Uniform. Hotel. use words know n as phonetics. You can almost always get help from your buddies regarding these. Charlie. There are also some standards for the pronunciation of numbers and numerals. Tan go. According t o standards. Oscar. In order to avoid confusion with numbers such as 50 and 15. Papa. at times the signals may be weak. Romeo. If you try to spell your name using the letters alone. Yankee. Whiskey.Be Cool Of course. Echo. November. If you try this using the English alphabet. If you want to say 15. The st andard alphabet is: Alpha. Also some technica l hiccups can occur. Through practice you will be able to rectify minor issues. A computer is connected to a terminal node controll er and a transceiver for a packet radio operation. The TNC also uti lizes firmware. no one responds to your CQ (general call se nt by one station to any other station). “one five decimal one zero zero. Juliet. In dia. So instead of spelling out with letters. a listener may misinterpret one letter for another. it’s possible that. Zulu. The terminal node controller has a modem similar to the modem used for Internet connections. you should spell decimal to represent decimal point. which have been chosen specially for serving our purpose. you should say the words. a name . Quebec. Lima. you have to speak each digit separately. Golf.100 MHz. Sierra. X-ray. Delta. Relax and try again. Mike. for example. Ham and Phonetics During radio operations. It is this firmware that Ham Radio In Plain English 23 . Bravo. Kilo. it can cause greater confusion. Foxtrot.

The ente r key of the keyboard can also function as the push to talk facility in the norm al ham radio operation. " ~ Paula Poundstone. Satellites This is an area which excites many hams. This unit captures incoming and outgoing data and encapsulates it into packets of data. even operation from buses. which is then sent a cross the packet radio network. which are made and operated by radio amateurs worldwide. Communication can be made b y Morse code. This firmware is called PAD or packet assembler. As the sensitivity of these sate llites is superior.converts computer data into packets of digital information. There are many small satelli tes orbiting the earth. Amateur Radio on Boats "My mom said she learned how to swim when someone took h er out in the lake and threw her off the boat. AMSAT is the global organization. Russian RS series and South Af rica’s Sunsat (SO-35) are low orbited satellites. which organizes satellite construction and lo bbies for spare space on commercial launch vehicles. But they offer worldwide communication. I said. However certain restri ctions may exist when operating within the territorial limits of another country . comedian Amateur radio is quite popular among the yachting and small boat community. Mom. It is used to provide gene ral communications and for receiving weather information. voice. they weren t trying to teach you how to swim. trains and trams becomes possible ! These low orbit satellites have short pass-times and they are quite good for c ommunication up to a few thousand kilometers while the other satellites would re quire more powerful and bigger antennas. or pocket radio over very large distances with the help of these satellites. Ham Radio In Plain English 24       . The easiest satellites to use are the low orbit ones as they c an be availed with low power and modest antennas. This data can be sent to and from a data radio or transceiver.

PACTOR I. ISP/RADIO E-MAIL PROVIDER -.It is a mode that uses both upper and lower case characters and teleprints over radio with the help of a code. This is freely available on the Internet. radio teletype (RTTY).Hams also operate a lot of “maritime nets" through which information of common int erest to mariners. is exchanged. Pactor -. PSK31 are n ormally used. Signal Reports (the RST code) Signal reports are used for gauging the strength of the receiving signals. R EADABILITY R1 Unreadable R2 R3 Readable with difficulty R4 R5 Perfectly readable SIGNAL STRENGTH S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 Extremely strong signals Moderately strong signals Fa irly good signals Weak signals Faint signals TONE T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 Pure note Slight ripple Modulated (warble) Rough Extr emely rough Ham Radio In Plain English 25 . SOFTWARE -. Different digital modes like S ITOR/ AMTOR. Pactor is a combination of amtor (amateur teleprinting over radio) and packet. such as weather.PTT stands for push to talk.It is with the help of a radio e-mail provider that actual access takes place. Common modes are Pactor I and Pac tor II.A type of software is used to make a cruising e-mail work. It is what makes your radio transmit. Codes as given in the table are utilized for conveying the strength of the signal. Here’s a quick glance at some of the terms used for propagation on a boat. It is compara ble to a radio modem. TNC -. PACTOR II. PACTOR III.TNC is the short form for terminal node controller. PTT -.

.International Q-Code (Extract) QRG QRH QRI QRK QRL QRM QRN QRO QRP QRQ QRS QRT QRU QRV QRX QRZ QSA QSB QSD QSL QSO QSP QSV QSY QSZ QTH QTR What is my exact frequency? Does my frequency vary? What is the tone of my transmission? What is the readability of my signals? Are you busy? Are you being interfered with? Are you troubled by static? Shall I inc rease power? Shall I decrease power? Shall I send faster? Shall I send more slow ly? Shall I stop sending? Have you anything for me? Are you ready? When will you call me again? Who is calling me? What is the strength of my signals? Are my si gnals fading? Is my keying defective? Can you give me acknowledgment of receipt? Can you communicate with. direct (or by relay) ? Will you relay to.....? Sha ll I send a series of V s ? Shall I change to another frequency? Shall I send ea ch word more than once? What is your location? What is the correct time? Ham Radio In Plain English 26   ...

comdac.net http:// www. and anten na. The following web sites offer details of used ham radio equ ipment suppliers.aol.burnabyradio.com http://www.com www.com/components. Many people prefer to go for old and used equipment.com www.radioattic. The advantage of cw t ransmission is that it requires a narrow bandwidth and less output power.disc ountfamilyradios.com Buying Old Equipment ‘Old is gold’ goes the saying.hamradio. amplifier.Continuous Wave Transmitter The continuous wave is used for the transmission of pulses of RF energy for creating Morse code characters.hamtronics. http://hometown.htm http://archives.uk/oldradioparts/front. RF oscillations are generated and are then amplified.a c6v.co.com http://www. This type of transmissio n is also called interrupted continuous wave transmission.com/features/started. A cw transmitter facili tates the transmission with the help of a generator. The oscillator generat es the RF carrier at a specified frequency.htm Ham Radio In Plain English 27 . keyer.advancedspecialties.unadilla.htm http://www.com http://www. Web Sites for Buying Equipment and Electronic Circuits www. The oscillator outputs are then ampl ified many times in order to equip them to radiate over long distances. Even s evere noise conditions will not hamper the transmission.

Following this list is a directory of commonly needed items. AZ 85283 Tel: 480-820-5411 Co ntact Daily Electronics P.com Ham Radio In Plain Eng lish 28 . WI 53 216-1313 DNF 6690 7 Mile Road South Lyon.fairradio. OH 45802 Phone: 419-2 27-6573. MI 48178 Electron Tube Enterprises Box 8311 Essex. CA 90224 Tel: 800-346-6667 (Order s) Tel: 213-774-1255 (Tech) Don Diers 4276 North 50 Street #SC3 Milwaukee. They carry a variety of merchandise for collectors and restorers of v intage radio/phono/TV/jukeboxes. VT 05451 Tel: 802-879-1844 Fax: 802-879-7764 Fair Radio Sales Milit ary Surplus Electronics 2395 St Johns Rd PO Box 1105 Lima.O. Box 5029 Compton.The following list provides some of the addresses of old equipment and spare par t dealers. with a dditional sources: Antique Electronic Supply 6221 S. 419-223-2196 Fax: 419-227-1313 www. Maple Ave Tempe. Catalogs or inventory lists are available from all of them.

O.com email Steinmetz Electronics 7519 Maplewo od Avenue.Kirby 298 West Carmel Drive Carmel. IN 46032 Lippert N61W 15889 Edgemont Meno Fls.com Ham Radio In Plain English 29 . 11th Avenue Denver. 5715 W. CO 80214 303-274-7545 Voice 303-274-2317 Fax questusa@ix. Box 202 Middle Village. IN 46324 Tel: 219-931-9316 Michael C. Hammond. Charles. Marx SND Tube Sales 90 8 Caulks Hill Road St.netcom. NY 11379 Tel: 718-894-2131 Quest Electronics. WI 53051 New Tube Co. P. MO 63304 Phone 636-939-9190 24 Hour Fax 636-9220601 E-mail: sndtubes@vacuumtubes. Inc.

But it will not be of any use unless it is fully operational. Ham Radio In Plain English 30 .com/pa2ohh/index. which gives a complete explanati on for making it very simple.html Making of a Simple QRP Rig Many free resources are available on the Net for thos e who want to experience the thrill of making their own QRP rigs. can be found at: http://www.users. Those who want to go mobile can have a look at htt p://www.html.installer. The Statistics of Ham Radio Users “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.S. One such site is: http://www.html for more information.geocities. IBM chairman. 1943 Statistics relating to the number of users in the U.net/wallio/LIC ENSE.com/pics/instpics.crosspaths.Sometimes it happens that one may inherit all of this equipment. In such cases. you may be able to get help from the local radio club.” ~ Thomas Watson.

it takes a bend. due to its propag ation in straight lines.Chapter 2 Basics of Radio Wave Transmission Mode of Radio Wave Transmission "The wireless music box has no imaginable commer cial value. Who would pay for a message sent to nobody in particular?" ~ David S arnoff s associates in response to his urgings for investment in the radio in th e 1920s The electromagnetic energy mainly takes two forms to reach a receiving a ntenna. the surface wave travels along the surface of the earth. To p ut it simply. if they reach in phase. The first route is through the direct journey through the air from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. On the other hand. there is a possibility that the signal will fade. Ground waves travel near the surface of the earth. Since the earth’s s urface is curved. The surface wave along its journe y over the surface induces a voltage in the earth. Radio waves that are refl ected back to the earth’s surface from the ionosphere are known as sky waves. when hindered by an obstacle. The second way is through the reflection from the ground to the receiving antenna. As described elsewhere. This is demonstrated in the figure below. But presence of obstructions may weaken the signals. This causes a loss of energy of the wave. As the space wa ve takes two paths of different lengths reaching the receiving site. The space wave has two ways to reach its destination. If there are no obstructions on its path. A surface wave is not affected by the shap e of the land. thanks to the phenomenon of diffraction. Propagation of VHF Signal VHF and UHF radio signals often travel in straight lines to all possible directi ons. the signal will be a strong one. If the waves reach out of phase. It either takes the shape of the ground waves or it navigates as sky wav es. They will not bend around the curvature of the earth and will get lost in space. while the space wave travels over the surface. This loss of energy is reduced by polarizing the wave before transm ission. there are some limitations for these waves. the signal can travel very long d istances. Because of Ham Radio In Plain English 31   . the sign al may also fade.

They can travel as far as human eye can see the horizon. The property of these signals is considered an advantage in large cities. where some other signals would have been blocked. Depending upon the area of the objecting surface. VHF/UHF propagation is described as line of sight propagati on. L arge metal objects such as an aircraft or a large metal building reflect these w aves significantly. Ham Radio In Plain English 32 . Reflection of VHF/UHF Signals These signals are reflected when they are obstructed by metal objects. the amount of reflection also varies.this characteristic.

The Process of Ionization in the Ionosphere The region of atmosphere that extend s from 30 miles to about 250 miles is rightly called ionosphere due to the prese nce of electrically charged gas atoms called ions. These groups are again classified into two categories. Office of Patents. The E and D layers are absent d uring night hours. Whenever the rate of ionization e xceeds the recombination process. "Everything that can be invented has been invented.S. g reatly affecting the radio waves. the density of the ionized layers increases. F2. The ultraviolet rays from the sun collide with gas atoms and hurl an electron from the atom. Depending upon the time of the day. The four layers are F1. An exact reverse happens thereafter. Duell." ~ Charles H. One is presen t when the earth’s surface is bright and the other in darkness (when the earth’s sur face is hidden from the sun). E and D. the two F layers combine to form one layer. U. This process is known as ionization. The positive ion a nd the electron collide with each other thus giving the old neutral status to th e positive ions. Commiss ioner. Ham Radio In Plain English 33 . 1899 The Ionosphere Layers The charged particles in the ionosphere create four distinct layers. This gives the a tom a positive charge and it then coexists with the negative charged free electr on in space. these combination and recom bination processes compete against each other. which reinstates the old position again. During the ni ght. within the ionosphere. The presence of many such free ions and electrons leads to the formation of an ionized layer.

F1 and F2.The F Layer Worldwide amateur radiations are possible. Ham Radio In Plain English 34 . during daytime. some refraction occurs in the E layer. As this is sporadic in nature. At very high frequencies. As the radio signal strikes this layer. thanks to the F layer. this phenomenon is known as sporadic-E. The F layer splits into two layers. it is bent back at an angle towards the ea rth without any significant energy loss. F1 is the inner one and F2 is the outer one. The E Layer The E layer exists only during the daylight and is found between the F and D lay ers. Much of the refraction during daytime happens in F2 layer.

Sometimes the level of abso rption is too large and the communication of radio waves may not happen for a sh ort period. and the angle at which the wave enters the layer. such a s the frequency of the radio waves. The factors. as the density of ionization is uniform. which is closest to the earth. The sudden change in the velocity of the upper part causes it to bend to wards the earth. decide the quantum of refracti on. Refraction is affected when there is an abrupt change of velocity of the upper part of the radio wave as it enters a new medium. the refraction effects Ham Radio In Plain English 35 . The figure depicts the effect of ionization densities on refraction. The main characteristic of this layer is that it absorbs both medium and hi gh frequency radio waves instead of refracting them. it is entering a region of high degree ioni zation. An ioni zed layer itself is divided into different regions according to densities.The D Layer This layer. As the wave enters the bottom layer. We wi ll dissect the three layers one by one. the density of the ionization of the layer. At the center portion. This ionization affects another phenomenon in the ionosphere called refraction. is found only during dayt ime.

For a given layer. The highest frequency wave. From the figure. we can observe that for lower frequencies the waves get re fracted more sharply. which is of higher frequency t han the critical frequency of the ionized layer. Ham Radio In Plain English 36 . The waves with higher frequencies than the critical frequency will be lost in sp ace. Critical Frequency As the wave enters an ionospheric layer. there is a possibili ty for the wave to get refracted or to get lost in space. This frequency is termed as critical frequency.are less. gets lost in space. the re is a maximum frequency at which the radio waves can be transmitted vertically and get returned to earth. the wave is bent away f rom the earth. As it again enters the area of lesser density.

When these ions and free electrons collide with other particle s much of the energy is lost into the atmosphere.” ~ Bill Gates. The absorption causes a lot of energy drain and makes the signal weak. Refraction causes polarization of the wave and this in turn c auses fading. 1981 Factors Affecting Radio Wa ves The radio waves along their journey from the transmitting antenna to the rec eiving antenna are affected by a lot of factors. Ham Radio In Plain English 37 . Absorption As the radio waves t ravel through the ionosphere. the current conditions greatly influence the radio waves. This is due to many conditions. The figu re below explains the process of multi-path fading. One of t hem is refraction.Chapter 3 The Factors Affecting Radio Wave Transmission “640K ought to be enough for anybody. Absorption of energy in the ionosphere is another reason. The r adio waves entering into the ionosphere lose some of their energy to the free el ectrons and ions. A bsorption occurs predominantly in the region of higher ionization density. Fading Another factor that hin ders the flow of radio waves is fading.

When the distance of travel increases. the spreading of the wave front also inc reases. Here. reflected waves from the ionosphere. then so me amount of energy may be lost.Due to various atmospheric properties. waves affected due to ion ospheric refraction. Free Space Loss When waves are transmitted. and so on. Losses Due to Ground Reflection If a radio wave along its passage gets reflected from the earth’s surface. The figure describes the different possibilities by which a radio wave can reach destinatio n A. This means Ham Radio In Plain English 38 . the wave front starts spreading out. These paths can be ground waves. the end result is that the waves can reach out of phase at the receiv er thus causing weak signals. Factors such as frequency of the wave and groun d irregularities determine the extent of loss. This is known as multi-path fading. radio waves may reach the same destinatio n in different paths.

warm air is found near the surface of the earth. which generate radio frequency energy. Natural interferences are caused by natural phenomena. and the sun. the air becomes cooler. this will have little effect on amateur bands. The amount of water per unit volum e determines the quantum of hindrance caused by the fog. Man made interference can happen from a variety of reasons. All of these can cause energy radiatio ns and may propagate almost in manner similar to radio waves. The electromagnetic interference can be controlled or e liminated by various methods such as the use of directional antennas. If a lot of devices are used in areas such as industrial estates. Sometimes an abnormal situation occurs. cosmic sources. the signals absorbed by a receiver at that particular location may become very feebl e. The extent of man made interference may vary largely throughout the day and may be reduced at night. only a small area of the wave front is covered by the a ntenna. as a layer of Ham Radio In Plain English 39 . Fog can also cause problems to the rad io waves. Ducting Normally. Radio Waves and Weather Weather changes can affect the radio propagation to a ce rtain extent by leading to the weakening or attenuation of the radio waves. The reception of t hese radiations in the receiving antenna can cause distraction to the radio wave s. As this does not affect above the frequency of 30 MHz. These are due to either man made interference or n atural interference. snowstorms. such as thunderstorms. Rain drops are capable of absorbing some power from the radio waves and this power is then scattered away in the form of heat. As the altitu de increases. Fog is suspended in the atmosphere. As the wave front reache s the receiving antenna. Electromagnetic Interference The electromagnetic interferences also can create h avoc in radio communications. Some are related to devices.that the amount of energy in a fixed area also reduces.

Ham Radio In Plain English 40 .warm air is formed above the layers of cool air. thus making the i onosphere heavily charged. the HF propagation also improves. This is because the echoes become extremely feeble. Every fi ve and half years. When the number of sunspots increases. This results in the formation of channels or ducts of cool air be tween the surface of warm air and earth or between two layers of warm air. When t his happens. when the number of sunspots is hi gh. During this period. This process is known as ducting. Satellite One can communicate with another station through a satellite. These ducts trap the radio waves (which would otherwise bleed out into space) and gui de them along the surface of the earth. one must have very sensitive equipment with powered amplifiers and a large antenna system. Sunspots The sunspot cycle is a phenomenon that extends to a period of 11 years. the radio waves will travel more distance than usual. In order to make th is happen. When the satellite is low to the horizon. The pr ocess is known as path loss. the sun reaches a low in sunspots and during the next five an d a half years the sun’s surface is dotted with hundreds of spots. This is referred to as temperat ure inversion.echoes. the quantum of solar energy increases. Earth Moon Earth Earth Moon Earth or EME is a fascinating part of amateur radio communications. the required power will be higher as the distance to the satelli te is very large. Through this process a ham attempts to direct the signal towards the moon so that a fellow ham can receive the moon. if both the statio ns are in the view of the satellite at the same time.

and failure in full view. The transmission line has two ends. the transmiss ion lines are necessary for carrying the energy from the radio room to the anten na.” ~ Anonymous Transfer o f Radio Waves from the Transmitter to the Antenna The energy waves from the transmitter cannot be carried using the ordinary elect rical wire without energy loss. Transmission lines are mainly categorized into two types. Ham Radi o In Plain English 41 . balance d and unbalanced lines.Chapter 4 Transmission Theory “Success always occurs in private. The unbalanced lines have only one wire to carry the signals. Transmission lines are used for this purpose. As the antennas are normally located a distance from the instrument. The end connected to the transmitter or the source is called the input end. Balanced lines consist of two parallel wires each capabl e of carrying radio waves. The end connected to the antenna is called t he output end. Also. The advantage of the coaxial line is that it matches the impedance of m ost commercially made ham radios. there is no problem in placing the cable s near metal objects due to the presence of the shield around the wire.

