ALL you ever wanted to know about DJ'ing!

(UNFINISHED« pictures to come later, as well as addition of Production)

The following information was gathered from many websites. I gathered it and put it all together here to shed light on what dj¶s are, to lightly touch on the history, and the equipment they use. Great for noobs or veterans. This info also includes terminology DJ¶s use other than the original words (i.e. ± Records = wax). Also, following each article of information are general recommendations on ³quality´ equipment, etc. Remember the phrase, ³You get what you pay for.´« especially with DJ equipment. If anyone finds errors or feels any information need be changed, please send me a PM with your recommendations and I will review it. Much thanks! --- Coffey *tip* If needing to find specific info, go to Edit > Find > then type in the keyword

DJ¶ing!
What is a DJ (disc jockey)? A DJ is a person who selects and plays prerecorded music for an audience, either on radio, online content in the form of podcasts or web-based radio shows (see websites), or at a club. There are several types of DJs: radio DJs play music that is broadcast on AM, FM, shortwave or digital radio stations; club DJs select and play/mix music in a club, disco, a rave, or even a stadium; and mobile disc jockeys travel with mobile sound systems and play from an extensive collection of pre-recorded music. (Including but not limited to: weddings, private parties, etc)

Equipment:
TURNTABLES (decks, tt¶s)A turntable (known to many as a record player) has a constant speed. The motor or belt driven ³platter´ revolves part of the turntable on which the record rests while it is being played. The increasingly skillful use of turntables by DJs to mix and scratch records has given rise to the term turntablism. In all turntables a motor spins a metal disk at a constant speed. On top of the rotating disk (platter) is a mat and on top of the mat records are placed to be played. In the past rubber mats were used to hold the record in place so that it would not rotate independently of the platter. Nowadays slipmats are used to reduce the friction between the spinning platter and record, and is often made of a felt like material. This way a DJ can scratch the record while the platter continues to spin underneath. In direct drive turntables the slipmat also helps isolate the record from motor vibrations that would be picked up by the stylus. Many turntables also include a pitch control, which allows a DJ to mix using a technique known as beatmatching. From the late 1990s onwards manufacturers such as Vestax started to include other electronic controls such as reverse, and "nudge".

some DJs just began to use the example word "turntablist" before the originators had a chance to proclaim an actual title. The design of the belt drive turntable allows the use of a less expensive motor than the directdrive turntable. and are thus not suitable for turntablism. which was the most common device for playing recorded sound from the 1870s through the 1980s. Some turntablists seek to have themselves recognized as legitimate musicians capable of interacting and improvising with other performers. The intention was for the original creators of the art form to brainstorm and decide on a title. Higher torque also means the platter will accelerate to its proper speed faster so less distortion is heard when the record begins to play. placed between the motor and platter. The term was created in 1994 by DJ Supreme to describe the difference between a DJ who just plays records. Cons: Over time the drive belt can wear or lose elasticity. causing variations in the platter speed. was introduced by the Technics division of Matsushita in 1969." while the Battlesounds documentary film suggests a definition of:"A musician. the model SP-10. Turntablism is the art of manipulating sounds and creating music using turntables and a DJ mixer. and one who actually performs. Pros: The elastometric belt absorbs motor vibrations which would otherwise be picked up by the stylus. DJ Babu has defined a turntablist as "One who has the ability to improvise on a phonograph turntable. and beat juggling. while explaining the need for a new word to describe a newly emerging and totally unique instrumental art form. The first commercially available direct-drive turntable. It was regularly stated as an example. the belt can also slip off the motor and/or platter spindle. a disc jockey who in a live/spontaneous situation can manipulate or restructure an existing phonograph recording (in combination with an audio mixer) to produce or express a new composition that is unrecognizable from its original ingredients.Belt Drive: In a belt drive turntable the motor is located under and to the side of the platter and is connected to the platter by an elastometric belt. DJs who scratch or mix generally prefer to use direct-drive turntable. Higher torque means the platter speed is less susceptible to outside forces (stylus. While the idea of the need for a new word spread. In addition. One who uses the turntable in the spirit of a musical instrument. and begin to slip. the torque is usually much higher than in the belt drive models (stronger motor)." Turntablist DJs use turntable techniques like beat mixing/matching. .Direct Drive: In a direct drive turntable the motor is located directly under the center of the platter and is connected to the platter directly. Cons: The sole disadvantage to direct drive turntables over belt-drive turntables is vibration from the motor. belt drive turntables have much lower torque. . The word was never meant to be the actual title of the art form. Pros: Shock-absorbing (less dense) material. (Google it) Types of Turntables: . Problems with belt instability and deterioration in the past have largely been solved by use of modern elastic polymers. Turntablism is generally focused more on turntable technique and less on mixing. by touching and moving the records to manipulate sound. or gramophone. All of which rose from the phonograph. hand).DJs and Turntablists have learned to use all the above functions assist them in musical performances. Since the motor is directly connected to the platter. scratching. has been used to cut back on vibrations.

