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Company Overview
About the Company – Matrix Technology Pvt.Ltd.
Matrix Technology has large group of network integrators coming from different backgrounds. We are able to balance network development efforts and project durations to your need for the business. Matrix Technology also works in the area of product development and software maintenance and independent software testing with a local project management team. Matrix Technology is a Network Integration company started with an idea to enhance, promote and provide various Business Enterprise Solutions to businesses worldwide. Matrix Technology delivers high quality software and customized e-business solutions that reflects the in depth knowledge and understanding of emerging technologies in today's fast growing competitive world. Our team comprises of people who have a passion for their area of work and believe in bringing the best for their company's clients. Matrix Technology also serves software consultancy and any type of technical assistance for your organizations. Matrix Technology Pvt. Ltd. promising you for off shoring works. We are dedicated to our work. Our motive is to create High Landmark in Network Industries with our work as early as possible. We undertake every aspect of your project, requirements management, product design and architecture, programming and development, quality assurance, documentation preparation, technical support, and maintenance. We ensure to guarantee the secure management of your trade secrets, source codes, copyrights and any information involved in the product development.

they can't work together. Software that enables resources to be shared with other PCs and controls access to shared resources. known as a Network Protocol. Network Interface Card On most of the computers.   Resources that can be shared. each network requires the following:  Physical (cable). or wireless (infrared [IRDA] or radio-frequency) connections between computers. regardless of their nature. Although network cards for older systems might use the ISA or EISA slot standard.    Network devices like switches or routers to connect all the computers. known as a Network Client. the network interface adapters takes the form of a network interface card (NIC) that fits into a PCI slots on a desktop computer or a PC card (PCMCIA) slot on a notebook computer. These rules apply to the simplest and most powerful networks. such as printers. Networking software is just as important as networking hardware because it establishes the logical connections that make the physical connections work. known as a Network Operating System. A common set of communications rules. these don’t support high speed network standards and are obsolete. Software that enables computers to access other computers with shared resources. Many recent systems incorporate the network . disk drives.Overall Evaluation Network Formation Hardware Elements of the Network Unless the computers that are connected know they are connected and agree on a common means of communication and what resources are to be shared. and CD-ROMs. At a minimum. and all the ones in between.

but this practice is more commonly found in workstation and portable computers and rarely in serves because most network administrators prefer to select their own NICs. A few older 10 Mbps adapters have a combination of two or all three of these connector types. or a D-shaped 15-pin connectors called a DB15 (for thick net coaxial cables). . Token-Ring adapters can have a 9-pin connector called a DB9 (for type 1 STP cable) or sometimes an RJ-45 jack (for type three UTP cable).interface adapters onto the motherboard. Network Adapter Connectors Ethernet adapters typically have a connector that looks like a large telephone jack called an RJ-45 (for 10-BASE-T and Fast Ethernet twisted pair cables). adapters with two or more connectors are referred to as combo adapters.

We may need the plate later. and open it up. We should never touch the gold. After we pull the card out. we set it aside. Align the network card with the slot in the PC and push gently but firmly to seat the card in its slot. being careful not to touch the gold connectors. connector on the card. using both hands to wiggle it back and forth slightly to disengage it from the connectors. 2. 3. Unscrew the plate that covered the open slot’s opening to the rear of the computer. 5. and set the plate and screw aside. This may take a little tugging. we need to follow the following steps: 1. and lay it aside. 4. Pull gently on the card. 4. Unscrew the small screw attaching the card to the PC case.RJ-45 Virtually standard and 10/100 Ethernet NICs made the client-PC on the use market today are designed to support unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable exclusively. 3. Wrap it back up in its original sheath if we have kept it and plan to use the card again. and we will need the screw in just a minute. but if the card does not come fairly easily. and set it aside. . It will most probably be an open Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot. the oils in our skin can corrode the gold and thus reduce the cards connectivity Installing a card is much the same process. stop and make sure that the card is indeed fully disconnected from the PC. Gigabit Ethernet cards made for wire (not fiber-optic) networks also use only UTP cables. in reverse: 1. Find an open slot on the motherboard. Make sure the card is disconnected from any outside cables. We may need to push fairly hard for this to work. Installing and Configuring Network Cards If we are removing another card to insert the new one. 2. Power down the PC. Unwrap the card.