Tr ansmission Line Theory The electrical properties of two-wire transmission lines are mostly influenced by the construction of the line. capacitance. the constants in conventional circuits are lumped into a single device or compon ent. The two-wire line functio ns like a long capacitor. and resistance just like the ordinary circuits. In practice. this is not the case. But in practice. a s shown in the figure. The ratio of voltage to the current at the output end is known as output impedance. Since long conductors also possess a magnetic field ar ound them. Considering the ideal case. This impedance i s contributed to the transmitter by the transmission line and antenna. they show the properties of inductance. which is the value of the current flow that is expected through the insulat ion. Lumped Constants A transmission line also exhibits the properties of induct ance. Transmission line constants are distribut ed. two metal plates separated by a small space can be used to sup ply the required capacitance for a circuit. capacitance. and resistance lumped together. Input imp edance is the ratio of voltage to the current at the input end.The transmission line can also be expressed in terms of its impedance. This impedance is contributed to the load by the transmission line and its source. a transmission line would also have its constants of inductance. Ham Radio In Plain English 42 . A conductance value also may be pres ent. Similarly a coil of wire has the pro perty of inductance. For example. The inductive and capacitive reactance depends on the applied frequency.

capacitance. Ham Radio In Plain English 43 . Factors like the length of the line. and resist ance in the line. the spacing between the wires. the size of the conducting wi res. This produces a certain amoun t of inductance.Distributed Constants The distributed constants in the transmission lines are sp read along the entire length of the transmission line and cannot be distinguishe d separately. which is expressed in micro Henry per unit length. and the dielectric (air or insulating medium ) between the wires determines the amount of inductance. Inductance of a Transmission Line The flow of current through a wire induces som e magnetic lines of force in the wire. The change in the value of the amplitude of the current induces a change in the field also.

Capacitance of a Transmission Line Capacitance is also present in between the tr ansmission line wires. Resistance of a Transmission Line As shown above. The electric field thus forme d between the wires is similar to the field that exists between the two plates o f a capacitor. The two parallel wires function as the plates of a capaci tor and the air between them acts as a dielectric. the transmission line has elec trical resistance along its length. Ham Radio In Plain English 44 . This resistance is expressed in ohms per uni t length.

DC Applied to a Transmission Line In the above figure, a battery is connected to a load through a transmission lin e. When the switch is open, both current and voltage become nonexistent on the l ine. As the switch is closed, point A becomes positive and point B becomes negat ive. This potential difference soon migrates to A’ and B’. This causes an electric f ield as well as a magnetic field. The moving electric field and the accompanying magnetic field together constitute an electromagnetic wave that is moving from the generator (battery) toward the load. This energy that reaches the load is eq ual to that developed at the battery. Ham Radio In Plain English 45

AC Applied to a Transmission Line The figure above explains how the things will change when an ac generator replac es a battery. The instantaneous values of the generated voltage are propagated t o the other end, one after the other. Here the difference is that the applied vo ltage is sinusoidal, not a constant one. Ham Radio In Plain English 46

Chapter 5 Antenna “If you can’t beat your computer at chess, try kickboxing.” ~ Anonymous Antennas An an tenna is a vital ingredient in any radio transmission system. RF signals produce d by a transmitter should be transferred to the space for a successful transmiss ion. The device used for this purpose is known as antenna. A transmitting antenn a sends the signal into space, which is later absorbed by a receiving antenna. T he transmission of RF energy is done in the form of electromagnetic field. The r eceiving antenna absorbs the electromagnetic field and voltage is induced in the antenna. The receiver then converts this electromagnetic radiation back into RF energy. Ham Radio In Plain English 47

This energy is carried away to a receiver throug h another transmission line. This wave continues to travel until it is either reflected or absorbed by an object. The main parts of an an tenna are the coupling device. The basic components of a communication system are: 1) Transmitting equipment 2) Transmission line 3) Transmitting antenna 4) Mediu m 5) Receiving antenna 6) Receiving equipment The two basic fields associated wi th every antenna are induction field and radiation field. An antenna consists of a conductor or a set of conductors. it absorbs part of the radio waves and transforms it into energy. If the obstructing object is another antenna. the feeder. The transmitters and feeders are connected using the coupling device. While Hertz antennas are used for frequencies above 2 MHz . and the antenna. although radiation of energy is not possible without the induction field. A radio frequency energy produced by a transmitter is carried to an antenna through a transmission line. The characteristic Ham Rad io In Plain English 48 . Marconi antennas are located perpendicular to Earth.The Basic Antenna Antennas hold a vital place in radio communication. The induction field. They are Hertz antennas and Marconi antennas. w hich is the field related with the energy stored in the antenna. one end of it being grounded. Antennas are basically classified into two types. Hertz antennas are general ly located at a distance above the ground and are capable of radiating verticall y and horizontally. has no hand in the transmission of electromagnetic energy. The antenna transforms this energy into radio waves that propagate in space at the speed of the light. which either radiates or collec ts electromagnetic energy. The transmission line that car ies the energy to the antenna is known as the feeder. Marconi antennas are used for frequencies below 2 MHz.

Morse Code Modulation Morse code turns off and on an RF carrier in order to tran smit a simple code alphabet. and the direction of the receiving set.of the antenna depends on the frequency of the transmitting operation. the electrons will flow away from the negative terminal and will be attracted t o the positive terminal. The second is that a moving magnetic field creates an electric field. The charge distribution will be of sine wave pattern. Ham Radio In Plain English 49 . That means that for modulation to happen a carrier must be there. After every half cycle. At a given instant. The set frequency of the generator is such that each half of th e wire is one-fourth the wavelength of the output. As a result. The sinuso idal variation of charge lags the sinusoidal variation of the current by one-fou rth the cycle. a moving electric field creates a magnetic field. the polarity of the charges will be reversed. This is also known as continuous wave (CW). At any moment. First. which is placed at a different location. Radio Wave Modulation The functioning of a radio may be a perplex ing thing to a beginner. Your voice produced in front of a microphone is heard u sing another radio. these two fields will be perpendicular to each other. The amplitude of the flowing current will be varying wi th the generated voltage. How does this happe n? Modulation is the process of merging a radio signal with an information signa l. the amoun t of the power to be radiated. which is a common type of antenna. It is this carrier signal that delivers this information to the desired destination. Energy Distribution on an Antenna Electromagnetic radiation is based on two laws . the lef t side of the generator is negative and the right side is positive. A high-frequency generator is attached to a half cut wire. The system thus produced is k nown as a dipole.

The maximum movement of electrons always happens at the center of the antenna.Radiation of Electromagnetic Energy The E field and the H field of an electromag netic energy will be 90 degrees out of phase with each other. The point of minimum current and voltage is called as Nodes. The waves travel at a r ate of 300. A s this to and fro motion continues. These oscillations are then applied to the antenna at a rate equivalent to the frequency of the f voltage. the lost energy will be reinforced. This wave will then reflect back and trave l to the starting point.000. But each time when it reaches the starting poin t X.000 meters per second. the energy spreads out over a greater area and de creases as the distance traversed increases. The antenna length should be made in such a way that one to and fro motion of the wave should happen during one cycle of t he RF voltage. Consider that an alternating curren t is applied at the starting point X of a wire. the center of the antenna is always at low impedance and this condition is called the standing wave of the current. This results in the continuous oscillat ion of energy along the wire. it gets reflected and the process repeats. As the energy wave traverses a greater distance. Due to this. The wave will pass through the wire until point Y. The points having high current and voltage are called as current and voltage loops. which extends up to Y. The end Y is free and because of that the wave is unable to travel further. Here also. Ham Radio In Plain English 50 . the energy of the wave will be gradually los t by the resistance of the wire.

This means that more e nergy is radiated in certain directions compared to other directions.Antenna Gain Most of the antennas are highly directional. Ham Radio In Plain English 51 .

This property of the interchangeability of the antenna for both transmitting and receiving is known as antenna reciprocity. it would dissipa te the same quantity of power the antenna takes to radiate the energy. Radiation Resistance Radiated energy is lost in heating the antenna wire. At the receiving antenna. electromagnetic energy is converted i nto electrical energy. if the assumed resistance is actually present. Isotropic Radiation Some of the antennas radiate equal amount of energy in all d irections. Sun radiates equal amounts of e nergy in all directions. This type of radiation is known as isotropic radiation. the antenna should either be physically Ham Radio In Plain English 52 . Antenna Loading The same antenna system can be used for transmitting and receivi ng signals having different frequencies. For this to happen. This assu med resistance is named as radiation resistance. elec trical energy is converted into the electromagnetic energy and consequently radi ated into space. The ordinary flashlight is the best example of an anisotr opic radiator. Anisotropic Radiation Radiations produced by most radiators can be found to have higher intensity in one direction. Consid ering radiation. These types of radiators are referred to as anisotropic radiators.Antenna Reciprocity As we have already described at the transmitting stage. This is often compared to the radiation pattern from the sun. The same antenna can be used in both the cases without an y loss of efficiency.

electrical power co nductors. writer Antenna Positioning Special care should be taken to locate the antenna well abov e the ground keeping it away from any tall buildings. Making physical changes are not that pr actical. trees. and other metal objects that will absor b the energy. A co-axial c able is used by most amateurs because of its properties of maximum efficiency an d minimum loss of energy. telephone and telegraph wires.or electrically lengthened or shortened. This is done by inserting either a capacitor or an inductor in series with the antenna. “Work is a necessary evil to be avoided. That necessitates the reduction or enlargement of the electrical length . Maximum possible energy transfer from a source to the load is po ssible only when the impedance is matched. RG-59/U is a small co-axial cable having an impedance of 73 Ohms. The process is known as loading. Ham Radio In Plain English 53 . That means that the output impedance of the transmitter should match the input impedance of the antenna. Better results can be obtained by hoisting it to the maximum possi ble height. The antenna and the output stage of the transmitter have certain imp edance in them.” ~ Mark Twain.

Types of Different Antennas Most of us have a misconception that if the length of antenna is more. than the energy radiated by it will also be on the higher. This is also called as a dipole or a d oublet. Half–wav e Antennas Ham Radio In Plain English 54 . But this is not the case. The basic Marconi antenna has a length one-fourth its wavelength. This enunciates the importance of an effective anten na system.Other stations often judge the performance of an amateur station from the streng th of the signal they hear. Ante nna should have specific dimensions for effective operation. The basic Hertz ant enna has a length of half its wavelength.

F bands. dipole or doublet) is made up of two lengths of tubi ng. The height can be above 30 feet . The most attractive thing is that it requires only two points to hook it up. the current is maximum at the center and minimum at the ends. Inverted V The diff erence between the inverted V and the dipole is that the center is raised to a h eight comparing with the ends. each having one-fourth of wavelength at a particular frequency. The antenna thus obtained wi ll resonate with the same frequency as the ungrounded half wavelength antenna. and the higher the better. The maximum radiation is in the broadside o f the axis and least along the axis line. 464/f MHz. An insulator is used in the cent er after cutting it into two halves. The length of the inverted V in feet can be calcu lated using the formula. The radiating part of a vertical antenna is called the radi ator.A half-wave antenna (Hertz. 468/f MHz. It gives excellent results in H. Dipole can be used for both local as well as Dx. Horizontal Dipole The beginners often start with this antenna. Ham Radi o In Plain English 55 . This antenna is capable of operating at a distance above the ground surface. as it is easy to construct. Quarter–wave Antennas A grounded quarter-wave antenna can be obtained by cutting a half-wave antenna and then grounding one end well. M ost of the mobile transmitting and receiving antennas are quarter-wave (Marconi) antennas. This is considered a basic antenna. The materials of the dipole are easily available. The angle between two halves must be between 90 and 120 degrees. The length in f eet is calculated using the formula. For a half-wave antenna. Voltage is minimum at the center and maximum at the ends. Normally copper wire or aluminum tubing is used for the radiator.

Additional cond uctors are placed at a distance which will be equal to a fraction of its wavelen gth. why do they need a phone number?” ~ Robin Williams. The spacings are materialized using standard feed-line spreaders. The folde d dipole is used over a wider frequency range than that of a simple dipole. come dian Folded Dipole A folded dipole is similar to an ordinary half-wave antenna w ith one or more additional conductors connected across its ends. Directional Antennas Ham Radio In Plain English 56 .“If it’s the Psychic Network.

Refer to the figure given below. The reflector and director are usually found w elded to a conducting tube. That means that the direction al antenna propagates the energy more in one direction at the cost of a weak rad iation on the rear side. Parasitic Antenna The parasitic antennas are defined as the antennas. Reflectors. Y agi and quad fall under this category. Ham Radio In Plain English 57 . radiators. The elements are not placed uniformly thus causing an une ven spacing between the elements. Yagi Antenna Yagi antenna consists of many dipoles. A hig her number of parasitic elements guarantees more gain. The radiations from different elements will be in ph ase in the forward direction. and directors are the pa rts of a yagi antenna.A directional antenna focuses or directs radio energy in a specific direction. A s a result of this the stations on the directed sides will be getting strong sig nals when compared to those on the opposite sides. one shorter from the other. but may lead to a narrow frequency response. Directional antennas are example of the parasitic antenna. but may not be in phase in other directions. in which t he radio energy is obtained in some elements by the induction or radiation from the driven element.

hamuniverse.htm Ham Radio In Plain English 58 .dxzone.fortunecity.pdf A lot of resources on quad antennas are available at http://www. Tho se who are interested in making antennas for all bands can locate resources on t he web.liu.com/sturba.30k http://members.html • The following url contains a detailed study to us e a patch array for different bandwidths with varied patch lengths and a low los s PCB material: http://www.com/xe1bef/10m eters-antenna.itn.One Antenna for Different Bands You can make an antenna for different bands.se/~shago/Publications/UWB_antenna. • To build a sturba curtain antenna for all bands.com/catalog/ Te chnical_Reference/Antennas/Quad/ . visit this page: http:// www.

from wh ich it derives the power. it delivers the absorbed energy directly to the receiver . while receiving. Bi-directional Array A bi-directional array directs in the opposite directions a long the line of maximum radiation. it receives the power directly from the transmitter. It is almost similar to the dipol e. Simi larly. Parasitic Element A parasitic element is placed near the driven element. Driven Array When all the elements in an array are driven. it is call ed a reflector.Terminology Used in Array Antennas Driven Element A driven element is the elemen t connected directly to the transmission line. it is referred to as a driven array. While transmitting. Unidirectional Array A unidirectional array directs only in one direction. When a parasitic element produces maximum energy radia tion in a direction away from itself but towards a parasitic element. Ham Radio In Plain English 59 .

Amateur Radio License Any in the U. The FCC has three license classes. Control Operator An amateur station is the place where a station facilitated for the amateur radi o transmissions is located. Licenses are required due to many security aspects involved in radio communications.S. amateur radio also has different types o f licenses. ind the information you’d ight here in this book. author FCC The FCC regulates amateur radio under the jurisdiction of the United States of Amer ica. A licensed amateur who is completely responsible for the station transmissions is called a control operator.” ~ Erma Bombeck. prior to his or her initiation t The license is renewed every 10 years. One should begin with a technicia n class Ham Radio In Plain English 60 . should hold a o the world of ham radio.Chapter 6 Ham Radio License “Never go to a doctor whose office plants have died. individual who intends to operate a ham radio station license from the FCC. Where can you f need to study for the test? Most of the information is r License Classes Just as there is no one driver’s license. This agency can impose fines or even take away licenses if someone is not f ollowing the rules.

Full amateur privileges. Ham Radio In Plain English 61 . A 35 questi on exam (requires that you have passed the technician and Morse code exams alrea dy).operator license and then graduate to higher classes. Amateur Extra Renewal of the License A license is valid for 10 years. Technician with Morse Code General Class A five wpm Morse code exam and a passing grade in the previous exam. lower classes offer fewer privileges than higher ones. After the renewal of the license. The number of elements in the written examination was reduced from five to three. Limited access to all the HF amateur bands with Mors e code. RACES statio n licenses were eliminated. According to the FCC. a further two years are all owed for renewal although the amateur radio privileges cease to exist during thi s period. Possess a general class license and pass a 50 question exam. data and voice modes. There is no possibility of starting out in a higher class. Naturally. Eligibility Requirements Passing a 35 question exam is mandatory. Type of Classes Technician Class Offered Privileges Have full liberty to use VHF and UHF spectrum 30 MHz. it is best to renew the license 90 days prior to the expiration dat e. After the 10 years. one can operate a station. Limited privileges in Morse code an d voice in the HF spectrum. Changes Made by the FCC in 2000 The FCC made changes based on three aspects. The number of operator licenses was reduced from six to three. The number of telegr aphy examination elements was reduced from three to one. There will be only on e Morse code examination at a speed of five words-per-minute (wpm).

1987 could become General Class licensees after April 15. The top speed in ham radio becomes five wpm. the Nov ice. Tech Plus. However. Ham Radio In Plain English 62   . and Advanced Class will gradually cease as members renew or upgr ade. These exceptions are: One can retain credit for the Element 1 ( 5 wpm) telegraphy and Element 3 (general written) examination if he/she has an e xpired FCC issued Technician Class operator license granted before March 21. The only exception is that Technician Class radio amateurs licensed before March 21. All six license classes will still remain in the FCC database. The Tech Plus operators can have their licenses renewed under Technician. The importance of Morse code is greatly reduced. There are two exceptions to this rule that apply only to Technical Class operators. even those with long-expired license s. Expired License If the time duration after the expiry of the license is less tha n two years. where Morse code is consider ed obsolete. The name. retain credit for the five wpm Morse code exam. one must start all over again. the person stil l gets credit for Element 1 and 3.Novices and Advanced Class licensees can still operate without any difficulty. the license only needs to be renewed. Generally speaking. None of the ama teur license classes receive any additional frequency privileges and no one lost privileges. even though the license has expired 10 years ago. address and call si gn of every amateur remains in the FCC s database for a two year "grace period" beyond expiration. 1991). 1987 (or other evidence) to the VE team to become a General Class operator. In case the two year "grace period" is up. all previous Novice operators and Technician Class ope rators (licensed before February 14. A time may come soon. That means. 2000 without further examination. b ut they retain the exam credit indefinitely for the five words-per-minute Morse code. He or she would merely have to pass Element 2 (Technician) and submit the expired Technician license granted before March 21. N ew Novice and Advanced Class licenses have not been issued since April 15. 2000. 198 7.