usually of celluloid (an early form of plastic) on a pasteboard base. Vestax. and a small amount of a wax lubricant. * Recommended: (direct drive) Technics. 01:38 AM #2 Coffey Superstar DJ MIXERS (board) A DJ mixer is a type of audio mixing console used by DJ. however they haven¶t been around as long therefore. (Technics.Each turntable brand has a different turntable model with different specifications. In the end. a filler of a cotton compound similar to manila paper. wax) Records are the analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove starting near the periphery and ending near the center of the disc. Vestax RECORDS (vinyl. Let nobody tell you otherwise. it¶s up to what you¶re comfortable with. Numark¶s however picked up Tech¶s patent and added on with their TTx1 model. Numark. Early disc records were made of various materials including hard rubber. earlier materials were largely replaced by a rather brittle formula of 25% "shellac" (a material obtained from the excretion of a Southeast Asian beetle). Numark. From 1897 onwards. Germany. Records nowadays are usually made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC).Ammunition Recordings! . Technics have been around for a long time and are trusted by DJ¶s across the world. Sponsors 07-07-07. Gemini.Coffey @ Myspace LIVE Every Friday: 7-830pm EST @ DnbRadio! Last edited by Coffey : 07-09-07 at 01:12 PM. and hence may be referred to as vinyl records or simply vinyl. but they suffered from an exceptionally high level of surface noise The terms LP and EP are acronyms of Long Play and Extended Play respectively. haven¶t ³proven´ themselves to some DJ¶s. __________________ . Unbreakable records. etc. powdered slate. Shellac records were the most common until the 1950s.) Research before you buy and look at specifications of whatever TT you¶re interested in. The mass production of shellac records began in 1898 in Hanover. were made from 1904 onwards. these type designations refer to their rotational speeds in revolutions per minute (RPM). The key features that differentiate a DJ mixer from other types of audio mixers are the ability to redirect .

