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06 JUNE 2010

Fibered Up and
Next Month: Cable Goes Rural

Ready To Go





PON Power




Ron Hranac explains why aeronauticalband signal levels are so important when it comes to preventing leakage.

Reality Check


Richard Buchanan and Jon Shaver of the Comcast Media Center believe advanced advertising provides the fertile ground for greenshoots to grow.

12 Cable Operators Get 'Passive'Aggressive
Cable players are starting to explore a variety of technologies for moving fiber closer to homes and businesses using Passive Optical Networks (PONs), with the promise of operational advantages.

news and opinion
Editor’s Letter 6
New (And Improved) Tricks For Old Dogs

CT Reports: 2010 Cable Show Wrap-Up 8
Untethered TV: The Time Is Now Top Of Mind For Ops: DOCSIS 3.0, Mobility, IP Video Business Services: A Gift To Cable

20 Optical Testing: What Do System Ops And Techs Really Need? 24 Wireless Strategies: The Partnership’s The Thing
Most cablecos have decided not to reinvent the wheel when it comes to providing wireless voice, data and video by teaming with RF service providers and vendors. Cox may be one of the few exceptions.

Advertiser Access


The seemingly insatiable demand for more and more bandwidth is a significant driver for today's optical testing and equipment market.

departments 28 Cable IT
The depletion of IPv4 address space remains the main driver for IPv6 adoption. The transition is going to be long but, with proper planning, it doesn't have to be a painful process.

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Vince Lim Production Manager. Vice President. the YGS group 1-800-290-5460. Fecto Sr. Jill Braun AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT Audience Development Director. 800-772-3350. 2nd Eastern Sales Manager. Seth Arenstein www. Heather Farley Exec. commtechnology@theYGSgroup. implementation and best practices. Corporate Audience Development. LLC. MARKETING Marketing Manager. Human Resources & Administration. Debra Baker 301-354-1795 Associate Editor. Linda Hardesty 720-570-5129 Senior Technology Editor. Macy Access Intelligence. Ronald J. 301-354-1795 Photocopy/reuse List Sales. Vice President. Robert Paciorek Vice President Financial Planning & Internal Audit. Hranac ADVERTISING/BUSINESS VP & Group Publisher. Ed Pinedo Divisional President. Rockville. 800-325-0156 Back 4 june2010 15161 CT print Subscription ® 15161 Sign up for a free SubScription today by viSiting SALES AND EDITORIAL OFFICES 4 Choke Cherry Road. MD 20850 301-354-2000. Joe Rosone 301-354-1773 Publisher. CABLE GROUP Vice President/Group Publisher. Statlistics 203-778-8700 x 138 Subscription DESIGN/PRODUCTION Senior Graphic Designer. info@copyright. schanwood@accessintel. strategy. Fax 301-738-8453 www. Vice President & Chief Financial Officer. Tish Drake 800-325-0156 or tdrake@accessintel.indd 1 1/8/09 2:40:19 PM . 847-559-7314 Editorial. Business Information Group. 303-778-5976 or sjoyce@accessintel. Susan Joyce.omeda. Donald A.cable360. Michael Kraus Senior Vice President & Chief Information Officer. George Severine CLIENT SERVICES Advertising. Joe Rosone Assistant Vice President. Steve Barber Access Intelligence. Pazour SubScribe for free to Communications Technology is a global resource that provides broadband engineers. 847-559-7314 or e-mail ct@omeda.EDITORIAL Reprints. executives and managers with reliable information on technology trends. Stuart Bonner Fulfillment Manager. LLC President and Chief Executive Officer. Sylvia Sierra Vice President of Production & Manufacturing. Sophie Chan-Wood.

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.Connect. Join Today. the premier network dedicated to broadband engineering professionals! Become a part of this interactive community where broadband industry insiders congregate and connect with CT editors. Niche groups offer venues for members to get input or expertise on specific technology related topics.Membership is FREE! 15780 .CTChatter. search for partners and find opportunities. CT Chatter.Converse CT Chatter.. colleagues and clients.. it’s free! www.. an exciting way to reach the broadband industry.

com/ct 12539 6 june2010 12539 CT Texterity ThirdPg Ad.in1 1 10/3/07 11:40:21 AM .” It’s going wireless with a vengeance (page 24). cable operators.omeda. I will watch almost anything on TV or on the PC/Mac. I’m a vidiot. View the magazine on your computer just as it appears in print. I’ve left that to the younger set who has been raised on instant gratification. even though I've followed mobile TV since it was just a gleam in the eyes of applications and platform developers. Where are you heading in this brave. During the past year. weaning myself away from broadcast and cable programming available in every room. it’s not my generation (aside from early adopters and gadgeteers) that is slavering for the next best video experience. with access to 24/7 content. even old dogs can learn new tricks. and hardware and software makers have made good on many of the ideas that weren’t ready for prime time at Cable Show 2009. I want it all – starting with a new and improved program guide (in 3D. fiber is king (page 12). speed. I’m back in the office. After three days of nonstop demos. spec sheets and interviews that left me generally gobsmacked. I've been working at home. Third. Receive it to your laptop or desktop the day the print version mails. service providers. Pay per view or video on demand on my cellphone or laptop never has been top of mind for several reasons. However.editor’s letter New (And Improved) Tricks For Old Dogs OK. explanations. application developers. I want it. and speed. Communications Technology is now available in a digital format. finally. And do I even need to mention the new must-have: the iPad? The cable industry is in the midst of an evolution. First. and testing is a front-burner item (page 20). and I've been loathe to add to that bill. I pay a lot of monthly cash for my cable and high-speed Internet service. speed. new world? Are you learning any new tricks? Email me at dbaker@accessintel. and it’s trying to toss aside any vestiges of “this is the way we’ve always done as mentioned previously. Last month’s Cable Show in Los Angeles made a believer out of me. more and better shows to watch anywhere and on any device of my choice (and at no extra cost from my cable provider). I’d like to know. I watch in real time. I admit it. I realized I’d missed the boat. the thought of watching clips or full-length offerings on my Motorola Razr or antique Dell laptop held absolutely no appeal. Second. and I timeshift. Benefits include: ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ Search issues quickly and easily Environmentally friendly Links directly to resources and advertisers Read the magazine while on the go Ease of forwarding and printing articles Get the issue and read articles before the print version arrives Subscribe to the digital issue now at www. no less). I’m cheap. And. And after spending nearly 10 years telecommuting. programmers.

0 readiness. WWW.0 Testing Troubleshoot digital services faster! The market-leading DSAM is the first field meter that tests the bonded performance of full 8x4 DOCSIS 3.> New Innovative DOCSIS® 3.jdsu.COM NORTH AMERICA 1 866 228-3762 LATIN AMERICA +1 954 688 5660 ASIA PACIFIC +852 2892 0990 EMEA +49 7121 86 2222 Make sure your technicians can get the job done right the first time. It demodulates live. You’ll earn even more efficiency with enhanced RPM3000 cards with LivePacket™ Technology for the PathTrak Return Path Monitoring OTDRs | Field Meters | Systems & Software .0 carriers in one measurement. and reliable HFC test solutions available. in-service upstream packets to find problems inside and underneath bursty DOCSIS carriers that traditional spectrum analyzers just can’t see. every time with the industry’s most trusted. Add in the DSAM DQI one-button feature proven to find intermittent digital problems that are missed by MER/BER and you’re immediately reducing truck rolls. visit www.JDSU. To learn what’s new and download a free application note on DOCSIS 3. accurate.

Then there is a “smart” control plane that makes sure the right stream is sent to the right place. ” Michael LaJoie. visit our Web site at www. and content needs to show up on every device consumers want. adding a similar Cin” emax service will be added soon. and IP has been converted back for the last mile. One requirement is that all new developments need to be DOCSIS 3. "I worry about get” ting in lockstep with that -. Cox’s new “MyPrimetime” service appears to be boosting the number of hours people spend watching content. O’Carroll ” said.0-compliant. ” Zitter said. Looking forward. he said. “The costs to deliver an hour of video over IP will be the same as MPEG2 transport. sumer and device sophistication growing so rapidly. “There really aren’t a lot of ‘demos’ on the floor this year. Multi-Platforms and DOCSIS 3. said Scott Hatfield. Meanwhile. CTO. EVP and co-founder of BigBand Networks. and that number should increase to 75 percent by year end. and there appears to be fewer barriers to entry today than there were a year ago. EVP and CTO at Comcast Cable.cable360.0 Untethered TV: The Time Is Now Panelists participating in Communications Technology’s tech breakfast last month at the Cable Show in Los Angeles agreed that the time is now for operators to start deploying all content on all screens. O’Carroll pointed to one Rogers plan with a 6G bit cap: “It is a very rare occasion when anyone comes close to 6G on an iPhone. ” Rogers has integrated its wireless and cable companies to ensure a unified view of the network. we will be marginalized. pushed in part by the Apple iPad. The other is to have the right authentication in place to meet customer demand for “TV everywhere. During the Cable Show session “Road Trip: Mapping Cable’s New Tech Progression. Zitter cited HBO’s “HBO GO” initiative. transactional content (PPV) and subscription. “We want to keep pace with competition.0. For starters. “There are ways to do it. which had been pegged at 35 hours a week. but this might not be the right focus from now on. ” Dallas Clement. ” Comcast has had IP on the backbone and CDN for a long time. Werner said. days and hours. EVP and chief strategy and product officer at Cox Communications. during the BigBand Networks-sponsored event titled “TV Unplugged: Content Delivery. CTO at Time Warner Cable. but the hot apps don’t become a reality for consumers until operators actually implement the related technology. This will be killer. ” Operators and programmers alike are starting to pick up the pace when it comes to new product-and-service rollouts. “The challenges are in keeping up with capacity and demand. We need an easy way to get our content to them. Top Of Mind For Ops: DOCSIS 3. ” As far as business models go. Cox Communications continues to believe in the need to have mobility as part of its portfolio. and DRM will be the enabler. ” EVP of technology and CTO at HBO. that the traffic glut might be less than people are predicting. Panelists also discussed how the DRM dilemma will be handled moving forward. Sixty-five percent of Suddenlink Communications’ basic subscribers have access to it. Applications that used to take operators months to develop now are happening in weeks. added.ct reports: 2010 cable show wrap-up To subscribe to CT Reports. and Google’s Android handsets. “You’ve got all these IP-enabled devices that want video. SVP and CTO. adding. IP Video Buzzwords may bounce around show floors. SVP/access networks at Rogers Cable Communications.0. Mobility. “We want subscribers to have access to programming everywhere at no extra cost." execs from some of the largest MSOs dished about where things stand and where they are headed.0 network deployment. Dermott O’Carroll. noted Tony Werner. There is a lot of reality on the floor. is not necessarily all IP “What I worry about most is con. ” “Otherwise. the company is “fairly supportive” of fragmented MPEG4. We are selling nothing but 3. however. adding. commented Bob Zitter. Operators have spent countless years and countless dollars trying to prevent video privacy.and being the 8 june2010 . EVP and CTO at Time Warner Cable.0 is making serious inroads. said his company has completed 100 percent of its DOCSIS 3. DOCSIS 3. to make HBO GO work. noted the advent of VOD has made subscribers think about new ways (and places) to view their favorite shows. said Terry Cordova. “We believe that mobile data will happen. the programmer provides several different versions of its content to serve the kinds of devices customers are using to watch content. ” The end goal. As for mobile strategies. CMTS costs are coming down rapidly. iPod Touch and iPhone. “Now we see DRM as a way to provide content to different devices that ‘play by the rules. According to Ran Oz. ” IP Video is less about IP and more about satisfying consumer demands. The iPad crystallizes that for everybody. however. EVP and CTO. It is important to have some of our own assets when you think about how important those services will be. he continued. “These all have different rules. ” Added Mike LaJoie. listing three ways of doing that: ad-supported content.