1991 or an expired Novice Class operator license issued at any time.0MHz 902MHz__________ ____________928MHz 1240MHz____________________1300MHz 2300~2310MHz_________ 2390 ~2450MHz 6 Meter Band VHF 2 Meter Band VHF 1. This makes it mandatory to understand the international rules and regulations.0MHz 144. The amateur bands that can be used by a no code technician are given below. inventor of television.0MHz___________________148. ham operators can transmit across state and international barriers.0MHz___________________450. comedian The bandwidth assigned to a ham ma y differ in some respects from one country to another.S. This is done by the conce rned body of the particular country (like FCC for the U. A technician with no Morse code license can operate on allowed frequency segments above 30 MHz.” ~ Johnny Carson.0MHz_____________________54. This makes it impossible to have a common frequency allotment in the international level. Note that the 13 cm band is divided into tw o segments.25 Meter Band VHF 70 centimeter Band UHF 33 centimeter Band UHF 23 centimeter Band UHF 13 centimeter Band UHF Ham Radio In Plain English 63 . What is the necessity of a license at all? CB radio operators are not required to have one. 50.0MHz 420. we’d still be eating f rozen radio dinners. Farnsworth. Also. The simple answer is that ham ope rators can work at a power level of almost 375 times than that of a CB operator.One can retain credit for the Element 1 (5 wpm) telegraphy examination if he/she has an expired FCC issued Technician Class operator license granted before Febr uary 14.0MHz 222. Most of the activity pertaining to this segment will be limited to local areas. Bu t one question remains unanswered.0MHz ___________________225. VHF/UHF Bands “If it weren’t for Philo T.) by going through a l ot of aspects.

Image Transmissions Image transmissions are the transmissions of still images or that of video images.200MHz 28. FM included CW only Phone permitted.54.The Technician with Morse Code HF Amateur Bands 3675kHz___________________ __3750kHz 7.1 . Ham Radio In Plain English 64 .50.1MHz______________________7. Hams often involve themselves in sharing their personal v ideos.100MHz__________________28.500MHz 80 Meter Band HF 40 Meter Band HF 15 Meter Band HF 10 Meter Band HF VHF Bands 6m 6m 2m 2m 50. The location where the contr ol operator functions is called the control point.1 MHz 144.0 MHz CW only Phone emissions permitted.0 . Station Licensee If an individual is licensed and owns a radio. It is possible that the stati on licensee and the control operator are two separate individuals.148.100 MHz__________________21.0 MHz 144.150MHz 21.144.0 . then he/she is t he control operator when he/she is using the radio.1 MHz 50.1 . Fax and slow and fast scan television are some of the ima ge transmission modes. A control ope rator can be anyone who the station licensee designates. FM inclu ded.

The policy of the FCC states that an amateur should never be paid for third party communications.Identification Call sign is a sequence of letters and numbers the FCC provides for identifying a station. A third party is the one who has sent the message through two amateur stations. One should always use the minimum required power. At certain instances. Third Party Communicat ions As implied by the name. third party communications are the communications s ent between two amateur stations on the behalf of someone. This will be provided as soon as one is licensed. Power Limits FCC has specified maximum possible power levels.S. For example. This rule stands good for the fellow operators as well. then he/she must closely moni tor the transmission. Ham Radio In Plain English 65 . It is mandatory for an operator to identify his or her station every 10 minutes or at the end of the operation. one must not in terfere with the primary users of the band. Maximum power output allowed to a technician with Morse code is 200 watts PEP. When amateurs are the secondary users of a band. then do not use more than the required power. because it is un necessary wastage. it is possible that there are others in the same ba nd. Whe n one allows a third party to use his/her station. The term coined fo r this purpose is Peak Envelope Power or PEP. Frequency Sharing Sometimes. Call sign is a must for ham radio operation. has a third party agreement with that government. The maximum power output for techn ician grade is 1500 watts PEP. the amateur radio operators share the band with other radio services. if only a certain amount of power is required for transmitting to a particular area. Third party messages to a foreign country can only be made if the U.

In ord er to avoid this situation. There are many individuals who transmit in o ther languages like Japanese and Spanish.Language Any language is permitted. VHF signals are easily blocked by mountains and hills. a device known as a repeater is used to strengthen t he signal. technicians use a dummy load around the antenna. It does not matter if the frequency is outside your lice nse privileges. Transmission and Dummy Load During repair. Rather than using ive signal. Due to this. Beacons Beacons are special transmitters that work 24 hours a day to give inform ation on radio conditions and propagation characteristics. The presence of the signal confirms the existence of a radio communication path between the locatio n and the beacon. One must tune to a be acon frequency and check whether a beacon signal is present. most VHF-UHF bands have a line of sight transmis sion. Distress Whenever there is a distress call on the radio. A dummy load is hing but a huge resistor which has the ability to dissipate the radio signal heat into the air. MAYDAY and SOS are the words transmitted in case of an emergency . The significance of repeaters is that they make it possible to transm it signals to very long disHam Radio In Plain English 66 . it may be required to operate the tion for a while for the correct diagnosis of the problem. sta a l not as Repeaters As described earlier. contact the person and the proper authorities. This should be used for life or property threatening emergencies.

Not knowing the rules is no excuse. • More than 50 km above the Earth s surface aboard an y craft that is documented or registered in the United States. Ham Radio In Plain English 67       . The operator/primary station license document is printed on FCC Fo rm 660. novelis t S 97.5 Station License Required The person having physical control of the stat ion apparatus must have been granted a station license (detailed below) or hold an unexpired document (detailed below) before the station may transmit on any am ateur service frequency from any place that is: • Within 50 km of the Earth s surfa ce and at a place where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC. too. • Within 50 km of the Earth s surface and aboard any vessel or craft that is documented or reg istered in the United States. any pers on who qualifies by examination is eligible to apply for an operator/primary sta tion license. but only one. The primary station license is granted together with the amateur operator license. The main rules pertaining to the amateur radio transmission are given below. One. The types of stat ion licenses are: • An operator/primary station license. “My father hated radio and could not wait for tel evision to be invented so that he could hate that. The difference between the input and the output of a repeater is termed as offset.” ~ Peter De Vries.tances. operato r/primary station license is granted to each person who is qualified to be an am ateur operator. Except for a representative of a foreign government.

The custodian must be the civil defense official responsible for coordination of all civil defense act ivities in the area concerned. The RACES station license document is printed on FCC Form 660. • A person who has been granted a station license of the type listed above or who h olds an unexpired document of the type listed above is authorized to use. General. The person must be a Canadian citizen.• A club station license. A military recreation station license is granted only to the person who is the license custodian designated by the offici al in charge of the United States military recreational premises where the stati on is situated. The person must not be a representative of a foreign government. Ham Ra dio In Plain English 68 . The custodian must not be a representative of a f oreign government. • A military recreation station license. The custodian need not have been granted an amateur operator license. A RACES station license is granted only to the person w ho is the license custodian designated by the official responsible for the gover nmental agency served by that civil defense organization. management. or Technician operator license. The club must be composed of at least two persons and must have a name. • A RACES station license. The person need not have been granted an amateur operator license. and a prim ary purpose devoted to amateur service activities consistent with this Part. Technician Plus. a document of organization. The club station license document is printed on FCC Form 660. A club station license is granted only to the person who is the license trustee designated by an officer of the club. The types of documents are: • A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee (FCC F orm 610-AL) issued to the person by the FCC. The military recreation station license document is printed on FCC Form 660. • An amateur service license issued to the person by the Government of Canada. The trustee must b e a person who has been granted an Amateur Extra. Advanced.

is considered a Technician Plus Class license). • An amateur service license issued to t he person by the Government of Canada. Technician.in accordance with the FCC Rules.9 Operator L icense The classes of amateur operator licenses are: Novice. writer S 97. General. FCC Form 610. or Advanced cla ss and who has properly submitted to the administering VEs an application docume nt. S 97. Adva nced. each amateur station must ha ve a control operator. Technic ian Plus (until such licenses expire. Technician Plus. for an operator license of a higher class. and Amateur Extra.” ~ Aldous Huxley. is authorized to exercise the rights and privileges of the h igher operator class until final disposition of the application or until 365 day s following the passing of the examination. General. Ham Radio In Plain English 69 . The person must be a Canadian citizen. The control operator must be a person who has been grante d an amateur operator/primary station license. A person who has been granted an operator license is au thorized to be the control operator of an amateur station with the privileges of the operator class specified on the license. A person who has been granted an o perator license of Novice. all transmitting apparatus under the physical control of the station licensee at points where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC. 1991.7 Control Operator Required When transmitting. and who holds a CSC E indicating that the person has completed the necessary examinations within the previous 365 days. “Maybe this world is another planet’s Hell. whichever comes first. a Technician Class license granted before February 14. or who holds an unexpired documen t of the following types: • A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee (FCC For m 610-AL) issued to the person by the FCC. Technician.

For a station aboard an aircraft. may be higher than 61 m (200 feet) above ground level at its site. The station must be separate from and indep endent of all other radio apparatus installed on the ship or aircraft. the licensee may be required to take certain ac tions prescribed by S 1. supports.1301 .15 Station Antenna Structures Unless the amateur station licensee has received prior approval from the FCC. Unless the amateu r station licensee has received prior approval from the FCC. as def ined by the FAA. the apparatus shall not b e operated while the aircraft is operating under Instrument Flight Rules. no antenna structure . Failure to do so could result in imposition of operating restrictio ns upon the amateur station by an EIC pursuant to S 97. at an airport or heliport that is available for public use and is listed in t he airport directory of the current Airman s Information Manual or in either the Alaska Ham Radio In Plain English 70     . The stati on s transmissions must not cause interference to any other apparatus installed on the ship or aircraft.121 of this Part.1. except a common antenna may be shared with a voluntary ship radio installation.11 Stations aboard Ships or Aircraft The installation and operation of an a mateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of the ship or pilot in command of the aircraft.121(c) of the FCC Rules. S 97. unless the station has been found to comply with all applicable FAA Rules.S 97. A station within 1600 m (1 mile) of an FCC monitoring facility must protect that facility from harmful i nterference. The station must not constitute a hazard to the safety of life or property. architecture or culture. tower. and all appurtenances. Geograp hical coordinates of the facilities that require protection are listed in Sectio n 0. including the radiating elements. 97.13 Restrictions on Station Locations Before placing an amateur station on land of environmental importance or that is significant in American h istory.1319 of the FCC Rules. no antenna structur e.

are contained in Part 17 of the FCC Rules.1 m above any na tural object or existing manmade structure. and s pecifications for obstruction marking and lighting. To req uest approval to place an antenna structure higher than the limits specified her e. An amateur station antenna structure no higher than 6. 101 FCC 2d 95 2 (1985) for details. Further details as to whether an a eronautical study and/or obstruction marking and lighting may be required. is exempt from the requirements of this section. the licensee must notify the FAA on FAA Form 7460-1 and the FCC on FCC Form 8 54.1 km of the antenna structure. See PRB-1. or at an airport or heliport und er construction that is the subject of a notice or proposal on file with the FAA .5 km o f the antenna structure.or Pacific Airman s Guide and Chart Supplement. a station antenna structure may be erec ted at heights and dimensions sufficient to accommodate amateur service communic ations.1 km of the antenna stru cture. it must reasonably accommodate such communications and must constitute the minimum practicable regulation to accomp lish the state or local authority s legitimate purpose.1 m (20 feet) above ground level at its site or no higher than 6. Rather.] Ham Radio In Plain English 71     . Marking. or at an airport or heliport that is operated by the armed forces of the United States. may be higher than: • One meter above the airport elevation for each 100 m from the nearest runway longer than 1 km within 6. or at a place near any of these airports or heliports. other than an antenna structure. it is clearly indicated that the airport wil l be available for public use. • Four meters above t he airport elevation for each 100 m from the nearest landing pad within 1. and Lighting of Antenna Structures. • Two meters above the airport elevation for each 100 m from the nearest run way shorter than 1 km within 3. Except as otherwise provided herein. Construction. [State and local regulation of a station antenna structure must not prec lude amateur service communications. and except for military airports.

is eligible for a reciprocal permit for alien a mateur licensee. PA 17325-7245 . (3) No person who is a citizen of the United States. or assist another person to obtain or attempt t o obtain. (e) No person sh all obtain or attempt to obtain. (f) One unique call sign will be shown on the license of each new primary station. 1270 Fairfield Road. ( 2) The person must be a citizen of the same country that issued the amateur serv ice license.S 97. FCC Form 610-B for a new amateur service club or military recreation station license. The application document. FCC Form 610 -A for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee. Ham Radio In Plain English 72 . must be submitted to the FCC. (d) Any eligible person may apply for a reci procal permit for alien amateur licensee. The call sign will be selected by the sequential ca ll sign system. FCC Form 610 -A. regardless of any other citizenship also held. (4) No person who has been granted an amateur operator license is eligible for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee. (1) The person must be a citizen of a country with which the United States has arrangements to grant reciprocal operating permits to visiting alien amateur op erators is eligible to apply for reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee. (b) Each application for a new amateur service license must be made on the pro per document: • • • FCC Form 610 for a new operator/primary station license. Gettysburg. an amateur service license or reciprocal permit for alien amateur lice nsee by fraudulent means. (c) Each applicatio n for a new operator/primary station license must be submitted to the VEs admini stering the qualifying examination.17 Application for New License or Reciprocal Permit for Alien Amateur Licen see (a) Any qualified person is eligible to apply for an amateur service license .

(g) No new license for a club. For an operator/primary station license. (The FCC may ma il to the licensee a FCC Form 610-R that may be used for this purpose. 1270 Fairfield Road. The application document must be submitted to: FCC. or license custodian name. ~ David Frost. (3) May apply for renewal of the license for another term.21 Application for a Modified or Renewed License (a) A person who has been granted an amateur station license that has not expired: (1) Must apply for a mo dification of the license as necessary to show the correct mailing address. When the application for renewal of the license has been r eceived by the FCC at 1270 Fairfield Road. PA 17325-7245 prior to th e license expiration date. The application must be submitte d no more than 90 days before its expiration to: FCC. military recreation. The appli cation document must be submitted to: FCC. lice nsee name. (4) May apply for a modification of the license to show a different call sign selected by the sequential call sign syste m. the application must be made on FCC Form 610-B. the application may be made on FCC Form 610. 1270 Fairfield Road. club name. or RACES station license. for an operator/primary station license. Getty sburg.) The appl ication may be made on the FCC Form 610-R if it is received from the FCC. the license operating authority is continued until th e final disposition of the application. Gettysburg. the application must be made on FCC Form 610. For a club. or RACES station will be gra nted. PA 17325-7245. the application may be made on FCC Form 610-B. Gettysburg. For a club. Ham Radio In Plain Englis h 73 . talk show host S 97. military recreation. or RACES station license. If the Form 610-R is not received from the FCC at least 30 days before the expiration of the license. “Television enables you to be entertained in your home by people you wouldn’t have in your home. license trustee name. The application must be made on FC C Form 610 and must be submitted to the VEs administering the qualifying examina tion. military recreation. PA 1 7325-7245. (2) May apply for a modification of the license to show a higher operator class.

This modification is not available to club. Gettysburg. (b) When there is a change in the mailing address for a person who has been granted an amateur operator/primary station license. PA 17325-7245. (c) Each application for a modified or renewed amateur service license must be accompanied by a photo copy (or the original) of the license document unless an application for renewal using FCC Form 610-R is being made. The application document must be recei ved by the FCC at 1270 Fairfield Road. the application must be made on FCC Form 610-B. the application must be made on FCC Form 610. A new reciprocal permit for alien amateur lic ensee may be issued upon proper application.23 Mailing Address (a) Each application for a license and each application for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee must show a mailing address i n an area where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC and where the licens ee or permittee can receive mail delivery by the United States Postal Service.1270 Fairfield Road. or RACES station license. o r RACES stations. the same call sign will be assigned to the station upon r enewal or modification of a station license. PA 17325-7245 prior to the en d of the grace period. no privileges in the Part are conferred. Gettysburg. For a club. E ach application for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee must also sho w the permittee s mailing address in the country of citizenship. or unless the original document has been lo st. military recreation. The application must be made on FCC Form 610. may apply for renewal of the license for another te rm during a two year filing grace period. but the license has expired. (d) Unless the holder of a station license requests a change in call sign. For an operator/primary station license. military recreation. (b) A person who had been granted an amateur station license. S 97. mutilated or destroyed. (e) A reciprocal permit for alien a mateur licensee cannot be renewed. Unless and until the li cense is renewed. the person must file a timely application Ham Radio In Plain English 74   .

Ham Radio In Plain English 75 .25 License Term (a) An amateur service license is normally granted for a 10 -year term. or (2) That such action will promote fuller compliance with the pr ovisions of the Communications Act of 1934. convenience. The order will not become final until the licensee is notified in writing of the proposed action and the grounds and reasons theref ore. Any protest by a licensee of an FCC order of modification will be handled in accordance with the provisions o f 47 U. S 316. The licensee will be given reasonable opportunity of no less than 30 days t o protest the modification. if it d etermines: (1) That such action will promote the public interest. Revocation of the station license or suspensi on of the operator license may result when correspondence from the FCC is return ed as undeliverable because the person failed to provide the correct mailing add ress.S. (c) When a person who has been granted a reciprocal permit for alien amate ur licensee changes the mailing address where he or she can receive mail deliver y by the United States Postal Service. it will iss ue an order of modification. the person must file an application for a new permit. (b) A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee is normally grant ed for a 1-year term. S 97. or of any treaty ratifie d by the United States. (b) When the FCC makes such a determination. a nd necessity. a shorter period of notice may be provided. where safety of life or property is inv olved. except that. S 97. Cancellation of the reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee ma y result when correspondence from the FCC is returned as undeliverable because t he permittee failed to provide the correct mailing address.27 FCC Modification of Station License (a) The FCC may modify a station lic ense.C. as amended.for a modification of the license. either for a limited time or for the duration of the term thereof.