and mixing consoles. A typical modern DJ mixer generally has between two and six stereo channels for connecting and mixing audio sources. During playback the high frequencies are rescaled to their original level. The strength of the various signals does not necessarily correlate with the output voltage of a device. it also depends on the source's output impedance. Controls for individual channels are arranged in vertical columns (channel strips). Phonograph recordings are made with high frequencies boosted. NEEDLE. TVs. or the amount of current available to drive different loads. which allows for an easier transition between two sources. starting with a switch or a knob selecting between the inputs. It converts mechanical vibrational energy from a stylus (needle) riding in a spiral record groove into an electrical signal that is subsequently amplified and .520 Track: Too Many To List *specification for the correct playback of vinyl records. This is accomplished in the amplifier with a "PHONO" input that incorporates standardized RIAA equalization circuitry. Each channel usually has a phono input with RIAA* equalization for turntables and one or two line level inputs for sources such as CD players. Technics RPDJ1000¶s.(cue) a non-playing source to headphones and the presence of a crossfader. by reducing the size of the larger low-frequency undulations. including clicks or pops. Allen & Heath. HEADSHELL. TONEARM A cartridge is a transducer used for the playback of records on a turntable or phonograph. Recommended: Sennheiser HD-25's. Join Date: Oct 2006 Location: Orlando Posts: 2. this became the defining feature of DJ mixers. established by the Recording Industry Association of America Phono level is a signal produced at a very low level by a magnetic phono cartridge which must be amplified and equalized. Recommended: Rane. and also conserves the amount of physical space needed for each groove. Sony MDR-V700 Click for pic of SENNHEISER HD-25 Headphones! You'll wire it all up something like this! CARTRIDGE. This reduces background noise. Xone Click for picture of RANE EMPATH HEADPHONES (cans)Headphones let the DJ listen to any channel in the headphones independently of what is playing on the speakers. Line level is a term used to denote the strength of an audio signal used to transmit analog sound information between audio components such as CD and DVD players. allowing the DJ to beatmatch the records by ear. audio amplifiers.

The amplifier can also be matched to the speaker more exactly. *shameless plug * __________________ . Recommendations: KRK¶s. Ortofon Nightclubs (mixing) SPEAKERS (Passive & Active) A passive speaker (or unpowered speaker) is a speaker which does not have its own power source and has to draw power from somewhere else. allowing the DJ to manipulate a record on a turntable while the platter continues to rotate underneath. The headshell holds the cartridge. The tonearm holds the pickup cartridge over the groove. This is useful for holding a record still for slip-cueing. and wiring to transfer the signal of the media source. This all leads to the tonearm. JBL¶s. most people use passive speakers. free to move in two axes (vertical and horizontal) with a counterbalance to maintain tracking pressure. Unlike the rubber mat which is made to keep hold the record firmly in sync with the rotating platter. but require longer lengths of cable to run to a separate amplifier. and includes the proper weight. The stylus fits into the cartridge. height. making minute adjustments during beatmatching and mixing and pulling the record back and forth for scratching. Passive speakers are lighter and cheaper however. Normally turntables come with a headshell to fit into the tonearm.then converted back to sound by a speaker system. Recommendations (cartridge): Shure M447 (scratching). which is bolted to the Headshell. At its simplest. opposed to an active speaker which has a built-in amplifier.Ammunition Recordings! . This can be desirable if you have amplifiers that can run multiple speakers. slipmats are designed to slip on the platter. the stylus tracking the groove with the desired force to give the optimal compromise between good tracking and minimizing wear of the stylus and record groove. and unless you¶re gigging a club or need a really nice sound system for events. B-52 SLIPMATS A slipmat is a circular piece of slippery cloth or synthetic materials used by disk jockeys instead of the traditional rubber mat. which prevents signal and power loss. a tone arm is a pivoted lever. Passive are easier to come by. Active speakers have a short run of cable between the amplifier and the speaker.