. then the card should snap its place. all networks used some type of cable to connect the computers on the network to each other.which can be somewhat intimidating if we are not used to inserting the cards. 6. If we have the right slot and push straight in. Replace the card and if the cables are already in place. this extra step will not affect the card’s positioning all that much. screw the card into the little hole in the case to hold it in place. If the card is in all the way. Although various types of wireless networks are now on the market. but it will keep it from sagging or working loose. Using the screw that we set aside in step 4. Installing Network Adapter Cards Network Cables Originally. 7. connect them to card. most office and home networks are still based on one of the following wired topologies:    Coaxial cable Twisted-pair cabling Fiber optic cable.

used a thick coaxial cable (called Thicknet) that was not directly attached to the NIC. The cable had a hole drilled into it to allow the "vampire tap" to be connected to the cable. A device called an attachment unit interface (AUI) ran from a DB15 connector on the rear of the NIC to the cable. Instead. allowing a thin Ethernet cable to be connected to either both ends of the T (for a computer in the middle of the network) or to one end only (for a computer at the end of the network). a BNC T-connector attaches to the rear of the card. A 50-ohm terminator is connected to the other arm of the T to indicate the end of the network and prevent erroneous signals from being sent to other clients on the network. The original form of Ethernet. . NICs designed for use with thick Ethernet cable are almost impossible to find as new hardware today. Although the thin coaxial cable (called Thinnet or RG-58) used with 10BASE-2 Ethernet has a bayonet connector that can physically attach to the BNC connector on the card. 10BASE-2 Ethernet cards use a BNC (Bayonet-Neill-Councilmen) connector on the rear of the NIC. 10BASE-5. this configuration is incorrect and won't work.Thick and Thin Ethernet Coaxial Cable The first versions of Ethernet were based on coaxial cable.

you need to route the cable away from the interference. elevators. Shielded twisted pair (STP) refers to the amount of insulation around the cluster of wires and therefore its immunity to noise. Twisting the wires reduces the effect of electromagnetic interference (that can be generated by nearby cables. Combo cards with both BNC and RJ-45 connectors are still available but can run at only standard Ethernet speeds. it is often used for telephone wiring.Some early Ethernet cards were designed to handle thick (AUI/DB15). Most Ethernet and Fast Ethernet installations that use twisted-pair cabling use UTP because the physical flexibility and small size of the cable and connectors makes routing it very easy. However. use an external shield. . Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable is just what its name implies: insulated wires within a protective casing with a specified number of twists per foot. or substitute STP for UTP near interference sources. electric motors. Advantages of Coaxial Cables It has higher bandwidth and excellent noise immunity. Disadvantage of Coaxial Cables If any part of cable is damaged then the entire network will be shut down. thin (RG-58). and UTP (RJ-45) cables. its lack of electrical insulation can make interference from fluorescent lighting. If you use UTP in installations where interference can be a problem. You are probably familiar with unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable. and alarm systems (among other devices) a major problem. and fluorescent lighting) on the signals being transmitted. These are relatively cheap as compared to fiber optic cables and easy to use.

. but it also presents no problems with EMI and supports durable cables and cable runs as long as several K.Fiber Optic Cable Fiber cable is the ideal cable for data tram mission.M. Not only does this type of cable accommodate extremely high bandwidths.

The center conductor of a fiber optic cable is a fiber consists of highly refined glass or plastic designed to transmit light signals with little loss. Disadvantages of Fiber Optic Cable It is very costly. or power failure. A glass core supports a longer cabling distance. electromagnetic interference. All Ethernet hubs and switches have the following features: • • • Multiple RJ-45 UTP connectors Diagnostic and activity lights A power supply . Advantages of Fiber Optic Cable It can handle much higher bandwidth than copper. The fiber is coated with a cladding or a gel that reflects signals back into the fiber to reduce signal loss a plastic sheath protects the fiber. The center of the star uses a multi-port connecting device that can be either a hub or a switch. Its installation is very difficult. Fiber is not affected by power surges. Although hubs and switches can be used to connect the network-and can have several features in common-the differences between them are also significant. Hubs and Switches for Ethernet Networks We know that most of the modern Ethernet workgroup networks are based on UTP cable with workstations arranged in a star topology. but a plastic core is typically easier to work with.

