Abstract

Being the capital city of India, New Delhi is the most populated city in India in terms of people and vehicles. The population of Delhi and vehicles on road are ever increasing leading to problems like traffic, pollution and high fuel consumption. Considering all this ³THE DELHI METRO´ comes as a huge relief for the people of Delhi. There are no doubts about the social benefits of the Delhi metro. It will help in reducing traffic and pollution in the capital and more important save a lot of time for the daily commuters. The project aims at measuring the customer satisfaction of the Delhi Metro. Measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at providing services to the people of Delhi. It is seen as a key performance indicator within the business. The best way to find out whether the customers are satisfied is to ask them. A Customer Satisfaction Survey has been conducted to measure whether the commuters are satisfied with the services provided by the Delhi Metro. The survey was conducted in Delhi and NCR region. The information gathered through the survey helps in measuring the dimensions such as the quality of service, speed of service, complaints or problems and the types of other services needed by the travelers. The research was conducted through the collection of primary and secondary data. Secondary data was collected through the study material provided by the company, internet and other reliable sources. Primary data was collected through a well-framed questionnaire, of which later a detailed analysis was done using various statistical tools like Ms Word and Ms Excel. The project also provides the SWOT analysis of the Delhi Metro and identifies the ways to retain existing customers while targeting non-customers. The past and present performance of the DMRC has been analyzed and the future prospects are also examined. As a part of this project, the Delhi Metro has been analyzed from the economic point of view. The analysis is done taking into consideration past and present data, and justified future assumptions like effect of common wealth games on ridership of Delhi metro, ridership in other modes of transportation in coming years, ridership on full functioning of two phases of the metro project, revenue generation from advertising and property development, etc. This project report will help the DMRC (Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd.) to target its limited resources in improving the quality of service.

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Introduction
Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectations. Customers form their expectations on the basis of past buying experiences, advice of their reference group and the promises of the marketers and their competitors. When the product performance matches the expected performance, the customer experiences satisfaction; when it falls short of the expectation, he experiences dissatisfaction. And when the performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted. It becomes much easier for a company to serve a delighted customer. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy. Every organization tries to know the customer satisfaction about their products and services. So a study on customer satisfaction helps the organization to gain a vast knowledge over the real world tastes and preferences of the customers.

Measuring Cutomer Satisfaction
To know whether the customers are satisfied with the products and services, a marketer needs to measure the customer satisfaction level. Customer satisfaction can be measured using different techniques like questionnaires and direct interviews. Complete customer satisfaction is achieved by understanding customer requirements and delivering superior quality goods and services. Companies must provide the customers with a continuous flow of new offers and constantly enhance their service levels to build up satisfaction among customers. Organizations need to map customer needs and wants with their products. If the products do not fulfill customer needs and wants, organizations need to take the initiative to improve their products. Customers should be an integral part of the product development and improvement process. As customer needs and wants do not remain constant, organizations also nee to d monitor the trends in the changes in customer needs and wants continuously so that they can modify their products and services continuously to satisfy their customers in the long run. Many companies are aiming for high satisfaction because customers who are just satisfied still find it easy to switch when a better offer comes along. Those who are highly satisfied are
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much less ready to switch. services. Customer Satisfaction Survey Customer satisfaction surveys can help an organization to: y y y Gather market intelligence regarding opinions. Customer satisfaction surveys can accomplish this task easily and affordably. that is why it makes smart business sense to regularly get feedback from the current clients and customers. High satisfaction or delight creates an emotional bond with the brand. customer satisfaction surveys can increase customer loyalty by showing the customers that the organization cares about meeting their needs. They identify areas that necessitate improvement and can enhance the effectiveness of the marketing strategies. Customer satisfaction surveys can be used to: y y y y y Improve brand perception Increase loyalty and retention Identify areas that need improvement Identify upgrade opportunities Test new products. offers and pricing 2 . Benefits of Customer Satisfaction Surveys The benefits of conducting customer satisfaction surveys are significant and their impact can last long after the results are analyzed.. not just a rational preference. The result is high customer loyalty. and competitors Gauge interest in new products and service offerings Generate a targeted list of potential new customers Customer satisfaction surveys measure and monitor the opinions and behaviors of the clients and customers.. trends. Customer satisfaction surveys cover the core issues important to an organization. The customer is always right. At the same time.