(c) At all times and on all frequencies. both persons are equally responsible for proper operation of the station. each amateur station must be operat ed in accordance with good engineering and good amateur practice. except to stations transmitting communica tions for training drills and tests in RACES. or destroye d must be attached to the request. No frequency will be assigned for the exclusive use of any station. The FCC will p resume that the station licensee is also the control operator. Subpart B--Station Operation Standards S 97. each control operator must give priority to statio ns providing emergency communications. (b) The station licensee must designate the station control operator. Ham Radio In Plain English 76 .29 Replacement License Document Each person who has been granted an amateur station license or reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee whose original license document or permit document is lost. unless documentat ion to the contrary is in the station records. mutilated. A replacement document must bear the same exp iration date as the document that it replaces. (d) No amateur operator shall will fully or maliciously interfere with or cause interference to any radio communica tion or signal. mutilated or destroyed must request a replacement.103 Station Licensee Responsibilities (a) The station licensee is responsib le for the proper operation of the station in accordance with the FCC Rules. A statement of how the document was lost.101 General Standards (a) In all res pects not specifically covered by FCC Rules. Whe n the control operator is a different amateur operator than the station licensee .S 97. S 97. (b) Each stati on licensee and each control operator must cooperate in selecting transmitting c hannels and in making the most effective use of the amateur service frequencies.

regardless of the type of control. (2) The operating terms and c onditions of the amateur service license issued by the Government of Canada. When deemed necessary by an EIC to assure compliance with FCC Rules. 2508) relating to the operation by citizens of either country of certain radio equipment or stations in the other country. (b) A st ation may only be operated in the manner and to the extent permitted by the priv ileges authorized for the class of operator license held by the control operator . S 97. i nventor S 97. but not to exceed the control o perator privileges of an FCC-issued Amateur Extra Class operator license.314(x) of the FCC Rules. and (3) The applicable provisions of the FCC Rules. I have just found 10.105 Control Operator Duties (a) The control operator must ensure the immedi ate proper operation of the station.107 Alien Control Operator Privileges (a) The privileges available to a con trol operator holding an amateur service license issued by the Government of Can ada are: (1) The terms of the convention between the United States and Canada (T IAS no. (b) Th e privileges available to a control operator holding an FCC-issued reciprocal pe rmit for alien amateur licensee are: Ham Radio In Plain English 77 . the station licensee must maintain a record of station operations containing such items of information as the EIC ma y require in accord with S 0.” ~ Thomas Edison.(c) The station licensee must make the station and the station records available for inspection upon request by an FCC representative. “I have not failed.000 ways that won’t work.

(b) When a station is being locally controlled. (2) The operating terms and conditions of the amateur service license issue d by the alien s government. the control operator must be at the control p oint. but not to exceed the control operator privileges of an FCC-issued Amateur Extra Cl ass operator license. Any station may be remotely controlled. Ham Radio In Plain English 78     . the control operator need not be at the control point. if the holder of the reciprocal permit has o btained an FCC-issued operator/ primary station license.(1) The terms of the agreement between the alien s government and the United Sta tes. in its discretion. Any station may be locally controlled. except a station participating as a forwarding station in a me ssage forwarding system. Only stations transmitting RTTY or data emissions on the 6 m or shorter wavelength ba nds.109 Station Control (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. and stations specifically designated elsewhere in this Part may be automati cally controlled.part y communications. (c) When a sta tion is being remotely controlled. (d) When a station is being automa tically controlled. or cancel the amateur service privileg es within or over any area where radio services are regulated by the FCC of any Canadian amateur service licensee or alien reciprocal permittee. modify. (3) The applicable provisions of the FCC Rules. Automatic control must not be resumed without prior approval of the EI C. (e) No station may be automatically controlled while transmitting third. and (4) None. Automatic control must cease upon notification by an EIC that the station is transmitting improperly or causing harmful interference to other stations. (c) At any time the FCC may. suspend. the control operator mus t be at the control point. S 97.

the international Mo rse code. and (4) Transmissions necessary to e xchange messages with a station in a service not regulated by the FCC. or improving proficiency in.S 97. (7) Transmissions of telemetry.111 Authorized Transmissions (a) An amateur station may transmit the follow ing types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange mes sages with other stations in the amateur service. (2) Brief transmissions necessary to establish ing two-way communications with other stations. (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning. (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (2) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a station in anoth er FCCregulated service while providing emergency communications. An amateur station may ex change messages with a participating United States military station during an Ar med Forces Day Communications Test. (4) Transmissio ns necessary to providing emergency communications. nece ssary to providing communications in RACES. except those in any country wh ose administration has given notice that it objects to such communications. an amateur station may transmit the following types of one-way communications: (1) Brief transmissions necessary to make adjustments to the station. (3) Telecommand. Ham Radio In Plain English 79 . (3) Transmissi ons necessary to exchange messages with a United States government station. but autho rized by the FCC to communicate with amateur stations. The FCC will issue public notices of current arrangements for international communic ations. (b) In addition to one-way transmissions spe cifically authorized elsewhere in this Part.

paid or promised. (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary interest. (c) A control operator may accept compensation as an incident of a teaching position during periods of time when an amateur stati on is used by that teacher as a part of classroom instruction at an educational institution. signals or identification. however. except that communicati ons directly related to the immediate safety of human life or the protection of property may be provided by amateur stations to broadcasters for dissemination t o the public where no other means of communication is reasonably available befor e or at the time of the event. (2) Communications f or hire or for material compensation. (b) An amateur station shall not engage in any form of broadcasting. including communications on behalf of an employer. direct or indirect.S 97. or false or deceptive mes sages. notify other amateur operators of the availability for sale or trade of apparatus normally used in an amateur station. obscene or indecent words or language. nor shall an amateur station engage in any activity related to program production or news gathering for broadcasting purposes. which could reasonably be furnished alternatively through other radio services. messages in codes or ciphers intended to obscure the meaning thereof. nor may an amateu r station transmit one-way communications except as specifically provided in the se rules. (5) Communications.113 Prohibited Transmissions (a) No amateur station shall transmit: (1) Com munications specifically prohibited elsewhere in this Part. (4) Music using a phone emission except as specifically provided elsewhere in this Section. on a regular basis. Amateur operators may. exce pt as otherwise provided in these rules. communications intended to facilitate a criminal act. except as otherwise p rovided herein. provided that such activity is not conducted on a regular basi s. Ham Radio In Plain English 80 .

except an auxiliary. provided that the station transmits such telegraphy practice and bulle tins for at least 40 hours per week. (2) Any station within the jurisdiction of any foreign government whose adm inistration has made arrangements with the United States to allow amateur statio ns to be used Ham Radio In Plain English 81 .115 Third Party Communications (a) An amateur station may transmit messages for a third party to: (1) Any station within the jurisdiction of the United Sta tes. “We didn’t lose the game. Prior approval for shuttle retransmissi ons must be obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. and shuttle retransmissions may not be conducted on a regu lar basis. and where the control operator does not accept any direct or indirect compensation for any other service as a contr ol operator. may automatically retransmit the radio signals of other amateur stations.” ~ Vince Lombardi. (e) No station shall retransmit programs or signals emanating from any type of radio station other than an amateur station. including incident al music. originating on United States Government frequencies between a space sh uttle and its associated Earth stations. repeater or space station. We just ran out of time.(d) The control operator of a club station may accept compensation for the perio ds of time when the station is transmitting telegraphy practice or information b ulletins. but only occasionally. as an incident of normal amateur radio communi cations. Propagatio n. where the schedule of normal operating times and frequencies is published at least 30 days in advance of the actual transmissions. weather forecasts. (f) No amateur station. Suc h retransmissions must be for the exclusive use of amateur operators. schedules operations on at least six amateu r service MF and HF bands using reasonable measures to maximize coverage. coach S 97. except propagation and weather forecast information intended for use by the general public and originat ed from United States Government stations and communications.

Ham Radio In Plain English 82 a different country. to remarks or which. shall be made in plain language and shall a technical nature relating to tests. (b) The third party may partici pate in stating the message where: (1) The control operator is present at the co ntrol point and is continuously monitoring and supervising the third party s par ticipation.for transmitting international communications on behalf of third parties. (c) At the end of an exchang e of international third party communications. or surrendered for cancellation followi ng notice of revocation. suspended for less than the balance of the license term a nd the suspension is still in effect. S 97. wher be limited to messages of of a personal character f the public telecommunicat   . suspended for the balance of the license t erm and relicensing has not taken place. the station must also transmit in the station identification procedure the call sign of the station with which a third party message was exchanged. by reason of their unimportance.117 International Communications Transmissions to e permitted. No sta tion shall transmit messages for a third party to any station within the jurisdi ction of any foreign government whose administration has not made such an arrang ement. suspension or monetary forfeiture proceedings. recourse to ions service is not justified. and. This prohibition does not apply to a message for any third party who is e ligible to be a control operator of the station. The thir d party may not be the subject of a cease and desist order which relates to amat eur service operation and which is still in effect. and (2) The third party is not a prior amateur service licensee whos e license was revoked.

Ham Radio In Plain English 83 . Alternatively. or (5) By a CW or phone emission during SS emission transmission on a na rrow bandwidth frequency segment. either color or monochrome. for the purpose of clearly making the source of the transmissi ons from the station known to those receiving the transmissions. by the changing of one or more parameters of the emission so that a conventional CW or phone emission receiver can be used to determine the station call sign. of S 73. must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmittin g channel at the end of each communication.119 Station Identification (a) Each amateur station.S 97. and at least every 10 minutes during a communication. When keyed by an automatic device used on ly for identification. the speed must not exceed 20 words per minute. (b) The call sign must be tr ansmitted with an emission authorized for the transmitting channel in one of the following ways: (1) By a CW emission. No station may transmit unidentified communications or signals.682(a) of the FCC R ules when all or part of the communications are transmitted in the same image em ission. It must be separated from the call sign by the slant mark o r by any suitable word that denotes the slant mark. (2) By a p hone emission in the English language. any call sign not authorized to the station. or transmit as the station call sign. Use of a standard phonetic alphabet as an aid for correct station identification is encouraged. (c) An indicator may be included with the call sign. except a space station or telecommand station. (4) By an image emission conforming to the applicable transmission standards. If the indicator is self-ass igned it must be included after the call sign and must not conflict with any oth er indicator specified by the FCC rules or with any prefix assigned to another c ountry. (3) By RTTY emission usin g a specified digital code when all or part of the communications is transmitted by RTTY or data emission.

(f) When the station is transmit ting under the authority of a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee.121 Restricted Operation (a) If the operation of an amateur station causes general interference to the reception of transmissions from stations operating i n the domestic broadcast service when receivers of good engineering design. the identification announcement must include the geographical location as n early as possible by city and state. General. At least once during each intercommunicat ion.(d) When the operator license class held by the control operator exceeds that of the station licensee. Technician. or (4) For a control operator wh o has requested a license modification from Novice. incl uding adequate selectivity characteristics. and this fact is made known to the amateur station licensee. Technician. (2) For a control operator who has requested a license m odification from Novice or Technician Class to General Class: AG. a station location indicator must be included after the call sign. When the station is transmitting under the authority of an amateur service license issued by the Government of Canada. commonwealth or possession. an indicator consisting of the call sign assigned to the control operator s station must be included after the call sign. o r General Class operator to Advanced Class: AA. are used to receive such transmissio ns. (e) When the co ntrol operator who is exercising the rights and privileges authorized by S 97. an i ndicator consisting of the appropriate letter-numeral designating the station lo cation must be included before the call sign issued to the station by the licens ing country. or Adva nced Class operator to Amateur Extra Class: AE.9( b) of this part. an indicator must be included after the call sign as follows: ( 1) For a control operator who has requested a license modification from Novice t o Technician Class: KT. (3) For a cont rol operator who has requested a license modification from Novice. S 97. the amateur sta tion shall not be operated during the hours from 8 PM to Ham Radio In Plain Engl ish 84   .

General. except the 222. (e) An auxil iary station may transmit one-way communications.25 m and shorter wav elength frequency bands. (b) In general. General. (d) An auxiliary station may be automatically controlled. A holder of a Technician.” ~ General. 431-433 MHz and 435-438 M Hz segments. subject to the privileges of the class of operator licens e held. army general Ham Radio In Plain English 85     . George Patton. the licensees are equally and fully responsible for resolv ing the interference unless one station s operation is recommended by a frequenc y coordinator and the other station s is not. Subpart C--Special Operations S 97. such steps as may be necessary to minimize interferen ce to stations operating in other services may be required after investigation b y the FCC. “The object of war is not to die for your country but to make the other bastard di e for his.201 Auxiliary Station (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician. Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be the control operator of an auxiliary station. and on Sunday for the additional period from 10:30 AM until 1 PM local time.15 MHz. (b) An auxiliary station may transmit only on the 1. (c) Where an auxiliary station causes harmful interference to anoth er auxiliary station. In that case. Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. the licensee of the non-coordinated auxiliary station has primary responsibility to resolve the inte rference.10:30 PM local time.00-222. upon the frequency or frequencies used when the interference i s created.

and transmitter power.2028. (g) A beacon may transmit one-way communications. within 20 days from the dat e of notification. General. Ha m Radio In Plain English 86 . (2) If an objection to the proposed operation is received by the FCC from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank. The beacon may not resume transmitting without prior approval of the EIC. antenna directivity. Pendleton County. (f) A beacon must cease transmissions upon n otification by an EIC that the station is operating improperly or causing undue interference to other operations. Green Bank.400 MHz segments. A holder of a Technician.300 MHz. the FCC will consider all aspects of the problem and take wha tever action is deemed appropriate. WV 24944. P. antenna height or directivity. antenna cen ter of radiation above ground level (AGL). (e) Before es tablishing an automatically controlled beacon in the National Radio Quiet Zone o r before changing the transmitting frequency.06-50. antenna ground elevation above mean sea level (AMSL). Box 2. (b) A beacon must not concurrently transmit on mo re than one channel in the same amateur service frequency band. General. 222. National Radio Astronomy Observatory. WV.275-144. Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator lic ense may be the control operator of a beacon. for itself or on behalf of the Naval Resea rch Laboratory at Sugar Grove. (1) The notification must include the geographical coordinates o f the antenna. 144. WV.300-4 32.06 MHz.05-222.O. (c) The transmitter power of a beacon must not exceed 100 W. from the same st ation location. or 432. (d) A beacon may be automatically controlled while it is transmitting on the 28. transmitter power.203 Beacon Station (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Techni cian. Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. 50.S 97.08 MHz. type of emission. or on the 33 cm and shorter wavelength bands. subject to the privileges of the c lass of operator license held.30 MHz. the station licensee must give written notification thereof to t he Interference Office. proposed frequen cy. Pocahontas County.

0 MHz and 435.5 MHz. 50. transmitter power. proposed frequency. (c) Where the transmissions of a repeater c ause harmful interference to another repeater. (1) The notification must include the geographical coordinates of the station antenna.0 MHz. (e) Ancillary functions of a repeater that are availabl e to users on the input channel are not considered remotely controlled functions of the station. antenna heig ht or directivity.15 MHz.0. (f) Before establishing a repeater in the National Radio Quiet Zon e or before changing the transmitting frequency. Ham Radio In Plain English 87 . (d) A repeater may be a utomatically controlled.0-29. National Rad io Astronomy Observatory. 222.205 Repeater Station (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Tech nician.0 MHz segments. or the location of an existing repeater. 431.144.438. General. and tr ansmitter power. A holder of a Technician.0-51.0 MHz.5 MHz. WV 24944. P.0. Green Bank.S 97. Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repea ter. (b) A repeater may receive and retransmit o nly on the 10 m and shorter wavelength frequency bands except the 28.5-146. In that case.0-433.O. type of emission. antenna center of radiation above groun d level (AGL).00-222. Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be the control operator of a repeater. Limiting the use of a repeater to only certain user stations is permissible. subject to the privileges of the class of operator license held. the two station licensees are equ ally and fully responsible for resolving the interference unless the operation o f one station is recommended by a frequency coordinator and the operation of the other station is not. General. the station licensee must give written notification thereof to the Interference Office. antenna groun d elevation above mean sea level (AMSL). 145. Box 2. 144. the licensee of the noncoordinated repeater has primary responsibility to resolve the interference. antenna directivity.

50 GHz and 24. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station.83-5. 2 mm and 1 mm bands. Each notification must be in accord with the provisions of Articles 11 and 13 of the Radio Regulations. (c) The follo wing frequency bands and segments are authorized to space stations: (1) The 17 m . the FCC will consider all aspects of the problem and take whatever action is deemed appropriate. DC 20554.05 GHz segments. 10. 3.(2) If an objection to the proposed operation is received by the FCC from the Na tional Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank.1270 MHz and 2400-2450 M Hz.41 GHz.85 GHz. Pendleton Coun ty. (b) A space station must be capable of affecting a cessation of transmiss ions by telecommand whenever such cessation is ordered by the FCC. for its elf or on behalf of the Naval Research Laboratory at Sugar Grove. su bject to the privileges of the class of operator license held by the control ope rator. 435-438 MHz. 5. (g) The c ontrol operator of a repeater that retransmits inadvertently communications that violate the rules in this Part is not accountable for the communications in vio lation. Pocahontas County. Washington. (g) The licensee of each space station must give two written. 1260. WV. (f) Space telemetry transmissions may consist of specially coded message s intended to facilitate communications or related to the function of the spacec raft. within 20 days from the date of notification. pre-space st ation notifications to the Private Radio Bureau.45-10. 1 MHz.25 MHz.00-14. and (2) The 7. 144-146 MHz. 15 m. S 97. 14. 4 mm.207 Space Station (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. FCC.40-3. (e) A space station may transmit one-way communic ations. WV.0-7. Ham Radio In Plain English 88 . (d) A space station may automatically retransmit the radio signals of Earth stat ions and other space stations. 12 m and 10 m bands.00-24. 6 mm.

gangster S 97. DC 20554. 3. notification is require d no later than 24 hours after termination. 144-146 MHz.67 GHz. in-space station notification to the Private Radio Bureau. and (2) The 7. 4 mm.0-7.50 GHz and 24. subject to the privileges of the class of operator license held by the control operator. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station. 642 of the Radio Regulations.25 MHz. 14.1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz. no later than three months after termination of the space station tr ansmissions.65-5.00-14.209 Earth Station (a) Any amateur station may be an Ea rth station. (2) The second notificat ion is required no less than five months prior to initiating space station trans missions and must specify the information required by Appendix 3 and Resolution No. 12 m and 10 m bands. 45-10.1 MHz.05 GHz segments. post-space station notification to the Private Radio Bureau.40-3. 5. When the termination is ordered by the FCC. DC 20554. (h) The licensee of each space station must gi ve a written. and Resolution No. 435-438 MHz. “You can get more with a kind word and a gun than you can with a kind word alone. Washington .” ~ Al Capone. 1260. Ham Radio In Plain English 89 . FCC. Wa shington. 2 mm and 1 mm bands. (i) The licensee of each space station must give a writt en. 15 m. (b) The following frequency bands and segments are authorized to Earth stations: (1) The 17 m.(1) The first notification is required no less than 27 months prior to initiatin g space station transmissions and must specify the information required by Appen dix 4. 6 mm. 10.41 GHz. The notification must update the information contained in the pre-space notification.00-24. no later than seven days following initiation of space stati on transmissions. FCC. 642 of the Radio Regulations.

willfully or negligently. 1260. S 97.S 97.41 GHz. A control link using a fiber optic cable or another tel ecommunication service is considered wireline.67 GHz. the control link must u se an auxiliary station. 10.45-10.0-7.25 MHz. 5. unauthorized transmissions. (d) A telecommand station may transmit one-way com munications. (b) A telecommand station may transmit special codes intended to obscure the meaning of telecommand messages to the station in space operation.211 Space Telecommand Station (a) Any amateur station designated by the lic ensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for th at space station.1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz. 12 m and 10 m bands. Ham Radio In Plain English 90   .05 GHz segments.50 GHz and 24. 6 mm. If radio. 3.00-14.40-3.213 Telecommand of an Amateur Station An amateur station on or within 50 km of the Earth s surface may be under telecommand where: (a) There is a radio or wireline control link between the control point and the station sufficient for t he control operator to perform his/her duties.1 MHz. (b) Provisions are incorporated t o limit transmission by the station to a period of no more than three minutes in the event of malfunction in the control link. (c) The following frequency bands and segments are authorized to tele command stations: (1) The 17 m.00-24. 15 m. 435-438 MHz. 2 mm and 1 mm bands. and (2) The 7. (c) The station is protected agai nst making. 14. 4 mm. subject to the privileges of the class of operator license hel d by the control operator.65-5. 144-146 MHz.