or monitored by a network operator and are commonly used on corporate networks. A hub or switch must have at least one RJ-45 UTP connector for each computer we want to connect to it. The connection between each workstation and the hub or switch is the UTP cable running from the RJ-45 jack on the rear of the NIC to the RJ-45 jack on the rear of the hub or switch.• Ethernet hubs and switches are made in two forms: managed and unmanaged. Multi-speed hubs and switches also indicate which connection speed is in use on each port. Managed hubs and switches can be configured. which simply connect on the network. Signal lights on the front of the hub or switch indicate which connections are in use by computers. enabled or disabled. . switches also indicate whether a full-duplex connection is in use. Workgroup and home-office networks use less expensive unmanaged hubs.

Under the training program we went through the IOS command line interface for configuration.Cisco Router Configuration There are several methods available for configuring Cisco routers. and it can be done from the menu interface provided by using the command setup. If it is unconfigured it will look like this: . With any Windows box you can use Hyperterminal to easily connect to the router. then you will have to directly connect to it with a terminal and a serial cable. and maybe both. Plug a serial cable into a serial (COM) port on the PC and the other end into the console port on the Cisco router. turn it on. It can be done via menu interface provided at bootup. If you wish to configure the router from a Linux box. you can perform many operations much more quickly than by using a menu. will come with your Linux distribution. If it is not already configured. Set the speed of the connection to 9600 baud and click OK. tell it which COM port to use and click OK. The main reason for using the command-line interface instead of a menu driven interface is speed. and it has a physical connection to the network. If the router is already configured and at least one port is configured with an IP address. Often you will need to hit the Enter key to see the prompt from the router. menu interfaces. This is basically true of all command-line vs. At least one of them. It can be done over the network from a TFTP server. If the router is not on. either Seyon or Minicom should work. Once you have invested the time to learn the commandline commands. Start Hyperterminal. What makes it especially efficient to learn the command-line interface of the Cisco IOS is that it is standard across all Cisco routers Initialization Initially you will probably configure your router from a terminal. you might be able to telnet to the router and configure it across the network.

If you say yes. You move in and out of several different modes while configuring a router. Router>show ? You must enter privileged mode to configure the router. Modes The Cisco IOS command-line interface is organized around the idea of modes. From here you can use such unprivileged commands as ping. Router>? Unprivileged and Privileged Mode When you first connect to the router and provide the password (if necessary). show version to display the version of the IOS the router is running. Each mode has a set of commands available in that mode. you enter EXEC mode. In unprivileged mode you use commands like. it will look like this: hostname of router> If you have just turned on the router. telnet. after it boots it will ask you if you wish to begin initial configuration. the first mode in which you can issue commands from the command-line. Privileged mode will usually be password protected unless the router is unconfigured. Typing show ? will diplay all the show commands available in the mode you are presently in. You do this by using the command enable.Router> If it has been previously configured with a hostname. typing a question mark will display a list of the commands available in that mode. You can also use some of the show commands to obtain information about the system. You have the option of not password protecting privileged . and which mode you are in determines what commands you can use. and rlogin. Say no. and some of these commands are only available in that mode. it will put you in the menu interface. In any mode.