Methodology Method of Analysis A descriptive research is carried out to gain insight and proper understanding of the market. To study and analyze the impact of Delhi Metro on other modes of transportation. Scope of the work This analysis will help the other metro proposals in pipe-line to streamline the process of planning and assist the Delhi Metro to improve its revenue generation and further expansion. It also provides the assistance for Delhi government to plan for the other modes of transport like Light Rail Transit System. 5. 3. 2. 4. To study the effect of common wealth games on revenues. To understand the expectations and requirements of the customers and determine how well the DMRC is satisfying these expectations and requirements. Several graph and tables are prepared for better analysis of the market. Mono Rail and dedicated bus corridor. Data Collection Methods The research is based on the collection of primary and secondary data.Objectives of the Project 1. To measure the quality of service provided by the DMRC. This is done through the questionnaire and personal interaction with the managers and supervisors of the organization. This is followed by comparative study analysis. To analyze the past and present performance of the DMRC and examine the future prospects. Primary Sources: The primary data is collected in the following ways: y y Through a structured questionnaire Through discussions ( Department Heads & Executives ) Secondary Sources: y y Study material provided by the company Internet 3 .

This method is used for making comparison between two or more series of data. Time and cost constraints. 6. In this method the sample insights are chosen primarily on the basis of convenience. Charts Bar charts and pie charts are used to get a clear look at the tabulated data. There are still many people who prefer travelling by bus. there are chances of biased information provided by the respondents. Method of sampling: The method of sampling selected is ³non probability convenience sampling ³. Since the sample size is small. The survey is limited only to Delhi and NCR. Statistical Tools Used: Statistical techniques are used to obtain findings and information in a logical sequence from the raw data collected. train or their own vehicle so convincing those kinds of people is a great challenge. After tabulation of the data gathered through the questionnaire. the following statistical tools have been used for the analysis: y Percentage analysis y Charts Percentage Analysis Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. 2. this may not be a true representation of the population as a whole.y y y Journals Business Magazines Books Sampling Sample size: For the project 75 customers are taken into consideration and they are selected on the random basis. 4. 4 . 5. As the data has been collected through the questionnaire. 3.  Limitations of the Study 1. Access to all the records and files of the company.

maintaining. operating and financing Mass Transit and other urban transport and people mover system of all types and descriptions in the National Capital Territory of Delhi and other areas of the National Capital Region.5 (Including MD) No. punctuality. of Directors ± 16 Nominee of Govt. of India ± 5 Nominee of Govt. DMRC has been established with the principal object of planning. reliability. India 5 . of full-time functional Directors at present including MD ± 7 The corporate office of the company is located at Metro Bhawan. Barakhamba Road New Delhi .110001. E. designing.Shri M Ramachandran Managing Director . 1956. a company under the name DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION was registered on 0305-95 under the Companies Act. Fire Brigade Lane. constructing. developing. DMRC has equal equity participation from the Government of India (GOI) and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD).Company Profile For implementation and subsequent operation of Delhi MRTS (Mass Rapid Transit System). Sreedharan Total No. comfort and customer satisfaction Metro to operate on sound commercial lines obviating the need for Government support Structure y y y y y y y Chairman . Mission y y y To cover the whole of Delhi with a Metro Network by the year 2021 Delhi Metro to be of world class standards in regard to safety. of NCTD .Dr.