S 97.219 Message Forwarding System (a) Any amateur station may participate in a message forwarding system. f or stations participating in a message forwarding system. pr ovided that a label indicating the station call sign and the station licensee s name and address is affixed to the station transmitter. and t elephone number of the station licensee and at least one designated control oper ator is posted in a conspicuous place at the station location.217 Telemetry Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50 k m of the Earth s surface is not considered to be codes or ciphers intended to ob scure the meaning of communications. S 97. S 97.215 Telecommand of Model Craft An amateur station transmitting signals to c ontrol a model craft may be operated as follows: (a) The station identification procedure is not required for transmissions directed only to the model craft. (c) Except as noted in paragraph (d) of this section. (c) The transmitter power must not exceed 1 W. subject to the p rivileges of the class of operator license held. (b) For stations participating in a message forwarding system. the control operator of the station originating a message is primarily accountable for any violation of the rules in this Part c ontained in the message.(d) A photocopy of the station license and a label with the name. address. the control operators of forwarding stations that retransmit Ham Radio In Plain English 91     . (b) The control signals are not considered codes or ciphers intended to obscure the meaning of the commu nication.

responsible for discon tinuing such communications once they become aware of their presence. Subpart D--Technical Standards 97. and must accept interference from.05-24. United States Table of Frequency Allocations for complete requirements. 1979). the 70 cm band. the 5 cm band. stations in a primary ser vice.25 GHz segment. each frequen cy band allocated to the amateur service is designated as either a secondary ser vice or a primary service. They are. the 33 cm band. the 9 cm band.303 Frequency Sharing Requirements The following is a summary of the frequenc y sharing requirements that apply to amateur station transmissions on the freque ncy bands specified in S 97. See SS 2. or (2) Accept accounta bility for any violation of the rules in this Part contained in messages it retr ansmits to the system. (d) For st ations participating in a message forwarding system. the 14 4-149 GHz segment and Ham Radio In Plain English 92 .106 of the FCC Rules. in adjacent ITU Regions or Su bregions.) (a) Where. the basic principle is the equality of right to operate.) (b) No amateur station transmitting in the 1900-2000 kHz segment. The stations o f each service in one region must operate so as not to cause harmful interferenc e to services in the other Regions or Subregions. A station in a secondary service must not cause harmf ul interference to. the 3 cm band. the 13 cm band. a band of frequencies is allocated to different services of the same c ategory. No . the control operator of the first forwarding station must: (1) Authenticate the identity of the station fro m which it accepts communication on behalf of the system. the 24. the 76-81 GHz segment.301 of this Part.105 and 2. 346 (Geneva. (For each ITU Region. however. (See ITU Radio Regulations.inadvertently communications that violate the rules in this Part are not account able for the violative communications.

the 430-440 MHz segme nt is allocated to the amateur service on a co-primary basis with the radio-loca tion service. and is allocated in the fixed and mobile ( except aeronautical mobile) services in the International Table of allocations o n a primary basis.430 MH z segment. (d) No amateu r station transmitting in the 30 meter band shall cause harmful interference to stations authorized by other nations in the fixed service. In ITU Region 1. As between these two services in this band in ITU Region 1. including termination of tra nsmissions. the 76-81 GHz segment. the ba sic principle that applies is the equality of right to operate. stations authorized by other nations in the fixed and mobile (except aeronautic al mobile) services. the Government radio location service. if harmful interference is caused. The licensee of the a mateur station must make all necessary adjustments.the 241-248 GHz segment shall cause harmful interference to. (e) Reserved (f) In the 70 cm ban d: (1) No amateur station shall transmit from north of Line A in the 420. stations in the non-Government radiolocation service. nor is protected from interference due to the operation of. the 144-149 GHz segment and the 241-248 GHz segment shal l cause harmful interference to. (2) The 420-430 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur service in th e United States on a secondary basis. Amateur stations authorized by the United States and radiolocation stations Ham Radio In Plain English 93 . (c) No amateur station transmitting in the 1900-2000 kHz segment. (3) The 430-440 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur ser vice on a secondary basis in ITU Regions 2 and 3. the 3 cm band. nor is protected fr om interference due to the operation of. nor is protected from interference due to the o peration of. No amateur station transmittin g in this band in ITU Regions 2 and 3 shall cause harmful interference to. nor i s protected from interference due to the operation of. stations authorized by ot her nations in the radiolocation service. No amateur station transmitting in this band shall cause harm ful interference to.

1 This band is allocated on a secondary basis to the amateur service subject to not causing harmful interference to.25 MHz segment shall cause interference to. stations in the radio navigation-satellite servic e.25 GHz segment. (g) In the 33 cm band: (1) No amateur station shall transmit from within th e States of Colorado and Wyoming. (i) In the 1240-1260 MHz segment. the 76-81 GHz segment. nor is protected from interference due to the operation of. and on the west by longi tude 180 W. In ITU Region 1. stations authorized by oth er nations in the radiolocation service. th e 3 cm band. the aeronautical radio navigation service. on the n orth by latitude 34 30 N. the 144-149 GHz segment and the 241-248 GHz segment shall cause harmful interference to. 75-450. the 24.authorized by other nations in ITU Region 1 shall operate so as not to cause har mful interference to each other. (j) In the 13 cm band: (1) The amateur service is allocated on a secondary basis in all ITU Regions. no amateur station shall cause harmful interfe rence to. (4) No amateur station transmitting in the 449. automatic vehicle monitoring systems or Government stations authorized i n this band. nor is protected from interfe rence due to the operation of. and not receiving protection fro m any interference due to the operation of. and is not protected Ham Radio In Plain English 94         . on the north by latitude 42 N. bounded on the south by latitude 39 N.05-24. the space operation service and the s pace research service or Government or nonGovernment stations for space telecomm and. nor is protected from interfe rence due to the operation of stations in. (2) No amateur station shall transmit from those portions of the St ates of Texas and New Mexico bounded on the south by latitude 31 41 N. (h) No amateur station transmitting in the 23 cm band. on the east by longitude 105 W. scientific and medical d evices. and on the west b y longitude 107 30 W. or the radiolocation service. industrial. no am ateur station shall cause harmful interference to. on the east by longitude 104 11 W.

stations authorized by other nations in the fixed and fixed-satellite s ervice.75 GHz and 146. the 2300-2310 MHz segment is allocated to the amat eur service on a co-secondary basis with the Government fixed and mobile service s. 363-365 GHz and 379-381 GHz segments shall cause harmful interference to sta tions in the space research service (passive) or Earth exploration-satellite ser vice (passive).68144. no amateur sta tion shall cause harmful interference to. the 2. (k) No amateur station transmitting in the 3.98 GHz. the fixed and mobile services must not cause harmful interfe rence to the amateur service. (l) In the 9 cm band: (1) In ITU Regions 2 and 3. nor is protected from interference due to the operation of. No amateur station transmitting in the 2400-2450 M Hz segment is protected from interference due to the operation of industrial.5 GHz segment. In ITU Regions 2 and 3. nor is protected from interference due to the opera tion of. (4) In the 3. stations authorized by other nations in the fixed and fixe d-satellite service. 345-347 G Hz. stations authorized by other nations in the fixed service. (m) In the 5 cm band: Ham Radio In Plain English 95 . sc ientific and medical devices on 2450 MHz.82-147.4 GHz segment. and is not protected from interference due to the operation of.332-3. 324-326 GHz. no amateur station shall ca use harmful interference to.4-3. the 144.3-3.12 GHz segments and the 343-348 GHz segment shall cause harmful interference to stations in the radio astronomy ser vice. t he band is allocated to the amateur service on a cosecondary basis with the nonGovernment radiolocation service. the band is al located to the amateur service on a secondary basis.3525 GHz segments. In this segment. 145. st ations authorized by other nations in the fixed.339 GHz and 3. (2) In the United States. (3) In the 3. no station shall cause harmful int erference to.from interference due to the operation of.3458.5 mm band. (2) In the United States. mobile and radiolocation servic es.45-145. No amateur station transmitting in the 300-302 GHz.

th e segment is allocated to the amateur service on a secondary basis to the non-Go vernment fixed-satellite service. the 3 cm band is alloc ated to the amateur service on a cosecondary basis with the non-government radio location service.05-24.850-5. nor is protected from interference due to the operation of.925 GHz segment. scientific and medical devices on 24. stations authorized by other nations in the fixed and m obile services. No amateur station shall cause harmful interference to.725 GHz segment.875 GHz segment is protected from interf erence due to the operation of industrial.8 GHz.2 cm band is protec ted from interference due to the operation of industrial. nor is protected from interference due to the operation of.45 GHz segment in ITU Regions 1 and 3.25 GHz segment is all ocated to the amateur service on a Ham Radio In Plain English 96 .125 GHz. nor is protected from inte rference due to the operation of.650-5. (4) In the 5.650-5. No amateur station shall cause harmful interfe rence to. the amateur service is allocated in all ITU Regions on a co-secondary basis with the space research (deep space) service.725-5.850 GHz segment.725-5. (5) I n the 5. no amateur station shall cause interference to. In the United States. no amateur station shall cau se harmful interference to. stations authorized by other nations in the radiolocation service. scientific and medical devices operat ing on 5. (2) In the 10.850 GHz segment.(1) In the 5. In the United States. No amateur station shall cause harmful interference to. fixed-satellite and mobile services. stations authori zed by other nations in the fixed-satellite service in ITU Region 1. stations a uthorized by other nations in the fixed.00-10. nor is protected from interference due to the operation of. the amateur service is allocated in ITU Region 2 on a co-secondary basis with the radiolocation service. (o) No amateur station transmitting in the 1. (2 ) In the 5. the 24. the amateur service is allocated in all ITU Re gions on a secondary basis. stations in the non-Government fixed-satellite service. (3) No amat eur station transmitting in the 5. nor is protected from interference due to the operat ion of. (n) In the 3 cm band: (1) In the United States.

307 Emission Standards (a) No amateur station transmission shall occupy mor e bandwidth than necessary for the information rate and emission type being tran smitted.co-secondary basis with the non. inter-satellite and mobile services.5 mm band is allocated to the amateur service on a secondary basis. No amateur station trans mitting in this band shall cause harmful interference to. For a Ham Radio In Plain English 97 . causes h armful interference to the reception of another radio station. If any spurious emission. scientific and medical devices on 245 GHz. (b) Emissions resulting from modulation must be confined to the band or segment available to the control oper ator. the licensee of t he interfering amateur station is required to take steps to eliminate the interf erence. (q) No amateur station transmitting in the 244-246 GHz segment of the 1 mm band is protected from interference due to the operation of industr ial. in accordance with good engineering practice. including chassis or power line radiation. stations in the fixed. (p) The 2. nor is protected from interference due to the operation of. (d) The mean power of any spurious emission from a station transmitter or external RF power amplifier tran smitting on a frequency below 30 MHz must not exceed 50 mW and must be at least 40 dB below the mean power of the fundamental emission. Emissions outside the necessary bandwidth must not cause splatter or key c lick interference to operations on adjacent frequencies. “It is now possible for a flight attendant to get a pilot pregnant. in accordance with good amateur practice. president of United Airlines S 97.government radiolocation and Government and non government Earth exploration-satellite (active) services.” ~ Richard Ferri s. (c) All spurious emissi ons from a station transmitter must be reduced to the greatest extent practicabl e.

1977. the frequency shi ft between mark and space must not exceed 1 kHz. The symbo l rate must not exceed 1200 bauds. (5) A RTTY. (1) No angle-modula ted emission may have a modulation index greater than 1 at the highest modulatio n frequency.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted. 1978. the frequency shift between mark a nd space must not exceed 1 kHz. is exempt from th is requirement. A transmitter built be fore April 15. or for frequency-shift keying. The symbol rate must not exceed 19. For frequency-shift keying. the attenuation must be at least 30 dB. is exempt from this requirement. (2) No non-phone emission shall exceed the bandwidth of a communica tions quality phone emission of the same modulation type. A transmitter built before April 15. (3) Only a RTTY or data emission using a specified digital code lis ted in S 97.transmitter of mean power less than 5 W.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted. shall not exceed that of a communications quality A 3E emission. The total bandwidth of an independent sideband emission (having B as the first symbol). or first marketed before January 1. 1977. (f) The following standards and limitations apply to transmissio ns on the frequencies specified in S 97. 1978. or a multiplex ed image and phone emission.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted. or first marketed before January 1. (e) The mean power of any spurious emissi on from a station transmitter or external RF power amplifier transmitting on a f requency between 30-225 MHz must be at least 60 dB below the mean power of the f undamental. For a transmitter having a mean power of 25 W or less. (4) Only a RTTY or data emission using a specifi ed digital code listed in S 97. the mean powe r of any spurious emission supplied to the antenna transmission line must not ex ceed 25 uW and must be at least 40 dB below the mean power of the fundamental em ission.6 kiloHam Radio In Plain Engl ish 98 .305(c) of this Part. The symbol rate must not exc eed 300 bauds. data or multiplexed emission using a specified digital code listed in S 97. but need not be reduced below the power of 10 uW.

7 or 9 as the second symbol. (12) Emission F8E may be transmitted. A RTTY. D. B. and D or W as the third symbol is also authoriz ed. J or R as the first symbol. 1. and by stations locat ed within ITU Region 2 that are west of 130 West longitude or south of 20 North latitude. (9) A station having a control operator holding a Novice or Technician Class operator license may only transmit a CW emission using the international Morse code. The authorized bandwidth is 20 kHz.309(a) of this Part or an unspecified digital code under the limitations l isted in S 97. data or multiplexed emission usi ng a specified digital code listed in S 97. G.bauds. C. (11) Phone and image emissions may be tr ansmitted only by stations located in ITU Regions 1 and 3. 2. The symbol rate must not exceed 56 kilobauds. The authorized bandwidth is 100 kHz. E. (8) A RTTY or data emissio n having designators with A. F.309 (b) of this Part also may be transmitted.309(b) of this Part also may be transmitted.309(a) of this Part may be transmitte d. (10) A station having a control operator holding a Novice or Technician Cl ass operator license may only transmit a CW emission using the international Mor se code or phone emissions J3E and R3E. Ham Radio In Plain English 99 . ( 7) A RTTY. (6) A RTTY. A RTTY. data or multiplexed emission using a specified digital code listed in S 97. H. data or multiplexed emi ssion using an unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in S 97.309(b) of this Part may be transmitted. data or multiplexed emission using an unspecified digital code un der the limitations listed in S 97.

(3) The 7-unit code defined in American National Stand ards Institute X3.309 RTTY and Data Emission Codes (a) Where authorized by S 97. 2.4-1977 or International Alphabet No. 5 defined in Internationa l Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee Recommendation T. an amateur station may transmit a RTTY or data emission us ing the following specified digital codes: (1) The 5-unit. Internati onal Telegraph Alphabet No.” ~ Steven Wright. 476-3 (1982). except to a station in a country with which the United States does not have an agreement permitting the code to be used. of all digital communications transmitted.S 97. a station must: (1) Cease the transmis sion using the unspecified digital code. Division C (commonly known as Ba udot). a station may transmit a RTTY or data emission using an u nspecified digital code. and extensions as provided for in CCITT Recommendation T. convertible to the orig inal information. When deemed necessary by an EIC to assure compliance with the FCC Rules.305(c) and 9 7. 1984) (commonly known as ASCII).1.307(f) of this Part.50 or in Inter national Organization for Standardization. International Standard ISO 646 (1983) . (3) Maintain a record. “I went to a restaura nt that serves breakfast ‘at any time.307(f) of this Part. (b) Where authorized by S S 97. (2) The 7-unit code. start-stop. RTTY and data emissions using unspecified digital codes must not be transmitted for the purpos e of obscuring the meaning of any communication.61 (Malaga-Torremolin os.’ So I ordered French toast during the Renaiss ance. code defined in International Telegraph and Telep hone Consultative Committee Recommendation F. 476-4 (1986) or 625 (1986) ( commonly known as AMTOR). (2) Restrict transmissions of any digit al code to the extent instructed.305(c) and 97 . comedian Ham Radio In Plain English 100 . specified in International Radio Consultative Commit tee Recommendation CCIR 476-2 (1978).

(c) Only the following types of SS emission transmissions are authori zed (hybrid SS emission transmissions involving both spreading techniques are pr ohibited): (1) Frequency hopping where the carrier of the transmitted signal is modulated with unciphered information and changes frequency at fixed intervals u nder the direction of a high speed code sequence. 1. 4. 3. uninten ded triggering of carrier operated repeaters is not considered to be harmful int erference. SS emission transmissions must not be used for the purpose of obscuring the meaning of any communication. (d) The only spreading sequences that are auth orized are from the output of one binary linear feedback shift register (which m ay be implemented in hardware or software). and must accept all interference caused by stations e mploying other authorized emissions. 5.S 97. and 1. 19. The high speed code seq uence dominates the modulation function. (1) Only the following sets of conne ctions may be used: Number of stages in shift register 7 13 19 Taps used in feed back 7. (2) Direct sequence where the information is modulo-2 added to a high speed code sequence.311 SS Emission Types (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur station a re authorized only for communications between points within areas where the amat eur service is regulated by the FCC. 2. (b) Stations tran smitting SS emission must not cause harmful interference to stations employing o ther authorized emissions. The combined inform ation and code are then used to modulate the RF carrier. and 1. For the purposes of this paragraph. 13. Ham Radio In Plain English 101 . and is the direct cause of the wide spr eading of the transmitted signal.

Each c onsecutive frequency must be selected by a consecutive block of n bits. (3) A general description of th e type of information being conveyed (voice. (Where n is the smallest integer greater than log2X. where applicable. the frequency or frequencies us ed for station identification. (3) The output of the last stage of the binary linear feedback shift register must be used as follows: (i) For frequency hopping transmissions using x frequencies.(2) The shift register must not be reset other than by its feedback during an in dividual transmission. text. memory dump. (e) T he station records must document all SS emission transmissions and must be retai ned for a period of one year following the last entry. the transmission protocol(s) including the method of ach ieving synchronization. Ham Radio In Plain English 102 . the code rate. n consecutive bits from the shift register must be used to select the next frequency from a list of frequencies sorted in ascending order. using the information containe d therein. etc. The station records must include sufficient information to enable the FCC. (4) The method and. The shift register output sequence must be used without a lteration.) (ii) For direct sequence transmiss ions using m-ary modulation. facsimile. to demodulate all transmissions. The station records must contain at least the following: (1) A technical description of the transmitted signal. the spreading function. (2) Pertinent parameters describing the transmitted signal including the frequency o r frequencies of operation and. the chip rate. if applicable.). telev ision. and (5) The date of beginning and the date of end ing use of each type of transmitted signal. and the modulation type. consecutive blocks of log2 m bits from the shift re gister must be used to select the transmitted signal during each interval.