Join Date: Oct 2006 Location: Orlando Posts: 2. 16 bits per sample. It provides a representation of pulse-code modulation±encoded audio in much less space than straightforward methods.520 Track: Too Many To List Vinyl Emulation DVS / Digital Systems (digital) Digital DJ systems / programs allow manipulation and playback of digital audio files (mp3. by using psychoacoustic models to discard components less audible to human hearing. . It is the main format used on Windows systems for raw audio. more commonly referred to as MP3. WAV audio can also be edited and manipulated with relative ease using software. ogg) using traditional vinyl turntables or CD players via special .e. respectively. IRT and Fraunhofer Society. It uses a lossy compression algorithm that is designed to greatly reduce the amount of data required to represent the audio recording (unlike . Though a WAV file can hold compressed audio. PCM audio is the standard audio file format for CDs at 44. is a popular audio encoding format. CCETT (Centre commun d'études de télévision et télécommunications).Mp3¶s and . It is a variant of the RIFF bitstream format method for storing data in "chunks".. and thus also close to the IFF and the AIFF format used on Amiga and Macintosh computers. It was invented by a team of European engineers at Philips. professional users or audio experts may use the WAV format for maximum audio quality. MP3 is an audio-specific format. is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing audio on PCs.Wav: (or WAVE). short for Waveform audio format. Since PCM uses an uncompressed. aiff.Coffey @ Myspace LIVE Every Friday: 7-830pm EST @ DnbRadio! Last edited by Coffey : 07-07-07 at 04:29 AM. 07-07-07. i. wav.Wav¶s (popular digital formats) Mp3: MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3. lossless storage method.wav¶s). the most common WAV format contains uncompressed audio in the pulse-code modulation (PCM) format. outside the normal human hearing range. yet still sound like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio to most listeners. which keeps all the samples of an audio track. The compression takes off certain sounds that cannot be heard by the listener. who worked in the framework of the EUREKA 147 DAB digital radio research program. 01:39 AM #3 Coffey Superstar DJ Audio Formats .100 samples per second. and it became an ISO/IEC standard in 1991. and recording the remaining information in an efficient manner.

for example) but produces no sound on its own. M-Audio Torq __________________ . and at what speed. and in remaining essentially unchanged in the face of technological developments since its introduction in 1983. Concept: Special vinyl records (or cd¶s) pressed with a digital timecode are played on normal turntables. but which is not directly related to noteon/note off events. 07-07-07. control and synchronize with each other in real time.Coffey @ Myspace LIVE Every Friday: 7-830pm EST @ DnbRadio! Last edited by Coffey : 07-07-07 at 04:48 AM. not least that a laptop computer can often hold tens of thousands of audio files. ‡ In one sense.timecode vinyl records or CDs. a MIDI controller is an abstraction of the hardware used to control a performance. in which direction it is traveling. In practical terms. for example. whilst a record box has a decidedly smaller capacity and is much heavier. Percussion controllers such as the Join Date: Oct 2006 Location: Orlando Posts: 2. cues and clock signals to set the tempo. vibrato and panning. 01:41 AM #4 Coffey Superstar DJ MIDI MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) & MIDI Controllers ± MIDI is an industry-standard electronic communications protocol that enables electronic musical instruments. MIDI controllers which are hardware and software The following are classes of MIDI controller: ‡ The human interface component of a traditional instrument redesigned as a MIDI control device. control signals for parameters such as volume.Ammunition Recordings! . This information is interpreted by the computer and used to play back a digital audio file which has been 'mapped' to the turntable. A slider assigned to open and close a low-pass filter on a synthesizer may be assigned to controller 18. connected to the turntables through an interface (soundcard or some sort usually. a controller is hardware or software which generates and transmits MIDI data to MIDI-enabled devices. As an electronic protocol. MIDI controller is used in two senses.520 Track: Too Many To List . It seeks to cross the divide between the versatility of digital audio and the tactile control of vinyl turntablism. Such a device provides a musical keyboard and perhaps other actuators (pitch bend and modulation wheels. The timecode signal is interpreted by a computer. It is intended only to drive other MIDI devices.) The signal represents where the stylus is on the record. computers and other equipment to communicate. this means that any audio file can be manipulated as though it were pressed on vinyl. Changes in the position of the slider are transmitted along with "18" so that they are distinguished from changes in the value of other controllers. ‡ In the other more technical sense. both in its widespread adoption throughout the industry. it is notable for its success. Recommendations: Serato Scratch Live. This has a great many advantages for DJs. MIDI does not transmit an audio signal or media ² it simply transmits digital data "event messages" such as the pitch and intensity of musical notes to play. The most common type of device in this class is the keyboard controller.