which is introduced in the country for the first time. It has state-of-art air-conditioned coaches. 80. known as Phase I. is itself set to grow with another three phases. This led to the development of the Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System. but the model itself has become the standard for the development of other systems across India. Travelling in Delhi Metro is a pleasure with trains available at a frequency of 5 minutes at off-peak hours and 3 minutes at peak-hours. The construction of the first phase of Delhi Metro was spread over 10 years during 1995-96 to 2004-05 while that of the second phase. cleanliness and enhance multifold development of this cosmopolitan city. Entries and exits to metro stations are controlled by flap-doors operated by 'smart-cards' and contact less tokens. The success of this transport network that began operations in December 2002 now sees it as not only the public transportation of choice. Unique feature of Delhi Metro is its integration with other modes of public transport. The total capital cost of DM at 2004 prices for Phase I and Phase II are estimated as Rs. The Metro will totally transform our social culture giving us a sense of discipline. Today. Delhi Metro is a world-class metro. For convenience of commuters. or Delhi Metro as it is known. In short. 6 . 64. 2015 and 2020. Delhiµs extended population is approaching 22 million people. scheduled for completion in 2010. and has created crowded conditions with extremely high demands on the public transportation element. Recently Delhi has become the most populous city in India according to a survey with a population of approximately 14 million.060 and Rs. it is equipped with the most modern communication and train control system.260 million. adequate number of escalators has been installed at the metro stations. And yet the current metro system. respectively. By the time Phase IV is operational. feeder buses for metro stations are operating. the Delhi Metro will have found its place ahead of the London system as the largest public metro rail network in the world. Phases III and IV of DM will cover most of the remaining parts of Delhi and even extend its services to some areas such as NOIDA and Gurgaon belonging to the neighboring states of Delhi and come under the National Capital Territory.About Delhi Metro The capital city of New Delhi lies within Indiaµs second largest metropolitan area simply called Delhi. enabling the commuters to conveniently interchange from one mode to another. which started in 2005-2006 is expected to be completed by 2010-11. To increase ridership of Delhi Metro. Delhi Metro is a trendsetter for such systems in other cities of the country and in the South Asian region. To ensure reliability and safety in train operations. Ticketing and passenger control are through Automatic Fare Collection System.

2nd phase and 3rd phase of Delhi Metro Rail have already been commissioned and have resulted in the following benefits: y The operation of said Metro rail has reduced the traffic congestion on roads running parallel to the said Metro line. y It has reduced the atmospheric pollution including noise and has also reduced the fuel consumption of transport sector resulting in saving of foreign exchange. expansion of roads.Need For A Metro Today. passengers. An ecologically sustainable urban transport system could be obtained by an appropriate mix of alternative modes of transport resulting in the use of environmentally friendly fuels and land use patterns. in areas which are being served by it. y It reflects sense of pride to the city and country having a world class facility. reduction in accidents. y It is considered reliable. thus in turn lead to tremendous traffic congestions on the urban road. The introduction of CNG in certain vehicles and switching of some portion of the transport demand to the metro rail have resulted in a significant reduction of atmospheric pollution in Delhi. general public and unskilled labor. y Improvement in the quality of life y More attractive city for economic investment and growth 7 . There are incremental benefits and costs to a number of economic agents: government. especially due to the increased atmospheric pollution. reduction in traffic congestion and fuel savings. The increase in per capita income due to healthy economy and the growing population in urban areas lead to steep increase in ridership on the road (two-wheelers. The Delhi Metro provides multiple benefits: reduction in air pollution. y It has also reduced the traveling time of the commuters. urban area experiences the drastic population growth. This population growth has two components in it: 1) the normal population growth and 2) the movement of huge number of working people from other parts of the countries. flyovers. safe. y It reduced the need for parking spaces. autos. and more comfortable mode of transportation as it has reduced the road accidents. private transporters. cars and public transport buses). phase. The growing demand for the transport in mega cities has serious effects on urban ecosystems. laying of new roads etc. Benefits of Delhi Metro The 1st. time saving to passengers.