5 MHz segment when the control operator is a Novice or Technician operator.106 of the FCC Rules. on a case-by-case basis. (f) No station may transmit with a t ransmitter power exceeding 50 W PEP on the UHF 70 cm band from an area specified in footnote US7 to S 2. (g) The transmitter power must not exceed 100 W. (d) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 25 W PEP on the V HF 1. (e) No station ma y transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 5 W PEP on the UHF 23 cm band when the control operator is a Novice operator. unless expressly authorized by the FCC after mutual agreement. (2) Restrict SS emission transmissions to the extent instructed.72 5 MHz. (b) No sta tion may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 1.(f) When deemed necessary by an EIC to assure compliance with this Part.075 MHz segment when the station is within ITU Regions 1 or 3. convertible t o the original information (voice. 10. between the EIC of the app licable field facility and the military area frequency coordinator at the applic able military base. 7. text.1-2 8.050-7.15 MHz and 21.2 MHz segments. and (3) Maintain a record.1-21. (c) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 200 W PEP on: (1) The 3.5 kW PEP.313 Transmitter Power Standards (a) An amateur station must use the minimum transmitter power necessary to carry out the desired communications.25 m band when the control operator is a Novice operator. Ham Radio In Plain English 103 .10-7. (2) The 28.10-10. An Earth station or telecommand station.) of all spread spectrum com munications transmitted. image.15 MHz. etc.675-3. or (3) The 7. S 97. a stati on licensee must: (1) Cease SS emission transmissions.

They broke in and rearranged the furniture. No amplifier capabl e of operation below 144 MHz may be constructed or modified by a nonamateur oper ator without a grant of type acceptance from the FCC. man ufactured. This requirement does not apply if one or more of the following conditions are met: (1) The amplifier is not capable of operation on frequencies below 144 MHz. Its boundaries are those porti ons of Texas and New Mexico bounded on the south by latitude 31 41 North.815 of the FCC Rules). The transmitting antenna elevation angle between the lower half-power (–3 dB relative to the peak or antenna bore sight) point and the horizon must always be greater than ten.however. “We had gay burglars the other night. (g) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 50 watts PEP on the 33 cm band from within 241 km of the boundaries of the White Sands Missile Range. For the purpose of this part. imported or modified for use in a station or attached at any station must be type accepted for use in the amateur service in accordance with Subpart J of Part 2 of the FCC Rules.” ~ Robin Williams S 97. on th e east by longitude 104 11 West. and on the west by longitude 107 30 West. (b) Any external RF power amplifier or external RF power amplifier kit (see S 2. may transmit on the 435-438 MHz segment with a maximum of 611 W effecti ve radiated power (1 kW equivalent isotropically radiated power) without the aut horization otherwise required. an amplifier will be deemed to be incapable of operation below 144 MHz if it is not capable of being easily modified to increase its amplification characteristics below 120 MHz and either: Ham Radio In Plain English 104         . on the north by latitude 34 30 North.315 Type Acceptance of External RF Power Amplifiers (a) No more than one un it of one model of an external RF power amplifier capable of operation below 144 MHz may be constructed or modified during any calendar year by an amateur opera tor for use at a station without a grant of type acceptance.

S 97. and Ham Radio In Plain English 105         . by an amateur operator for use at that amateur operator s station. (c) A list of type accepted equipment may be inspected at FCC headquarters in Washi ngton. when the amplifi er is: (1) Operated at its full output power. or (ii) T he amplifier is not capable of amplifying signals below 120 MHz even for brief p eriods without sustaining permanent damage to its amplification circuitry. (2) T he amplifier was manufactured before April 28. (3) The amplifi er was: (i) Constructed by the licensee. (5) The amplifier is purchased in used condition by an equipment dealer from an amateur operator and the amplifier is further sold to another amateur operator for use at that operator s station. as applicable. or the amplifier was purchased before April 28. the amplifier must satisfy the spurious emissi on standards of S 97. 1978. Any external RF power amplifier appearin g on this list as type accepted for use in the amateur service may be marketed f or use in the amateur service. as frequency decreases fro m 144 MHz. or (ii) Modified by the licensee for us e at the licensee s station. 1978.(i) The mean output power of the amplifier decreases. and has been issued a marke ting waiver by the FCC.307(d) or (e) of this Part. not from an external RF power amplifier kit. to a point where 0 dB or less gain is exhibited at 120 MHz. DC or at any FCC field location. (4) The amplifier is sold by an amateur operator to another amateur operator or to a dealer. for use at the licensee s station. (2) Placed in the "standby" or "of f" positions.317 Standards for Type Acceptance of External RF Power Amplifiers (a) To re ceive a grant of type acceptance. but still connected to the transmitter.

would permit operation of the amplifier in a manner contrary to the FCC rules. (4) Any internal or external controls or adjustments to facilitate operation of the amplifier in a manner con trary to the FCC rules. (b) To receive a grant of type acceptance. the amplifier must: (i) Not be capable of achieving designed output power when driven with less than 40 W me an RF input power. for purposes of this paragraph. (ii) Not be capable of amplifying the input RF driving signal by more than 15 dB. (c) Type acceptance may be denied when denial would prevent the use of these amplifiers in services oth er than the amateur service. (5) Any internal RF sensing circuitry or any external sw itch. (2) Circuit boards or similar circuitry to facilitate the additi on of components to change the amplifier s operating characteristics in a manner contrary to the FCC rules. The amplifier will be deemed incapable of such operation if it: (1) Exhibits no more than 6 dB gain between 24 MHz and 26 MHz and between 28 MHz and 35 MHz. The following features will result in dismissal or denial of an application for the type acceptance: (1) Any accessible wiring whic h. (T his gain will be determined by the ratio of the input RF driving signal (mean po wer measurement) to the mean RF output power of the amplifier). unless the amplifier has a designed transmitter power of le ss than 1. the amplifier must not be capable of operation on any frequency or frequencies between 24 MHz and 35 MHz. when altered. the purpose of which is to place the amplifier in the transmit mode. (6) T he incorporation of more gain in the amplifier than is necessary to operate in t he amateur service.5 kW (in such a Ham Radio In Plain English 106   .(3) Driven with at least 50 W mean RF input power (unless higher drive level is specified). and (2) Exhibits no amplification (0 dB gain) between 26 MHz and 28 MHz. (3) Instructions for operation or modification of th e amplifier in a manner contrary to the FCC rules.

would permit the amplifier to function at its designed transmitter power when driven by an RF frequency input signal of less t han 50 W mean power. (iii) Not exhibit more gain than permitted by paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of this Section when driven by an RF inpu t signal of less than 50 W mean power. or (8) Any other features designed to facilitate operation in a telecommunication service other than the Amateur Radio Services. Ham Radio In Plain English 107 .case. such as th e Citizens Band (CB) Radio Service. and (iv) Be capable of sustained operatio n at its designed power level. This gain limitation is determined by the ratio of the inpu t RF driving signal to the RF output power of the amplifier where both signals a re expressed in peak envelope power or mean power). gain must be reduced by the same number of dB as the transmitter power rel ationship to 1. (7) Any attenuation in the input of the amplifier which.5 kW. when removed or modified.

There are three types of ground. What I can t understand is if they d on t know who you are.Chapter 7 Amateur Radio Practice Safety "I m always amazed to hear of air crash victims so badly mutilated that they hav e to be identified by their dental records. Power Line Ground It is the gro und found at the power box on home s electrical service connection. I f there is a possibility of a storm. Safety of the station Grounding All the station equipment should be grounded to prevent any electrical shock. It provides overall electrical safety for the building and property. all the station equipment can be turned off . DC Ground (Safety Groun d) This is a strap or wire placed from radio equipment to a convenient cold wate r pipe or ground rod to eliminate the hazard of electrical shock. In case of a m obile conHam Radio In Plain English 108         . The antenna’s cables can be disconnected and hooked to the ground. how do they know who your dentist is?" ~ Paul Merton. com edian Lightning Damage It is always advisable to ground the antenna when not in use. All transmitting antenna systems need an excellent ground system to provid e proper operator safety and optimum radiation of the maximum amount of RF energ y into the air. What is a Ground? A ground is a low-impedance electrical connection to e arth.

occupational hazard standard for the people who work with amateur radio is 10 m Watts/square cm. standard. it is best to wear a helmet. the total exposure is less than . or the engine blo ck. the DC Ground and the RF Ground are served by a common connection. This is done to avoid electrical shocks . But the situation changes when close to an operating antenna.nection in an automobile. This facilitates the disconnection of AC power to the supply. Antenna Safety When someone is on the antenna for repair activities.S. Those on the ground should also wear a helmet. RF Ground RF ground is a low-impedance path for RF to reach Earth.001 m Watts per square cm. while the cabinet is opened for repairs. Safety of the Equipment The U. This will be much more tha n the standard value. this wire is the one that connects the ground stud on the rear of the radio to the negative terminal of the battery. This is very low compared to the current U. Ham Radio In Plain English 109 .S. The manufacturers of such equipment are bound to use interlock switches in the power supply. The antennas an d feed-lines should always be clear of power lines. High Voltage Power Supplies High voltage power supply deals with very high volta ges. Normally. Many studies have revealed tha t for 99 percent of the population.

Another chance is that the connection along the feed line may be shorted somewhere.5:1 – Excellent SWR match.) 1. That is why shocks sometimes cause death. A mismatch occurs when some of the power sent to the antenna returns to the radio.5:1 . 4:1 . 2:1-. If there is a mismatch. This ratio between the voltage sent to the ant enna and the voltage reflected gives the SWR reading.An okay SWR re ading.Very bad SWR reading .Bad SWR reading. (The best impedance match has been attain ed. the length o f the antenna needs to be changed. Fixing a Bad SWR Reading A very high SWR reading denotes an incorrect length. th en the performance level of the radio will be affected. An electric current as feeb le as 1/10th of an ampere can be fatal.Poor SWR reading.A good SWR reading.Hazardous Voltages Since 30 volts is enough to kill a person. Ham Radio In Plain English 110 . SWR Readings . Lengthening If the SWR reading at the low end (frequency) of the band is 5:1 and at the higher end is 2 5. one must take the necessary precautions while working on high voltage. 3:1 .How Are T hey Rated? 1:1 – This is the best ratio. It is time to fix the antenna. then the antenna n eeds to be lengthened. Otherwise. Standing Wave R atio (SWR) The standing wave ratio provides the information on the mismatch betw een the antenna and the radio. 2. The body part most affected by an electr ic shock is the heart. 5:1 .

Why no t? Some people have to go to work and don t have time for all that. Multimeter A multimeter is multipurpose equipment. The ammeter is placed in series with the circuit.” ~ George Carl in. which can be used to measure the current voltage as well as resistance. It is measured in Watts. comedian Meters and Measurements Voltmeter Voltmeter is a device used to measure the voltage of a portion of a ci rcuit. Why? Some people dream of things that never were and ask. Ham Radio In Plain English 111   . Ammeter shows the curre nt flowing in amperes through the circuit.5:1 and at the higher end is 5:1. then the length of the antenna must be shortened. RF Wattmeter This device measures the quantity of radio frequency energy flowing out of the radio. the voltmeters are connected “parallel” across the circuit. hence the name Wattmeter. Ammeter Ammeter is used to measure current in a circuit. While measuring. It general ly operates at 50 ohms line impedance. “Some people see things th at are and ask.Shortening If the SWR reading of the lower end is 2.

Audio Wave Modulation The functioning of a radio may be a perplexing thing for a beginner. For modulation to happen a carrier must be available.Directional Wattmeter This Wattmeter measures forward and reflected power. It displays time on the X-axis and amplitude on t he Y-axis and the intensity of the CRT spot along the Z axis. Different types of oscilloscopes are available at http://eham. How does this happen? Modulation is the process of merging a radio signal with an information signal. Peak Reading Wattmeter The peak energy emitted by a station is measured using a peak reading wattmeter to ensure that one station is in compliance with the power output permitted as per the license. When a mismatch occurs.net/. this can be used to detect the power going in the direction t owards the antenna and the power going towards the radio. Ham Radio In Plain English 112 . This is also called continuous wave (CW). It is this carrier signal that transmits the information to the d esired destination. Morse Code Modulation Morse code turns off and on an RF carr ier in order to transmit a simple code alphabet. Oscilloscope This electronic test instrument is used to observe wave forms and v oltages on a cathode-ray tube. Voice produ ced in front of a microphone is heard using another radio which is placed at a d ifferent location.

actress ‘God of Small Things’ It is always best to start small. One of my uncles who introduced me to the grea t hobby of amateur radio used to say that it’s the basics that make a man.Chapter 8 Elementary electricity “Smoking kills. If you’re killed. The metal switch contacts of a sliding switch mak e the command for the bulb to start its duty. This tiny thing can sometimes ruin the flashlight. Have yo u ever analyzed a flashlight? This is the best way to begin. A bulb is connected across two cells in a series.” ~ Bro oke Shields. Ham Radio In Plain English 113 . you’ve lost a very important part of your life.

the circuit becomes incomplete. Two Ham Radio In Plain English 114 . How does this happ en in a flashlight? The voltage or potential difference V pushes the current to flow. then the circuit is not complete.5 volts are connected to a lamp with a switch in between. Two cells of 1. Points to Remember A circuit is a closed conducting path.Let’s move on to the circuit diagram of a flashlight. When the metal parts of the s witch fail to make contact. if the switc h is not closed. Cells Connected in S eries The current in the circuit should flow to make the lamp glow. In the case of a flashlight. The lin es in this schematic diagram represent the metal conductors which connect the sy stem together.

cells of 1. charge carriers can be both positive and nega tive materials. Cells Connected in Parallel A single cell may provide some current for a long time. the flow direction will be opposite to the direction of convention al current. The arrows in the circuit diagrams always point in this direction. Ham Radio In Plain English 115 . In electronic systems.5 V. one is positive while the other is negative. The Direction of Current Flow As evident from the figure. it may increase the voltage. If you connect the cells in series. A parallel connection guarantees a longer life. th e current is considered to flow from the positive terminal to the negative termi nal. A battery consists of two or more cells. while three cells will pro vide 4. This is the direction of f low of positive charged particles.5 V (see the figure). but will not have any effect on its lif e. Conventional current is often used to designate this current. the brighter the lamp will be. Cells can also be connected in para llel. The holes and electrons found in the transistors are examples of the coexistence of both positive and negative charge carriers in the same syste m. The higher the voltage. When the charge carriers are negatively charg ed electrons. connected in series will provide 3 V. Conventionally. the battery or cell ha s two terminals.

This assu med direction is called conventional current. will permit current flow easily. As they move away f rom the nucleus. This flow of electrons is called electric current. The ele ctrons in the inner orbits are tightly bound to the nucleus. and nobody thinks of complaining. etc). copper. Such substances are called conductors (i. Since a small piece of metal has billions of atoms. These electrons are called free electrons. silver. The electric current wil l continue to flow as long as the ‘excess’ and ‘deficit’ of electrons exist in the bodie s. 2. which have a large number of free electrons. In certa in substances. The free electrons move at random from one atom to anothe r in the material. this binding goes on decreasing so that electrons in the last o rbit (called valence electrons) are quite loosely bound to the nucleus.e. especially metals.What Is Electric Current? If two bodies are connected through a conducting wire. This happens all the time with computers. Those substances." ~ Jeff Raskin Properties of Electric Current 1. the valence electrons are so weakly attached t o their nuclei that they can be easily removed or detached. there are a large number of free electrons present. However prior to the electron theory. The electrons move around the nucleus of an atom in different orbits. it was assumed that current flowed from positive terminal to the negative terminal of the cell via the circ uit. atoms of some substances have valence electrons that are tightly Ham Radio In Plain English 116 . This convention is so firmly established that it is still in use. electrons will flow from the negatively charged body to the positively charged one. which is called ampere. The SI unit of electric current is co ulomb/sec. The actual direction of current is from the ne gative terminal to the positive terminal through the part of the circuit externa l to the cell. aluminum. "Imagine if every Thursday your shoes exploded if you tied them in the usual way . On the other hand.