or other media. video playback systems.Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds. Once the operator took his finger off. rigging controllers. the player would speed up until its tachometer was back in phase with the master. which transmit messages to aid in the synchronization of MIDI-enabled devices. which transmit messages to aid in the operation and cueing of live theatrical and themed entertainment productions. and accordions which are outfitted with sensors and a computer which accepts input from the sensors and transmits real-time performance information as MIDI data. and it is more commonly called reverberation or reverb for short. and then mixing the signals together. ‡ Flanger . which are used to perform music in real time and are inherently able to transmit a MIDI data stream of the performance.one or several delayed signals are added to the original signal. This effect is now done electronically using DSP.Roland Octapad fall into this class. The sequencer that it controls would stay synchronized with it as the recorder's transport controls are pushed and corresponding MIDI messages transmitted. most standalone generic MSC controllers are intended to actuate a generic computerised show control system which has been carefully programmed to produce the complex desired results that the show demands at each moment of the production. For more MIDI basics. or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies. including synthesizers. which store and retrieve MIDI data and send the data to MIDI enabled instruments in order to reproduce a performance. virtual audio matrices and switchers. Analog echo effects are implemented using tape delays and/or spring reverbs. the delay has to be of order 50 milliseconds or above. ‡ MIDI Machine Control (MMC) devices such as recording equipment. For example. the effect of echo can be implemented using either digital or analog methods. producing a phasing effect. but if the operator placed his finger on the flange of one of the players (hence "flanger"). pianos. a recorder may have a feature to index a recording by measure and beat. There are several devices which do this for the human voice and for monophonic instruments such as flutes. In music. For example. the resulting sound has the effect of being presented in a large room. and as this . samplers. pyro and lighting control systems directly respond to MSC commands. video games. but originally the effect was created by playing the same recording on two synchronized tape players. ‡ Traditional instruments such as drums. music. a variety of show control sub systems such as sound consoles. When large numbers of delayed signals are mixed over several seconds. try visiting here: MIDI Basics @ TweakHeadz Lab Effects (FX) EFFECTS (fx) . typical effects used in recording and amplified performances are: ‡ Echo . as do guitar-like controllers such as the SynthAxe and a variety of wind controllers. sound playback controllers. Short of actually playing a sound in the desired environment. ‡ Electronic musical instruments. However. that machine would slow down and its signal would fall out-of-phase with its partner. As long as the machines were synchronized. drum machines. for example. ‡ MIDI Show Control (MSC) devices such as show controllers. ‡ Pitch-to-MIDI converters including guitar/synthesizers analyze a pitch and convert it into a MIDI signal. and electronic drums. ‡ Sequencers.a delayed signal is added to the original signal with a continuouslyvariable delay (usually smaller than 10 ms). the mix would sound more-or-less normal. To be perceived as echo.