If not valid.50 only Validity: One Year from the date of purchase or one year from the date of recharge whichever is later. 50 and can be recharged in a multiple of Rs 50 to a maximum limit of Rs. for the first time in the country. is purchased from the Ticket Counter. Renewal: No extra charge Facility to check balance on Card: Ticket Reading Machines at all Metro Stations. Here. which could be a card or a token. A 10% discount is given on all travel made on it. Ticket Options Delhi Metro commuters have the following choices for ticket purchase: 1. The passenger then proceeds to one of several gates that separate the Paid Area from the Unpaid Area.Automatic Ticketing Delhi Metro has introduced. If valid. and the passenger can pass to the Paid Area. The ticket. the gates will open automatically. then the passenger will need to contact the Customer Service Staff.50 needs to be made to buy a new card (refundable on return of card). Travel Cards are stored value cards and are available in the denominations of Rs. Features: y y y y y Refundable Deposit: Rs. the passenger will hold the ticket close to the machine to the right of the gate. Travel Card/ Smart Card: These cards are most convenient for the frequent commuters. 800. 8 . A deposit of Rs. ticketing and passenger control through a completely Automatic Fare Collection system.

1 day and 3 day.22.6 to Rs. Features: y y y Value of 1-Day Card: Rs 70 Value of 3-Day Card: Rs 200 Refundable Deposit: Rs 50/. Tourist Card: These cards can be used for unlimited travels on the Delhi metro network over a short period of time. Features: y y Fares are decided based on the destination station using the token table.payable at purchase (refundable on return of card) 3. There are two kinds of cards .2. Fares for a single journey range from Rs. 9 . Token: These tokens are valid only for a single journey on the day of purchase and the value depends on the destination.

All metro stations and trains are monitored constantly by more than 1200 closed circuit cameras. dust. and specially trained Delhi Metro police are stationed at all stations and trains to deal with law and order issues in the system. with 68 stations on 3 separate lines (14 underground. has been provided. Automated station announcements are recorded in Hindi and English. Eating. drinking. Trains operating within the network typically travel at speeds below 80 km/h. In addition. With this in view. If a door opens accidentally in the moving 10 . smoking. detection of missing step etc. Top and Centre. Automatic door opening and closing mechanism and the train cannot move unless all doors are closed and locked. and chewing of gum are prohibited in the entire system. the metro system has a total network length of 76. Safe Coaches y y Coaches have been designed for maximum comfort and safety. cafés and convenience stores. there is a unique sari guard feature that deflects loose clothing (e. As of 2009. Intercoms are provided in each train car for emergency communication between the passengers and the driver.Bottom. The Delhi Metro is also one of the few metros in the world to have plain clothed metro marshals on trains.g. and stop about 20 seconds at each MRTS station. Delhi Metro is committed to provide the highest standards in safety to each passenger. Safe Escalators y y y Escalators have been equipped with several safety devices to ensure safety of passengers that include protection against over speeding. Many stations have services such as ATMs. all design and operations are done with a safety margin. or 50 mph.5 minutes between 6:00 to 23:00.Operations And Safety Each train consists of four coaches and can carry up to 240 seated and 400 standing passengers. There are Emergency Stop Switches prominently displayed at 3 locations . 52 elevated and 2 at grade station). To reduce fire risk and improve safety a tray to collect human hair. water. Trains are at platform level with a small platform gap to allow easy movement of passengers. sari of ladies) from getting trapped in the escalator. oil etc. food outlets. Coaches on all trains are well ventilated and air-conditioned at a temperature of 20-22°C. The trains operate at intervals of 3 to 4.7 km.