In line with being the provider of choice no matter the device.ct reports provider of choice when you walk in the house with a new device. which has implemented a telemedicine program. said Stemper. “We will have to deliver to conventional devices for a long time.. The devices wake up and find other stuff. When “attacking” this specific area.000 per month. ” “If the trick is having all devices play together. symmetrical services no longer may be the holy grail. spending money to digitize medical records. LaJoie said operators will have to enable home networking. ” Finally. We’ve built on incremental growth and reliability along the way. he explained. director of information systems at Alvarado Hospital. but rather letting small businesses know there are alternatives available. “Traffic has actually become more asymetrical over the last couple of years. a Web company could have few employees. ” To get their business. and more than $10.. These are life and death scenarios. can we call them? Will they respond?” Logie asked.’ We have to disrupt their day to get their attention. but not the only one. SVP at Cox Business. noting that when the hospital realized the support was better with cable than it had been with the telcos.and use all the assets we have available in the cable industry. Bill Stemper. but require large amounts of bandwidth. “We let that go for a while and saw how reliable they were. –Monta Hernon Business Services: A Gift To Cable For the cable industry. is good news to companies like ours. but there is continual growth on up and down. Communications & Connectivity: Competing for Market Share. Dave Pistacchio.000 per month. Collins said. president. “If somebody has a network service and it’s not broken. it switched over its voice. VP at Cox ” Business. there are three steps: understand who the customers are in the addressable footprint. said Mike Braham. “They do not come to work in the morning with a to-do list that says ‘call Comcast. seniors will be afflicted with at least six chronic issues. And markets can’t always be neatly divided by number of employees. ” Hospitals and medical facilities need a medical-grade network solution. Data came first. It is a risk changing out your network. ” One of the challenges in meeting the needs of this market is not technical. ” Rogers’ O’Carroll said. “ of the other ” All things we are growing into but our unique gift we have been given is that there is this large segment of business customers that have not seen competition. ” Companies can’t go all IP because consumers aren’t. The same problem goes for mid. “We have seen more growth in downstream than in upstream in the last 24 months. give customers a control that is simple. build bundles according to segments and be able to support them. Alvarado’s move to Cox was done in stages. For example. Pistacchio said. said Phil Meeks. ” As for making the jump to cable. We will continue to step up both of them. said Craig Collins. “We have to build in many multiple layers from anything from Internet to telephone to TV service. ” –Monta Hernon june2010 9 . ” “There is a segment of many millions of businesses that spend modest amounts of money. told Cable Show attendees last month in Los Angeles during the panel discussion “ large-sized businesses. SVP/marketing and sales at Time Warner Cable. during a subsequent panel. The different things we are doing have to be patient-centric.500 per month. “We are taking care of patients. ” Werner said. specifically mentioning hospitals and medical offices: “What the federal government is doing. Customers also can be segmented into verticals. ” The small-business segment also presents an opportunity for managed services as small-business owners have been early adopters of the willingness to outsource and allow others to host certain services. ” O’Carroll concluded. “You don’t want to launch anything before you can have support and care around the services. The value piece is one of the biggest movers. If there is an issue with any of the services. noting that 90 percent of traffic is expected to be video. “Price is an important piece. the cornerstone of commercial services continues to be small businesses. LaJoie predicted MPEG2 transport boxes will be around at least 10 more years: “There are a certain number of customers who are perfectly happy with those devices and don’t want to get connected with IP” . “We are going to have to enable an environment where devices can discover other devices in the home. too. ” Stemper said. For his company. ” Between the age of 65 and death. ” said Eric Logie. which is downstream. added. up to $10. which represent a “huge” opportunity for cable operators. “We have to change the parameters. “This will crush healthcare unless it changes. cable operators must put together solutions that cause businesses to overcome the inertia. but it adds to a huge market that I think we are uniquely capable of serving effectively. president of Optimum Lightpath. Braham said. Southern Virginia. Comcast Business Services. to get them to mess with it is a challenge. customers are segmented into $1. “Success breeds success. ” Pistacchio noted. how responsive to our needs.

which is average power integrated over the channel’s occupied bandwidth. Why are aeronautical-band signal levels important? If leakage occurs. to get an equivalent power in.broadband By Ron Hranac.. (4) The horizontal dipole antenna shall be rotated about a vertical axis and the maximum meter reading shall be used.75 dBmV. say. over 54 MHz up to and including 216 MHz. continuous wave (CW) carriers or digital signals: (12) .” 10 june2010 . Let’s look at some of those rules: §76. Where things get a little confusing with respect to leaking digital signals is §76. The latter is safely above the +61 dBmV single- “Existing leakage detectors cannot be used for measuring leaking digital signals.610 specifies the maximum amplitude of signals that may be carried in the 108 MHz-137 MHz and 225 MHz-400 MHz frequency ranges. Senior Technology Editor 1985 2010 Digital Levels in the Aeronautical Bands As cable operators migrate to more digital signals in their channel lineups. 20 µV/m at 3 meters distance.609(h)(2). This also applies to those situations in which a cable network might be changed from a sub-split to a high-split band plan. The convention for the amplitude of a digital signal is its digital channel power. A further complication is the fact that existing leakage detectors cannot be used for measuring leaking digital signals (more on this later).000/25.. The FCC’s cable rules on operation in the aeronautical bands originally were crafted with the downstream spectrum in mind. The latter applies to signal power in a 25 kHz bandwidth so.605(a) (12) defines the maximum allowable leakage field strength at specified measurement distances. The following is applicable whether the signals are analog TV channels.000) = +62. The practical matter is that any signals carried in the aeronautical bands—the direction of signal transmission is irrelevant—must comply with what is stated in the current rules..609(h) defines how to measure leakage. one factor that must be considered is maximum allowable signal levels when operating on aeronautical frequencies. 15 µV/m at 30 meters distance. interference to aircraft navigation and communications is possible.75 dBmV + 10log10(6. §76. The latter may well place future upstream signals on formerly downstream aeronautical frequencies.000.. it’s necessary to add a bandwidth correction: +38.609(h) and shall be limited as follows: Less than and including 54 MHz. This means a 6-megahertz-wide digital signal can be as high as +62. §76. a 6 megahertz-wide digital channel slot. The text refers to the “rms (root mean square) value of the synchronizing peak.signal leakage from a cable television system shall be measured in accordance with the procedures outlined in §76. and over 216 MHz.55 dBmV average power (other occupied channel bandwidths will be different). The stated 10-4 watt is equal to +38. Measurements made on frequencies above 25 MHz shall include the following: (1) A field strength meter of adequate accuracy using a horizontal dipole antenna shall be employed. (3) The resonant half wave dipole antenna shall be placed 3 meters from and positioned directly below the system components and at 3 meters above ground. (5) Measurements shall be made where other conductors are 3 or more meters…away from the measuring antenna.55 dBmV. (h) Measurements to determine the field strength of the signal leakage…shall be made in accordance with standard engineering procedures. Digital signals obviously don’t have a “synchronizing peak” in the sense described in the rules. (2) Field strength shall be expressed in terms of the rms value of synchronizing peak for each cable television channel for which signal leakage can be measured.” which is equal to the peak envelope power of the visual carrier.