When you switch from unprivileged mode to privileged mode. They are subsumed within privileged mode. . Each of these modes has a prompt of the form: Router(arguments)# They still all end with the pound sign. Many of these modes have sub-modes of their own. Cisco describes two modes. you will enter privileged mode. either directly from the parent mode. the command-line prompt changes each time you enter a different mode. There are. in fact. frankly. you have access to all the configuration information and options the IOS provides. and then a hierarchy of commands used in privileged mode. Pay close attention to the prompt at all times. There are numerous modes you can enter only after entering privileged mode. Within privileged mode there are many sub-modes. and this feature is probably indispensable. or from one of its submodes. Once you enter priliged mode. To help the user keep track of what mode they are in. I reason that it is much clearer to understand if you just consider there to be many submodes of privileged mode. In this document I do not closely follow Cisco terminology for this hierarchy of modes.mode. unprivileged and privileged. When you issue the command enable and provide the password. which I will also call parent mode. numerous modes. the prompt changes from: Router> to Router# This would probably not be a big deal if there were just two modes. Once you enter privileged mode (parent mode) the prompt ends with a pound sign (#). but it is HIGHLY recommended that you do. I think that my explanation is clearer.

then issue several show commands to see what they display. You can view the route and ARP tables. then return to the parent mode to display the results of your commands.Configuring the Router If you have just turned on the router. you will enter various sub-modes to set options. Even if it has not been previously configured. also known in this document as "parent mode. You also return to the parent mode to enter other sub-modes. you are in the top-level mode of privileged mode. If it is already configured. Enter privileged mode by issuing the command enable. you should familiarize yourself with the show commands before beginning to configure the router. you hit ctrl-z. You can display what IP protocols are in use. As you configure the router. Here you can learn the configuration of interfaces and whether they are up or down. such as dynamic routing protocols. and these are just a few of the more important options. This puts any commands you have just issued into effect. Remember. you may want to view its current configuration." It is in this top-level or parent mode that you can display most of the information about the router. As you now know. Definately try out the following commands: Router#show interfaces Router#show ip protocols Router#show ip route Router#show ip arp When you enter privileged mode by using the command enable. and returns you to parent mode. it will be completely unconfigured. To return to the parent mode. you do this with the show commands. . the command show ? will display all the showcommands aavailable in the current mode.

the prompt changes to indicate the mode that you are now in. Router(config)#hostname ExampleName ExampleName(config)# As demonstrated In the parent mode. Router#config terminal Router(config)# As demonstrated above. the prompt immediately changes by replacing Router with ExampleName. You do this in configuration mode with the hostname command. you must enter configuration mode. (Note: It is a good idea to name your routers with an organized naming scheme. This is the first sub-mode of the parent mode.) Another useful command issued from config mode is the command to designate the DNS server to be used by the router: ExampleName(config)#ip name-server aa. also refered to as "global configurations. you issue the command config. In connfiguration mode you can set options that apply it is a good idea to name your router so that you can easily identify it. when you set the name of the host with the hostname command.dd ExampleName(config)#ctrl-Z ExampleName# This is also where you set the password for privileged mode. ExampleName(config)#enable secret examplepassword ExampleName(config)#ctrl-Z .Global configuration (config) To configure any feature of the router." For instance.

You can remove a module from a slot and replace it with a different module. To refer to an interface that is the third port of an Ethernet module installed in the sixth slot. The 7200 series is an example. Each time you hit ctrl-Z you return to parent mode and the prompt: ExampleName# Here you use show commands to verify the results of the commands you issued in config mode. etc. and all numbering starts at 0. Port number refers to the port in reference to the other ports in that module. issue several different commands. These modules are even hot-swapable. You can enter config mode. not at one. a Cisco 7206 is a 7200 series router with six slots. Token Ring. Individual interfaces are referred to by this convention: media type slot#/port# "Media type" refers to the type of media that the port is an interface for.ExampleName# Until you hit ctrl-Z (or type exit until you reach parent mode) your command has not been put into effect. Slot numbers are only applicable for routers that provide slots into which you can install modules. it would be interface ethernet 6/2. These slots are numbered on the router. To verify the results of the ip name-server command. then hit ctrl-Z to activate them all. FDDI. These modules contain several ports for a given media. without interrupting service provided by the other modules installed in the router. Numbering is left-to-right. issue the command show host. to display the configuration of that interface you use the command: ExampleName#show interface ethernet 6/2 . Therefor. serial. such as Ethernet. Configuring the interfaces Cisco interface naming is straightforward. For example.

