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7. Application Layer
NNTP · SIP · SSI · DNS · FTP · Gopher · HTTP · NFS · NTP · SMPP · SMTP ·DHCP · SNMP · Telnet · Netconf ·(more )
6. Presentation Layer
MIME · XDR · TLS · SSL
5. Session Layer
Named Pipes · NetBIOS · SAP · L2TP ·PPTP
4. Transport Layer
TCP · UDP · SCTP · DCCP
3. Network Layer
IP (IPv4, IPv6) · ICMP · IPsec · IGMP ·IPX · AppleTalk
2. Data Link Layer
ATM · SDLC · HDLC · ARP · CSLIP ·SLIP · PLIP · IEEE 802.3 · Frame Relay · ITU-T G.hn DLL · PPP · X.25
1. Physical Layer
EIA/TIA-232 · EIA/TIA-449 · ITU-T V-Series · I.430 · I.431 · POTS · PDH ·SONET/SDH · PON · OTN · DSL ·IEEE 802 .3 · IEEE 802.11 · IEEE 802.15 · IEEE 802.16 · IEEE 1394 · ITU-T G.hn PHY · USB · Bluetooth
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The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a way of sub-dividing a communications system into smaller parts called layers. A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it. On each layer aninstance provides services to the instances at the layer above and requests service from the layer below. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path. Conceptually two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal protocol connection on that layer. Most network protocols used in the market today are based on TCP/IP stacks.
Communication in the OSI-Model (Example with layers 3 to 5)
• • o o
1 History 2 Description of OSI layers 2.1 Layer 1: Physical Layer 2.2 Layer 2: Data Link Layer
2.2.1 WAN Protocol
2.2.2 IEEE 802 LAN
o o o o o • • • • • • • 2. In this model. Honeywell Information Services. one or more entities implement its functionality. EIN. Description of OSI layers . The new design was documented in ISO 7498 and its various addenda. The equivalent ISO and ISO/IEC standards for the OSI model are available from ISO. Protocols enable an entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same layer in another host. the fledgling Internet. called the Basic Reference Model or seven-layer model.200-series of recommendations.5 Layer 5: Session Layer 2. Various aspects of OSI design evolved from experiences with the ARPANET. and a set of specific protocols.3 Layer 3: Network Layer 2. CYCLADES network and the work in IFIP WG6. A number of the protocol specifications are also available as part of the ITU-T X series. Service definitions abstractly describe the functionality provided to an (N)-layer by an (N-1) layer. and provides facilities for use by the layer above it. NPLNET. where N is one of the seven layers of protocols operating in the local host. work on a layered model of network architecture was started and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) began to develop its OSI framework architecture. Each entity interacts directly only with the layer immediately beneath it.1. a networking system is divided into layers.7 Layer 7: Application Layer 3 Cross Layer Functions 4 Interfaces 5 Examples 6 Comparison with TCP/IP 7 See also 8 References 9 External links History In 1978.6 Layer 6: Presentation Layer 2. The concept of a 7 layer model was provided by the work of Charles Bachman. OSI has two major components: an abstract model of networking. Within each layer. Note: The standard documents that describe the OSI model can be freely downloaded from the ITU-T as theX. but only some of them at no charge.4 Layer 4: Transport Layer 2.
In effect the SDU is the 'payload' of a given PDU.flow control Path determination andlogical addressing Physical addressing Media. and which the lower layer has not yet encapsulated into a protocol data unit (PDU). such as management and security. layer 'n'. Physical Network process to application Function Host layers Data representation. An N+1 entity requests services from the N entity. convert machine dependent data to machine independent data Interhost communication End-to-end connections and reliability. and is transmitted semantically unchanged to a peer service user. transforming it into a PDU of layer n-1. The added headers or footers are part of the process used to make it possible to get data from a source to a destination. A Service Data Unit (SDU) is a specific unit of data that has been passed down from an OSI layer to a lower layer. consists of an encapsulation process. The PDU at any given layer.800 Recommendation. involve every layer. .200. or both. performed by the lower layer.According to recommendation X. All the data contained in the SDU becomes encapsulated within the PDU. Session Segments 4. each generically known as an N layer. is the SDU of the layer below. The layer n-1 adds headers or footers. Data Link 1. Network 2. two entities (N-entity peers) interact by means of the N protocol by transmitting protocol data units (PDU). the process of changing a SDU to a PDU. signal and binary transmission Some orthogonal aspects. Security services are not related to a specific layer: they can be related by a number of layers. as defined by ITU-T X. Application Data 6. there are seven layers. encryption and decryption. That is. An SDU is a set of data that is sent by a user of the services of a given layer. Transport Packet Media Frame layers Bit 3. At each level. to the SDU. OSI Model Data unit Layer 7. layer 'n-1'. Presentation 5.