com.4–400 MHz. The transmission of digital signals in this range is limited to power levels measured using a rootmean-square detector of less than 10−5 watts in any 30 kHz bandwidth over any 2. currently available signal leakage detectors cannot be used to measure digital signals.616(a) is equal to +28. (a) In the aeronautical radiocommunication bands 118–137. which specifies frequency offsets.5 MHz.76 dBmV (as maximum spec for a DOCSIS 3. the frequency of all carrier signals or signal components carried at an average power level equal to or greater than 10−4 watts in a 25 kHz bandwidth in any 160 microsecond period must operate at frequencies offset from certain frequencies… The regular leakage monitoring requirements in §76. In the event a given digital signal is inadvertently or intentionally switched to unmodulated mode. In particular. The final part of the rules that needs to be considered can be found in §76. So the rules are pretty clear about operation on or near the frequencies specified in §76.75 dBmV in a 30 kHz bandwidth. which must be measured with an RMS detector (this will give average power). As mentioned previously.6 and 335. and well-above typical digital signal levels one would see at any downstream or upstream amplifier’s output. and is prohibited within 50 kHz of the two frequencies 156.76 dBmV.75 dBmV. at any point in the cable distribution system in the frequency bands 108 MHz–137 MHz and 225 MHz–400 MHz for any purpose… Things get a little trickier when looking at §76.8 MHz and 243.75 dBmV + 10log10(6.0 MHz.614 still apply to digital signals as well as upstream transmission on aeronautical frequencies. so a CW carrier or analog TV channel must be measured. (b) At any point on a cable system from 405. (a) The transmission of carriers or other signal components capable of delivering peak power levels equal to or greater than 10 −5 watts at any point in a cable television system is prohibited within 100 kHz of the frequency 121. whether the signal is traveling in a downstream or upstream direction.000) = +51.616.925 MHz to 406. as do rules for cumulative leakage index and flyovers. §76.610 Operation in the frequency bands 108–137 and 225–400 MHz— scope of application The provisions…are applicable to all… carriers or other signal components carried at an average power level equal to or greater than 10−4 watts across a 25 kHz bandwidth in any 160 microsecond period. The maximum digital channel power for a 6-megahertz-wide digital signal is +51. and cannot exceed +28.5 millisecond interval Ron Hranac is a technical leader/broadband network engineer for Cisco Systems and CT's senior technology editor. § 76. other occupied channel bandwidths will be different).616(a) and (b).000. That said. even lower maximum levels than previously discussed apply to operation on or near certain frequencies. the resulting CW carrier will be offset. The stated 10-5 watt in §76.0 modem transmitting a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signal.176 MHz analog transmissions are prohibited from delivering peak power levels equal to or greater than 10−5 watts. Converting to 6 megahertz equivalent power gives +28.000/30. june2010 11 .616(b) does accommodate digital signals. Contact him at rhranac@aol.612(a). I do suggest that digital signals carried on aeronautical frequencies be offset anyway. 225–328. One cannot offset a digital signal to reduce the potential for interference because doing so has no effect on what happens when a noise-like digital signal interferes with an over-the-air service.

They eliminate RF amplifiers. Meanwhile. Analog PON technologies like RF over Glass (RFoG) promise to increase bandwidth while keeping operational costs down. “If cable operators can put money on construction into fiber instead of coax.” said Bill Dawson. senior operations engineer at Armstrong Cable. it will have a longer service live and more long-term value. and cablecos are weighing their network options.PON All flavors of PONs are being pushed closer to the customer. added Roger Hughes. digital PON technologies (including Ethernet PON [EPON] and Gigabit PON [GPON]) are being used to provide high-bandwidth commercial services. business development manager at Arris. 12 june2010 Pow Cable Operators Get 'Passive' Aggressive able operators are starting to explore a variety of technologies for moving fiber closer to homes and businesses using Passive Optical Networks (PONs). which re- C By George Lawton . PON networks also promise numerous operational advantages.

The Armstrong network uses equipment from Aurora Networks for optical transport. Almost everyone seems to agree that fiber will continue to be pushed closer to the customer. Armstrong Cable has used RFoG for all of its new networks during the last couple of years. Buckeye Cable is building RFoG out to areas with only 15 to 30 homes per mile.” said Joe Jensen.’ The Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) still is debating the emerging RFoG standard (SCTE IPS SP 910). Cable operators in general are using these technologies today only to provide business services. on a 1 gigabit/s EPON. Furthermore. “In general. each of 32 subscribers on a loop only would have access to 31. Fiber to the Business Digital PON technology like EPON and GPON are used by telcos to provide triple-play services. only the optoelectronic (OE) conversion is done on the side of the house rather than inside the network. The Armstrong network currently passes some 12. RFoG networks cost between 10-percent and 15-percent less to build per mile. one designed to coexist with EPON services using more expensive optics and a simpler approach that would not allow an RFoG network to share the fiber as easily. The technology also is used widely by cable operators to provide june2010 13 . particularly in rural areas. RFoG deployments can be profitable in rural areas with as few as 15 homes passed per mile. “This means that we expand the network without adding technicians to maintain it. A smaller number of homes share a return path to the headend. the technicians end up spending time replacing fuses. “There is also a way of using and splice enclosures from Preformed Line Products. Heynen expects smaller cable operators. Once the fiber for RFoG is in place.” he said. A RFoG-only network could use cheaper 1310 nm lasers for the return. Consequently. Hughes said. directing analyst with Infonetics Research. The data rate described for both EPON and GPON systems is shared by all of the subscribers on a network. er duces the need for sweeps and command line interface (CLI) testing. During thunderstorms.25 megabit/s. EPON has been more widely used in Asia. believes operators will have to weigh the tradeoffs between running fiber deeper into the neighborhood to reduce coax splits and running it all the way to the home. so they have not had have good cable-TV service. to adopt RFoG because they don’t want to disrupt their heavy investment in set-top boxes. while a return fiber is shared by a smaller number of homes (between 32 and 128. RFoG systems cost less to build in rural areas than do traditional HFC networks. It uses the same types of protocols found in traditional hybrid fiber coax (HFC) system. particularly with cable operators because of ease of integration with DOCSIS. All Optic's ONTs on the side of the house. Digital PON technologies like EPON and GPON would require residential service providers to move to Internetprotocol (IP)based set-top boxes. GPON and 10G-GPON. PON is an attractive technology for telcos planning to offer triple-play services. one broadcast fiber is shared by a large number of homes. Jeff Heynen.PON as an aggregating device. broadband PON (BPON). which is not an issue in the fiber plant.000 homes. such as Verizon’s deployment of GPON. subdivisions that would have been cost-prohibitive to build out in the past now can be justified with fiber.” he explained. the use of a more expensive 1610 nm laser would allow the same fiber to be shared with an EPON network. Furthermore. On the other hand. but many believe it will gain traction in the United States. According to Hughes. For example. the fiber plant is less impacted by thunderstorms because the lightning does not affect the fiber. in a RFoG network. of which about half already are on the RFoG network. These have seen the most traction domestically. “Operators will push more fiber out to then optical nodes to split them logically and physically so you can reduce the number of homes supported per node. a single optical signal is shared among multiple homes. depending on service requirements). They also promise to reduce maintenance and powering costs greatly for rural and urban network operators over time. For example.” In the short run. As such. there’s no CLI or sweeping of the amplifiers. Buckeye’s CTO. “It has been expensive to build out there. finalization of the standard will help bring prices down. He expects two separate standards to be developed. it can be shared or reused for other types of networks in the future. Bringing Fiber Home RFoG is a class of PON in which a single analog signal is transmitted over a fiber-optic network directly to multiple homes. The telco set of PON technologies include ATM PON (APON).

business-networking services. Cable operators using GPON have to manage these services separately.” Jensen said. Buckeye has deployed GPON across about 70 percent of its hubs to hundreds of business customers. which can be shared by as many as 32 locations.3av) WDM-PON and Wavelength Stacking Multiple optical signals can be added to a single optical fiber. Two separate families of standards have emerged based on IEEE Ethernet (EPON/GEPON and 10-GEPON) and ITU ATM (APON. We have a lot of legacy equipment that we would like to get the return on our investment from. Buckeye chose this technology in its RFoG retrofit project in a neighborhood with buried cable. some operators are moving the active electronics into the central office.4 gigabit/s of service. and is usually the only technology called “PON” in marketing literature. Active Networks Active networks typically run 100 megabit/s to 1 gigabit/s Ethernet links to homes or businesses over a dedicated optical connection. It fits in with the traditional cable-TV transmission models. are starting to attract interest from cable operators. equipment makers like CommScope are developing systems that allow operators to deploy networks with the same kind of split characteristics as coax networks. At the extreme. at this point. However. If EPON had been available. driven in part by the development of tools and standards to provide better integration with DOCSIS.” Jensen explained. We are contemplating on when we could make that transition. vendors are developing a new class of PON called a WDM-PON. many operators use a more distributed approach in which multiple splitters are deployed closer to the home. Many vendors are starting to offer wavelength stacking equipment.” If EPON had been available earlier. The IEEE-based EPON and its successor. These optical amplifiers use less power than does an electrical switch. GPON was the most practical technology for reaching business subscribers with highbandwidth services in a cost-effective manner. Although it is possible to run a single fiber from this hub to each node. A passive optical network (PON) can include electrically powered optical amplifiers that boost the optical signals of multiple wavelengths without having to convert each one into an electrical signal. because the lack of OEO conversion means the network can scale just by switching out the equipment in the headend and the home without having to touch any of the equipment in the middle of the network. and they don’t have to be replaced when a particular link is upgraded. 10G-EPON (IEEE 802. BPON and GPON). “but. which uses a separate wavelength for each PON subscriber. and it’s not widely deployed. set-top boxes and cable modems.3ah). These kinds of networks can reduce the cost of equipment.” Tapped Out There are several different ways of splitting out the fiber in a PON or RFoG network.25 gigabit/s to 2. The SCTE currently is working on standards for RFoG. a passive optical network is any networking architecture that does not convert optical signals into electricity and back to optical in a process called OE or OEO (optical-electrical-optical) conversion.984) and 10G-GPON (ITU-FSAN) EPON (IEEE 802. Digital PON: EPON and GPON GPON ( ITU-T G. “We do have some nice provisioning capabilities on the DOCSIS side that we don’t have on the PON side. “We have not seen fit to change it. pon There are many different approaches for building passive optical networks. thereby eliminating all of the active components from the field.PON vs. Using equipment from Calix. When these services were launched five years ago. This is an important property. but they increase fiber management costs and challenges. EPON and 10-GEPON at the same time. At the extreme. Here’s a quick rundown of the various approaches to put them ” in perspective. WDM-PON still is in its infancy. These are called “active networks” because hubs in the field do OEO conversion. Buckeye may have chosen a different path. it is currently on its third-generation deployment of GPON for commercial services. particularly when you start to insert multiple optical signals onto a single fiber. Both technologies are used by traditional telcos for commercial and residential services. said Jensen. This project calls for retrofitting the existing HFC plant installed underground throughout 14 june2010 . which has limited its use for wider deployments. Analog PON – RFoG (SCTE IPS SP 910) RF over Glass (RFoG) is an approach to deploying traditional cable-TV services over fiber to the home. Jensen said the GPON equipment is reliable and allows Buckeye to deliver a tailored Ethernet pipe to customers. A second class of passive optical technology shares a single digital optical signal across multiple homes or businesses. we are a small-enough operation that full automation is not an issue for us. but we have an installed base that is strong. it would have been the preferred solution. unlike traditional HFCbased services. but there are challenges with integrating GPON management and provisioning systems with DOCSIS. These systems can support 32 or more wavelengths. However. These provide 1. only a few of which are sold with the marketing label “PON. A PON hub typically is configured to support 32 homes. Video services over EPON and GPON also require a transition to an IP-based set-top box for MSOs. which can carry between two and eight different wavelengths for RFoG. Passive optical networks Technically speaking. but one of the downsides is that it has to use a separate management-and-billing system for the GPON services. owing to management challenges. Although Buckeye is just getting into RFoG. cable operators only are using GPON/EPON for commercial services. “I have an inherent distaste for ATM. 10G-EPON.