155. ExampleName(config)#interface serial 1/1 ExampleName(config-if)#shutdown ExampleName(config-if)#ctrl-Z ExampleName#show interface serial 1/1 .If your router does not have slots. The command for causing an interface to be administratively down is shutdown. An interface may be correctly configured and physically connected.0 ExampleName(config-if)#no shutdown ExampleName(config-if)#ctrl-Z ExampleName# Then to verify configuration: ExampleName#show interface serial 1/1 Note the no shutdown command. like a 1600.255.255. then the interface name consists only of: media type port# For example: ExampleName#show interface serial 0 Here is an example of configuring a serial port with an IP address: ExampleName#config ExampleName(config)#interface serial 1/1 ExampleName(config-if)#ip address 192.168." In this state it will not function.2 255. yet be "administratively down.

The administrator can assign static routes.168.255. you turn it back on in config mode with the command ip routing. In the Cisco IOS this is done with the ip route command. the administrator tells the router operating system that any network traffic destined for a specified network layer address should be forwarded to a similarly specified network layer address. For instance. Configuring Dynamic Routing IP routing is automatically enabled on Cisco routers. These days static routes are generally used in very simple networks or in particular cases that necessitate their use. ExampleName(config)#ip routing ExampleName(config)#ctrl-Z There are two main ways a router knows where to send packets. ExampleName#config .155.2 255. To create a static route. if we wanted to unassign the IP address we had assigned to interface serial 1/1: ExampleName(config)#interface serial 1/1 ExampleName(config-if)#no ip address 192.0 ExampleName(config-if)ctrl-Z ExampleName#show interface serial 1/1 Configuring most interfaces for LAN connections might consist only of assigning a network layer address and making sure the interface is not administratively shutdown. the way to reverse or delete the results of any command is to simply put no infront of it.In the Cisco IOS. or the router can learn routes by employing a dynamic routing protocol.255. If it has been previously disabled on your router. It is usually not necessary to stipulate data-link layer encapsulation.

16. a router needs to be running the same routing protocols as its neighbors.0.hh . From the command-line. Unfortunately. the packet destination address must include the subnet mask for that destination network. or a neighbor router goes down. and what networks the protocol will route for. The advantage of this method is that routers are able to adjust to changes in network topologies. and they all use different Dynamic routing protocols. Many routers can. Second. first. and there are many sources of information about them available.ff. running on connected routers. This describes how to configure the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) on Cisco routers.ExampleName(config)#ip route 172. If a route is physically removed. run multiple protocols.1 ExampleName(config)#ctrl-Z ExampleName#show ip route Two things to be said about this example. we must explicitly tell the router which protocol to use.255. ExampleName#config ExampleName(config)#router rip ExampleName(config-router)#network aa.150. There are many different routing protocols.0 192. Routing protocols can even dynamically choose between possible routes based on variables such as network congestion or network reliability. the address it is to be forwarded to is the specified address of the next router along the path to the destination. There is much to learn about them.dd ExampleName(config-router)#network ee. This enables routers to learn the routes available to them.0 255. Routing protocols are a complex topic and this document contains only this superficial description of them. known as "metrics. the routing protocol searches for a new route. enable those routers to share routing information.168." to decide upon appropriate routes.

your router should be capable of routing traffic. There should now be entries in these tables learned from the routing protocol. you would have to start configuration over again. ExampleName#show running-config You do want to save your successful running configuration.ExampleName(config-router)#ctrl-Z ExampleName#show ip protocols Now when you issue the show ip protocols command. and you have configured individual interfaces. then issue the commands show ip route and show ip arp. ExampleName#show startup-config Now any time you need to return your router to that configuration. Issue the command show startup-config. issue the command copy startup-config running-config. If you turned the router off right now. ExampleName#copy running-config startup-config Your configuration is now saved to non-volatile RAM (NVRAM). and turned it on again. Issue the command copy running-config startup-config. You can see this configuration with the command show running-config. ExampleName#copy startup-config running-config . you should see an entry describing RIP configuration. Saving Cisco Router Configuration Once you have configured routing on the router. Your running configuration is not saved to any permanent storage media. Give it a few moments to talk to its neighbors.