repeaters. Appropriate choices for these are needed to protect against denial of service.e. To understand the function of the Physical Layer.hn and IEEE 802. such as token ring. is present in data link protocols such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). Layer 1: Physical Layer The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices.e. integrity.4. IEEE work assumed sublayering and management functions not required for WAN use. whereas the Data Link Layer is concerned more with the interactions of multiple devices (i. contrast it with the functions of the Data Link Layer. availability) of transmitted data. For example. Various Physical Layer Ethernet standards are also in this layer. although it must be remembered that the logical SCSI protocol is a Transport Layer protocol that runs over this bus. hubs. Actually the availability of communication service is determined by network design and/or network management protocols. Originally. and. Layer 2: Data Link Layer The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer. at least two) with a shared medium. such as a copper or optical cable.. on local area networks. Parallel SCSI buses operate in this layer. In particular. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. voltages. Local area network architecture. Standards such as RS-232 do use physical wires to control access to the medium. only error detection. The same applies to other local-area networks. FDDI. . network adapters. Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the Data Link Layer.15.These services are aimed to improve the CIA triad(i. this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint media. not flow control using sliding window. characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system. host bus adapters (HBA used in storage area networks) and more. was developed independently of the ISO work in IEEE Project 802. contention resolution and flow control. Think of the Physical Layer as concerned primarily with the interaction of a single device with a medium. In modern practice. Modulation. which included broadcast-capable multiaccess media. ITU-TG. This includes the layout of pins.confidentiality.11. cablespecifications. The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are: Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link. as well as personal area networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802. it defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium.
detect and may correct errors. Both WAN and LAN service arrange bits. The MAC sublayer detects but does not correct errors. They are also capable of controlling the rate of transmission. includes a complete Data Link Layer which provides both error correction and flow control by means of a selective repeat Sliding Window Protocol. connectionless LANs began with the pre-IEEE Ethernet specification. X. which is the function of a Media Access Control sublayer. For example. obsolescent MAC layers include Token Ring and FDDI. in addition to framing. that is the case for SDLC and HDLC.that considers protocols that deal with the interface to networks. its flow control and acknowledgment mechanisms are rarely used. into logical sequences called frames. The addressing scheme is not hierarchical. which deals with addressing and multiplexing on multiaccess media. This layer manages the interaction of devices with a shared medium.11 the wireless LAN protocol. every fifth bit of the FDDI bit stream is not used by the Layer. WAN Protocol architecture Connection-oriented WAN data link protocols. and report delivery errors. Careful analysis of the Network Layer indicated that the Network Layer could have at least three sublayers: 1. This is a logical addressing scheme – values are chosen by the network engineer.3. Not all Physical Layer bits necessarily go into frames. Above this MAC sublayer is the media-independent IEEE 802. but is still used in niches where X.25 offers performance advantages. The ITU-T G. Sliding window flow control and acknowledgment is used at the Transport Layer by protocols such as TCP. While IEEE 802.the IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer.3 is the dominant wired LAN protocol and IEEE 802. while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport Layer.2 LLC layer is not used for most protocols on the Ethernet. The Network Layer performs network routing functions.25. which provides high-speed local area networking over existing wires (power lines. from the Physical Layer. Subnetwork Access . and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly. which is the ancestor of IEEE 802. and derivatives of HDLC such as LAPB and LAPD. IEEE 802 LAN architecture Practical. Layer 3: Network Layer The Network Layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks. such as . phone lines and coaxial cables).hn standard. and on other local area networks. A WAN Data Link Layer might implement a sliding window flow control and acknowledgment mechanism to provide reliable delivery of frames. Routers operate at this layer—sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. as some of these bits are purely intended for Physical Layer functions.