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It recently made a transition to an active network using Allied Telesis equipment. With this layout.or 8-port taps in line with the distribution architecture.-ft.” Getting Active While PON has been gathering a lot of momentum. GPON has no DOCSIS support.-based Broadstripe. said John Homsey. he ” said. the layout looks and smells like a HFC network. This “Kabel-X” technology injects a thick fluid into the coax under pressure and compresses the foam core so it can be pushed out. which is connected to a series of 2-.000 subscribers. When the existing plant is buried underground. Rather than trying to run new fiber-optic cable throughout the neighborhood. Tim Bolander. It took two crews a total of 2. vice president/marketing at CommScope.” Making that kind of transition is more a subdivision with 15. “But the technology only makes sense in areas where there is a concentrated need for high bandwidth. there currently is a big gap between the DOCSIS world and what EPON does. other than having to extend fiber drops. with some 32. Proponents of this approach argue that the biggest capital expense is the Cleaning Out the Coax When a cable operator decides to bring fiber to an existing neighborhood. The cable provider also liked the CommScope BrightPath technology because it allowed the operator to mimic the layout of the existing coax network with taps and splitters. Carl Meyerhoefer. ” The Buckeye maintenance team cleaned out all of the cable in this particular neighborhood before winter hit. One of the things we will need to consider is whether that technology can also apply to runs with one coax. “MSOs are looking for an incremental solution that can coexist with the existing network. coax plant. ” 16 june2010 . launched a commercial data service over EPON about a year ago to an industrial park with 34 tenants. 4. a main distribution cable runs down the street. Fiberoptic cables were built from an Aurora VHub to each building in the park. some early PON operators are moving toward active networks. It took the operator about 45 minutes to set up the system and to blow the core out of the coax.000 feet of cable. the electronics and lasers can be cheaper than in PON networks. which would manage the connections electrically with multiple customers. The project is using Alloptics transceivers and networking equipment from CommScope BrightPath. For example. and Bolander believes a PON network requires more labor. it’s easy to identify the source when every customer has his or her own dedicated link. “This architecture has similar tap values as splits in the HFC world. Otherwise. Bolander added.” Other operators used EPON from the beginning. “EPON gave us the most bang for our buck in terms of providing what the industrial park and the city were looking for. We are offering 100 megabit/s now and could offer 1 gigabit/s if we needed to.5 weeks to clean out the entire 15. Ohio. many operators are starting to build networks that blur the line between passive and active technologies by moving these OEO nodes into the central office and running a single dedicated fiber from the central office. Broadstripe’s general manager. Because the line is not shared. Mo.000 subscribers near Urbana. noted. coax cable sheath. has deployed a fairly substantial BPON network. he said. and cable operators that have deployed the technology have needed to use a dedicated provisioningand-billing system. said.” said Dave Harwood. Buckeye is experimenting with a technique to clean out the unused ½-in. it is not cost-effective today. EPON is something that only works if you have enough business customers in a group. repurposing it to be a conduit for carrying fiber. senior director/sales & applications engineering at Hitachi. The active network also is more user-friendly to monitor. and all it had to difficult with PON. director of network operations at CT Communications. They are called active networks because an OEO switch can be used in the field to manage the connections with multiple homes or businesses. Jensen said. they are building a PON using lower-cost active ONTs and ONUs. CT Communications. For example.PON Management One of the big challenges with PON technologies has been the limited support for DOCSIS. “We are in a unique circumstance of having extra coax. do was run the fiber through the park.000-sq. When a problem occurs. a tripleplay provider with about 10. the costs of digging a new trench can be prohibitive. Buckeye was in a unique position to test this approach without disrupting service because it had an unused half-inch coax cable buried from a previous dual-able installation that had been upgraded to run on one 860 MHz cable in the late 1990s. and we have had no disruption of service. “This is more cost-effective than trenching or horizontal drilling (and we didn’t have to dig up yards). In essence. However. Broadstripe already had dark fiber at the main street outside of the park. Active networks use a single point-topoint fiber-optic link between the service provider and the customer. With aerial cable systems. it needs to consider the most cost-effective way to replace whatever technology already is installed. What is missing is the translation tool from the DOCSIS OSS to the EPON equipment. ” This approach promises to provide a better migration path for cable operators looking to get into PON. which makes it intuitive for cable operators to understands and deploy. Traditionally. EPON has been gathering more interest by cable providers because it can coexist with DOCSIS better. “The amount of bandwidth we can offer is not comparable with passive. According to Homsey. This piece is extracted from the core with the central aluminum-copper-clad member in the middle of it. “Then we need to come up with ways to minimize ” customer outage time as we replace that core with fiber. From the installationand-design standpoint. the best option is to bring a new line of fiber across the poles. “DOCSIS over EPON is ” opening the door for that. “Our customers will not see any outage other than when we roll home service from coax to fiber. Chesterfield. a telco would deploy a single high-speed link to an OEO node in the field.

Armstrong has standardized on 12-. including ADVA Optical. Armstrong wanted to have plenty of extra fiber to expand when required. Juan Vela. in the long run. explained. 24.” Hughes said.” As noted previously. most of the cost of new builds is in construction rather than in the cable itself. The main feed fibers were replaced first. “The first fibers carry the most traffic. More advanced technology allows for dense WDM (DWDM). said that. The cables were segmented in the order in which they were to be spliced. According to cost rather than the extra fiber. In the event of a break. while the last one will be single-customer. said PON chips are two or three times more expensive than active chips because they need special lasers and receivers for sharing the optical channel. Coarse WDM (CWDM) can allow a network to stack two to eight wavelengths together.and 36-count fiber. Furthermore. “We are seeing the splitter is being designed closer and closer to the central office or headend so that if an operator wants to take the splitter out. the technician can be in and out in a few minutes. orange or Maintenance A little bit of upfront planning can greatly improve the maintenance process in the long haul. when you have a fiber cut. but it has seen only limited interest in the United States. Each link can run as far as 80 kilometers. Aurora and Arris. there are only four to six active fibers to each home. director/technical marketing at ADVA. The latest trend is for operators to use dedicated point-to-point connections. followed by the distribution fibers. these types of networks can use less-costly transceivers than PONs. in which as many as 80 separate wavelengths are stacked on a fiber. are delivering CWDM solutions today. For example. When installing fiber. A few vendors. some cable operators are skeptical about the operational issues associated with having to manage so many fibers. However. have developed WDMPON. Phil Jopa. and the increased bandwidth possible by giving each subscriber a dedicated wavelength. which uses DWDM to deliver a separate wavelength to each home. We designed this process with operations in mind so you don’t have to resort to operations sheets in the event of a break. “We’ve come up with a way where you don’t need a written record at the fiber because you can go through them in a sequence. director/strategic products and markets at Occam. One version of the RFoG specification even calls for modifications for RFoG wavelengths to be stacked with EPON. Hughes said this makes sense even though the company only is using a fraction of the fibers strung between poles. CommScope.” WDM and PON There are two ways to increase bandwidth on an optical network: add more optical wavelengths or increase the capacity on a particular wavelength. june2010 17 . The technology has been deployed commercially in South Korea and China. you have a lot of fiber to fix.” Individual optical fibers are stored in a colored plastic buffer tube. “I don’t like going directly to each home because. with some 60 percent of the Armstrong plant being 12count fiber to help simplify ordering and inventory. these techniques will provide the management efficiencies of a reduced fiber count. A number of vendors. There are tradeoffs in both approaches. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is the process of inserting multiple optical signals onto a single fiber. with as many as 12 fibers carried in one blue. Hughes said his company spent a considerable amount of time and research developing a fiber plan that simplifies maintenance and makes it easy to restore service in the event of a fiber cut. but a cable with dedicated fiber for each home would take days to replace. including Hitachi. they can replace it with active equipment. In my model. CTO at Allied Telesis. while active systems don’t. it costs the same to trench 144 fibers as it does to trench 12. As Armstrong’s Roger Hughes noted. Jim Theodorus.