Provision for emergency announcements in the train by driver and Operation Control Centre. Regular Delhi Metro commuters. features and materials. which would provide connectivity to commuters from metro stations to their nearest bus stops. Also. these buses would be equipped with global positioning system (GPS) technology. Delhi Metro Plans Feeder Buses Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) would soon be running special feeder buses. Facility for passengers to talk to driver in emergency. efficient and commuter friendly transport system. These buses would have the same color scheme as that of the Delhi Metro coaches and the drivers would be given uniforms. brakes will apply automatically. DMRC would be taking 200 buses from Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC). Reduced fire risk due to special design. and would be equipping them with GPS technology. 11 . Emergency evacuation facility through emergency front door. These buses would not only solve the long standing problems of last mile connectivity for commuters.y y y y train. which would enable smart card users to use them in the buses too. who already have smart cards. bringing the train to a halt. As part of a pilot project. would be able to use them in these buses too. it would also be a modern.

The signs and 12 . Even after extensive use there is no sign of wear. bilingual and clear. So passengers can easily catch the train without wasting their time.17.00 or to Chandni Chowk for another five rupees or so. Coaches The Delhi Metro coaches are designed & equipped with modern facilities and ensures the safety and comfort of passengers. General Awareness The general awareness among the commuters is good. Punctuality Delhi metro always comes on time. All the announcements are sufficiently detailed. It seems the cleanliness is maintained by not having any stalls on the platforms and by imposing heavy fines if one is caught eating/drinking on board. none of them looks lost or confused. Passengers have not to wait for the train for a long time. The DMRC has also introduced multi-purpose smart-cards for regular commuters. Even chewing gum is banned. Fare The fare is very nominal. announcement and light systems all are in excellent conditions.Features of Delhi Metro Cleanliness The stations on the route are spic and span and so are the trains. One can travel from Dwarka to Rajiv Chowk in an air-conditioned vehicle in just Rs. Each station of Delhi Metro has sufficient parking space where people can park their vehicles and use the metro service. Infrastructure The ticketing machine. Perhaps the reason for this is various announcements made on the platforms and inside the trains. Not a single train comes at station after its time. escalators. After five or six minutes train comes regularly. The coaches are fully automatic with doors being operated automatically and there are emergency exits in the train. They are also running some feeder bus service to & fro stations. All the metro stations and the trains also kept clean. turn-stiles. One can communicate with the driver at any point in case of an emergency. digital signboards.

Every where way marks are given for the convenience of the passengers . 13 . Stations The stations have an international look and have special care for handicaps and senior citizens with escalators and lifts in place.signboards at different places also plays an important role in creating awareness among the commuters.

12 yr license for spaces within station buildings for commuter related vendors such as ATMs.Indraprastha .Sushant Lok Indraprastha ± New Ashok Nagar . the Union Cabinet had mandated that approximately 7% of the initial project cost should be generated through property development on lands transferred to DMRC for the project.Central Secretariat Line 3 . etc.Anand Vihar ISBT Central Secretariat ± Badarpur Inderlok . Planning has also been taken up in a similar manner on the following routes for MRTS Phase II project.Dilshad Garden Vishwavidyalaya ± Jehangirpuri .Rithala Line 2 . sanctioned in 2005. for implementation of this scheme. Property development works were undertaken on the Delhi MRTS Phase . DMRC set up a Property Development Wing in1999. y y y y y y y y Shahdara. Kiosks for refreshments.Vishwavidyalaya . Long-term lease (50-90 yrs) on land pockets.Dwarka 4. in depots. Planning of property development work was taken up under the different types of arrangements noted below: y y y y 6 .Mundka Dwarka Sector 9 ± 21 14 .Badli Central Secretariat ± Qutub Minar . While sanctioning Delhi MRTS Phase-I project in 1996. not immediately needed for operational structures. Line 1 . 30 yr Concession for commercial developments on vacant land pockets adjacent to MRTS stations. 2. In addition recurring income should be generated through property development for paying back subordinate debts etc.I routes. in future years. magazines etc.Shahdara .Revenue from Property Development a nd Advertising Property Development 1.NOIDA (Sector 32) Yamuna Bank . Advertisement through agencies  Within station premises  On DMRC structures between stations  Within DMRC's commuter trains 3.