all OSI TP connection-mode protocol classes provide expedited data and preservation of record boundaries. Also. although TCP contains functions. These include routing protocols. The best example of this latter case is CLNP. providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers.25 as subnet access protocols because they carry interface addresses rather than node addresses. IPv4 and IPv6 would have to be classed with X. designed for less reliable networks.when it is necessary to bring the level of a transit network up to the level of networks on either side.2. router to router. The Transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if no errors occurred. Although not developed under the OSI Reference Model and not strictly conforming to the OSI definition of the Transport Layer. A number of layer management protocols. but only for the detection of erroneous packets so they may be discarded. This means that the Transport Layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. It is the function of the payload that makes these belong to the Network Layer. Some protocols are state and connection oriented. Subnetwork Dependent Convergence . both of which TCP is incapable. Of the actual OSI protocols. In this scheme. multicast group management. or IPv7 ISO 8473. 3. segmentation/desegmentation. and Network Layer address assignment. and error control. belong to the Network Layer. similar to the Internet). not the protocol that carries them. Layer 4: Transport Layer The Transport Layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users. It is not responsible for reliable delivery to a next hop. a function defined in the Management Annex. Subnetwork Independent Convergence . ISO 7498/4. there are five classes of connection-mode transport protocols ranging from class 0 (which is also known as TP0 and provides the least features) to class 4 (TP4.which handles transfer across multiple networks. Class 4 is closest to TCP. and was designed for use on network layers that provide error-free connections. from end system to ingress router. which OSI assigns to the Session Layer. It manages the connectionless transfer of data one hop at a time. The Transport Layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control. Detailed characteristics of TP0-4 classes are shown in the following table: Feature Name TP0 TP1 TP2 TP3 TP4 Connection oriented network Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes . typical examples of Layer 4 are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). and from egress router to destination end system. such as the graceful close. Network Layer information and error. Class 0 contains no error recovery.
tunneling protocols operate at the Transport Layer. While Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) might seem to be a Network Layer protocol. Roughly speaking. however. which deals with the dispatch and classification of mail and parcels sent. L2TP carries PPP frames inside transport packet. that a post office manages the outer envelope of mail. such as cryptographic presentation services that can be read by the addressee only. Layer 5: Session Layer . if the encapsulation of the payload takes place only at endpoint. Do remember.Connectionless network No No No No Yes Concatenation and separation No Yes Yes Yes Yes Segmentation and reassembly Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Error Recovery No Yes Yes Yes Yes Reinitiate connection (if an excessive number of PDUs are unacknowledged) No Yes No Yes No Multiplexing and demultiplexing over a single virtual circuit No No Yes Yes Yes Explicit flow control No No Yes Yes Yes Retransmission on timeout No No No No Yes Reliable Transport Service No Yes No Yes Yes Perhaps an easy way to visualize the Transport Layer is to compare it with a Post Office. Higher layers may have the equivalent of double envelopes. such as carrying non-IP protocols such as IBM's SNA or Novell's IPX over an IP network. GRE becomes closer to a transport protocol that uses IP headers but contains complete frames or packets to deliver to an endpoint. or end-to-end encryption with IPsec.
which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite. and synchronizing communication. the application layer must decide whether sufficient network or the requested communication exist. in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners. which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol. This layer provides independence from data representation (e. and also for session checkpointing and recovery. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions.400 Mail Common management information protocol (CMIP) . This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. and restart procedures. determining resource availability.The Session Layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units. Layer 6: Presentation Layer The Presentation Layer establishes context between Application Layer entities. Some examples of application layer implementations include: On OSI stack: FTAM File Transfer and Access Management Protocol X. and passed down the stack. termination.g. manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.. half-duplex. or simplex operation.1). Layer 7: Application Layer The Application Layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user. When identifying communication partners. If a mapping is available. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. adjournment. or serialization of objects and other data structures from and to XML. the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. It provides for full-duplex. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. The original presentation structure used the basic encoding rules of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN. encryption) by translating between application and network formats. When determining resource availability. In synchronizing communication. which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. The presentation layer transforms data into the form that the application accepts. with capabilities such as converting an EBCDIC-coded text file to an ASCII-coded file. The Session Layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls. and establishes checkpointing. It establishes. all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer.