different frequency bands are attenuated or amplified to produce desired spectral characteristics.emphasize harmonic frequency content on specified frequencies. it will destructively interfere with the un-delayed signal and create a flanging effect. ‡ Phaser . This effect is ubiquitous in karaoke machines and is often used to assist pop singers who sing out of tune. Often. ‡ Synthesizer . ‡ Overdrive effects such as the use of a fuzz box can be used to produce distorted sounds. frequency ranges can be emphasized or attenuated using low-pass. ‡ 3D audio effects . ‡ Chorus . Phasers are often used to give a "synthesized" or electronic effect to natural sounds.generate artificially almost any sound by either imitating natural sounds or creating completely new sounds. One application of pitch shifting is pitch correction. band-pass or band-stop filters. The most basic overdrive effect involves clipping the signal when its absolute value exceeds a certain threshold. Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin claims to be the inventor of this effect which can be heard in the bridge of Whole Lotta Love. The voice of C-3PO from Star Wars was created by taking the actor's voice and treating it with a phaser. high-pass. is an effect made famous by Doctor Who's Daleks and commonly used throughout sci-fi. ‡ Equalization . ‡ Compression . Ring modulation.to change the frequency or amplitude of a carrier signal in relation to a predefined signal.place sounds outside the stereo basis ‡ Reverse echo . Foley is the art of sound effects.Ammunition Recordings! . that is. a portion is filtered with an all-pass filter to produce a phase-shift.the signal is split. but above 5 ms to be audible.Equalization is a form of filtering. ‡ Resonators .the reduction of the dynamic range of a sound to avoid unintentional fluctuation in the dynamics. ‡ Filtering . This is usually applied to the entire signal and not to each note separately. Band-pass filtering of voice can simulate the effect of a telephone because telephones use band-pass filters. such as for imitating robotic voices or radiotelephone traffic. also known as amplitude modulation.Coffey @ Myspace LIVE Every Friday: 7-830pm EST @ DnbRadio! . For example. The delay has to be short in order not to be perceived as echo. Abbreviated EQ. In the general sense.the opposite of pitch shift. such as human speech. When played back forward the last echos are heard before the effected sound creating a rush like swell preceding and during playback.a delayed signal is added to the original signal with a constant delay. __________________ . This phasing up-and-down the register can be performed rhythmically. ‡ Time stretching .happened. and then the unfiltered and filtered signals are mixed. where the amount of data is reduced without affecting the amplitude of the sound it represents. Here a musical signal is tuned to the correct pitch using digital signal processing techniques. If the delay is too short. Level compression is not to be confused with audio data compression.similar to pitch correction. the phasing effect would appear to slide up the frequency spectrum. ‡ Modulation . this effect shifts a signal up or down in pitch. a signal may be shifted an octave up or down.a swelling effect created by reversing an audio signal and recording echo and/or delay whilst the signal runs in reverse. The phaser effect was originally a simpler implementation of the flanger effect since delays were difficult to implement with analog equipment. It is also used intentionally for aesthetic effect in such pop songs as Cher's Believe and Madonna's Die Another Day. the delayed signals will be slightly pitch shifted to more realistically convey the effect of multiple voices. ‡ Pitch shift . the process of changing the speed of an audio signal without affecting its pitch.

genres are vague categories with no fixed boundaries. ambient music. although when used to describe the music played in chillout rooms at raves. the genre is characterized by fast tempo broken beat drums (generally between 160±180 beats per minute) with heavy. dnb. often intricate basslines. In genre studies the concept of genre is not compared to originality. 07-07-07. which give the tracks a slightly dissonant feel. Chill Out: A number of compilations with "Chill Out" in their titles were released in the mid-1990s and beyond. In all art forms. nu-jazz. content. ranging from around 110 to 128 bpm). drum and bass is still considered an underground . Today. Genres are formed by sets of conventions. and lounge music. The scope of the word "genre" is usually confined to art and culture. Following this definition. particularly literature. These rhythms may be characterized by their intensive use of syncopation and polyrhythms. These include calmer percussion.Last edited by Coffey : 07-07-07 at 04:56 AM. drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. including African American music although the actual instruments used in breakbeat music makes it more closely related to techno and other forms of electronic music than African or African-American genres. slower varieties of house music. and it has entirely subsumed the older genre Balearic Beat." "deep. as well as gentler transitions and simpler drum programming. achieved by less compressed kick drums and softer hihats. DnB. It is defined by several characteristics that distinguish it from most other forms of house music. Join Date: Oct 2006 Location: Orlando Posts: 2. or the like. it can also encompass extremely psychedelic experimental sounds of great variety. 01:42 AM #5 Coffey Superstar DJ Genres of Music Genre: a class or category of artistic endeavor having a particular form. Chill out (sometimes called "soft techno") is generally tonal. The genre also includes some forms of trance music. technique. especially in the early 2000s. which are prominent in all music of African origin. all works are recognized as either reflecting on or participating in the conventions of genre. The tempo of tracks is also relatively slower. The Jazz influences of deep house are most frequently brought out by sustained augmented or diminished chords which span several bars. helping to establish the genre as being very closely related to downtempo and trip hop but also incorporating. Bellow are many genres of EDM in no specific order. psybient. and generally does not incorporate music that emphasizes "hard. The use of vocals is also more common in deep house than in other forms of house music. Deep House: a style of house music. relaxing (or at least not as "intense" as other music from the styles it draws from). although that term is still used interchangeably with chill out. and IDM. and many works cross into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Emerging in the early 1990s." or particularly hypnotic rhythms.520 Track: Too Many To List Breaks: Breakbeat (sometimes breakbeats or breaks) is a term used to describe a collection of sub-genres of electronic music. usually characterized by the use of a non-straightened 4/4 drum pattern (as opposed to the steady beat of house or trance). think of the many MANY combinations that are possible within EDM / Electronic music. Rather. Drum & Bass / Jungle: Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b.