A semiconductor is neither a conductor nor an insulator. mica. ionic conductors. glass. It is a good conductor of electric current. Silicon in its purest form is a good insulator. they ofte n surround conductors. i nsulators and semi-conductors. This process is called doping. Missing ele ctrons are called holes. • A solution that is highly ionic. • A semi-conductor conducts electricity partially.bound to their nuclei. Ham Radio In Plain English 117 . impurities are introduced. Rubber. • An insulat or has a lesser number of free electrons and is a poor conductor. The most effective conductors in electric syste ms are those with a high degree of free electrons. metals are excel lent conductors of electricity. and for this reason. It is a component made of silicon and glass. Semi-conductors co ntrol the movement of electrons in an electric current depending upon the struct ure of the material used to construct it. As a result. glass. Materials used as conductors fall into one of four types: metallic conductors. Salt water is an excellent example of an ionic conductor. and an insulator at low temperatures. In order to change the co nductivity of the silicon. Such substances will not permit the flow of electric curr ent and are called bad conductors or insulators (i. or has a large number of free ions. is called an ionic con ductor. Conduct ors Any material that permits an electrical current to flow through it without d ifficulty is called a conductor. Insulators do not permit electric current to flow through them. All semico nductor materials originate from silicon. and plastic are good examples of insulator s. which facilitate the efficient transfer of electric current. as it behaves like a conducto r at high temperatures. • Metallic conductors have a large number of free el ectrons. like metal in its liquid or molten form. which changes the number o f electrons in the lattice structure. enabling advanced electronics. Careful placement of non-conductive “imp urities” on a conductive surface directs the flow of electrons.e. etc). while glass and wood are not.

this results in the production of holes. In an N-type crystal. In N-type semiconductor. the crystal as a whole remains electrically neutral . When an intrinsi c semiconductor is doped. almost all excess electrons donated get ra ised into the conduction band. The resultant semiconductor is called a doped or extrinsic semicond uctor. electron-hole pairs are formed as in the pure crystal. the gap is 0. The mobile electrons so donated are far in excess of the conduction electrons released by thermal breaking of covalent bonds and they are therefore called exc ess electrons. The doped semiconductor containing donor atoms is called donor typ e semiconductor or Ntype semiconductor. Each impurity atom donates a free electron and is therefore calle d donor atom. because its conductivity is mostly due t o electron current. the result introduces allowable energy levels slightly below the conduction band. In silicon. Hence at room temperature. The doped semiconductor behaves like a resisto r (called bulk resistance) with enhanced conductivity due to doping. their conductivity is enormously enhanced by judicious addition of impurity atom s or doping. the conductivity of N-type semiconductor is fairly constan t over a large temperature range (unlike a pure semiconductor). (a) Donor atoms: If an impurity atom is added to a pure semiconductor lik e germanium/ silicon atoms. boron and gal lium is used for doping germanium. Sinc e the Ham Radio In Plain English 118 .Extrinsic Semiconductors – P and N Type Since intrinsic or pure germanium/silicon semiconductors are of no use as such. However. because of the more numerous excess electron s. But. Since the impurity atoms are placed relatively far a way from each other. holes are called the minority carriers and the electrons are called the majority carriers. no interaction takes place and a single basic discrete leve l forms the new allowable state.05 V below the conduct ion level. recombination is rapid and only fewer holes than in pure crystal are present. Hence. these impurity atoms dislodge some of the germanium/ silicon atoms. (b) Accepto rs and P-type semiconductors: If a trivalent impurity like indium.

the dopant is called an acceptor type and the resultant semiconductor is called P-type semiconductor. At room temperature. A thoroug h knowledge of the formation and properties of pn junction can enable you to und erstand the semiconductor devices.holes so created accept electrons. almost all acceptor atoms get ionized and the number of mobil e holes equals the number of acceptor atoms. This button serves as a suitabl e base for soldering on leads. the contact surface is called pn junction. the remaining material appears as indium button. The indium and some of the germanium melt to form a small puddle of molten germanium-indium mixture. Ham Radio In Plain English 119 . The system is then heated to a temperature of about 500°C. a small block of indium (impurity) is p laced on an n-type germanium slab. Pn Junction Diodes Pn Junctions When a p-type semiconductor is suitably joined to an n-type semicon ductor. Holes are the majority carriers and the electrons are the minority carriers in Ptype semiconductors. The pn junction is of great i mportance because it is the control element for semiconductor devices. In this method. When all germanium has been redeposited. One co mmon method is alloying. The temperature is then lowered and the puddle begins to solidify. the atoms of indium impurity will b e suitably adjusted in the germanium slab to form a single crystal. As the process goes on. Under proper conditions. the remaining mol ten mixture becomes increasingly rich in indium. The addition of indium overcomes the excess of electrons in the ntype germanium to such an e xtent that it creates a p-type region. Formation of Pn Junction Pn junction is fabricated by special techniques. which is frozen on t o the outer surface of the crystallized portion.

At the same time. This process is called diffusion.“More and more of our imports are coming from overseas. which opposes the di ffusion of holes or electron current. at the junction. further diffusion is prevented. As th e free electrons move across the junction from n-type to p-type. president Properties of Pn Junction Consider a p-type semiconductor having negative accept or ions and positively charged holes and an n-type semiconductor having positive donor ions and free electrons.type material has a high concentration of holes.” ~ George W. a net negative charge is established on the p-side of the junction. which is a perfect joint. Ham Radio In Plain English 120 . the free holes cross the junction and uncover the negative acceptor ions by filling in the holes. positive donor ions are uncovered and are robbed of free electrons. The net charge flow across the open circui ted junction is zero. (on atomic state) then n-type material has a high concentration o f free electrons while p. a positive charge is built on the n-side of the junction. There fore. this region i s called the depletion region. Hence. This is called potential barrier or junction barrier Vo. Thus the positive ions and negative ions are not neutraliz ed over a region. When a sufficient number of donor and acceptor ions are uncovered. Thus a barrier is set up against further movement of cha rge carriers (holes and electrons). This field sets up a drift of charge carriers. there is a tendency for the free electrons to diffuse ove r to the p-side and holes to the n-side. If both are made to form a junction. Since this region is depleted of mobile charges. Bush. It is because now positive charge on n-side repels holes to cross fr om p-type to n-type and negative charge on p-side repels free electrons to enter from n-type to p-type. Theref ore.

Emitter and collector layers -.” The dev ice consists of a silicon or germanium single crystal containing two p-n junctio ns.Transistors Transistor is actually a term to describe “transfer resistance. which comes from their use in radio receivers. the electrons are liberated either by hea t (thermionic emission) or by the bombardment of positive ions.S. called vacuum tubes or electron tub es in the U. They are also call ed "receiving" valves. are known as thermionic valves in Britain. Due to the usage of a very high vacuum. Base -. conventional current flows in t he opposite direction. But. The device is classified into two main types – PNP or NPN depending on whether the base material is N or P. some gas molecules may become ionized by collisi on with speedy electrons. to the anode or plate (P). the positive electrode. their current is in the same direction.a very thin layer forming the central region. This causes emis sion of electrons. The junction between the base and emitter is called the emitter junction and the junction between th e base and collector is called the collector junction. Since a vacuum is required in the form of an evacuated enclosure in which the electrons can move without c ollisions with gas molecules. They are formed between the following layers of the semiconductor. When an electron is knocked off.. there are a lot of devices in which a stream of ele ctrons is controlled by electric and magnetic fields. An ohm ic or non-rectifying contact is made to each of the layers. In vacuum tubes. At the cathode. a positive ion is lef t off. the electrons shift from the cathode (K). As a result. The positive ions move in the opposite direction of the electrons. Howeve r.The se two are on the opposite sides on the B layer and are of the same type. the negative electrode. the effect of Ham Radio In Plain English 121 . These devices have be en completely replaced by semiconductors in current practice. since they have opposite charges. These devices. Vacuum Tubes In electronics.

The grid is made of a spiral of fine wire and electrons can pass through without hindrance. it opposes the effect of the anode in creating an electric field. It is so dense that if no electron is removed by attraction to the anode. A third electrode. placed betw een the cathode and the anode. it increases the plate current. the rate of emission is equal to the rate of return. but draws some grid current to itself. When it is negative. The electrons released by the t hermionic cathode accumulate to form a negative space charge cloud around the ca thode. If it is made positive. The grid provides a sensitive control thus making the vacuum tube a powerful amplifying device.positive ions in a receiving tube is very small. As soon as the anode is ma de positive. and draws no current. closer to the cathode has also some part in the e lectric field at the space charge that controls the current. some of the electrons are attracted to it out of the space-charge c loud. Ham Radio In Plain English 122 . but does not attract any electron. and a thermionic current results. the grid.

The charged body has the capacity to do work by moving other charges either by attraction or repulsion. This opposit ion occurs because the atoms and molecules of the substance obstruct the flow of these electrons. I think if you ve got a T-shirt with a bloodstain all over it.” ~ Jerry Seinfeld. It may be noted that potentia l difference is sometimes called voltage. This ability of the charged body to do work is calle d electric potential.Chapter 9 Magnetism and Basic Electric Devices “Now they show you how detergents take out bloodstains. Ham Radio In Plain English 123     . Since current is the flow of electrons. a pretty violent image the re. Current will flow if potential difference exists. No po tential difference means there is no current flow. This work is stored in the body in the form of potential ener gy. It may be noted that resistance is electric friction offered b y the substance and causes the production of heat with the flow of electric curr ent. w ork has been done. Maybe you should get rid of the body before you do the wash. comedian Electric Potential When a body is charged. The unit of resistance is ohm. Resistance The opposition offered by a substance to the flow of electric current is called resistance. maybe laundry isn t your biggest problem. Electric potential= work done/ charge Potential Difference The difference in the potentials of two charged bodies is called the potential difference between them. resistance is the opposition offered by the substance to the flow of free electrons. The potential difference between two p oints is 1 volt.

Capacitors Capacitors can simply be defined as the circuit element, which stores electrons. Mostly they are used as rechargeable batteries to provide stable vol tage. Other than this function, capacitors have many other uses in an electrical circuit. Capacitors are comprised of aluminum electrolytic, ceramic disk, tanta lum electrolytic, ceramic disc, mica, and polypropylene. A capacitor mainly func tions as: • Dc blocking devices -- When a capacitor functions as a dc blocking devi ce, it allows ac to flow, while blocking the dc. • Supply by-pass capacitor -- This capacitor, when used on a dc supply line, shunts (shorts) to ground any unwante d ac. • Reservoir bypass capacitor -- A capacitor, used in the output of a dc recti fier, is called a reservoir bypass capacitor when it smoothes out the power line ac pulses and acts as a reservoir between the charging pulses. • Emitter bypass ca pacitor -- Considered a combination of two models. Under the dc conditions, it o perates as a transistor. Under ac conditions, it functions as an amplifier. When a battery of certain voltage is connected to a capacitor, the capacitor gets ch arged depending upon the voltage and the value of the capacitance. Ham Radio In Plain English 124

With reference to the above figure, there is a flow of negative charges to the l ower plate, thereby making the upper plate positively charged. The voltage of th e fully charged capacitor will be equal to that of its source. The charged capac itor stores energy in the form of an electric field. A capacitor is comprised of two plates separated by an insulator. The value of the capacitance mostly depen ds on the total surface area of the plates as well as the distance between the p lates. The unit of capacitance is farad. Farad is a large quantity and the unit of microfarad is used in most of the cases. If the value of the capacitor is hig h, then the stored energy will be large. Ham Radio In Plain English 125

Schematic Symbol for a Capacitor Different types of capacitors are shown below Capacitors from left to right: polypropylene, adjustable trimmer cap, polyester , ceramic radial capacitor, and ceramic axial capacitor. Equivalent Series Resistance of a Capacitor (ESR) Ideally a capacitor should hav e only capacitance. But practically all conductors will have some resistance. Al l conductors contribute a certain amount of resistance can be represented by a r esistor in series with the capacitor. Capacitors of higher ESR values will allow only a lesser quantity of current to pass to the external circuit. Similarly eq uivalent series inductance (ESL) is the value of inductance connected in series with the capacitor. As the electrolytic capacitors consist of a large coil of fl at wire, it will have some inductance. “I want to have children, but my friends scare me. One of my friends told me she w as in labor for 36 hours. I don t even want to do anything that feels good for 3 6 hours.” ~ Rita Rudner, comedian Film Capacitors Capacitors less than one microfa rad usually contain a plastic type of insulator. They can also be metallized mat erial bonded on to the plastic material. Film capacitors are illustrated below. Ham Radio In Plain English 126


Ham Radio In Plain English 127 .

The below figure illustrates an electrolytic capacitor. Ham Radio In Plain English 128 .Electrolytic Capacitors Electrolytic capacitors are used for capacitance values higher then 0. They consist of a paper material between two layer s of aluminum foil.47 micro farad.

Ham Radio In Plain English 129 . Working voltage provides the value of the voltage the capacitor can withstand over time. which it can withstand for a short er duration of time. Application of too much voltage can fail a capacitor. A surge voltage depicts the value.Capacitor and Voltage A capacitor may have a surge voltage and a working voltage .

An electrically charged object will have eith er a greater or smaller concentration of electrons than normal. “Charlie Brown is the one person I identify with.Electric Field An electrically charged object induces a force field around it. the electric current can be transmitted. It can then return to zero agai n at 360 degrees. This difference of potential produces an electric field. then come back to zero value at 180 degrees and con tinue to its most negative value at 270 degrees.” ~ Chris Rock Alternating Current In a power station. The electricity. As discussed earli er. which depict the paths along which t he force acts. This cycle is depicted using a sine wave. A large concentration of lines demonstrates a large electric forc e. This is one complete cycle. One complet e cycle of the signal occupies 360 degrees irrespective of the amplitude. Similarly lesser number of lines indicates a weak force. This field of force is normally represented by lines. These electric charges are capable of moving the electric charges in the field. Hence the electricity that arrives in homes is ac. The nu mber of cycles-per-second is the frequency of the signal. This is known as alternating current. the conventional method of producing electricity is by using a motor to spin magneti c wire coils.B. thus produced will be fluctuating in nature by vi rtue of motor’s rotation. A signal may start at zero degrees and then reach its most p ositive value at 90 degrees. w hich can be detected and measured. He wasn t even the star of his own Halloween special. C. This guarantees the existence of a difference of potential between a charged object and an uncha rged object. more effectively in the form of alt ernating current. Ham Radio In Plain English 130   . is such a loser.

S. Permanent magnets are often mad e of ferromagnetic material. However. then goes down to its maximum negative value in the next five mi lliseconds. Types of Magnets Any mass that produces an external magnetic field is called a m agnet. is 60 cycles/second or 60 Hz. A magnet’s force affects other magnets. Magnets occur mainly in two varieties: permanent an d excited. not all ferromagne tic materials are iron. Magnetism is ultimately a creation of electric charges and thei r movements. electric currents and materials exh ibiting magnetic properties. Magnetism Magnetism is a natural phenomenon that acts as a force to attract or r epel specific substances. It is displayed by magnets and el ectric currents.67 milliseconds. I f the frequency is 50 Hz as in Australia. which is a material that resp onds strongly to magnetism and is easily magnetized. a nd the possessing material is always magnetized. A permanent magnet is one in which the magnetic field is always on. particularly metals. In the case of a 60 Hz frequency. one cycle occupies 1/50th of a second or 20 milliseconds. ferro refers to iron. one cycle occupies 1/60th of a sec ond or 16. This complete cycle takes almost 20 milliseconds and repeats 50 time s a second. Ham Radio In Plain English 131 . Here the signal reaches its maximum positive value after fiv e milliseconds.The frequency of the domestic supply in the U.

Magnetic Poles and Forces All magnets have two poles. Magnetic Fields Like electric charges. and similar poles repel one another while dissimilar poles attract o ne another. Tempor ary magnets can be made from materials that do not respond strongly to magnetism by running electric current through a conductor to construct an electromagnet. are s ubject to a demagnetizing field. Like electric charges. The Earth is itself a large. A magnet’s south or south-seeking pole is at tracted to the South Pole. it is possible to detect its magnetic field usin g a compass. magnets create a field of magnetic force around their poles. These magnetic fields contain the kinetic energy of the pole s’ charges that can be applied to other objects as they approach the magnet and en ter its magnetic field. rotating magnet. permanent magnet resulti ng from the molten iron core that creates an electric current with its movement. The north or north-seeking pole of a magnet is called so because it is attracted to the Earth’s North Pole.Some alloys and ceramics actually produce better permanent magnets than iron. Ham Radio In Plain English 132 . or are exposed to shock. The compass magnet will rotate so that its poles are aligned in the opposite direction of the Earth’s. or a thin. A temporary magnet (al so known as an excited or induced magnet) is one in which the magnetic field may be turned on and off through an electric current from an outside source. there are positive and nega tive poles. as similar poles r epel one another. Because the Earth is a magnet. Electric currents may also be used to supplement the magnetic power of a permane nt magnet. Pe rmanent magnets may lose their magnetism if they are heated to an extreme. which is where the majorit y of their magnetic force is.

Operation follows the line. called lines of induction. in the direction indicated by the arrow. The lines of induction appear similar to the e lectric field Ham Radio In Plain English 133 .Figure shows the B-H characteristics for a ferromagnetic material where B is the magnetic flux density and H is the magnetic field. A magnetic field follows a path around the magnet according to certain lines of force.

the fingers will point in the direction of magnetic line of force. the filings will a rrange themselves in a pattern that outlines the magnet’s lines of induction. Ham Radio In Plain English 134 . However. Unlike the electrical lines. whenever a current flows through the conductor. a weak magnetic field may not be visible this way.surrounding a dipole. The easiest way to ident ify a magnetic field is to observe whether certain metals are attracted to a par ticular object or medium. When one holds the conductor in the left hand as shown in th e figure. A magnetic field is formed around a conductor. The left hand rule is used to determine the direction of magn etic line of force. a sh eet of paper and the object believed to be a magnet. A magnetic field is not easily measured quantitatively. circling the magnet to connect its north and south poles. The magnetic lines of force are drawn at right angles to the directio n of current flow. One way to identify even a weak magnetic field involves iron filings. magnetic lines are not drawn between the rods. If the iron filings are spr ead on the paper and a magnet is placed underneath the paper.

Another problem is that resistance increases as the number of components o n the circuit increases. The disadvantages of ser ies circuits reflect the advantages of parallel circuits. In a parallel circuit. The string of Christmas tree lights that refuses to work if one bulb fails is an example of a series circuit. and the amount of resistance on a parallel circuit does not increase as components are added. the current will flow. and are of the simpl est circuit construction. two connecting wires to conduct the current. Circuit Components Circuits can contain many different components besides the es sential power source. Types of Circuits Most circuits occur as series or parallel circuits. The essential components of a circuit include a power source. Series cir cuits connect all components using a single length of wire. or are parallel to one another. creating a closed circuit. a battery will be a major component. or is anticipated to travel. so that the electric current must travel through the fi rst component before it can be passed on to the second and successive components . In a series circuit.Circuit Theory A circuit is a corridor through which an electric or magnetic cur rent travels. If a circuit’s power source is a direct curr ent. and a load to receive the energy. the components are connected ind ividually to the power source by lengths of wire that mirror one another. Parallel circuits do n ot fail as a whole if a single component in the circuit fails. If the connections between the power source and the load are complete and correct. the power source and load follow one another in a series. This demonstrates one of the pitfalls of a serie s circuit: that the circuit as a whole will not function if a single component f ails. Ham Radio In Plain English 135 . wires and load. Each component in a parallel circuit receives the same amount of voltage independent of the other components.

a battery connected to a closed circuit will attempt to equalize this imbalance by sending an elect ric charge through the connecting wires to the deficient terminal. a switch may be introduced into the circuit. while creating a deficie ncy of electrons at the second terminal (pole). The Objective of a Resistor The duty of the resistor is to limit the flow of current. Normally a resistor is connected in a series with a light emitting diode. a power source in a circuit provides more energy than the load requir es. As a result. or closed to enable an electric flow.• Battery -. • Resistor -. Ham Radio In Plain English 136 . comedian Sometimes. preventing un necessary energy use. To decrease the amount of electrical current. since they permit the flow to be broken.” ~ Paula Poundstone. "Adults are always asking kids what they want to be when they grow up because th ey are looking for ideas. Switches are useful i n conservation of energy. which mea ns the amount of resistance they introduce to a circuit can be changed.A circuit must be closed in order for its electric current to flow. to exercise control over the electric current. • Switch -. A switch is an opening in the circuit that can be opened to prevent a flow of electricity. a resistor may be added to the circuit.Batteries produce electric current through a chemical reaction that g enerates an excess of electrons at one terminal (pole).A resistor introduces additional resistance to an electric flow by converting electricity into heat. Some resistors are variable.

A zigzag symbol is found in both the U.Symbols used to denote resistors vary by continent. A carbon film resistor is shown below.S. and Japan while a box symbol is popular in the UK and Europe. Ham Radio In Plain English 137 .