“We did not have to wait for permitting and the installation of an active OTN. Buckeye is powering the optical nodes with a UPS and power inserter from APC that can provide an eight-hour backup for the device in the home.000. Mechanical fiber-optic connectors can allow technicians to turn up new service quickly.” Cable operators need to take into account a few power considerations with the transition to PON for powering the PON hubs and powering the electronics on the home. Hughes explained that. with Hughes explaining it takes a little longer because there are a few more steps compared to putting on a F-fitting. Part of our cost advantage came from not needing those permits and not having to build an active OTN. we would have had to build a larger cabinet and install active equipment that required AC in the park." As it grows its RFoG network. get the gear in place and then take it away. Jensen said. Armstrong fusion-splices almost every connection in its network. One of the nice elements of PONs is that the equipment in the field requires significantly less power. most of the prep work can be done with the fusion splicer stored in a pocket.” he said. a little more than an hour was spent to set the tent up. which means putting up a tent and doing this under clean lab conditions. This can sometimes be powered by the existing coax plant.000 homes. Ethernet or twisted pair “I would like to see that time cut by twothirds. “Powering RFoG is a good news/bad news story. do the splice. the techs get extra splicers.000 and $40. ” It’s becoming easier to equip technicians with fusion-splicing equipment. The fusion-splicing process adds about 40 minutes to the traditional HFC install time. Armstrong provides one fusion splicer for every 1. 18 june2010 . said. You don’t have to pay the cost of power. “This plan creates a framework for how to deploy wavelengths in the long run to get the most out of the fiber plant. “The guys have developed a techniques where they prepare everything. A traditional power supply with 120-volt power would have required an electrician. Contact him at glawton@gmail. for its first trial.000. it goes back to the headend or it provides a return path to the facilities. The older fusion splicers cost between $30. Today.Fiber Skill Sets As cable operators bring more fiber to their RFoG and PON networks. Unless the box is installed in a garage with a power outlet. he is investigating a variety of approaches to reduce fiber-splice time significantly. This can be even more significant during rain or snow. recommended Bill Dawson. With the traditional network design. business development manager at Arris. This kind of expertise typically only existed in pockets of fiber experts. Consequently. Arris' Dawson said. Cable operators also need to think about developing a wavelength plan as they begin to place multiple optical signals on a single fiber. with today’s fusion splicer. a meter and a permit. As an example. which appears to be doing well. said Armstrong's Hughes. used only for 12count fiber. but it is only used on special installations. George Lawton is a frequent CT contributor. we could do a splice in 15 or 20 minutes. but Hughes said they are the weakest link in a fiber network and are one of the most common points of failure. Armstrong uses the Alpha FlexPoint to provide better backup and power on the coax. most of the time is spent setting up the splice and removing the equipment. it’s important to think through how to stack services like RFoG and EPON together. but you do have to offer power integrity even if the power goes out. they need to think about improving the operational and technical issues associated with the physical placement and interconnection of that fiber. it is used to feed the couplers. The area only needs to be covered during the actual splicing process. In its first deployments. when water could damage the equipment or interfere with the process. at the same time. said Jensen. And on an initial build. ” green buffer tube. it raises some new challenges. we identified that we cannot use traditional fiber-splicing methods. PON Power While the use of PON technologies promises to help cable operators shave their power bills. For example. ” The only really critical part is during the actual splice. “If we ” could get a better setup. It has built up some expertise. The networks typically are built with an optical amplifier that can be mounted on a pole and requires some power. The newest handheld fusion slicers cost about $6. We’re not where we could do this in volume yet. The blue buffer tube is for distribution fiber. To reduce these problems. The other thing is that if you run a whole bunch of fiber to a cross-connect location. and they weren’t as portable. a UPS has to be built into the power supply to keep the phones working in the event of a power outage. “As we went through this test. a regional engineer for Broadstripe. but this creates a need to deliver power to the device mounted on the side of the home. the fiber counts can get high and hard to manage. Hughes added. If the network is used for telephone service. The prep takes 10 minutes to get a drop in. when Broadstripe rolled out G-EPON services to a business park. comparable in price to a digital signal level or DOCSIS meter. Jensen pointed out that the amount of time to connect to fibers can be a bottleneck in a larger rollout. If it’s raining hard. “This is a big maintenance point somewhere ” in the life of an optical connection. pull the fusion splicer out. Al Humphrey. it was able to mount the equipment on the pole with a module that is powered over the 60-volt AC current carried on the HFC network.” With PON. there are tents to help prepare the splice but most installers say it’s more of a hassle than to just do the splice under their raincoats. which takes about a minute. operators eliminate the need to power the network over the coax. We will have to improve that significantly. The orange tube provides feeds from facilities-based locations. operators typically have to install a power unit inside the home and then transmit power to the side of the house over coax. “The biggest problem with the traditional model of connectors and cross connects are the mechanical connectors. Buckeye has been doing fiber to buildings for 10 years.

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which means operators have to use reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers for dynamic bandwidth management and to upgrade from 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) to 40 GigE. Access. Broadband customers want download speeds of anywhere between 50 Mbps and 100 Mbps to better accommodate applications like streaming video. therefore. online gaming and Web-based social networking on their PCs. is forcing the metro core backbone to be more flexible. "Everything has changed.What Do System Ops and Techs Really Need? By Monta Monaco Hernon There are new ways to balance that need for speed and consumer demand with building out. We are seeing a paradigm shift.” commented Stephane Chabot." said Srihari Padmanabhan. maintaining and troubleshooting the next generation of fiber backbones. the demand for testing the cables is expected to increase. according to Frost & Sullivan. are pushing fiber closer to the home to help meet these demands. Service providers. 20 june2010 he seemingly insatiable demand for more and more bandwidth is a significant driver for today's optical testing and equipment market that.” . “The access market is driving networks to cope with demand. director/product line management for EXFO's optical business unit. is expected to see revenues of more than $600 million worldwide by 2013. in turn. a Frost & Sullivan research analyst who estimates the global fiber network will reach 18 million homes by 2011. "While operators compete aggressively to provide such services as digital T TV and VoIP.

for example. "It's single-ended for opex purposes." In fact. Trilithic. designed for fault-finding in long optical submarine cables.Testing Challenges For starters. The lane skew inserted here show lanes that are lower than the 180 nanosecond threshold for lane skew and two lanes with skew that have a greater amount of skew than what is required from the IEEE P802. "If you are turning up a network to 10 GigE but you may roll out 40 GigE." EXFO’s Chabot said. With out-of-band testing. construction manager for Troy Cable. The Ixia PCS Lanes Statistics screen in Figure 2 shows the results of receiving the PCS lanes transmit setup shown in Figure 1. It also shows there are no errors beyond the lane skew. Fiber Characterization Dispersion becomes an issue when service providers move to transmission rates of 10 GigE. homes. etc. especially for somebody who doesn't have experience. "The machine does everything. you could qualify the fiber plant for 40 june2010 21 . In line with the economic times. for example. but you will still find if there is a macroband." said Chad Copeland. the test is run at 1625 nm. The higher wavelength is more sensitive. if the customer transmits at 1550 nanometers (nm). As a test tool. troubleshoot the link and not threaten service to other Oldies But Goodies The stalwart optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) remains a reliable workhorse. explained Srihari Padmanabhan. vice president/ operations at Trilithic. today’s market for OTDRs is 10 times bigger than it was five years ago. Choosing to “connectorize” (a mechanism of connecting two points so that they can be repaired easily) as opposed to fusion splicing during the design phase means more potential test-access points. some vendors are offering a “no bells and whistles” OTDR. the OTDR scans fiber in real time and reports back to the user as to where events or flaws have been located." In its most basic mode. a research analyst at Frost & Sullivan. you can detach the splitter from the house. it will take every house down. said ” Stephane Chabot. a visible light transmitter and a video probe. the company offers what it calls a “medium-priced. It could result in signal distortion and an increase in bit error rates. At the same time. full-featured OTDR” packaged in one tool housing a power meter. particularly over long distances. The green LEDs show that the link is synchronized and up. director/product line management at EXFO's optical business unit. "It is still a very relevant piece of equipment. FTTx deployments that utilize a passive optical network architecture (PON) (in which one or two wavelengths are sent downstream on a fiber split to 32 or 64 homes) are more challenging than are traditional point-to-point deployments when it comes to qualifying a fiber or when troubleshooting. marketing manager for JDSU's North American fiber-optics test solutions business." Yount added.3ba draft standard. Most of the features are automated. the positions of faults. It gives loss reflections. limiting the ability of a fiber to carry high speed signals. OTDRs also are being incorporated into all-in-one modular platforms with onebutton pass fail testing. it addresses the physical layer of a fiber system. Fiber characterization prior to the installation or upgrade of network elements allows service providers to determine where dispersion might be an issue. "It won't affect the transmission itself. According to Randy Estep. For example. "If you throw light on the network while operating an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) and if you are transmitting the test signal close to the wavelength the operation is using to transmit data. which is the conduit for all the high-speed streams. that reports as many as five events. “One technician from a central point is able to test meshed networks and rings beautifully. designed for installer use. FIGURE 1: Ixia's PCS Lanes transmit set up with incremental lane mapping pattern and deliberate injection of lane skew in three of the PCS lanes. Anritsu launched the Coherent OTDR. where only one or two technicians are qualified to use the more advanced OTDR settings Enhancements to OTDRs are less technological breakthroughs and more improvements in functionality. And there have been improvements in out-of-band testing. It is a pretty good tool. and you will see a loss very quickly. FIGURE 2: This figure shows the received incrementing PCS Lanes transmit pattern on the Ixia equipment and the measured lane skew. 40 GigE and faster. "If you have a connectorized system and a house is down." said Tim Yount. has an optical fault finder.

