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Nonlinear Static Analysis of Landing Gear According

to FAR/JAR 23 regulation
Ing. Martin Plhal, Ph.D.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Institute of Aerospace Engineering
Technická 2, Brno, 616 69, Czech Republic

The paper is focused on the static analysis of the aircraft landing gears according to the regulation
FAR/JAR 23. In all loading cases, there is considered material and geometric non-linearity, contacts and
fiction between some part some landing gear and carried out verification of analysis results with
comparative testing. The model was created and analyzed using MSC.PATRAN (pre/post-processor)
and MSC.NASTRAN (solver) software packages.

Geometrical model wheel landing gear model has total of 350000

The non-linear static analysis will be quadratic volume elements TET10. The model
demonstrated on the example of landing gears consists of ten main parts, connected with
for a small 4-seater GA airplane. The airplane is respect to the contact and friction boundary
designed according to JAR/FAR-23 regulations condition. The contacts between main parts of
(JAR regulation is currently in the process of the landing gear were modeled using slot
transformation into CS requirements). The element CGAP.
geometry was subsequently transferred (via
parasolid) to the MSC.PATRAN preprocessor.
This allowed creation of the finite element (FEM)
model of the seat. The geometry of the landing
gears is on the figure 1.

Figure 2 Main landing gear - FEM model

Figure 1 Main landing gear

FEM model preparation

For the structural analysis of each load case,
the finite element models were created. It
includes the meshing procedure for
development of the finite element structure, the
contact condition, the boundary condition and
load modeling. For all of the considered models,
the boundary conditions and loads were
completely identical with the experimental
conditions. For defining the FEM model, the
MSC.PATRAN was used. The mentioned
models are performed in figure 2 to 4. The nose- Figure 3 Nose-wheel landing gear
Material models Structural tests results
Materials in the landing gears construction were The testing was accomplished in producer of
defined using MATS1 ( this material model landing gears. The load was generated with a
defines properties of non-linear isotropic elasto- hydraulic actuator (INOVA). The strain gauges
plastic material ). This material model enables were located at points corresponding to the
calculation of permanent deformations. areas with maximum stress level, predicted by
FEM analysis. For each load step, the stress in
Military Handbook - MIL-HDBK-5H: Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace
Vehicle Structures (Knovel Interactive Edition)
the single points and the deformation were
AISI 4340 - 180ksi = 1250MPa Stress[Mpa]
recorded. The deformation of the gears during
the tests was recorded with a digital video
camera; deformation of the stiffening rib was
recorded with digital mini camera.
Napětí [ MPa ]





0,00 2,00 4,00 6,00 8,00 10,00 12,00 14,00 16,00
Prodloužení [ % ]

The analysis of loads is not a subject of this
paper; all the applied loads correspond with real
load cases defined by JAR/FAR 23 regulations.
Figure 5 Deformation of the stiffening rib-
Computation and results structural test
Our task is geometrically and materially non-
linear. It is necessary to use the non-linear Conclusion
solution in MSC.NASTRAN (SOL 106). The Finally, it can be said that the precision of the
loading is applied in steps with an increment FEM simulation was successfully verified for the
10%. In each load step form F to F+dF, the discussed FEM models with structural tests. In
displacements for all the nodes, the load the future, developing of new landing gear,
application point and the stiffness matrix are similar conception, and small modifications
updated. Simply, the force follows the deformed present landing gear could be certified using just
shape. At the same time, the stress-strain curve the numerical simulation without expensive
is taken into account. Stability loss of the static tests but only with respect to material
stiffening rib may be predicted but only with and namely geometric non-linearity. The
respect to material and namely geometric non- effect of friction can be neglected.

[1] FAR Part 23: Airworthiness standards:
Transport category airplanes. Federal Aviation
Administration, Washington, D.C. 7/2002

[2] MSC.NASTRAN Handbook for

Nonlinear Analysis, Version 67, the MacNeal-
Schwendler Corporation, Los Angeles, CA,
December 1992

Figure 4 von Mises stress tensor distribution