The style is typified by a fast tempo (160-240 beats per minute is common. and reverb (or delay)-enhanced vocals. Often. house. the rhythm will follow a pattern which when played alone will appear to be playing at half the tempo of the track. Nu-NRG. but instead tend to miss out beats and repeat sets of two bars rather than single bars. Electro House: Electro house (also known as dirty house. with a distinctly half time feel implying a 69bpm tempo. which features a very sparse rhythm. Electronica: A style of music which allows easy focus on rhythmic elements that seem to be made of the most necessary sounds in order to create momentum that flows with long tonal passages. snare drum. but the major distinguishing elements of dubstep are an almost omnipresent subbass. House music takes disco's use of a prominent bass drum on every beat and developed a new style by mixing in a heavy electronic synthesizer bassline. A common example would be a Hard House / Hard Trance cross-over. funk and pop samples. House music is strongly influenced by elements of the late 1970s soul. techno and trance. The tempo of electro house ranges approximately from 125 to 135 bpm. The rapper is accompanied by . electrotech. Hard Trance. electro. alliteration. use of samples. Stylistically.musical style. incorporating elements from ragga. Hardcore: Hardcore is a style of electronic music that originated in the early-to-mid1990s in multiple locations including Rotterdam. it combines the four to the floor beats commonly found in House music with harmonically rich analogue basslines. funk. and over the first decade of its existence there have been many permutations in its style. Drum and bass began as an offshoot of the United Kingdom breakbeat hardcore and rave scene of the late 1980s. Hip-Hop: Typically. usually the bassline (a prime example being Skream's Rottan. but the double-time feel is achieved by other elements. and therefore works in this genre are usually very well crafted with great attention to detail. electronic drums. and very occasional hi-hat. comprised almost entirely of kick drum. Hard Dance: The tempo within Hard Dance usually ranges from 135 BPM (Techno) to 180 BPM (Freeform Hardcore). electronic effects. Every element of sound in electronica is usually very clear. the track is propelled by a constant subbass following a four to the floor 138bpm pattern) House: House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in the midwestern United States city of Chicago in the early to mid1980s. reggae. but its currents of influence run throughout popular music and culture. abrasive high-pitched leads and the occasional piano or string riff. Jumpstyle & Freeform Hardcore. sparse rhythm. Hardstyle. Dubstep & Grime: The genre typically uses dark. and rhyme. rock. hip hop music consists of rhythmic lyrics making use of techniques like assonance. and often shuffled or incorporating triplets. dancehall. Hard-NRG. Dubstep rhythms are usually syncopated. Hard Dance is an umbrella term that refers to the grouping of modern electronic dance music genres including Hard House. minor key sounds. and the rhythmic use of distorted and atonal industrial-like beats and samples. jazz. the style of music is one where the lines between some of the above mentioned genres are so blurred that it becomes near impossible to attribute it to one genre. and often shortened to electro) is a subgenre of house music that rose to become one of the most prominent genres of electronic dance music in 2004-06. and a characteristic propulsive. The tempo is nearly always in the range of 138-142bpm. UK Hardcore & UK Techno is often included in this capacity. the fact it is largely instrumental. hip hop. Australia. heavy metal. New York City and Newcastle.and funk-infused dance music style of disco. Dubstep rhythms typically do not follow a four-to-the-floor pattern similar to many other styles of electronic dance music.