"That doesn't necessarily optimize performance." Once in digital format. In other words. there are tools that can use algorithms to calculate and display per-channel and total OMI automatically. The phase needs to be mapped as a function of amplitude. the course of action when polarization mode dispersion (PMD) levels do not meet the system threshold has been to: reduce the bit rate or to shorten the link. you could look at which of the fibers you've already tested. Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF): In March 2010.3ba: Highlights include support for Optical Transport Network (OTN). effort and guess work out of setting up a laser. Troy Cable doesn’t have an optical spectrum analyzer to test for PMD.100 GigE Standards Update IEEE 802. The instrument combines an electrically variable attenuator. Expected to be ratified in June 2010. "One of the large MSOs is a dedicated user of this type of instrument. To do the latter could cost a provider $100. Alabama-based Troy Cable has some 700 to 800 miles of a fiber. locating high-PMD spans that can then be replaced or rerouted. find another." Newer Tools Alternatively. and then they go through the ” headend(s) periodically to make sure that the levels are right and the laser is still operating at optimum performance. noting however that. DP-QPSK means two phases into two orthogonal polarizations. when you are ready to turn up a new link. Miller added. said most of what his company does is standard loss and other OTDRtype testing. There may be more room where the (operator) can get more power and thus more distance out of the (laser). you can map PMD every 100 meters.” added JDSU’s Yount. noting that manual adjustments need to be done for each channel number change. They use it as a benchmark. The coherent detection mechanism receives the highly compacted signal and digitizes it. CTO at JDSU's communications and commercial optical products unit. However. "For 80 kilometers. you would want GigE even if you weren't going to turn it up at that time. there is a revolution of sorts going on regarding new modulation formats and coherent detection. if too high. However. The laser's OMI doesn't change unless it is failing. comprising a fiber to the home (FTTH) infrastructure. president of M2Optics Inc. you’ve qualified it for 100 GigE. it has been investigating the purchase of more specialized test equipment. OMI can be adjusted by using a spectrum analyzer to vary the RF level driving the laser until an acceptable channel carrier-to-noise level is achieved. a traditional spectrum analyzer that measures the central wavelength for power will not work. or install new fiber. compensating for tens of thousands of picoseconds per nano- OMI: A Laser's Sweet Spot A system's carrier-to-noise ratio can be affected adversely by an improperly set Optical Modulation Index (OMI) that. a 10 GigE ring around some hubs and a SONET ring infrastructure with sister companies for backhaul. The optimum OMI for a laser is known by the manufacturer.709 (Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network): Study Group 15 approved the OTU4 line rate. in essence. “If you are transporting four 25 gigabit lanes. is the transfer function of the electrical-to-optical conversion. “You could literally tag fibers so that. Beyond 40 GigE Transmission speeds faster than 40 GigE would be even more susceptible to dispersion. 100 GigE has been possible for short distances by muxing together four signals carrying 25 GigE of data or 10 signals with 10 GigE of data for a total of 100 GigE. PMD and CD can essentially be reversed. due to cost. That said. Dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) packs bits closer together to fit 100 GigE into standard 50 GHz channel spacing. the RF chain feeding the laser can change. When the laser is deployed into a system and loaded with channels. the RF input that drives the laser.3 Ethernet frame. Price remains an issue. using a technique called electronic dispersion compensation. the resultant carrier-to-noise ratio will cause system performance to suffer.” Yount explained. If the RF drive is too low. "This takes a lot of time. The standards numbers are for 10 GigE and 40 GigE. Yet Chad Copeland.the current you put through the laser to the light that comes out of it." Miller said. "We can map all the different modulation schemes: the different phases versus the amplitude for coherent systems. ITU-T G. more suitable fiber. support for MAC data rates of 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps. and preservation of the 802. as Troy looks to 40 GigE. manager. The solution could save millions of dollars with one testing by locating bad dispersion into a span. “but we've never run into an issue where we have had polarization or water peak problems. will cause clipping and nonlinear distortions. adding. if unavailable." Chabot explained. EXFO's Chabot said. "If you've qualified the network for 10 GigE. construction 22 june2010 ." explained Gary Miller. Chabot said. according to Brandon Collings." Copeland said." Miller said. it can be determined prior to service installation. "You need to find a sweet spot where it is extremely linear -. historically). to qualify for 40 GigE.” For long-haul and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) domains. newer testing tools are able to map PMD as a function of distance. Therefore.000 per kilometer. a power meter and a 1 GHz linear receiver. designed for a 100 GigE signal.89973 Gbps. the OIF approved an implementation agreement supporting the polarization mux QPSK modulation format for 100 GigE DWDM long-haul transport. “They use it to set up lasers initially. due to the price. The rate is 111.” While there are mechanisms to correct one type of anomaly (chromatic dispersion [CD]. Alternatively. so the OMI should be checked periodically to see if such changes have occurred. the RF input containing flat multiple channels can be manipulated so that the OMI equals the manufacturer-supplied or pre-determined benchmark. smaller operators are making do with the testing tools they already own.

meter of dispersion. using the Cisco CRS-3 Carrier Routing System. are increasing the number of connections. data is broken down into payloads: 20 lanes at 5 GigE each or four lanes at 25 GigE each. and service providers are asking for simpler. Contact her at mcmhern@yahoo. but handhelds continue to be needed. he said router manufacturers want to be sure the PCS mechanism is working. Monta Monaco Hernon is a frequent CT contributor. the need to measure dispersion and PMD in fiber is considerably less." Yount said. go/ no-go testers. It was not so much about packets going through." explained Martin Birk. all service providers are under pressure to keep expenses in line. continuing. Verizon’s vice president/systems integration and testing. Go/No Go Indeed. you would want to test it more. A new standard published by the International Electrotechnical Commission lists acceptance criteria for both singlemode and multi-mode connectors. for example. Several months later. lower-cost. "When you have this capability. causing return loss problems and possibly even laser damage. with JDSU and EXFO also touting platforms with multiple capabilities. debris or dust can imbed into the ceramic or chip. PCS is more important to the manufacturer of network elements. "But once you work on the network level. From a service-provider perspective. AT&T tested the physical layer up through the packet layer. director/product line management at EXFO's optical business unit. when patch cores are run through distribution hubs or when pigtails are spliced. The company now scopes all connectors in the headend and transport area before plugging them in. "A lot of the repairs we do are because the customer didn't clean the interface fibers when two connectors were joined together. in the electronic space. and it is a very important test to do. both inspects connections and tests for optical power and attenuation. the carrier completed a 100 GigE optical transmission field trial on a 1525 km optically amplified section of its network in” Lessons Learned Troy Cable found out the hard way how important this is. noting that cleaning is critical whenever a connection is made. depending on customer need. To inspect and clean those is quite a challenge. sometimes it's the simple things that need the most attention. like ribbon fiber." Yount said." Birk said. JDSU's HP3-60." Field Trials AT&T recently completed a field test of 100 GigE backbone technology on a 900 km transport link between Florida and Louisiana. the amount of outages or network problems service providers have would decrease. "PCS manages how data goes across the electronics and over the media. In yet another twist. Connectors: A Dirty Business In the complicated world of fiber optics. "One of the greatest needs is to properly inspect and clean the fiber connections that are out there. "The test tool needs to monitor in real time. dedicated function. whether during network turn-up. And developments in the access and metro ring worlds.thinking they were clean without scoping.” the source said. The health of the link between the sender and receiver also needs to be tested. a representative from one of the larger MSOs who wished to remain anonymous. AT&T needed a test set that could look at PCS and troubleshoot if any issues came up during interoperability testing. “Once the equipment is installed. it would be nice to have all this at the ready and instrumented as the circuits are working. Another complicating factor is that. there is a mechanism that identifies which lane the data came from and reassembles it into a packet that we can use. Ixia's test platform. At the same time. Using an Ixia traffic generator and analyzer." said Stephen Colangelo." commented Stephane Chabot." explained Tim Yount. marketing manager for JDSU's North American fiber-optics test solutions business. Industry data shows that between 75 percent and 80 percent of network problems can be tied to connector cleanliness. there are so many issues that you don't have the time to dive down into every little issue. so lower speed lanes are used. "Early on. "We have to validate the launch power and guard band and we need test equipment capable of doing that. detect errors and report." said Christopher Mayer." The receive side needs to be tested to make sure the PCS mechanism is reading all the numbers and is reassembling them properly at the high speed. "Logic would tell you that. senior product manager at Ixia. including PCS. had the capability to do Layer 1 to Layer 7 testing. "There are optical-performance monitoring modules that go into next-gen shelves. there still is no 100 GigE ASIC. JDSU’s Collings said. If a connector is dirty. when transmitters are plugged in. principal member/Technical Staff at AT&T Labs.” said Charles Seifert. told Communications Technology he would like to see testing capabilities put into the equipment itself. "If that was followed. In the physical coding sublayer (PCS). as the demands in the network rise and the type of traffic becomes more critical to the user. Verizon turned up a 100 GigE optical system on its optical core network running between Paris and Frankfurt in Europe. "We stressed the 100 GigE link with as many packets as possible. inspection capabilities are being combined with other functionality." lamented Chad Copeland. “When it gets to the destination. we burned one or two connectors due to cleaning -. And modularity continues to be a buzz word in the industry. In addition. everything is synchronizing and there are no errors. used during the AT&T trial. but getting bits correctly from one side to the other. "You might have 12 connectors within a 3-millimeter range. director of marketing and business development at Anritsu. This is probably the area that is most ignored or poorly done. One testing challenge has to do with the need for guard bands between two modulation formats. while EXFO emphasized its testing instruments can connect to fiber inspection probes. construction manager. june2010 23 ." Seifert said. To make things easier. In December 2009. Yet others say the tide has turned. etc.

who in March was promoted to senior vice president and general manager of communications and data services for Comcast Cable. now is responsible for all aspects of Comcast’s Xfinity Internet and voice services as well as the operator’s "High-Speed 2go" 3G/4G wireless data service." Avgiris explained. making it easier for subscribers from each of the companies to keep their Wi-Fi devices connected. Comcast is "making our products more synergistic." continued Bickham.Wireless W 24 By Linda Hardesty. voice and wireless services under one leader is a good example of how the traditional silos of services are going away.5 Mbps service." Avgiris. during the Cable Show panel. As a result. ireless was prominent at the Cable Show in Los Angeles last month. Cathy Avgiris. "We've created a mesh network in an outdoor environment. but Bickham said the speeds will be raised "in the not too distant future. In addition. the MSO has struck deals with Time Warner Cable and Cablevision to share Wi-Fi coverage in the New York City metropolitan area. Comcast has a 3G team deal with Sprint and a WiMAX (4G) agreement with Clearwire. "I think it's cool you have an entire panel here talking about wireless. Cablevision has continued building the network." said John Bickham. Comcast has several partnership arrangements for delivery of its wireless products. with a panel of top executives discussing how cable will play in this space. Associate Editor Strategies The Partnership’s The Thing Cable operators are working with wireless carriers and with other MSOs to claim a piece of the high-speed mobile broadband pie and to make sure they have a 4G future. Cablevision has made Wi-Fi the centerpiece of its wireless strategy. deploying tens of thousands of access points within its footprint. Cablevision also is using Wi-Fi as a complement to its high-speed june2010 . who is credited with growing Comcast's residential phone business. since then. The fact that Comcast has consolidated its Internet. "We're about 18 months into deployment of ‘Optimum WiFi’ that extends our high-speed data service outside the home where people are likely to be. said. For its High-Speed 2go mobile broadband service. president/cable and communications for Cablevision Systems." Optimum WiFi was launched in September 2008. Optimum WiFi is a symmetrical 1.