Ham Radio In Plain English 138 ¡ ¡ ¡ .The advantages of carbon film resistors are that they are easily available and a re quite inexpensive. Light Dependent Resistor A light dependent resi stor together with its circuit symbol is demonstrated below. Metal oxide resistors have a better accuracy within one percent of their nominal value. Their accuracy ranges are within five percent to 10 percent of their marked values.

and on the other end. has a low resistance to an electrical current. As the light energy falls on the light sensitive part. but also provides a useful source of in formation about circuits. even i f a switch disconnects the power source. A capacitor is a component that can be added to a circu it to regulate voltage by storing a charge in an electric field between two plat es or surfaces that are positioned close together. A capacitor will store electricity in its field until the opening between the two plates is closed and the capacitor is allowed to discharge the energy it has stored. The li ght of an LED is used for entertainment. a diode is often used to convert alternating current into direct current. but do not touch. the d iode has a high resistance to an electrical current. Light-emitting diodes (LED) pr oduce light when an electrical current is flowing in the right direction.A cadmium sulfide track functions as the light sensitive part of the LDR. Capacitor We have already dealt with capacitors in detail. The storage of energy in an electric field allows the capacitor to discharge. On one end. This induces an in crease in the level of illumination. extra charge carriers are relea sed in this material thus causing the resistance to decrease. Consequently. A diode is a circuit component that per mits an electrical current to flow in a single direction only. Ham Radio In Plain English 139 . Here is a brief expla nation of the capacitor.

The magnetic field stores energy by resisting voltage changes. Ham Radio In Plain English 140 . much like a capacitor.Different components in a PCB An inductor is a coil of wire added to a circuit t o create a magnetic field.

If the primary or initial winding of the inductor has more coils than the secondary. or the change in electric potential achieved by al tering a surrounding magnetic field. Ham Radio In Plain English 141 . The difference between the voltage supplied to the transformer and the voltage produced by the transformer is directly rela ted to the number of coils belonging to the inductor.A transformer is used with alternating current to vary the current’s voltage throu gh electromagnetic induction. if the primary or init ial winding of the inductor has fewer coils than the secondary. Conversely. the transformer will produce more voltage than was supplied to it. the transformer will produce less voltage than was supplied to it.

Temperature Sensors Temperature sensors are sensitive to temperature. Microphone A microphone is also termed as sound sensor. Ham Radio In Plain English 142 . A positive tem perature coefficient thermistor or a ptc thermistor shows an increase in resista nce with temperature. When the r esistance of a resistor decreases with the rise in temperature. Cermet is a combination of both ceramic and metal. it is called a n egative temperature coefficient thermistors or an ntc thermistor. The sound sensitive part is produced using a mixture of these materials. The figure given below s hows a cermet microphone.

a voltage signal is usually generated. a high voltage is del ivered. Washington has one of the lowest crime rates in the co untry. to be of a low value. a low voltage is delivered.C.Switch When a switch is pressed. mayor Ham Radio In Plain English 143 . "Outside of the killings. This voltage si gnal sets off the circuit in to action. The pull down resistor makes the output voltage. except wh en the switch functions. When the switch is pressed. When the switch is pressed." ~ Marion Barry. exc ept when the switch functions. This can be accomplished in two differen t ways. Vout. The pull up resistor makes the output voltage of a high value. former Washington D.

it can cause an accident. thus cutting off the power to the circuit. If there is any malfunctio n in the equipment. If the fuse is of higher rating. The fuse must have the same current ratings. Ammeter shows the current flowing in amperes through the circuit. which can be used to measure the current. the fuse will be blown off as soon as it is replaced. the device can be again put into operati on. Generally used electrical symbols are given below. The ammeter is placed in series with the circuit. the voltmeters are connected “paral lel” across the circuit. After correcting this problem. Ammeter Ammeter is used to measure current in a circuit. Special care should be taken while fixing a new fuse. Multimeter A multimeter is considered multip urpose equipment. When measuring. Voltmeter Voltmeter is a device used to measure the volt age of a portion of a circuit.Fuse A fuse is a protection device used in a circuit. ac supply aerial ammeter amplifier battery Ham Radio In Plain English 144 . When replacing a fuse with one of lower rating. the fuse burns and melts. voltage as well as r esistance.

Capacitor cell d c supply diode earth fuse led loud speaker mic motor Ham Radio In Plain English 145 .

Ham Radio In Plain English 146 . I is the amount of current and R is equivalent to the amount of resistance in a c ircuit. and resistance. its volta ge. illustrated by the following equation: P = I2 (R) Where P is equivalent to the amount of heat. This relationship can b e described with the following equation: E = (I) R Where E represents voltage.ohmmeter photodiode ! transformer ! ! npn transistor Circuit Equations Ohm’s law explains the relationship between a current. Joule’s law explains the relationship between heat and electricity as one converts to the other. stating that a circuit’s current is directly proportional to i ts voltage and inversely proportional to its resistance. multiplied by the square of the current itself. It states that the amount of heat created by an electrica l conductor holding a current is directly proportional to the amount of the cond uctor’s resistance. I represents the circuit’s current and R is the amount of resistance.

The Law of Currents states that at any node. They are the Law of Voltage and the Law of Currents. or current junction.Kirchhoff’s laws describe energy requirements for circuits. the sum of cu rrents entering must equal the sum of currents exiting. Ham Radio In Plain English 147 . Th e Law of Voltage states that all voltages in any closed circuit must equal zero. specifically voltage a nd circuit requirements.

A distribution system connects all the loads in a particular area to the tra nsmission lines.Chapter 10 Transmission of Electricity "I tell you. commentin g on Michael Jordan Structure of Electric Power Systems Generating stations. A Power Transmission Line Ham Radio In Plain English 148     . tra nsmission lines and the distribution systems are the main components of an elect ric power system. Three plays in twenty seconds. which also links one power system (grid area) to anoth er. that Michael Jackson is unbelievable! Isn t he? He s just unbelieva ble." ~ Al Gore. Generating stations and a distribution system are connected th rough transmission lines. former vice president.

but these are eventually interconnected to form a national grid (which may even form an international grid) so that each area is contractually tied to other areas in respect to certain generation and scheduling features. A system network (or Ham Radio In Plain English 149 . and distributors become tied into a whole by the i ntegrated process of continuous generation and consumption of electric energy. Each part can again be sub-divided into two primary tran smission and secondary transmission. in general be divided into two distinct parts (i. primary distribution and sec ondary distribution. For very long distances (over 400 miles). transmission lin es.S. the substations. feeders. Several DC transmission lines h ave been constructed in Europe and the U. individual power systems are organized in the form of electrically connected areas or regional grids (also called powe r pools). This combination of generating stations forms what is known as a power system. As the transmissio n capability of a line is proportional to the square of its voltage. and similarly. Each area or regional grid operates technically and economically indep endently. The various elements of such systems like generating stations. transmission system an d distribution system). and then finally the systems of supply to individual consum ers. it is eco nomical to transmit bulk power by DC transmission. which then is stepped up to the transmission levels in the range of 66 to 400 KV (or higher). Electric power is generated at a voltage of 11 to 25 KV. The DC voltages used are 400 KV and above. It is a common practice nowadays to interconnect many types of generating s tations by means of a common electrical network and operate them all in parallel . It also offers obvious techni cal problems associated with very long distance AC transmission.e. and the line is connected to the AC systems at the t wo ends through a transformer and converting/ inverting equipment (silicon contr olled rectifiers are employed for this purpose).For economical and technological reasons. Some countries a re already employing 765 KV. The conductor system by means of whi ch electric power is conveyed from a generating station to the consumer’s premises may. research is continuously being carried out to raise transmission voltages.

grid) is the name given to the part of the power system that consists of the sub stations and transmission lines of various voltage rating. Distribution The dist ribution system may be divided into feeders, distributors, sub-distributors and service mains. As already explained, feeders are the conductors, which connect t he sub-station (in some cases the generating station) to the distributors servin g a certain allotted area. Various tappings are taken from distributors. The con necting link between the distributors and the consumer terminals are the service mains. There is an essential difference between a feeder and a distributor. The current loading of a feeder is the same throughout its length, but the distribu tor has a distributed loading which results in variations of current along its e ntire length. No direct tappings are taken from a feeder to a consumer’s premises. Transmission and Distribution Today, all production of power is AC power, and ne arly all DC power is obtained from large AC power systems by using converting ma chinery like synchronous or rotary converters, solid-state converters and motorgenerator sets. There are many sound reasons for producing power in the form of alternating current rather than direct current. 1. It is possible, in practice t o construct large high-speed AC generators of capacities up to 500 MW. Such gene rators are economical both in the matter of cost per kWh of electric energy prod uced as well as in operation. Unfortunately, DC generators cannot be built of ra tings higher than 5 MW because of commutation trouble. Moreover, since they must operate at low speeds, it necessitates large and heavy machines. 2. AC voltage can be efficiently and conveniently raised or lowered for economic transmission and distribution of electric power respectively. On the other hand, DC power has to be generated at comparatively low voltages by units of relatively low power ratings. There is no economical method of raising the DC voltage for transmissio n and lowering it for distribution. Ham Radio In Plain English 150

Basics of Wave Motion When referring to the wave in the figure, one complete cyc le of the wave is represented by points ABCDE. As evident from the figure, this wave has maximum points on both sides of the reference line. The combination of the area covered by the portion above the reference line (ABC), and one portion below the reference line (CDE), completes one cycle of the wave. The peak of the positive part is sometimes called the top or the crest. The peak of the negativ e part is the bottom or the trough. Wavelength A wavelength is the distance traversed by one cycle of a wave. Wavele ngth is inversely proportional to the frequency. Hence, at extremely high freque ncies, wavelength will be very small, and at extremely low frequencies, waveleng th will be very large (can extend to many miles). The Greek letter lambda () is used to denote wavelength. Ham Radio In Plain English 151


Chapter 11 Electromagnetic Waves and Radio Waves "You teach a child to read, and he or her will be able to pass a literacy test. ~ George W. Bush, president Electromagnetic Waves The main constituents of an electromagnetic wave are an electric field and a magnetic field. Generally, elec tromagnetic fields are an orientation of horizontal and vertical line of force a t right angles to each other. The electromagnetic field (E) and the magnetic fie ld (H) together form these lines of force, which in turn constitute the electrom agnetic force. It is this electromagnetic field that makes the groundwork for th e transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves through space. We have alr eady dealt with the basics of electric and magnetic fields.


Amplitude The altitude of the peak above the reference line is known as the ampl itude of the wave. It is possible for two waves to have the same wavelength, but different amplitudes. Frequency The number of cycles of a wave train in a unit of time is called the f requency of the wave train. The unit of frequency is cycles/second or hertz. Con sider that 10 waves pass a point in one second. The frequency of the wave is 10 cycles/second. If we know the velocity and frequency of a wave, we can determine the wavelength of the wave using the following equation: = v/ f, where is the w avelength, v the velocity of propagation and f the frequency of the wave. Radio Waves A radio wave is an energy wave generated by a transmitter. It is a c ombination of both electrical field and magnetic field, better known as electrom agnetic field. The standard shape of the wave generated by a transmitter is that of a sine wave. The frequency of a sine wave is the number of cycles that are c ompleted in one second. The frequencies between 3,000 hertz (3 kHz) and 300,000, 000,000 hertz (300 GHz) are called radio frequencies. For convenience, the radio frequencies are divided into bands. One band is 10 times higher in frequency th an the preceding one. Units of Frequency Frequencies of the amateur radio are always expressed in kilo (thousand), mega (million) or giga (billion) hertz. Ham Radio In Plain English 152

Ham Radio In Plain English 153 . The fre quency band is tabulated below. each cycle has a period of one-fourth of a second. The speed of the radio wave is independent of the fr equency. The time requir ed for one complete cycle is known as the period of a radio wave. A two megahertz wave travels through the space with the same velocity a s a six megahertz wave. A wavele ngth is horizontal distance transposed by one full cycle of a radio wave at any given instant. then that frequency is referred to as the harmonic of the basic frequency.000 miles per second). fourth. The frequency of a radio wave is inversely proportional to the period. FREQUENCY 3 to 30 KHz 30 to 300 KHz 300 to 3000 KHz 3 to 30 MHz 30 to 300 MHz 300 to 3000 MHz 3 to 30 GHz 30 to 300 GHz DESCRIPTION Very low Low Medium High Very high Ultra high Super high Extremely high TERMINOLOGY VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF If a particular frequency is the whole number multiple of a smaller basic freque ncy. A large bandwidth denotes that it co ntains more information and occupies more room in an amateur radio band. The unit used for measuring bandwidth is kilohertz. etc. For a sine wav e of frequency of four hertz. A second harmonic is the frequency which is twice as great as the fundamental f requency and the terminology repeats for the third. The basic frequency is often called the first harmonic or fundamental frequency.Bandwidth Bandwidth explains how much space a specific signal takes up. The velocity of a radio wave is equivalent to the speed of light (186.

If the E field component of the radio wave propa gates in a plane perpendicular to the Earth s surface (vertical). This sudden change of velocity cause s the wave to bend towards the earth. The Factors Affecting Radio Waves The characteristic of the medium in between th e transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna often affects the propagation o f radio waves in one way or another. the bending of this wave occurs. the radiation is said to be vertically polarized. r efracted and diffracted. the antenna at the receiving end must be located in the plane of p olarization. Metals with good electrical conductivity are excellent refle ctors. The earth’s surface is an excellent reflec tor of radio waves. changes in geographic locations. The information on basic division of the earth’s atmosphere is alw ays helpful for an amateur radio enthusiast. The part of the wave that enters first will travel at a greater speed than that which has not yet entered. In the atmosphere. The atmospheric condition varies with heigh t. radio waves can be reflected. refraction will take place. In order to maximize the quantum of energy absorbed from the electromag netic fields. with differing velo city of propagation. which is called refraction.The plane in which the E field propagates with respect to the Earth is the plane of polarization of radio wave. This explains the placement of the conductor at the antenna at righ t angles to the magnetic line of force moving through the antenna and parallel t o the electric lines effectuating maximum induction. When the radio waves move from one medium to another. The right hand rule is used to determine the direction of wave propagation. forefinger and the middle finger of the right hand are extended so that they are mutually perpendicular. if the thumb points in the direction of the E field and fore finger points in the direction of H field. If the E field radiates in a plane parallel to the Earth s surface (horizontal). This is known as refractio n. the radio waves can be reflected to a different extent. Ham Radio In Plain English 154     . and with the changes with respect to day/nig ht and seasons. When a radio wave enters a highly charged area of the atmosphere. The rule states that if the thu mb. Depending upon the obstructing object. the radiation is said to be horizontally po larized. the middle finger will point in the direction of th e wave propagation. The wave always propagates in the dir ection away from the antenna.

but on a world scale. called the atmosphere. It contains m ore than 75 percent of the earth’s atmosphere. The troposphere extends from the surface of the earth to a height o f about 3. We communicate by speech. rain. it is thick enough to arrest the flight of meteorites and cause them to burn up before reaching the earth’s surface. the region in contact with the earth’s surface and w here weather occurs. Even at heights of tens of kilometers. Troposphere. Fuels burn through vibrations. The temperature of the troposphere decreases ab out 6. I mean I d love to be skinny like that but not with all those fl ies and death and stuff. Nearly all of the earth’s weather con ditions – including most clouds. We breathe its gases and they keep us alive. taste less and odorless. stratosphe re. presses in upon us and affects us in everything we do. is characterized by a decrease of temperature with increasi ng altitude. Thus scientis ts forecast the most aerosols and water vapor in the air.Chapter 12 A Peep into the Atmosphere "Whenever I watch TV and see those poor starving kids all over the world. I can t help but cry. it is like a thin envel ope. The earth’s atmosphere is divided into three regions: troposphere." ~ Mariah Carey What Is Atmosphere? We live at the bott om of an ocean – an ocean of air. and ionosphere.2 miles (18 km) at the equator. but it enables us to exist.5 0C for every kilometer of increase in altitude. It is colorless. It is the layer in which we live and function. Ham Radio In Plain English 155     . This vast ocean reaches several h undred kilometers above our heads.7 miles (6 km) at the North Pole or the South Pole and 11. All around us this ocean. Jet streams blow in th e upper part of the troposphere. and snow – occur in this layer. The troposphere. Pa rticular layers shield us from harmful radiations from the sun.

The temperature in this region decreases s form. Whereas vertical motions prevail in the former. which heats the thin air to extremely high temperatures – attaining a maximum value of m ore than 1. The upper layer contains most of the atmosphere’s ozone.1 miles (50 km) to a heig ht of about 250 miles (402 km). Ionosphere is completely exposed to the sun’s radiation. oposphere. The air in the ionosphere is extremely thin. motions in the latter are largely confined to the horizontal. The outer layer of the thermosphere consists chiefly of hy drogen and helium. Mor e than 99. d effect on the propagation of Stratosphere Above the troposphere is the stratosphere.99 percent of the atmosphere lies below it. many of the oxygen molecules in the air are brok en into oxygen atoms. and pressure. the upper boundary of the tr rapidly with altitude. These conditions have a great radio waves. When this ha ppens. The ozone heats the a ir thereby absorbing ultraviolet rays from the sun. This is why this region is known as ionosphere. Ve ry little moisture enters the stratosphere and clouds are rare. Airline pilots p refer to fly in the stratosphere to stay above the weather disturbances that occ ur in the troposphere. the radiation ionizes some of the molecules and atoms of the air. The strat osphere has relatively little effect on radio waves because it is a relatively c alm region with little or no temperature changes. and there may be much turbulence because of ensity. Cloud variations in temperature. The troposphere and the stratosphere show distinct circulating systems. Ionosphere The ionosphere extends upward from about 31. The ionosphere Ham Radio In Plain Engli sh 156 . In the low er regions of the thermosphere. The chemical composition o f the thermosphere differs from that of the other atmospheric layers. The stratosphere usually has a lower layer of nearly stea dy temperature and an upper layer in which the temperature increases with altitu de.The temperature stops decreasing at the tropopause.000 degree Celsius at about 250 miles. The temperature throughout t his region is almost constant and there is little water vapor present. This usually happens during so lar storms when more radiation and particles strike the atmosphere.

and highest r ecommendations. best buys.95 Sure. Frequencies. WIRES. I hope you found the information helpful and I wish you many hours of happy broadcasting! Randy Pryor Also available from Randy Pryor: “The Ultimate Ham Radio Resource Guide” only $19.nd-this-part? “insider” information.plays an important part in long distance radio communication. you know amateur radio. a resource guide that will help you nd exactly what you’re looking for! Wi th everything from the most popular Ham Radio websites. Antennas. But.### --This concludes Ham Radio In Plai n English. You may even know your QRP from your SWR and ARRL.95 Finally. You may even know the di erence between APRS. It reflects back t o the earth radio waves that would otherwise travel into space. if you don’t (or even if you do!) won’t it be great to h ave all this information in one place at one time! Ham Radio In Plain English 157 . to the most challenging where-on-earth-do-I. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. and F ull Duplex operations. “How To Speak Ham Radio” only $9.

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