You are already familiar with the show commands. Some of the most basic. Usually. or it could be another router.Troubleshooting Cisco router Inevitably. most useful commands you will use for troubleshooting are: ExampleName#show interfaces ExampleName#show ip protocols ExampleName#show ip route ExampleName#show ip arp Testing Connectivity It is very possible that the point of failure is not in your router configuration or at your router at all. Ping sends an ICMP echo request to a destination IP address. and you must be able to track down the point of failure. are you alive? Yes. there will be problems. it may be the line itself. You will need to be able to check how the router is attempting to route traffic. the problem might be farther up the line. both specific commands and how to learn what other show commands are available.xx. which may or may not be under your administration. ExampleName#ping xx. If the destination machine receives the request.xx. In fact. Ping is an implementation of the IP Message Control Protocol (ICMP). If you examine your router's configuration and operation and everything looks good.xx . it responds with an ICMP echo response. it will come in the form of a user notifying you that they cannot reach a certain destination or any destination at all. I am. One extremely useful and simple diagnostic tool is the ping command. This is a very simple exchange that consists of: Hello.

Echo Reply . it might have other interfaces that are down. Used by the ping command to verify connectivity. Table 7-1 ICMP Message Types Message Destination Unreachable Time Exceeded Redirect Description Tells the source host that there is a problem delivering a packet. It will display a list of all the hops it makes on the way to the destination.If the ping test is successful. so give it some time. you know that the destination you are having difficulty reaching is alive and physically reachable. The message tells the sender to use the better route. Echo Request. and how far.xx. Even if you ping a router and it responds.xx. the problem might be at one of the other routers. use the trace command. or any number of other problems may exist. its routing table may be corrupted.xx It may take a few minutes for this utility to finish. To see where packets that leave your router for a particular destination go. The router sending this message has received a packet for which another router has a better route. so the packet has been discarded. If there are routers between your router and the destination you are having difficulty reaching. The time that it takes a packet to be delivered has expired. ExampleName#trace xx.

U N M Command Description ICMP Echo Reply received Nothing was received before the ping command timed out ICMP unreachable (destination) received ICMP unreachable (network/subnet) received ICMP Can’t Fragment message received . The packet has the Don’t Fragment bit set. but the destination port has not been opened by an application. The packet can be routed to a router connected to the destination subnet.Table 7-2 ICMP Unreachable Codes Unreachable Code Network unreachable When It Is Used There is no match in a routing table for the packet’s destination. What Typically Sends It Router Host unreachable Router Can’t fragment Router Protocol unreachable Host Port unreachable Host Table 7-3 Codes That the ping Command Receives in Response to Its ICMP Echo Request ping Code ! . but the host is not responding. The packet is delivered to the destination host. and a router must fragment to forward the packet. but the transport layer protocol is not available on that host. The packet is delivered to the destination host.

? Unknown packet received .

but not to other subnets. This may be caused by the default gateway (router) using a different mask than the hosts. The host’s default gateway is in a different subnet than the host’s IP address (according to the host’s perception of the subnet). but not to other subnets. but others cannot. The host can send packets to hosts in the same subnet. Some hosts in a subnet can communicate with hosts in other subnets. or the default gateway IP address is incorrect. The hosts may not be using the same mask. This may result in the router’s connected route not including some of the hosts on the LAN. Some hosts on the same VLAN can send packets to each other. .Table 7-4 Common Host Problem Symptoms and Typical Reasons Symptom The host can send packets to hosts in the same subnet. Common Root Cause The host does not have a default gateway configured. but others cannot.

so that no one is able to access other than administrator. Opportunities The connections could be increased via use of more port switches and even the router could be changed to allow more number of network connections. Weakness The limitation was the number of connections that existed and were limited. .SWOT Strength The whole network was secure via use of access list. and switches were configured to be attached on a specific PC. The router and the switches were secure by passwords. Threats There was not any special threat we could detect.

Conclusion The environment provided at the company was good.Recommendation The company is though very stable in the kind of network infrastructure it prepares. . We were able to understand the whole network architecture that was laid. but it needs to look more into the security side of the devices. for which a special room can be provided so that they can be secure physically also. The devices currently are placed in open space.

References .

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