"The number of devices being registered goes up each month. We've done research in wireless and see it as an offensive play. at least until next-generation wireless networks are in place. The point of getting into wireless is to maintain the relationship with our customers. congestion will get worse as more mobile devices go online. rolling out both 3G and 4G. Texas and Hawaii. Cablevision allows its subscribers to register their devices online and then. you have to have assets. "We want a share of that. video is not front of mind. director of marketing communications at Bridgewater Systems. and Orange County." Different Lingo With the exception of Cox and its focus on voice. there aren't separate silos for voice. Va. We can take market share." said Bye. the hot topic was “TV Everywhere. From the mobile operator's perspective. most operators seem to be looking to wireless for its mobile data and video." Also. "We're going to have to find ways to better balance traffic." he pointed out. which NDS created for Cox's tru2way customers. video and data.” "We think about wireless a little differently than wireless carriers . TWC. group vice president/mobile services for TWC. you'll be able to stream high-def channels." said Bye." he said. And in the wireless world.Y. "Over half of our data customers have Wi-Fi in the home. it works with Sprint for its 3G network. Cox’s executive vice president and chief strategy and product officer. also is pursuing 3G and 4G wireless.." Roudi indicated that mobile TV was top of mind at TWC: "For the first time ever. "I wouldn't be surprised to see some agreements between cable operators and mobile operators. Now we're seeing where you can pull those experiences in and start to use the service. Clearwire and Sprint announced plans to launch their respective 4G mobile Internet services this summer in the following cities: Kansas City. our customers like us." said Mike Roudi. "For us. there is a proliferation of Wi-Fi devices today. "and. "In a competitive market like wireless. At a BigBand Networks-sponsored Communications Technology breakfast at this year’s Cable Show." Cox's wireless play is different than the other major operators. By offering Wi-Fi services to their Internet subscribers. Calif. Also.. cable operators are insinuating themselves into the wireless business where such competitors as Verizon and AT&T already are entrenched." Whatever devices end up comprising its handset portfolio. "The mobile networks are not designed for very heavy video apps. Cox sees wireless as a competitive necessity to hold its ground against AT&T and Verizon. Kan. Cox." said Stephen Bye." As far as building some of its own network in addition to partnering with Sprint. we look at voice as a $100 billion market in the United States. obviously. "We have a brand. "Where Optimum WiFi has existed for the longest time. But in 2010. According to Bickham. about 17 percent of high-speed data customers use it in any given month. It's all data. "In our markets. and operators are scrambling to authenticate them. N. “The challenge for cable operators is that f our relationships stop at the front door. For Optimum WiFi. is looking at wireless from a voice perspective. Neb. Time Warner Cable. which has its roots in traditional telephony. whether that's from their cable operator's Internet network to its Wi-Fi hot spots or among different providers' networks based on service level agreements. Front of mind is: Can I call mom and dad. june2010 25 ." He continued. offloading to Wi-Fi could help with congestion." said Steinberg. The first cuts of mobile video were a novelty. We can add wireless to that brand. Our source software does that." Everything Everywhere At last year's Cable Show." Mobile Offloading Clearwire supplier Bridgewater Systems says it can help other cable operators leverage their Wi-Fi assets by onloading subscribers from congested 3G networks. when they're in an Optimum WiFi coverage area. Bridgewater's products allow subscribers to log into their Internet accounts just once and then seamlessly switch to other a feature to our core bundle. TWC's service is branded “Road Runner Mobile.think iPad." Dallas Clement. I think we're going to see a lot of re-balancing of traffic.” Roudi said." said Joanne Steinberg. he said Cox could share some features of the company's new Trio interactive program guide. "We're moving from a premise-based business model to a personal-device business model. And." The third partner in the New York City Wi-Fi offering. That's how we get some scale. vice president/wireless strategy and development at Cox. In May. Additionally.” and one of the new buzzwords was "authentication" as it related to video being made available online. Very few players have a lot of pull when it comes to device vendors. Omaha. The MSO is launching CDMA wireless voice and mobile high speed Internet services in three test markets where it already has cable subscribers: Hampton Roads. We're part of a buying co-op. authentication also has become important as it relates to mobile services. there's a lot of congestion on 3G cellular networks. Clement said Google's Android platform "offered a compelling alternative to the iPhone. offered more insight to Cox's wireless strategy. "Our primary method of getting into wireless is with Clearwire and Sprint. the experience wasn't great. In New York City. It’s tested LTE in Phoenix and San Diego. the device automatically is registered and authenticated. more Wi-Fi-enabled devices are being shipped . Cox has chosen Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology for its 4G plan rather than Clearwire's WiMAX technology. and Rochester and Syracuse. Service is "up and running in the Carolinas. the number of Wi-Fi sessions spiked to 5 million from 3 million. "Devices are a challenge." he said. Cox also is planning to create a handset portfolio. and does it work?" With its focus on wireless voice. Bye added. "You've got to be able to go head to head in the market. Although it’s not a partner with Clearwire. in the fiscal quarter when autoauthentication went live. "As we approach wireless now. Clement said. Consumers want access to all of their services on all of their devices..

even if approved by the Democratic-led agency within that timeframe. "As an industry. and it could require a Supreme Court review to give ultimate clarity to any new broadband regulation. The other camp is pursuing Advanced Television Systems Committee Mobile/Handheld (ATSC M/H). However." Comcast's Avgiris acknowledges that the existing cellular providers have pretty much locked up today's wireless voice market. it would have been cost-prohibitive to go into circuit-switched technology. Sprint's president/4G. "There is good reason to believe that this (ATSC M/H) might fly. "People will tolerate continuity on data that's far worse than what's tolerated on voice.” TV On The Go Broadcasters also are concerned about evolving their video offerings. Then the fun will begin. according to a recently issued paper by Jeffrey S. the start of a long. Senate Commerce Committee Chairman Jay Rockefeller (D-W. Contact her at lhardesty@accessintel. "The chairman’s broadband-reclassification plan represents a 'surgically delicate' attempt to regain authority over broadband (and. net neutrality) in the aftermath of last month’s open-Internet defeat at the Supreme Court and to minimize potentially negative economic consequences implicated in moving from a lightly regulated Title I regime to a narrowly tailored Title II framework. senior policy director/Telecommunications.explaining. legally defensible regulatory model that would apply to the transmission component of broadband access service in only a handful of Title II provisions (including unreasonable discrimination. AT&T and Verizon are expected to highlight concerns about broadband reclassification's impact on job creation and investment.Are You Ready For Title II? Be on the lookout: FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski reportedly has the political cover he needs to enact by year's end or in early 2011 a middleground approach using a deregulatory Title II common carrier framework for broadband oversight. Silva added. We're starting with mobile data to learn and understand to offer mobility.) and House Commerce Committee Chairman Henry Waxman (D-Calif. TWC's Roudi also sees voice as an application on the wireless data network." For cable.) along with Democratic FCC Commissioners Michael Copps and Mignon Clyburn are politically well-positioned to move forward on a "Title II Lite" approach to broadband regulation.C. They want to be in place where they could potentially take advantage of a growing trend." he said. Think about leading with your strategic assets." Protracted litigation is almost sure to follow Title II reclassification. Fautier wrote. “Operators are always trying to drive stickiness in their core video service. which is the mobile broadcast extension of ATSC. looking different than what they grew up as. I don't want to speculate on what options they may choose. content and other information services to Title I ancillary oversight. the FCC (supported by consumer groups. ” convergence for the existing wireless industry as well. you have IP across the entire infrastructure. “Once the FCC acts on broadband reclassification/forbearance. Silva." Summing up. the controversial initiative opposed by broadband operators and Republicans likely is headed for a train wreck that could tie up broadband regulation in years of litigation before policy is clarified.some RF and some circuit-switched. Google and other netneutrality advocates) could release a Notice of Inquiry regarding broadband reclassification/forbearance proposals sometime this month before moving to a Declaratory Ruling vote after reviewing public comments. by extension. "With 4G. Moving forward.V. "Many believe that this initiative will be successful as it is a free ad-based model. However. He wrote. "We think of voice as an IP application. Silva concluded. voice." she said. "Cable companies are trying to understand how they need to play within wireless. mobile TV likely will be delivered over the top (OTT) via 4G wireless networks. "IP is a new 26 june2010 . and they have a few options as they advance their mobile TV strategies. bitter legal war will begin in earnest. "I think what's going to happen is cable companies are going to morph into something else. We can certainly do voice." Linda Hardesty is associate editor of Communications Technology." As far as the business motivation for cable's entry into wireless. Cable operators need to offer mobility for their core services. leaving applications. any Republican attempt to legislatively block the broadband reclassification probably will fail. Media and Technology at Medley Global Advisors LLC in Washington. As such." Alcatel Lucent’s Guthrie also noted the most important thing is cable’s primary asset -. content..the full channel lineup -. Thierry Fautier." he said. and we believe it can do pretty much anything. Guthrie said it's more about extending brands. "I can't tell you we've finalized the strategy on how we deploy wireless. They recognize that smart phones are becoming the one device that is converging Internet access. Cablevision. Time Warner Cable. "The amount of data people want to consume is tough on a voice network. broadband providers like Comcast. but technological changes offer new opportunities." According to Matt Carter." Guthrie said earlier generations of wireless were more mixed architectures -. consumer privacy protections. can be upgraded to ATSC M/H at reduced cost and has already secured "There's no dedicated circuitry for voice. we leveraged IP and stood the model on its head a little bit. senior director/convergence solutions at Harmonic. vice president/business development and multimedia solutions at Alcatel Lucent. These operators will be joined in their opposition to Title II reclassification by Republican Commissioners Robert McDowell and Meredith Attwell Baker along with other GOP lawmakers and free-market academics." added Cablevision's Bickham. D." said Fautier. There is hope that a new. However. In a Harmonic white paper." said Shane Guthrie. "We're building a wireless data network. who added. "In the same way we entered into the home-phone business. said Sprint's Carter. Avgiris said. It is likely within the context of a courtroom battle that the question of broadband regulation will be ultimately resolved. We look at it as an application on the wireless data network. said one camp is working with Qualcomm's FLO TV product. the blueprint around convergence isn't completely defined yet. universal service and disability access) will be adopted.


experts discussed issues and strategies for making the transition to the Internet numbering infrastructure. noting that if operators can represent all of the cable modems on a single interface. especially on the retail side. Comcast found it also could offer IPv6 services to subscribers. a Comcast Distinguished Engineer and the MSO’s chief architect for IPv6. This could lower the human costs of managing the network. Weil noted that customer-premise equipment. said Jason Weil. yet there is considerable desire to support IPv6 in the more established base of pre-3. he said IPv6 could be used to enable video and other interactive services. however. “The long-term plan is to make IPv4 go away. In the future. vice president/Broadband Technologies. allowing Cox to reuse the same IP addresses across its different regional networks. The more challenging part is planning how to rework The Business Case There may be a disconnect between 28 june2010 .) Brzozowski said the primary benefit is the expanded address space. what systems will require. When operators move to PacketCable 2. but we have to get all of the content there first. which is the American Registry for Internet Numbers in the United States.cable IT Prepping For The IPv6 Wave During a recent Communications Technology-hosted Webcast on IPv6 provisioning and deployment. Managing cable modems was not as big of an issue because it uses separate private-addressing spaces in each system. To help reduce the cost of the upgrade.0 was the first standard to specify the use of IPv6 for device management. ” Provisioning Tips The process of making the transition starts by requesting new numbers from the regional numbering provider. after this investment. said some 8 percent of the IPv4 addresses remains available. cable operators can use PacketCable 1. prin” cipal architect in Cox’s Network Architecture Group.0 devices. and that chipsets also are catching up. “There is an extraordinary amount of work and preparation that goes into readying a core network infrastructure and back office to support device management. Cox Communications “The real driver for us was IPv4 address exhaustion. Going forward. they won’t have to make changes to these modems on a regular basis. but it was no easy feat. At the same time. Busch added. On the voice side. the cable industry is communicating CableLabs’ eRouter standard to the IETF as a way to ease the transition by helping to better bridge the two naming systems. ” The main cable-industry concern centers on how to migrate devices based on such standards as DOCSIS and PacketCable. pending IPv4 address exhaustion and activity that provides more native IP services. is a legitimate technicaloperations concern. Comcast. Cox Communications had a different driver pushing its IPv6 deployment. more than 100 million IPv4 addresses are being consumed per year. There are potential operational benefits in terms of improving the management of devices. but remain compatible with the legacy eDVA phone adaptors operating with IPv4. As for address exhaustion. they will be able to fully support IPv6 on voice devices as well. although device management is one reason Comcast entered this arena. said John Jason Brzozowski. The depletion of IPv4 address space remains the main driver for IPv6 adoption. what standards are employed and what clients on the network will need to take advantage of all of the above.0. cable operators that lack the ability to support IPv6 could find it difficult to offer mainstream services. Weil added there are benefits to management. Webcast sponsor Incognito Software’s Chris Busch.0 in hybrid mode so the modems can support IPv6.” — Jason Weil. Comcast needed to pay attention to equipment-refresh cycles so that upgrades were part of other planned changes in the network. Cox Differ Comcast’s original motivation to deploy IPv6 included improving device management for cable modems. said Busch. Amid measurable IPv4 address exhaustion. “We have to move on and understand what we need for IPv6. Part of the problem is that many operators don’t see the investment of time and money as a revenue-generating opportunity. (Editor’s note: Brozozowski and Weil were doing just that at an IETF meeting that was occurring at the same time as the Webcast. DOCSIS 3. Brzozowski said that. This is true enough on the first count: IPv6 migration is less about making money than assuring continuity of current and existing services as the Internet at large moves to IPv6. On the consumer side. believing they have enough IPv4 addresses to carry them for many years. began appearing this year.

as well as content providers. This will add a lot of work that needs to be factored in as you go through your migration. “We need to make sure that the people that build products for subscriber premises and operator networks do pay attention to IPv6. when you try to figure out how to troubleshoot IPv6. 11. DOCSIS 3. and this doubly applies to people that distribute content. including DNS for hierarchical naming. ultimately. Operators also need to be aware of all of the different network services that leverage the IP address system. “You don’t want to be on ” the last day. “Be aware of the scope of how far IPv6 can reach as you upgrade your desktops and your enterprise back-end solutions. either OSPFv3 or IS-IS (intermediate system-to-intermediate system) is used to carry the IPv6 traffic. and not just the customer-facing network. operators will route using both a single control plane and. 17 Satellite Industry Directory _ _ _ _ _ C3 Trilithic _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C2 june2010 29 Seize The Day The transition is going to be a long. “We need to be able to surgically enable IPv6 for device management without affecting other services. which is . eliminating IPv4 entirely. But this is many years away. There are different ways to make the transition. This means the same requirement now applies to a subset of DOCSIS 2. Weil said.0 introduced support for IPv6. Cox has been testing different strategies for the transition during the last three years. just as Cox did. ” Weil said. It also will take coordination between cable acce004/33951/. as Cox did. OSPF (open shortest path first) v2 is used for routing IPv4 traffic. ” Brozo-zowski explained. “The long-term plan is to make IPv4 go away. It is also important to keep the entire technical staff apprised of the various changes. “One of the biggest keys is making sure we have parity in IPv6 for the content we know and love in IPv4. The whole process will require upfront planning to develop a strategy that meshes well with existing network upgrades in order to keep costs and problems to a minimum. with Weil saying Cox preferred a separate control plane for IPv6 and IPv4 today.0. ” It also is important to think about how this will affect the entire cable IT infrastructure. but with proper planning. but the databases and places where you need to store IPv6 data. ” . network equipment and consumer electronics device manufacturers. leaders have realized the need for additional specifications to differentiate the control of the devices from the services that run through the devices. Kerberos for security.cable IT network numbering systems and implementing firewall changes to minimize work down the road. go to http://video. “but ” we have to get all of the content there first. “One of the fundamental aspects of our program at Comcast is that IPv6 cannot adversely affect the existing services that we offer to our subscribers. “The requirement for training is something that everyone should be looking at doing. There are many options for routing. Operators need to decide how to separate the types of traffic based on different devices. Operators need to be testing now because they will find bugs that affect their particular architecture. Eventually. and operators thereafter have ported the IPv6 requirement back to DOCSIS 2. “ To listen to the full Communications Technology Webcast on this topic. then. advertiser access ATX Networks _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4a-b Aurora Networks _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C4 CommScope _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 15 FTTH Conference & Expo _ _ _ _ _ _ 27 JDSU _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 Mega Hertz _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4.0 + IPv6. where you are turning on a customer. ” According to Weil. ” With the separate control plane approach. “not just the customer facing solutions. As part of the evolution of IPv6 in the cable space. Weil envisions IS-IS being used as operators move to a common control plane. Then there is tunneling IPv6 through IPv4 using generic routing encapsulation (GRE) or IP-inIP But Weil prefers multiprotocol label switching (MPLS). Weil said. it does not have to be a painful process. SNMP for management and TFTP for sending new binaries to devices. inherent in the core of the Cox network. One is to support both IPv6 and IPv4. Bro” zozowski said. Brzozowski said.webcasts.

And these early successes aren’t limited to major markets. advanced advertising is taking root in markets across the country. it has been working with dozens of local advertisers who use dynamic ads inserted into VOD and linear channels to telescope from the ad to long-form commercial content in the system’s VOD library. and get accountability. a 23-percent increase compared with 2008. up from a mere $12 million two years ago. Except it’s video. Lawrence. recent 2010 TV viewing analysis from media agency RPA indicates C3 ratings are higher than live program ratings across all major demographic groups. In addition. you know that people watched it. some researchers are projecting VOD ad revenues to skyrocket to more than $542 million by 2012.Reality Check By Richard Buchanan and Jon Shaver Advanced Ads: The Roots Deepen As a growing number of greenshoots demonstrate. homes receiving addressable advertising tuned away 32-percent less than homes that received non-addressed advertising. like Google offers. when it staged one of the industry’s first trials of dynamic VOD insertion. the advertising community is taking notice. Estimates like these.-based Sunflower Broadband has been working with local and national advertisers on advanced advertising solutions since 2006. are a great reason for cross-pollinating these early greenshoots in cable markets across the country. based on the per-spot costs of addressable and non-addressable ads. helping to prove the tremendous potential for ITV applications that will ride on the EBIF and tru2way platforms. read “Dynamic VOD Ads Advance” in the May 2010 issue.” Added Patrick Knorr. With organizations like Magna Research forecasting VOD-enabled households to expand from 47. In addition. Several MSOs also have seen results from the “preEBIF” applications that allow digital video customers to telescope from ITV buttons appearing on linear channel content (including spot ads or contained within banner ads on interactive program guide pages) to advertiser-sponsored VOD assets. like they do with Google. the industry is demonstrating the value of network programming being viewed on demand. Nielsen’s “Three Screen Report” found Americans spent nearly three hours per week watching time-shifted content in 4Q09. Overall. homes receiving addressable ads tuned away 32% less than homes receiving nonaddressable ads. “In one trial. fueled by the implementation of advanced advertising technology. and Jon Shaver (right) is director/Content Development for the Comcast Media Center in Denver.” Richard Buchanan (left) is vice president and general manager/ Content Services. And the importance of measuring time-shifted content continues to grow. “These are people who are actually interested in your product. The trial also demonstrated a 65-percent greater efficiency by sending ads only to relevant groupings the advertiser wanted to reach. 30 june2010 . com. cable operators and television networks are working together to monetize network programming being viewed on demand.” said one advertiser.” These reactions from the ad community also were reflected in the recent “addressable advertising” trial in Baltimore conducted by Comcast Spotlight and Starcom Mediavest Group. These examples include cable systems using video mosaics and telescoping assets supported by Rovi’s Passport Guide and Comcast’s video-rich navigation system.3 million homes in 2009 to 65 million in 2015. “You’re not trying to overwhelm them with a commercial. it’s right in front of the TV and . By combining rapid VOD delivery systems with Nielsen’s C3 ratings system for measuring timeshifted content. Kan. (For more information on Sunflower. in a recent SeaChange case study: “It’s a per-impression model where people get to target. Moreover.) Since then. Sunflower Broadband's general manager. A recent survey conducted by Parks Associates found that more than half of the 30 percent of media planners or advertising buyers who purchased VOD advertising in 2009 already were planning to spend more on VOD ads this year.

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