800 Recommendation. For example Microsoft Windows' Winsock. On TCP/IP stack: Cross Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). and Unix's Berkeley sockets and System V Transport Layer Interface. monitor. i. Examples This section does not cite any references or sources. are interfaces between applications (Layer 5 and above) and the transport (Layer 4). Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. except for the Physical Layer to media. but they can affect more than one layer. other than as deliberately abstract service specifications. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). instantiate. but the software interfaces inside computers are implementation-specific. terminate the communications of two or more entities: there is a specific application layer protocolCommon management information protocol (CMIP) and its corresponding service common management information service (CMIS). (June 2010) Laye r OSI protocols TCP/IP protocols Signalin AppleTa IPX g System lk 7 S UMTS N A Misc. Examples are security service (telecommunication) as defined by ITU-T X. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Layer Functions There are some functions or services that are not tied to a given layer. NDIS and ODI are interfaces between the media (Layer 2) and the network protocol (Layer 3). examples # Na . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. they need to interact with every layer in order to deal with their instances. management functions.e functions that permit to configure. Protocol specifications precisely define the interfaces between different computers. Interface standards. are approximate implementations of OSI Service Specifications. Interfaces Neither the OSI Reference Model nor OSI protocols specify any programming interfaces.
S 7licat . P. RRC (Ra dio Resource Control) NBF.Q.226. SLIP.FTP.M App AFP. MIDI. XDR ISO/IEC 9576-1. TP4 4nsp (X. X. 6enta MIME. PPP. AP. ISO/IEC 8802-2 MTP. PP RTSE. X. DHCP.225. L2TP 25(LAPB).AppleT 802. RPC ISO/IEC 8073.235 D ASP.224). X. TP2. HTTP.236 AFP TDI.RTP X. L Remote Ethern C . TP EtherTal k ISO/IEC 8473k) 1.X.931. pher.7 LocalTal IEEE S 10 k. NNTP. SCTP.Telnet. ACSEC SMPP. TP0. ISPacket IS Data Converge nce Protocol( Leaky PDCP) and BMC bucket. Modbus ISO/IEC 8823. simplex. 25(PLP). Tra TP3. 802. Go INAP. in TCP.me FTAM. half duplex.234 TCP.S PX NBF ISO/IEC 8208.222. SSL. PPTP.AD NWLi L SP. tion X. DAP.NFS.RTMP. Sockets.400.OSPF IPX 223. Sess X. DCCP DDP. ort ISO/IEC 8602. ZIP A 500. IGMP.T AP ion NBP C  MIP RIP. Pres X. Session establishment 5 ion ISO/IEC 9548-1. 802. ATP(Tok Net ISO/IEC 8878. X.1 1a/b/g/n MAC/LLC. 802. ICMP. full duplex. UDP.PAP nk C? Named pipes. SAP.1 2Dat a Lin k ISO/IEC 7666. SNMP. MPE G ISO/IEC 8327. ASCII.3 (Ethernet). NTP. SCCP. DNS. Q. SMTP.TCA RIP.ISUP.CLNP X. TLS. EBC DIC. SIP. ROSE. Token Bus. NetBIOS. IPsec. BGP UP HL7. X. token (Broadca bucket st/Multic ast Control) LLC (Lo gical Link Control). TP1. SSI.233.M enTalkor 3wor IP.3fr D alk aming.X.
10 PhoneNe t Comparison with TCP/IP In the TCP/IP model of the Internet. 100BAS E-TX. these layers are nevertheless often compared with the OSI layering scheme in the following way: The Internet Application Layerincludes the OSI Application Layer. V. Its end-to-end Transport Layer includes the graceful close function of the OSI Session Layer as well as the OSI Transport Layer. G.34.T1.ARP ( edia maps layer 3 to Access layer 2 Control) address). Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) X. FDDI. E1. and most of the Session Layer. the internetworking range. RFC 3439 contains a section entitled "Layering considered harmful. CDP.SDH.hn x L1 PHY. Full duplex. SO NET. 10B ASE-T. DSL.hn DLL CRC.EIA/TIAl 449. V. while the Link Layer includes the OSI Data Link and Physical Layers. TCP/IP does recognize four broad layers of functionality which are derived from the operating scope of their contained protocols.RSMTP.921. These comparisons are based on the original seven- . IS L.Controller Area Network. ATM. Fibr e Channel. HDP. and lastly the scope of the direct links to other nodes on the local network. Even though the concept is different from the OSI model. RJ45." However. namely the scope of the software application. Bit stuffing. HDLC. Presentation Layer. the end-to-end transport connection. POTS.LLCType 1 and 2 et II Access.7 422. ITU-T G. Frame Relay. Q.EI Phy A/TIA1sica 232.25 (X. 431. 35.P framin PP g Q (VLAN). EIA-530.430.STP. T oken MAC (M Ring. PPP. I.21bis. I. as well as parts of OSI's Network Layer. The internetworking layer (Internet Layer) is a subset of the OSI Network Layer (see above). protocols are deliberately not as rigidly designed into strict layers as the OSI model.11a/b/g/n wi Physical PHY. 703)  RS232. ITU-T na Layer or G. T UMTS 802.Q. ARQ. D ata Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) RS-232.