Property Development Works Undertaken 1. This is being done progressively and has been substantially completed at stations in Delhi MRTS Phase-I. Kiosks are of approx 5-10 sqm size and are let out on basis of open tenders to licensees for periods of 6-12 yrs. Netaji Subhash Place. Examples of these are at Inderlok. Licensing of kiosks. ATMs. inside stations: Food outlets. depending on requirements. Kashmiri Gate Station Rajiv Chowk Station Inderlok Metro Station Rajiv Chowk Station 2. at most of the MRTS stations. as and when different sections are progressively opened to traffic. refreshment stalls etc. This will be continued in stations to be set up in Phase-II project also. Licensing of commercial outlets inside stations Larger developments including shopping malls are also being set up through developers on license basis for periods up to 12 yrs inside station buildings having larger concourses. Coffee and cold drink kiosks etc are being set up inside concourses. Kashmiri 15 . Tea.

Inderlok Annexe 16 Parsvnath Mall Shahdara . some residential and commercial developments have been set up through developers. Welcome.Gate etc. in MRTS Stations on Phase I routes and the same will be continued in MRTS Phase-II Project. and are in progress at other locations also such as Khyber Pass. Such developments have been carried out outside Shahdara and Inderlok stations. Inderlok Metro Station Netaji Subhash Place 3. It is proposed to progressively carry out more such developments in MRTS Phase-II project also. NS Place etc. Such pockets are being made over to developers on 30 yrs concession basis. Concessions for commercial / residential developments On lands pockets available after meeting operational requirements of MRTS & Car parking requirements of commuters. It is proposed to continue this progressively at other stations also where feasible. selected through open competitive bidding after advertisements in newspapers. on basis of "Concession" for upto 30 years. at the end of which the properties would revert to DMRC.

attempt is also being made to involve developers in constructing the operational station structures also. It is proposed to construct additional such buildings on this 12 ha plot of land progressively in the future and operate it as an I T Specific SEZ.4.I' 'Block . and thus participating in metro construction. is a centrally air conditioned building with considerable degree of automation with a Building Management System. at present employing over 3000 persons. 'Block . One block of 30. So developments are being planned and executed in a similar manner as done for Phase I routes. Property development generally follows the progress of construction of MRTS by a year. Shastri Park I T Park DMRC has through its own resources set up an I T Park at Shastri Park. This has been approved by Govt of India as a Sector specific SEZ. Future Implementation Implementation of Property Development works is continuing along with expansion of the MRTS network in Phase II project.000 sqm floor area was completed in 2005 and another one similar size has been completed recently. 17 . An additional feature is that for some stations where property development on a larger scale is integrated with the operational building such as at Azadpur. The total plot area is 12 ha. These are being rented out to ITES operators.II' Advertising DMRC is carrying out commercial advertising through advertising agencies: y y y Inside station buildings On metro structures between stations Inside metro trains The advertisement rights are awarded to agencies for 2-3 yrs period. 100% Power back up etc. The 1st Block.