performed by a DJ. and emphasis is put on creating layers of unique sounds. but most tracks lack functional chord progression. Related styles include Detroit techno. noisier snares and more synthetic or acid sounding synth melodies including raw electronic noises from distorted sawtooth and square wave oscillators. Minimal techno features consonant harmony. Song of Life. __________________ . and it is not uncommon for Join Date: Oct 2006 Location: Orlando Posts: 2. a regular. deeper. repetition of short loops. when present. has a trip-hop like down-pitched breakbeat and a high-energy Roland TB-303 riff at various stages. is characterized by a stripped-down. Often. funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War. Techno: Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit. darker and often distorted kicks. The emphasis in psychedelic trance is placed strongly on purely synthesized timbres for programming and lead melodies. Minimal Techno: A minimalist sub-genre of Techno music. smaller. However. in the range 135 to 150 BPM. Music created under this genre can range from melodic beautiful harmonies with a prominent bass line. dubinfluenced basslines and a more melancholic. but rarely slower. New Wave. this beat has often been created using a sample of the percussion break of another song: usually funk and soul recordings have been utilized. and. as a showcase of the skills of the DJ or producer. 4/4 beat usually with a tempo of 130±140. Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from Chicago house. Techno features an overwhelming feeling of percussive. unstructured. electro. other sounds are often sampled. however. sometimes faster. simple 4/4 beats (usually around 120-135 BPM). microhouse and tech house. to glitchy. but these features are not as essential to techno as they are to other dance genres. Musical development is achieved mostly by adding or removing instruments (sounds) on eight-bar phrase boundaries and adjusting sound effects. Melodies. synthesized. quicker hi-hats. or performed. it has become more common for the beat to be built up from individual drum samples.Coffey @ Myspace LIVE Every Friday: 7-830pm EST @ DnbRadio! 07-07-07. studio effects used as principal instrumentation. Some techno compositions have strong melodies and bass lines. Historically. glitchy sound. sometimes to the point of seeming atonal. in recent years. In addition to the beat. are usually short loops of one or two bars. Sometimes a track can be instrumental.520 Track: Too Many To List . "Techno" is commonly confused with general terms such as electronic music and dance music. it featured elements from many different genres mixed together. ambient techno. This form of electronic music developed from Goa trance in the early 1990s when it first began hitting the mainstream. emotional edge.Ammunition Recordings! . disjointed sounds which are unified to create an organized new track. tech-house uses the same basic structure as house.an instrumental track. for instance. Tech House: As a musical (as opposed to a mixing) style. usually. Progressive House: Consists of the 4-to-4 beat of house music with deeper. elements of the house 'sound' such as realistic jazz sounds (in deephouse) and booming kick drums are replaced with elements from techno such as shorter. and subtle changes. created by a producer. or one or more instrumentalists. 01:42 AM #6 Coffey Superstar DJ Psy-Trance: Psychedelic trance generally has a fast tempo. synthetic sounds. usually referred to as a "beat".

Sometimes vocals are also utilized. and the throbbing melodies which would presumably put the listener into a trance-like state. Trance music is generally characterized by a tempo of between 130 and 150 bpm. and house. 'Trance' received its name from the repetitious morphing beats. featuring repeating melodic synthesizer phrases. and a musical form that builds up and down throughout a track.techno compositions to deemphasize or omit them. The style is arguably derived from a combination of largely electronic music such as ambient music. often crescendoing or featuring a breakdown. techno. . Trance: A style of electronic music that developed in the 1990s.

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