. rather than refinements in such things as the internal organization of the Network Layer document.g. or in the description of tunneling protocols.layer protocol model as defined in ISO 7498. The presumably strict peer layering of the OSI model as it is usually described does not present contradictions in TCP/IP. as it is permissible that protocol usage does not follow the hierarchy implied in a layered model. OSPF). although the tunnel host protocol may well be a Transport or even an Application Layer protocol in its own right. . Such examples exist in some routing protocols (e. which provide a Link Layer for an application.
It is sometimes called the syntax layer. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. It deals with session and connection coordination. and dialogues between the applications at each end. manages and terminates connections betweenapplications. model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer. model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. and proceeding to the bottom layer. and vice versa. coordinates. Everything at this layer is application-specific. Communication partners are identified. Control is passed from one layer to the next. This layer provides application services for file transfers. congestion control and packet sequencing. and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Transport (Layer 4) This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. for transmitting data from node to node. quality of service is identified. and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. internetworking.. error handling. user authentication and privacy are considered. or hosts. proceeding to the bottom layer.com network. providing freedom from compatibility problems. and terminates conversations. e-mail. Webopedia is a part of the Internet. Control is passed from one layer to the next. exchanges. Sign up Already a member? Log in now. Last Updated: 10-08-2010 More Terms • • • • • • • • • • Huffman compression » ESCON » server(Sponsored) » SPX » Cisco Discovery Protocol » LANE » RS-485 » zone file » data transfer rate » ISDN » Stay up to date on the latest developments in internet terminology with a free weekly newsletter from Webopedia. By: Posted: 09-24-2010 . and other network software services. or Open System Interconnection.The 7 Layers of the OSI Model The OSI. Application (Layer 7) Sponsored PDF: Quick Evaluation Guide for Serial and Parallel Apps: Verify applications and find latent memory errors that cause crashes and lockups. The session layer sets up. starting at the application layer in one station.encryption) by translating from application to network format. Join to subscribe now. The OSI. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer. over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. starting at the application layer in one station. creating logical paths. or Open System Interconnection. Presentation (Layer 6) This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e. Session (Layer 5) This layer establishes. as well as addressing. It ensures complete data transfer. This layer supports application and end-user processes. . over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy. known as virtual circuits. Network (Layer 3) This layer provides switching and routing technologies.g.
flow control and error checking. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it.electrical impulse. flow control and frame synchronization. cards and physical aspects. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization. It furnishestransmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer. and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.Data Link (Layer 2) At this layer. RS232. It provides the hardwaremeans of sending and receiving data on a carrier.through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. including defining cables. Physical (Layer 1) This layer conveys the bit stream . light or radio signal -. Fast Ethernet. The OSI Reference Model is founded on a suggestion developed by the International Organization for .
enhanced teaching/learning. The OSI Model is a model that illustrates how data communications should take place. systems that are open for communication with other systems. and standard interfaces. The short form used to memorize the layer names of the OSI Model is “AllPeople Seem To Need DataProcessing” . The layered approach to network communications gives the subsequent advantages: Reduced intricacy. formerly known as the CCITT (Comite Consultatif Internationale de Telegraphique et Telephone). The lower two layers are normally put into practice with hardware and software. OSI Model is a set of protocols that try to identify and homogenize the data communication practices. including the United States. modular engineering. and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). including the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). The model is known as ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model because it relates with connecting open systems – that is.Standardization (ISO). accelerated advancement. It segregates the process into seven groups. American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It is modular. The OSI Model affirms what protocols and standards should be used at each layer. interoperable technology. Into these layers are integrated the protocol standards developed by the ISO and other standards organization. and most governments. The remaining five layers are only implemented with software. The OSI Model has the support of most computer and network vendors. many big customers. The Seven Layers of the OSI Model The seven layers of the OSI model are: Layer Name 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical The easiest way to remember the layers of the OSI model is to use the handy mnemonic "All People Seem To Need Data Processing": Layer Name Mnemonic 7 Application All . called layers. each layer of the OSI Model functions with the one above and below it.