It is also reported. over crowded and also time consuming with long waiting periods at bus stops. and 25 percent of buses out of the influenced traffic are diverted to Metro.6% of the total vehicles. The average trip length.Effect of Delhi Metro on other Modes of Transport Buses constitute for about 1. The bus service is hence unreliable. Overall about 5 million people travel by bus each day in Delhi. Delhi is predominantly dependent on road transport. This has lead to increase in number of personal vehicles. which is about 14 km takes about 55-60 minutes. that only 30 percent of vehicles on road are influenced by Phase I of the Metro. 5 and 7 percent. while cars and jeeps account for 26. motor cycles and scooters comprise about 64. 40 percent of two-wheelers and 65 percent of taxis and three wheelers are on the roads. but cater to 60% of the total traffic load. Table 1 reports estimates of diverted traffic to Metro (Phases I and II) for some selected years during 2005-06 to 2042-43. Buses cater to about 60% of the total demand while personal vehicles account for 30%. two-wheelers. hence adding to the traffic and this cycle continues. The ring rail network in Delhi is grossly underutilized. The registered number of vehicles for each category of these vehicles in Delhi for the period 2002-42 is estimated using the above mentioned growth rates. 70 percent of two-wheelers. only 28 percent of cars. 11. The number of buses increases by 8% every year.2% of the total number of vehicles. Buses constitute only 1. The introduction of Delhi Metro has the following effects on other modes of transport in Delhi: Reduction in the Number of Vehicles on Road The growth rates of registered cars. It is further mentioned that 45 percent of cars.8. three wheelers. depending upon the area and the density of population through which the Metro line passes. Among personalized vehicles. taxis and buses in Delhi are calculated as 9. It has been reported that out of the total registered vehicles. with the railways catering to only about1% of the local traffic. respectively using data for these vehicles for the period 1971-2002. 8. Buses currently meet the mass transport needs of Delhi. 18 .5% of the total number of vehicles in Delhi.2% of vehicles on road in Delhi. The ridership by Buses is 60% of the total ridership. and these figures are increasing every year because of increase in traffic. The number of buses running on Delhi roads was 42639 as on 31st march 2007.

2 as 39.Tabl R i i i l ( ase I & II) The economic benefit from the reduced number of vehicles on Delhi roads due to the Metro could be identified as the following: y Savings in oreign Exchange due to reduced uel Consumption y Reduction in Pollution y Savings in Time for all passengers using Metro and Roads y Savings in Accidents y Savings in Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC due to decongestion for residual traffic y Savings in the cost of Road Infrastructure Savi i l i The savings in fuel consumption is due to the diversion of a part of the Delhi road traffic to Metro and reduced congestion to vehicles on the roads. It has been estimated that the total reduction in C G due to the traffic of buses diverted to the Metro during the year 20 . Use of electricit for the Metro will reduce the petrol and C G consumption that could result in savings of foreign exchange and will also reduce air pollution. 5 million kg. uel savings arising out of the Metro could result in the savings of foreign exchange for the Indian economy given that a very large pro portion of domestic demand for petroleum products in India is met out of imports. Table 2 provides information about the annual run and fuel consumption norms of different vehicles in Delhi. the fuel 19 . Similarly.

35 and 25.70 million litres respectively. Savings in Passenger Time 20 .saved due to the diverted traffic of cars and two-wheelers is estimated as 138. Table 2: Annual Run and Fuel Consumption Norms Reduction in Air Pollution Fewer vehicles and the decongestion on Delhi roads due to Metro could lead to reduced air pollution.

Overall this shows that one of the main objectives of MRTS to decongest the Delhi roads will be achieved in the due course of time. The difference between these two curves shows the time saved because of introduction of MRTS. the average speed will also increase. Also as the no of vehicles on the road reduces. 21 . Savings in vehicular operating costs due to the decongestion effect Annual vehicle operating cost is substantially reduced due to the higher speed of vehicles and consequently lesser hours on road.The above chart shows the comparison for time saved for the bus and auto travel. The curve labeled ³without metro´ shows the time saved due to decongestion on the roads and the curve labeled ³with metro´ shows the time saved due to traveling by the metro instead of by road.

This phase is going to require massive investment. They can be listed as: 1. Under-utilization of facilities post event. New Delhi will play host to the third largest multi-sporting event in the world. possibly unplanned? Is the amount spent on such events worth it? There are very good reasons for why developing nations are more adversely impacted by such events. High infrastructural development costs. and is set to be ready before October 2010. The emphasis of the present Rapid Transport system is now on the Metro. over Rs 8000 crores. The metro.Effect of Commonwealth Games on MRTS In the month of October this year. 22 . with a dedicated Games Village station. 3. The Total Revenue for the metro for the year 2007-2008 and the forecasted revenue for the year 2010. originally planned to be ready by 2010-2011 is now going to be operational by the month of October. Will the event lead to rampant and unchecked development. is already under construction. The second phase is going to provide a vital transport link to East Delhi. However more importantly. Tens of thousands of visitors will descend upon the city. Unable to attract large numbers of spectators. which is already beginning to have an impact on the cityµs congested roads. The second phase. 4. the Commonwealth Games. will be able to make a much larger impact as its network and reach grows. Phase II. 2. aimed at extending the network much further in the city. High opportunity cost of capital. the city is planning a major overhaul of its urban infrastructure as well as its sporting facilities. To prepare itself for this. due to the 2010 Games.

5bn from lead corporate outlets.This increase is because of the Commonwealth Games -The advertisement revenue and the ridership increases drastically in year 2010. etc. Through sale of tickets. DMRCµs revenue generation would go beyond Rs8. Ridership impact taking the Commonwealth games into consideration 23 . ATMs. The revenue increases is because of alone. Revenue increases drastically at a rate of 38% from 2009 to 2010 . the DMRC is expected to earn nearly Rs7bn and about Rs6bn from space allocations to corporate advertisers.Total Revenue Generated y y y The Revenue increases at a rate of 12% from the year 2007-2009.

y Ridership increases due to the increase in the foreign tourists.The red line gives the ridership revenue taking the commonwealth games into account. We can infer that the DMRC would suitably allocate rental and advertisement space to higher bidders after it has accomplished the metro projects in early 2010 especially before the commencement of forthcoming Commonwealth Games. y DMRC should keep the cost of the project under control as it might not even earn the fixed cost. The rate at which revenue increase will decrease subsequently after the commonwealth games. Advertisement Revenue y y y y The advertisement revenue forms the major portion of the revenue earned by the metro as the ridership is not up to the mark. y The revenue created in the year 2010 has increased drastically in the year 2010 as the price of the ticket increases considerably pertaining to the commonwealth games. But the increase is not that drastic as not many foreign tourists turn to developing countries to watch the matches because of the state of infrastructure. The advertisement revenue earned increases as many corporate houses pay high prices for the advertisements as India will be in spotlight at that point of time. y The ridership dips in the year 2011 and the infrastructure created is underutilized. Planning in future must be done keeping a realistic view. 24 . And the blue line gives the revenue generated without taking commonwealth games in consideration.

negotiations and legal action have all been initiated. The next Metro line in the city will be 10-15 per cent cheaper than the previous phases based on the learning curve theory. and protests. Security threat Risk of cost overruns and ridership shortfalls Increase in cost of the parts 25 . Reduced travel time: One hundred per cent punctual operations.SWOT Analysis Strengths y y y y y y y Cost-effective mode of transport for the general public of Delhi Reduced congestion on roads making movement easier Reduced atmospheric pollution to a great level making the environment healthy Ultra-modern technology and visually striking design.000 certification. petitions. hunger strikes. The voluntary International Standardization Organization (ISO) 14. dynamic and modern. competitive and ³World Classµ. Weaknesses y y y y y Metro considerably more expensive than the bus Less ridership than estimated High development cost Displaced many economic backward people Difficulties in acquiring land Opportunities y y y y y Revenue from property development and advertisements Potential to achieve higher ridership Tax rebate given to the DMRC because of the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi The success of the Delhi Metro has encouraged other Indian cities to seriously attempt to introduce Metro systems. Safer Mode of transport for Women. Threats y y y y A struggle on the part of those being displaced.

13th edition.asp http://www. Marketing research..nic. KELLER K L. KOSHY A.pdf http://ideas.delhimetrorail.org/workpap/wp273. New Delhi: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pvt.html http://www...in/dmrc. DAY GEORGE S.nic. 7th edition. Marketing Management. KOTLER P. Web sites: y y y y y y http://delhiplanning..org/p/pra/mprapa/1658.repec. Ltd.. Ltd. 2009.References Books: y y AAKER DAVID A..iegindia.com http://www.com/delhi-metro l 26 . JHA M. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. 2007.in http://delhigovt. KUMAR V..delhicapital.