Routers operate at the Network Layer. were designed and built around the needs of real users with real problems to solve. Layer One of the OSI Model The Physical Layer of the OSI model is responsible for bit-level transmission between network nodes. The Real World The most major difficulty with the OSI model is that is does not map well to the real world! The OSI was created after many of todays protocols were already in production use. Layer Two of the OSI Model The Data Link Layer of the OSI model is responsible for communications between adjacent network nodes. and network management. Layer Five of the OSI Model The Session Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing process-to-process commnunications between networked hosts. electronic messaging. virtual terminal access. Encryption and compression should be Presentation Layer functions. The Physical Layer defines items such as: connector types. The OSI model was created by academicians for academic purposes. The Transport Layer should be responsible for fragmentation and reassembly. Layer Six of the OSI Model The Presentation Layer of the OSI model is responsible for defining the syntax which two network hosts use to communicate. . These existing protocols. This is the layer with which the user interacts. such as file transfers. and pin-outs. e-mail. voltages. Layer Three of the OSI Model The Network Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing paths for data transfer through the network. Layer Four of the OSI Model The Transport Layer of the OSI model is responsible for delivering messages between networked hosts. cable types. The OSI Model vs. Hubs and switches operate at the Data Link Layer.6 5 4 3 2 1 Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical People Seem To Need Data Processing The functions of the seven layers of the OSI model are: Layer Seven of the OSI Model The Application Layer of the OSI model is responsible for providing end-user services. such as TCP/IP.
as well as they can be mapped.The OSI model is a very poor standard. but it's the only well-recognized standard we have which describes networked applications. SNMP RPC. disco. telnet. NETBIOS TCP. Layer Name 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Common Protocols SSH. . A much more accurate model of real-world networking is the TCP/IP model: TCP/IP Model Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer The most significant downside with the TCP/IP model is that if you reference it. fewer people will know what you are talking about! For a better description of why the OSI model should go the way of the dodo. and DivX. The easiest way to deal with the OSI model is to map the real-world protocols to the model. Named Pipes. SMTP. read Kill the Beast: Why the Seven-Layer Model Must Die. You could argue forever about what OSI model layer SSH maps to. FTP HTTP. UDP IP Ethernet Cat-5 The difficulty with this approach is that there is no general agreement as to which layer of the OSI model to map any specific protocol.
Data link layer is used by hubs and switches for their operation. It also guarantee error free data delivery without loss or duplications. Expanding graphics command and the date compression. This layer is also responsible for addressing. determining routes for sending and managing network problems such as packet switching.What is OSI Model? The OSI Model is used to describe networks and network application. This layer is responsible for establishing and ending the sessions across the network. 1) Physical Layer : Physical Layer is responsible for transmitting row bit stream over the physical cable. 6) Presentation Layer : The Presentation layer is responsible for protocol conversion. This layer makes the communications between two host possible. It first divides the streams of data into chunks or packets before transmission and then the receiving computer re-assembles the packets. 4) Transport Layer : This layer is responsible for end-to-end delivers of messages between the networked hosts. Layers of OSI Model Three are Sever Layers of OSI Model : OSI Layer Diagram: 7) Application Layer : The application layer provider different services to the application. The physical layer defines the hardware items such as cables. The interactive login is an example of services provided by this layer in which the connective are re-connected in care of any interruption. 2) Data Link Layer : Data link layer is responsible for controlling the error between adjacent nodes and transfer the frames to other computer via physical layer. virtual terminal access and network management. Example of services provided by this layer are file transfer. electronic messaging e-mail. 5) Session Layer : This layer is responsible for establishing the process-to-process communication between the host in the network. date encryption/decryption. voltages etc. data congestion and routines. cards. How to remember the layer of OSI model? The easiest way to remember the different layers of OSI Model is to use the mnemonic "All people seem To need Data Processing": . 3) Network Layer : This layer is responsible for translating the logical network address and names into their physical address ( MAC address).
Layer Name Mnemonic 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing .