Orientalizing Costume in Early Fifteenth-Century French Manuscript Painting (Cité des Dames Master, Limbourg Brothers, Boucicaut

Master, and Bedford Master) Author(s): Joyce Kubiski Source: Gesta, Vol. 40, No. 2 (2001), pp. 161-180 Published by: International Center of Medieval Art Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/767244 Accessed: 22/06/2010 17:55
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=icma. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

International Center of Medieval Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Gesta.


Orientalizing Costume in Early Fifteenth-CenturyFrench Manuscript Painting (Citd des Dames Master, Limbourg Brothers, Boucicaut Master, and Bedford Master)*
Western Michigan University

Abstract A group of miniaturists working in or near Paris between 1400 and 1415 significantly expanded the existing pictorial repertoire of orientalizing costume. Theydepicted elements of the eastern fashions worn by peoples with whom the French aristocracy had had recent contact-in battle and through diplomaticembassies-including CentralAsian tribes that had settled in Hungary, thepredominantlyTurkish armies of Islam, and members of the Byzantine court. While the miniaturists often mix together garments from a variety of different cultures into an eclectic costume, the individual elements of the clothing are authentic representations of foreign dress. This approach, which paradoxically allowed individualfeatures of dress to be identifiedwhile, at the same time, obscuring cultural origins in an exotic, fantastical mix, merges easterners into an indistinct, entirelyforeign other. Introduction

In the early years of the fifteenth century, a group of Parisian illuminators--the Cite'des Dames Master, the three Limbourg brothers, the Boucicaut Master, and the Bedford Master-greatly enriched the French pictorial repertory of eastern dress.' While representationsof eastern clothing had appeared in western art for hundreds of years, these miniaturists distinguished themselves from their predecessors by depicting an unprecedentedquantity and variety of orientalizing fashions.2These exotic costumes have long been noted, with scholarly opinion divided as to how realistically French artists rendered foreign dress. The prevailing opinion is that the costumes are predominately fantastic in design-the end result of a little knowledge and a lot of imagination.3A few scholars have suggested that western artists did at times base on theirrepresentations actualitems of easterndress. However, even those who argue for occasional accuracy have offered in defense of their claim only the drawings of Byzantine court costume made in the mid-fifteenthcenturyby the Italianartist Pisanello, as well as rathergeneralreferencesto turban-bearing Saracens.4 This reexamination of the eastern fashions depicted by the Cite'des Dames Master,the Limbourgbrothers,the BoucicautMaster,andthe BedfordMasterwill demonstrate these that artists strove to representaccurately aspects of contemporary

clothing worn by a wide variety of eastern people including Turks, Mongols, Mamluks, Persians, Byzantine Greeks, and ethnic groups in EasternEuropeincluding Cumansand Wallachians. Significantly,and for reasons that will be explored, the artistsrarelyrepresented complete ethnic costume. Oftenthey a would depict a foreign hat but not the distinctive garments, shoes, and accessories culturallyassociatedwith the hat, dressing their figures instead in simple tunics. At times they took featuresfrom a variety of foreign and domestic wardrobesand combined them into a rich melange. For example, a single figure might wear a Turkishhat, pseudo-Romanarmor,and an elaboratelydagged French gown, while carrying a Byzantine shield. In these cases, the individual details of the dress are authentic,while the complete ensemble is fantastical. Modernevidence for our illuminators' knowledge of eastern dress derives mainly from pictorial sources and, in rare instances, from literary descriptions. Especially valuable are eastern representationsof eastern clothing, for these provide independentwitnesses to motifs found in Frenchmanuscripts, allowing direct comparisons to be made. There is, of course, always a danger in assuming that medieval representationsof dress arereliable indicatorsof what people actually wore. Costume historians are aware that artists may have represented traditionalor archaicfashions ratherthan contemporaryclothing or altered contemporarydress for iconographic purposes. Moreover, they may have had incomplete knowledge of the clothing they were seeking to depict, or they may have been little interestedin representingit with much detail.5A dependable history of medieval dress can only be constructedwhen pictorial evidence is compared with archaeological material and written documents. Several generations of such research into late medieval representationsof dress in both Europeand the Islamic world support the conclusion that art in this era can be a reliable indicator of contemporaryclothing, if each claim to authenticity is tested. It should be noted that this study is not concerned with the complexities of eastern selfrepresentation but with how French artists deployed their knowledge of eastern dress. The eastern sources drawn upon in this study include Hungarianrepresentationsof Cumans, a population of Central Asian nomads living in Hungary, as well as Byzantine

GESTAXL/2 @ The InternationalCenter of Medieval Art 2001


:.I. as Turkish military dynasties came to control much of the Middle East.: --:::::: ::-::::::: -: x I _: i. it can be noted at the outset that depictions of orientalizing clothing in French miniaturepainting increased dramaticallyfollowing two significant events at the turn of the century:the Battle of Nicopolis. :: i~ ---i~ i-iiii :::I-::::: -:. ::i. c i j i:-i-:-il--:"i:2_4 I: ::...:. held the wealthiest of the captives for ransom.:l. English. Bayezid I.i :::.8The Turkishsultan.? "? "~ ?". Turkish.:-:: -----~-----. ::::::i.:::-- i~~ .----.. They did not return home until February of 1398.. Paris.liL ? *:: :::: iii --i~i ::::I:: -iiiiil -:: P i' i: ~". For costumes of people living further to the east in Asia and to the south in North Africa. Chevalier errant...~ i----~ ".from the late thirteenthto the mid-fifteenthcentury. --~i-i--i-i:i:---: Z ijt? ~iiiili :i-i -- ~: " :--i-i:_ ~ii?i:i-::--:'i::ii:i----:_iiiii:i:-:-:::::-:__::i--i--::: :. i?i ~1 ~ -:-:-:::: :_: B:. Styrian.j-_ ~~iiij-i~i~l:?_:::~i:_ .... ii --:-: .. MS fr..::~ :::::::: : -::::: :: i--_i-i-iii :~----iiiiiiiiiii :I a -i-i.. i::: -: _illl .-. The Islamic world was a syncretic blend of Arab..-'-b :iir-? :-:_::_?. 162 (photo: Bibliotheque nationale de France).i:~iii:i-i-i -i:.i __i~iii--"." ??i~ii ::_i::_ :Xiiiiii :::~ ':' liiii':::::::. particularlywhen the Mongols ruled Persia.. Cite des Dames Master. 1396.---: -: i -. 12559. ~~i : :::_::-----:-i_:i~i::-i::i:::i:-:::: :::::::::::::::: Di-:~:~i. A questionfundamentalto this undertaking how French is miniaturistsat the beginning of the fifteenth century would have acquiredinformation about foreign dress.ii _i:: .- -:-----::i ..__. . and the residence of the Byzantine courtin Parisfrom 1400 to 1402..'r. and the clothing worn reflects this eclecticism. Spanish.ii::----:-. the largest single contingent was made up of Burgundianand other French knights led by Count John of Nevers. almost two years after their date of departure. a pan-European army was defeated by the Ottoman Turks at Nicopolis....."' -U -:j :* i:: : i:- I~iiiiiiiiiiiiiii ::-iiiiiiiiiiiiii::::-:::::?::-:-:::-::-i-:iiiiiiiii -i- E -:-::--- i -?: . Another influx of Central Asian fashion followed in the wake of the Mongol invasions. Persian. The comparisons madehere between westernand easterndepictions of oriental costume are not meant to imply that the illuminators had ready access to easternpictorial sources.. i-ii i i i: i .--.Gallipoli. German. L:: :' lbl' O *? -i~ *rll iiiii--iii ?:i ~ atrg %:a r a :ii.Bohemian.ii?:is..7Although the crusadingcoalition included Hungarian.Shortly afterthis ill-fated crusade. Princes of the East in Thomas of Saluzzo. and Mongol cultures._--_ . Manuel II visited Europe with the hopes of .ii:i-l ~.-.::::.i i B s I r ~ :::r :f ri i a[ r :':' : :--"::: ~I iii: :'i :.:I---::-:iil:iii. we must weave together a variety of kinds of evidence. ::_::i:i:i::.:::::::-:-::.including about threehundred Frenchknights.~~:)9 i~~ r .ii -..-.. Although a more detailed discussion of possible sources will follow in the con162 clusion to this paper. duke of Burgundy.i..the Byzantine emperor.6 This sharingof vestimentary traditions means that Europeans during the late Middle Ages wouldhave seen the easternotherwearinga richly varied arrayof clothing.-.----i?iaii-r :-:::-.-. son of Philip the Bold.. and Bursa before they were released to Venice.:::' -~--i~i-_::--I ------:::I-g . and Italianforces. .---::-: -i?i..~ I -::::: :I::-'Z--~: :-iiii i? ~iii iiiii i ii ::1 i:_i 1' f P ::::::"?:. ? -.:::::::~. Biblioth que nationale de France.-.-:iiil??l~ll-:ii~. Polish. located on the Danube in modernday Bulgaria. Turkish influence on fashion was especially strong from the late eleventh century on. On September 26.Wallachian.._:_:_:.::: _i ::I::-:-.in :~-.9 The vanquishedcrusadersspent nine months in Turkishcustody in Adrianople. Berber.-. fol. I i _:-ii?i: .~--i :~~~ -:-:i.:ii:i:--:--iiiii:iiiii~iiiii-s~ii_:-:. self-representationsand Italianportraitsof Byzantine personalities.: :_:::::::: :-:::::i-:-i--: ii :: ---::::: i_: --i::-_ s i . where they remaineduntil theirransomwas paid in full.-.:i i .:: -i ::::-:::-:::::: ::: i :r ? i -. which took place in 1396.~iiiii-i-ii~ ::i.::_~:~~-i-i: :::-~ ~~-i~..~ii iii FIGURE 1.: -'i : i -::::-.iiiii--i---ii i--~l.ii es ?:i-i .

Turkish. Perhaps this is the hat that Pseudo-Kodinos said was worn by emperor and court officials alike in the Palaeologan era-a hat called the skiadion in reference to the shadow the brim casts over the wearer'sface. slipped deeper into insanity. Saluzzo wrote the text of the Chevalier errantin Frenchbetween 1394 and 1396 while he was imprisoned by his political rival.Mongol. 1400. When illustrating the Chevalier errant.the brim was always divided into front and back sections that could be independently folded up or down (Fig.there are several examples from mid-century. the inner figure of two conversing men in the of lower left cornerof the miniaturemay be a portrait the Byzantine emperor.who were closely guardingroyal interests as their nephew. not only for the variety of its eastern costume but also for the amount of authentic detail it incorporates. Musde du Louvre.Mongol. shielding the eyes from the sun. The Cite des Dames Master One of the earliest witnesses to the new French experience of eastern dress is a richly illustrated copy of Thomas of Saluzzo's Chevalier errant now in the Bibliotheque nationale de France. and two Persian carpets appearas well. This is one of the most remarkableminiaturesof the time. and Persianfashions during the late fourteenthand early fifteenthcenturies. 1).Inv. The exoticism is sharpenedthroughcontrastwith the facing miniature. 2). a leopard. set in a grassy oasis and surrounded tents. and he and his shop typically dressed the Europeanprotagonists.The simultaneousmultiplicationof easterndress in Frenchpainting suggests this contact provided artists with both information and inspiration. in which an associated illuminator has painted the Princes of the West dressed entirely in western clothing and placed in a typical Europeansetting. Portrait medal. most likely illuminated his fourth and final trip to Paris from 1403 to 1405. FIGURE2. and Saluzzo himself. Otherthan a brief trip to England in the early winter of 1400. includingan extended stay in 1401 duringthe residenceof the Byzantine court.13 This illuminator specialized in the production of secular works written by Europeanauthors. in French fashions. He arrivedin Paris on June 3.16Although no Byzantine representationsof this traditionalhat with the Asiatic crown survive from the early fifteenth century. MRR330 (photo: Rduniondes Musees Nationaux/Art Resource.15 Although hats like these can be found in Byzantine art as early as the twelfth century. Manuel II.Mamluk. wears a hat that mirrors closely the one painted by the Citd des Dames Master (Fig.whether contemporary.and Wallachian features. departing again for Constantinopleon November 21. he was called upon to depict a convocation of the Princes of the East (Fig. NY).This enlisting aid for yet anothercrusade against the Turks. including the dukes of Berry and Burgundy. the duke of Savoy. a city in northernItaly with strong ties to France. A lion.17The most famous depictions are owed to Pisanello.The princes. or historical figures.that depicted by the Cite des Dames Master specifically documents the influence of Turkish. 1438/9. In Pisanello's drawings and in a portraitmedal.18 163 . The manuscriptunderconsiderationwas the author's personalcopy. 1402. who documented the costume of the Greek court during its residence in Florence at the time of the Council of Reconciliation (1438/39). or even personalities." Thomas was the marquis of Saluzzo.12 during Millard Meiss has attributedits ninety-four miniaturesto the Cite des Dames Master and his workshop. ca.MuradI.allegorical. He made several tripsto Parisin his lifetime. creatingan exotic melange for the medieval viewer. CharlesVI.10 was the first time a Byzantine emperor had traveled so far west. John VIII Palaeologus. This figure wears a popular Byzantine hat with a high roundedcrown and a pointed brim that projects over the face. Manuel'sson.Cuman. Pisanello. These two events broughtdiverse easternculturesdirectly into the quotidian experience of the French aristocracy. however. Philip the Bold. 5e). For example. His chivalric allegory incorporateshistorical and contemporarycharacters includingGenghis Khan. Manuel and his retinue of about fifty remainedin Paris for over two years.Manuel Laskares Chatzikes wears one in the funerary portraitpainted in the church of Pantanassa in Mistra shortly after his death in 1445. Most of the Valois court was in Paris duringthis time. and was lodged at the Louvre as a guest of Charles VI. wear costumes thathave specifically by Byzantine. John VIII Palaeologus.14 So precisely accurateare details of the princes'costumes thatit is possible the Citddes Dames Masterintendedto create sartorialportraitsof distinct ethnicities.Under Asiatic influence the crown became higher and was divided into vertical sections decoratedwith gold cording.

24 Like the one painted by the Cite des Dames Master. Hanging sleeves are an ancient eastern tradition.ovoid in profile with a long end-piece that trails down the back.The figurepainted by the Cite des Dames Masterwears a distinctive turban.23 prince include a short tunic with bell-like sleeves worn over a long under-tunic. retaineda specific memoryof Manuel II.Mongol. although centralopenings were also used. 1416. Of course the turbanitself was a ubiquitous head covering among Central Asian. . although they preThe garments worn by this ferred the sword belt in combat. It had an ancient heritage and was often used in western art as a sign for "Saracens.like many other articles of oriental dress. which characterizethe style of over-garment worn by high-ranking shaikhs as having wide sleeves and a single opening over the shoulders. Slit at the height of the elbows to allow the forearmsto emerge. which the French crusaderscould thus have seen at Nicopolis. the cut of the over-tunic correspondsto written descriptions of Mamlukdress.The African figure standing between the two seated groups of men wears identifiable articles of Egyptian Abbasid or Mamluk dress. "dressed in his imperial garb of white silk [and] seated . 1402). Long.Perhapsthe miniaturist. according to the chronicle of Saint-Denis. 164 Nevertheless. since this was common Byzantine dress.and North African peoples. and Spain.except in a few tribal areas in the Middle East. Dated July 13. representedin French art until the early fifteenth century. who made his entry into Paris on June 3."The chronicleralso notes the emperor's"modest stature. Mamluk. though under a long beard and showing white hair everywhere. since their costumes are not finished with the same amount of detail. Cuman. including his hat. and shown him with a long white beard. He wears a tunic closed down the front with gold frog buttons. mid-eastern. and they continued common among Turksand Persiansin the Middle Ages. former tary. The accuratelyclad "Byzantine"and "Mamluk"princes provide the most complete sartorialportraitsin the miniature. the sultan who defeated the Nicopolis crusaders.25 We may note that Ottoman foot soldiers also employed the baldric. a fastening system used by the Saljuq. distinguished by a manly chest and by yet firmer limbs. It continued to be a part of the Abbasid caliphs' ceremonial dress.Turkish. The clothing style of both dynasties was affected by the incorporation of Central Asian fashions of the Turkish miliMamluks(1250-1517).including Persian. this manuscriptincludes an account of the life of Bayezid I (d. 3).While Islamic fashion often layered garments. on the white horse presentedto him by the king.or Thomas of Saluzzo himself. it is a narrowtunic typically closed by a side fastening underthe right or left arm. Ayybid. traceable to the fourth century at least in ancient Persia. turban with trailing end-piece. 1400. such short tunics were usually worn over trousers. and it is one of the earliest The surviving illuminated manuscripts written in Turkish. to my knowledge.the turbansrepresented by western artists were rathergeneric in form.20 Notably.19 a mantle with exceedingly long sleeves. the central figure of three seated on a carpet wears a turbandecoratedwith a large jewel as well as a caftan. and Ottoman Turksof the late Middle Ages-one of many Asiatic fashion features Over this garment."21 In at least one other instance in the Princes of the East miniaturethe Cite des Dames Master seems to have been attempting to representa particularethnic identity."Previous to the fifteenth century. The Citddes Dames Master. the emperorJohn VIII Palaeologus wears a mantle with overly long and very wide sleeves. The turban worn by the prince in the caftan. Similar mantles are depicted in the fourteenth-century funerary portraits at the Kariye Camii in Constantinople. andByzantine Greeksvisiting the French Court may have worn short tunics over longer ones. The baldric was used by the first caliphs in the seventh century. Mamluk. it is not. North Africa.he wears adoptedby the Byzantine court.The garments worn by the fictional prince of the East accuratelyreflect Byzantine fashion. side-wrapped and fastened under the left arm.26 Nonetheless the illuminator'scombination of wide-sleeved coat. Nonetheless it is possible to confirmthe accuracyof individual articles of dress. slit sleeves appearedin Byzantine art as early as the eleventh the centuryand remainedpopularthroughout fifteenthcentury.27 Cite des Dames Master's The in caftan is quite similar to one represented an early fifteenthcentury Turkishcopy of the Romance of Alexander the Great (Fig. It proves impossible to determine the precise ethnicity of the other princes.especially afterthe Turkish mercenaries. these over-garments were often finished with a decorativebanding aroundthe neck and sleeve hem.and Byzantine. and.28 necklines of the caftans both in this manuscript and in the Princes of the East miniature are decorated with a simple scalloped edging. in one of Pisanello's drawings. the sleeves fall almost to the ankles.22 The Egyptian prince also. Although partially obscured by his companions. appropriately. taperingslightly along their length. Although the caftan would have been one of the eastern garmentsmost commonly seen by western crusaders and adventurers. however. the Cite des Dames Master has dressed his "Byzantine" figureentirely in white.replacedthe Islamic Abbasids. and saber and baldric worn by this African figure may indicate authentic knowledge of contemporary Egyptian ceremonial dress. and the artist mixes features from a variety of ethnic sources or incorporatesfeatures that are omnipresent in the Islamic world. decorated with a large jewel. and Mamluk sultans soon copied this custom. but in the Arab world it had fallen into disuse by the eleventh century. carries his saber over his shoulder in a baldric ratherthan on a sword belt. also finds many parallels. has representedten turbans in this one miniature that demonstrate in a remarkableway the wide variety of turban-wrapping techniques used in the . The form of the caftan is well-attested: found in many easternwardrobes. This style of turbanoriginatedin Baghdadduringthe early Abbasid period and then migratedto Egypt where it was used at court well into the Mamluk period.

. was painted by the Cite des Dames Master. like others in the miniature.. where the collar is largerand stiffer.Islamic world. as demonstratedby the funeral portraitsin the Kariye Camii and by Pisanello's portraitof John Palaeologus (Fig. most commonly placed on the upper arm of a garment (Fig. This type of hat-turbancombination is worn by one of the four princes seated at the center of the miniature:the figure also has hair plaited in a long single braidreachinghalfway down his back. often incorporating inscriptions. 309... 165 ..likely had eastern connotations: at the turn of the century.. a traditional hairstyle of many ethnic groups indigenous to the Asian Steppes. .29 Another common practice was to twist the winding cloth into a thick cord and to wear it as a headband. A figure in full armor des is never represented. which may be worn as either a tunic or a coat.31 The Cite des Dames Master has not reproducedthe garment with the same detail found in either the eastern or the Italianrenderings.32 In his depiction of foreign military dress and equipment. 2). Wornwith sandals.The most extraordinary these was an enormous turbanwound into an ellipsoidal shape. Biblioth que nationale de France..rather. the leggings held the voluminous fabric of Turkishpants against the calves. standing at the far right..Cumans. i . while his neighbor . 4)... Collar and lining are often in a color contrasting with the main body of the garment. and Mongols. 114v (photo: Bibliotheque nationale de France). b.small details such as swords and shields aredeemed sufficientto signify the easternother. while a large.. 4a. the Cite" Dames Masteris selective. although several aredecoratedby tirazbands. while Central Asian tribesmen wielding the composite The bow preferred a small circular shield for protection... * tlI~i . This is an IranoCentral Asian feature that was transferredto the Arab world by the Turkishmilitary dynasties.Oversized and dramatically curvingsabersappeartwice: one is held the figure wearing the turbanwith a trailing end-piece and by the other by the central figure in the group to the far right. Another practice was to wrap the cord aroundthe bottom half of a hat or helmet.... In Persianand Turkishexamples. These garmentsusually fasten down the front with a series of closely spacedbuttonsthatat times continuedecorativelyalong the inner edges of the collar. used to decorate clothing or turbans. f). MS turc. However.. .33 The saber-bearingfigure on the left also holds a kite-shaped shield. they took the place of expensive leather boots and The were typically worn by the infantry. . 3). tiraz bands are richly embroideredstrips of cloth. where the collar is quite thin. It suffices to compare the Princes of the East miniature with drawings that replicate the turbans found in Islamic sources of diverse provenance dated between 1330 and 1420 (Fig.: FIGURE 3.. Paris. the garment may have a side closure.. This weapon came out of the CentralAsian Steppes and was employed by both Turkishand Mongol tribes as early as the eighth century.. the Byzantine army was using a full-length kite-shaped shield with this concave profile. fol. His legs are wrapped with strips of cloth from the ankle to the knee.. and also of Byzantine and Bulgariandress. ~f'P'il .30 The miniaturisthas dressed six figuresin a garmentdecorated with a pointed collar. In Byzantine art it is worn as an outer garment. Thejeweled turban was another element of Abbasid dress that was adopted of by the Mamluks. The Abbasid or Mamluk turbanwith the trailingend-piece has alreadybeen discussed. to the right carries a small round one. By the fourteenthcentury it was in common use throughoutthe Middle East and had made an appearance in Byzantium and EasternEurope. these items. which was worn by the caliph.. Romance of Alexander the Great.34 costume of the figure with the saber and kite-shaped shield displays another unusual feature. It is difficult to assign a specific ethnicity to these shields as both were employed at various times in the East and in the West. including Turks. Standardfeaturesof both Islamic and Byzantine dress.. creating a thick brim (Figs. This is a feature of Turkishand Persiandress. The entire turbanwas ornamentedwith jewels.. This is how the turbanof anotherAfrican prince. single gem was centered at the caliph's forehead..35 figure represented by the Cite des Dames Master is barefoot.

paintedca.1371. Chester Beatty Library. except that the French miniaturist has lined the brim with ermine and placed a fleur-de-lys crown at its pinnacle. and zigzagged to crescent-shaped. pointing to an origin in the CentralAsian Steppes. It is similar to the previously discussed hat and to others that appear in Persian. can be identified by comparisonwith images in the HungarianIlluminatedChronicle. however.Boston. Brims may also be constructed of fur or fashioned from the winding cloth of a turban. 6. and Mongol peoples united by a common Islamic faith.Topkapu Saray Museum. By this time Iranhad become a melting pot of Persian. 149) (drawings by Karen Bondarchuk).Granada. is most frequently encountered in Hungarian art.The rathergeneric quality of many of the garments and much of the military equipment depicted by the Citd des Dames Master leaves his distinctive hats and turbans as the most significant markersof foreign identity in the Princes of the East miniature.private collection (Grabar and Blair. Nihayat al Su'l (Furusiyah). Mongol. 1413. Museumof Fine Arts. Anotherunusualhat in the Princes of the East miniature.MS Revan 1023. 1330-1360. a small fleur-de-lys crown and surroundedby a wide. in cases where the crown was divided into vertical segments.Istanbul. divided into front and back sections.Add. e. And indeed two other western-styled crowns appearin the miniature.38The hat has a tall.as well as in Turkish-influenced under Mongol (Ilkhanidor Timurid)hegemscripts produced ony during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Fig. where thirty-sevendifferenttypes of headgearare depicted. The Demotte Shahnama is a copy of this text producedbetween 1330 and 1360 under the Mongol Ilkhanid rulers of Persia. They were. 37 The Shahnamaitself is a recordof Iranianpre-Islamichistory and legend gathered together in about the year 1000 at the Turkishcourtof Mahmadof Ghazna. Painted LeatherCeiling. sits atop a turban. visual. Kalilawa Dimna. Islamic turbanstyles: a. Demotte Shahnama. 22. Dublin. p.The focus on hats as signifiers may reflect the recent popularityof hats in Frenchcourtly fashion:36 viewers would have been primed to revel in these exotic displays. and Turkish art. 1360 (Figs. b. or descriptive sources. worn by a figure at the far upper left. One of these. 1980.London.Turkish.rulerof the northeastern province of the Persian world.scalloped.f Demotte Shahnama. Many of the medieval hats are still worn today in Turkeyand Mongolia.Despite these iconographicintrusions. d. 51).the simiof larities between eastern and western representations "Persian"headgearare often so strikingthatwe must conclude that the Citi des Dames Master and his fellow artists knew these hats througheither material. ca. more improbably. turnedup brim split in the center is worn by one of the four seated princes. pointed crown bent into a slight curve and a flat brim which has been 166 a b c d e f FIGURE4. The tall pointed hat with the wide brim representedby the Cite des Dames Master is similarto one that appearsin the Persianmanuscript(Fig. typically made of wool felt or.Iran. as represented in the Turkish Romance of Alexander (Fig. worn by the figure on the extreme right. 7). The brims come in a variety of profilesrangingfrom flat. c. 1330-1360. and still are. The crowns vary in shape and size from low and rounded to very tall and pointed.This hat and a varietyof relatedhats appearin Turkish Persian manumanuscripts. undoubtedly to indicate the princely status of the wearer. A tall pointed hat topped with a featherand. 5). Palace of the Lions.latefourteenth century. of quilted fabric. A rich source for the study of these hats and other featuresof late medieval Islamic dress is the Demotte Shahnama. MS pers. Mamluk. Their hats typically have a . MS 18866. 3). Persian.392. where it is used generically to designate the eastern foreigner and more specifically to representCumans. its distinctive profile. Demotte Shahnama. triangular. They are often divided into two or four parts that can be alternately turned up or down. 111. British Library. ca.Alhambra.

Demotte Shahnamah.State Library.Paris.London. Demotte Shahnamah. Demotte ShahMuseumofArt. Metropolitan Dublin. 111. DC. Museumof Fine Arts.Washington. ca. ca. 30. Musded'art et d'histoire. 1980.Boston.British Library.Add. b. 149). fol. 1330-1360. 167 .Add.State Library.2. Demotte Shahnama.MS Dorn 329. KhvdjiiKirmdni. fol. 65v. VeverCollection. Muse'ed'art et d'histoire. MS 18113. MS 18113. ca. p. k. Turkish. g. h. i. fol. 12.5.20. d. 1330-1360. j. MS 18113. namah. 1980. 1330-1360.private collection (Grabarand Blair. 52.Geneva. fol. private collection (Grabar and Blair.Khamsa. ca. ca. Shahnama. Khviiji Kirmani.London. c. Shahnama. SmithsonianInstitute.Dublin. ca.Add. 23. 1971-107/2a. ChesterBeattyLibrary.New York. 1396. Chester Beatty Library.105. 1333 (drawings by Karen Bondarchuk). ca. m.tr a b c d e f g h i j k 1 m n o p FIGURE5. 144). MS pers. 1330-1360.Khamsa. ca.Leningrad. p. and Persian Headgear: a.ca. 1330-1360. 1333.Freer Gallery of Art.British Library.Khamsa. 111. ca.Geneva. Demotte Shahnamah. Paris. 1340.MSpers. ca.British Library.London. o. 65v. 12.f Demotte Shahnamah. n. Demotte Shahnamah. 1.London. ca. 1330-1360. 1396. Demotte Shahnamah. 1971-107/2a. ca. Iran. Shahnama. 12. detached miniature. 1330-1360.MS Dorn 329.Leningrad.1948-12-11-022. Mongol. Khvajiif Kirmdni. Demotte Shahnamah.fol. Demotte Shahnamah.BritishLibrary. 1396. p. e.

HungarianIlluminatedChronicle. . .-& .too. . FIGURE 8.normallyclosed at the side. lat.40 In July of 1396. the cru- 168 .. The Cumanking Ladislaus IV.. Cumancostume was some of the first orientalizing dress to appearin western art. fol. 'i :l: . 404.. 65 (photo: National SzdchdnyiLibrary). they began a slow migration westward. Budapest. . FIGURE6. ..39 nomadictribe.In the thirteenth and fourteenthcenturies.. where their unusual costume was noted.National Szdchdnyi Library..possibly of Turkoman gin. 72 (photo: National SzdchdnyiLibrary). _.National SzdchenyiLibrary. .. they participatedin military campaigns in Austria.- ~ . Cuman garments and hats were often decorated with large silver or gold disks. if:i i . Wallachians hurl rocks at the army of King Charles Robert. steeply pointed crown that is either straightor slightly curved. fol.Budapest. 404.. Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle. The Cumans kill King Ladislaus IV.. Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle. Budapest. and. and Italy. lat. Cumans are represented. .. i i ii PAW A. 64v (photo:National SzdchdnyiLibrary).AaAL-o FIGURE7. Moravia. which is not surprisingconsidering the Cumans'longstanding presence as auxiliary forces in the A oriHungarianarmy.... National SzdchdnyiLibrary.. settling predominantlyin Hungarianterritoryduring the thirteenthcentury.. the brim is bisected into two sections that can be flat or triangular in profile.At thatpoint.cod. Bohemia... the men wore their hair in a single long braid. i :: . as among Turkomanand Mongol peoples.cod.. cod... ... and soft leatherboots.. ii 1iii-~~ii?'~'ii . 404. they dominatedthe CentralAsian Steppes until the coming of the Mongols in the eleventh century. 3i!. lat.. as wearing narrow caftans. fol.•- •ii d .

because their commissions focused on sacred texts. The Cite" Dames Master uses des it again in Christinede Pisan'sLe livre de la mutacion de Fortune. alternatively.46 This head covering was part of the military uniform of a Turkishsoldier and could be seen anywhere in the Asian Steppes or Near East where Turkishhegemony had been established. and the edge of the brim could be trimmed with fur. the Wallachianshad become an auxiliary force in the Hungarianarmy. The Cite des Dames Master dressed his figure with the Cuman hat in a short. is not easy to determine. The Limbourgs. or if he wanted to produce a more general orientalizing figure. Another unusual hat appears both in the Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle and in the Princes of the East miniature. Augustine'sbaptism in the TresRiches Heures.saders heading for Nicopolis convened at Buda. A silk button or metal knob often decoratedthe top. 51).by winding the free end of the turbancloth around the face-as was done among the Berbers of North Africa. it is worn by the figure standing at the far left. in the third scene of the second column. made of fur. Concentric rings of successively smaller size are placed one on top of the other. 10). Although I have not found an example of this type of turbanin an eastern source. but limited. Beneath the sharbushthis figure wears a face veil that has slipped down below his chin. with or without a small brim.it is probablethat the French at Nicopolis saw their distinctive attire on the field. generically styled tunic rather than a caftan decorated with gold disks.therefore. A similar hat. the most common shield type for any of the equestrianarchersoriginating in the CentralAsian Whetherthe miniaturistwas atSteppes. next to the man wearing the Byzantine skiadion. although the figure holds a small round shield. they used orientalizing dress to represent a wide array of historical foreigners.43 Under King Sigismund.focused on headgear. 5j. pseudo-Romanarmor. The crown was constructed of sections of felt or more luxurious fabrics so as to produce a roundedprofile. the figure on the far left wears what can only be a Turkishsharbush (Figs. Tall and bulbous. From North Africa. Next to the figure with the sharbush is one wearing a hat that appears in Persian Ilkhanid art.and they fought alongside the Hungarian king at the Battle of Nicopolis. they remained a part of his army. at least in this early manuscript. However. The Limbourgs finished only the first three gatherings and the underdrawingsfor a fourth. In the second scene of the first column. has been identified as the bible Philip the Bold paid Jean and Paul to decorate duringthe years 1402 and 1403. and biblical Jews. so as to protect the face from the sun and sand.45The manuscriptfollows the standard format for a Moralized Bible.42 to create a Cumansartorialportraitbased upon accutempting rate. Their unusualheadgearwould have been a familiar sight to the crusading armies that converged at Buda in 1396. they also evoke the Jews' geographicalorigin in the East and call to mind the Islamic other.They dressed theirprotagonistsin standard biblical robes. 8). The Wallachian hat does not appear in Frenchart before the early fifteenth century. much like a child's stacking toy. knowledge of Cuman dress. It resembles the hat topped by a fleur-de-lys crown painted by the Citddes Dames Master.nevertheless. The Limbourgs'sharbush contains all the essential details of this distinctively Turkish hat. at least until the late fourteenthcentury. rounded crown and a large floppy brim that undulates around it in curves and countercurves. 9). k). 5i).at which point it shows up in many places. A pronouncedupturnedbrim at the front was often covered with tooled and gilded leather or a metallic plate. Members of Esau's retinue wear a variety of exotic hats. Old Testamentprophets. and the Limbourgbrothersgive it to a figure witnessing St. with two parallel columns of images and accompanying texts juxtaposing an illustrated biblical passage with illustrated commentaryon it. the design is not improbable and could have been constructed by twisting the 169 . never had a similar opportunity to represent contemporaryeasterners.the twenty-fourcompleted folios contain almost 400 individual scenes. which offers moralizing comment on the Creation. and more than half of these small scenes incorporateitems of eastern dress. Although the Cumans were no longer a distinct auxiliary force under Sigismund. most certainly painted by the Limbourgs. A copy of the Bible moralisle. Male veiling was accomplished by pulling the outer mantle upwardto cover the head and face or. Otherprecisely renderedexamples of headgeararefound in the Limbourg's Bible moralisle on folio 10. which also finds a parallel in the Demotte Shahnama (Fig. the artistspainted several hats of Central Asian origin (Fig.44 The Limbourg Brothers The Limbourg brothers. In the Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle it is used exclusively to representRuthenians (Russians) and Wallachians (Fig.41It is noteworthy. 4e). While they undoubtedly are meant to designate the figures as Jews.One of the Old Testamentfigureswears an unusual type of turban.that French artistsnever reproducedan entire Cuman costume but rather focused their attention on the exotic hats. Since royal law allowed them to retain their ethnic customs and dress. where Jacob and his family meet Esau for the first time in twenty years (Fig. including Cumans. with a slightly shorter crown can be found in the Demotte Shahnama(Fig.or contemporaryFrench dress.It would have been long familiarto European crusaders. The Limbourg brothers approachedthe task of representing eastern garb differentlyfrom the Cite des Dames Master. It has a tall. who was working on his miniature of the Princes of the East at about the time the Limbourgs stopped work on the Bible moralisde. On the first folio. yet it does not appear in French art until the fifteenth century. including ancient Romans. the fashion traveled to Spain where the cloth was typically slipped under the chin (Fig. where King Sigismund of Hungaryjoined their ranks.

specificallyto a Mongol helmet with a low.. 166... .48 After the Mongol invasions. detail (photos: Bibliotheque nationale de France).. fol.. for example (Fig..... Limbourg Brothers.... MSfr. is one of the seemingly endless variety of headgear worn at the late medieval Persian court: a similar hat without the bisected brim can be found in the Demotte Shahnama (Fig.....47Another figure in this equestriangroup wears a tall hat with a crown resembling a truncated cone with a stiff.l_-:--:--: . A comparison of the miniature from the Belles Heures with a miniature in the TrksBelles Heures de Notre Dame...who taughtGreekat the Universityof Florence in the 1450s. 10...... fol.....53 Throughout.52 The Jewish high priest wears a bishop's miter. !• • •!!i @ii !• ii 0 NOI* A ~ii:i .Pisanello actually drew several versions of the hat.. rounded helm (or slightly pointed helm) and two circularplates hanging from each side to protect the face and neck (Fig.... 11).. Another figure wears a helmet which traces its origins to CentralAsian militarydress. and a shield with a distinct Byzantine profile.. between 1405 and 1415-particularly the Riches Heures-the artistsadopted Belles Heures and the Trks a different approachto representingthe exotic.... Yet anotheraccuratelyobserved exotic hat appearsin the miniatureof Jacob and Esau: a Greek hat is worn by the foremost equestrianfigure (Fig.Yet they were the firstto use such a profuse and eclectic sign system to signify otherness..a tiple eastern motifs: a variety of turban-wrapped Persian hat with a floppy brim.. bisected brim. 1... Both are similar to hats sketched drawingsfor the medal of John by Pisanelloin his preparatory VIII Palaeologus.. winding cloth of a turbaninto a thick cord and wrapping it arounda tall felt hat. its appearance in the 170 West-to designate otherness in French art and to identify Greek personalities in Italian art-coincides so closely with periods of western residence of the Byzantine courtin Europe that it must faithfully mirrorcontemporaryGreek dress.including indecently exposed body parts. detail. a tunic girded in eastern fashion with a sash rather than a belt. mingling eastern details of dress with other signs of alterity.....12... in which the two halves curl separatelyinto loose volutes. This hat..... Duke of Berry.. In the work the Limbourg brothersundertook for John. the artistsincluded mulheadgear. fifteenth-century vocabularyof easterndress. It has a crown rising to a low point and an unusual bisected brim. this helmet type came to be used by many Islamic armies. 10).. 166.49 Although I have yet to find an example of this volute-shaped brim in Byzantine art.. a face with distinct Mongol features.L i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ iiiiiiiiiii•!!•ii•!•!!•i • iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!@ . and grotesque expressions. iiiii::iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.. detail......51 Featuresof ancientRomanarmorare intertwinedwith some of the most extravagantfeatures of contemporaryFrench clothing.Prominentin this mix is the new.. with the curving sections of the brim shown rolling in differentdirections(Fig...... AnotherItalianrenderingof this hat can be found in a portraitof the Greek scholar Johannes Ar-gyropoulos. fol. 13). the Limbourg brothers draw upon already familiar formulae for denigratingChrist'stormenters.The Limbourgs'example is decorated with a turbanedbrim.. A hat with a similarscrolling brim but with a low rounded crown appears on anotherfolio of the manuscript(Fig.. 50). !• •2• . l::::~ FIGURES 9-11. a common practice among the Muslim forces..50 Ratherthan move in the direction of the Cite'des Dames Master.. 12).. 166. MSfr....... the Limbourg brothers intensifed their eclectic approachto wardrobeconstruction.. 5m)..... Bible moralisee. Paris.. toward the depiction of a complete eastern costume. too.. Bibliotheque nationale de France. ?Mai !iiii~iii i i !!ii!ii 'i:'-ii'iiiRiiiiiiiiiiii-iw : ----ii i i L} i~iii~ }Z iii•ii iiiiii•!i! i~i••i~ii~ii~iiiiiiiiii~iiii}•iiiiiiii~iiiiiii~iii~iii~ i~i• i•}•i~•!i!i~i~~i•!•!i~ i iii~i}•!ii~i iii~~i~i~iiii iiiiiiil . such as the dagged hemline on the soldier in the foreground.. In the miniatureof the Buffeting of Christ in the Belles Heures. ... MS fr...exaggeratedgestures..

• ]• :i ii~iiii~ii~ ii:i ii?iiii~ iiiiig iiii! iiiii-i:i iiiii :_iiiiii~ii '!i'i iii :i:ii~i~ii~i !ii-.: ii . 14). This may suggest that artists in the fourteenth century were unclear about the exact details of easterndress. in the miniature of Christ before Caiaphas in the earlier manuscript. preparatory drawingfor the medallion of John VIIIPalaeologus.i!. Musde du Louvre. and Turkishart. !!ii~iiiiiiiiiiiii:•':ii i~i~i•!iii-i-i-i•iiiiiiiiii~ii~iiiii-:i---~ii••i:iili-i:i::iiiii!•:iiii:i --i-iii•`: ! iiiiii iiii !iii .illustrates the extent of the Limbourgbrothers'innovations.. Although I have yet to find a precisely similar hat in any eastern source.iiiiiiiiiiiii !iilii! :: i ii!iii iiiiii ii_::. The Boucicaut and Bedford Masters The eclecticism of the Limbourgbrothersfinds parallels Frenchilluminators.... as well in Persian.ii':iii•. 1438. :::::::i _:ii:-::I:_:::-:-:::-:::iii: i :i_ -i - i i~ T _~i ij i~ i/ji Xiiiiiiiiiiiiii iii iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii::iii:.I:'iiii iii ii:!iii: ii iii ii iiiiiii.-- i:iiiiiiiiiiiiii ?:i::l:li::::i::::::-:i :-ii-iihiiiiiIi::: :::i-iiiIiiIi-i•!i--::ii-i-i- iiii : giif iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii:-iiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiili!'i•iiiiii :----:ii ::i • ]!i ii Siiii••i l-iii i:.the only orientalizing feature appears in a bas-de-page image of Christ before Annas (Fig. 7 and 5b. without the orienaccessories and fragments of Roman armorused by talizing the Limbourg brothers. Prominentin the mix are eastern fashions 171 .] i!# iiiii!.i:::::ii:iiil::i:i-:i-:iiiiiiii-i--:: :.55 For example. paintedfor the Duke of Berry aboutfifteen years earlierby the Master of the Parementof Narbonne. In form it is related to the felt constructions of Central Asia that are depicted in Hungarian images of Cumans. f). encircled by upturnedbrims that were often cut into a hard-edged saw-toothed patternor a softer.ii iii:i:i:!ii ~ii~~ii i~ ~i ii i • i ii--::-:-?: ii :::. it seems to combine the tall curving crown of Cuman hats with the serratedbrim found in Persianmanuscripts(Figs.. inverted scallop. Pisanello... Paris. This hat is a typical example of the orienFrench talizing fashions that appearin late fourteenth-century art.. verso (photo: Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource.iii'ii'!iiii i k'.surroundedby an upturnedbrim of a contrastingcolor.:: : i ii iii ii~~i ii .54 well as the way they as have increasedthe quantityand varietyof signs of otherness. iii ii ii i!! iiiiii iii iiiiiiiiii i.Annas wears a pointed hat bent into a sweeping arabesque. .who in the workof otherfifteenth-century used dress to comment upon their protagonists in a wide variety of situations. ii. MI 1062.iiii ::: _ iiiiii!iii! :':: :i-i i:ii::ii i:: jj__iiiiii :ii~. It is interestingto note that these saw-toothed and scalloped brims appearmuch less frequentlyin the fifteenth centurywhen eastern fashions were updated to reflect the new French experience of the East.The hats have crowns thatvary from the modestly rounded to the extravagantlyelongated.iiiiil~ : iiii! iiii FIGURE 12. Mongol. Whereas the soldiers surroundingChrist are dressed for the most partin contemporary Frenchclothing.. d. Annas' hat is certainly intended to representa Jewish pointed hat. although it is unknown if Jews ever wore such headgear. . NY)..i : iL. In this context.ii iiiii. .

. dictating the design and iconography of the entire manuscript. installed as 172 Duke of Burgundyin 1404. . iii.Metropolitan Museum of Art... New York. iiiiiiiii!•. namely those of FriarOdoric. . . and JohnMandeville...•i•!!•ii-i::i:ii-i . .1. and time periods were orientalized. Marco Polo. which he received as a New Year's gift in 1413 from his nephew. " ""-..Mot iiii i i•Uii . The artists used this costume symbolically...ethnicities. The manuscriptis richly illustrated with 265 miniatures. . none of them built upon the Cite' des Dames Master'sincipient attemptsto representa complete eastern costume. iiijijj~:~~iiiii' : efii~~ii -sk X .ii!!iili!• ! 2 514 MIR tip ' I WON" ---p-.since his workshopproduced most of the miniatures.. . Ricold of Montecroce. Af 4j4 t416 PN 44 FIGURE 13. foreignersof many differentcultures.. 131v (photo: Metropolitan Museum of Art). N i i . Belles Heures.i... William of Boldensele.. The Cloisters.. worn by respected biblical charactersas well as by the persecutorsof Christin religious texts. ?ssassB ~8 08$ IJ~ ~~ - sr Is~.. Limbourg Brothers.. Even when French miniaturists were given an opportunity to illustrate eastern lands and peoples.• . fol. John the Fearless..- . the leader of the Frenchtroops at Nicopolis.such as the Duke of Berry'scopy of the Merveilles du monde..57 The Bedford Master and his workshop were also responsible for a large section. in seculartexts. Buffeting of Christ... ... --. .. it is thought likely that the Boucicaut Master was in charge of the project.56This compendiumcollects a numberof travel accounts writtenbetween the late thirteenthand mid-fourteenth centuries... MS 54.li !•• .....John of Cori.....1. The eclecticism is most obvious in illustrations of travel literature. avoiding an authentic representationof the foreigner.... John Hayton....Although completed by four individuals or workshops. .

3093.-. and they find parallels in the Demotte Shahnama. shows how this orientalization could work in concert with both text and extra-textual elements to produce a strong message of eastern alterity. 5p). Another miniaturein the Merveilles du monde.. one of these is notched in the center front... Tres Belles Heures de Notre Dame. Worn by three of the protagonists in the miniature....... . OL AL-:::i-: FIGURE 14.T! ii• ::5 i• ~ l i~i ... with elements of both eastern and western dress.. .i~i .. Bibliotheque nationale de France.... a distinctly Europeanfeature.. These hats were also used by the Cite des Dames Master and the Limbourg brothers... 4owm un I (IM 10 - i .. Many are extravagantlydagged. as the base of a spectacular hat with a large scalloped brim similar to one found in an early Ilkhanid manuscript(Fig.. lat... .... 16). 15)..iiiiliJ i . Paris..... Master of the Parement of Narbonne.. 189 (photo: Bibliotheque nationale de France). this one painted by the Boucicaut workshop. including a style of Mongol headgear not previously discussed (Fig.. . i-•.. Christ before Caiaphas... p... the hat is similar to one still worn in Mongolia today. The garments worn by these figures are quite unusual..... in another...The image of Muslims praying before idols shows a variety of Mongol and Turkishdress. MS nouv. Among the miniatures demonstratingthe trend toward an exotic mix of clothing is the miniature representing the Festivities at the Court of the Grand Khan by the Bedford workshop (Fig.. Two of the dancers wear tall hats with wide brims. acq. It typically had a low roundedcrown and was distinguished by a fur brim that could also function 173 .The turban'swinding cloth in one case is worn as a headbandand. not encounteredin the Islamic East.

Merveilles du monde. while the text discusses the Islamic traditionof washing before prayer.. not images of clothing. Paris..:~ ::::: :__:__gi:j:::::: :: .: ii-ii~ ~-~-:_:_ :-??~ :.58 These could be secured over the ears by a tie under the chin. it is extremely rare for Byzantine courtly dress to appearin manuscripts:in sacred texts.:':: i: iiii Di: -iiii-iii-i. 174 Conclusion Many questions remainrelating to the sources of knowledge tapped by early fifteenth-centuryFrench illuminators when they depicted easterndress._11__1_._~:1 _1i _1 :.Timur'spower was felt from China to Europe.-ii _. on balance. It is only through PseudoKodinos's descriptions that we learn about the more casual dress of the Palaeologan court..:-::: iiiiiiiii?i _i iiiiii'iiii::iii ii:i-s--i?i:~~i iC~ iii~iiii . ---:i:-----:i-:--I ::-_-- _ ii:iii:iiii-:i:ii-iiii:: i --i -iiiiiip:. ": .--r-_:_:n:i:-:i:::::::i:: :: -:i: -i::i -i-i: 'i~~iiiiii-ii::-_-. not contemporary membersof the imperial clothing.in theirofficialportraits. Certainlythe miniaturistscould have drawnupon eastern pictorial sources as models for their orientalizingcostume. : . created a potent image of the eastern other... ii-i ii ::.'II-': -__-- FIGURE 15.:. as seen in the case of the praying figure on the far left and one of the figures washing in the stream.. Manuscripts. court always wear official attire. -. the fur brim could be folded up and secured to the crown. Bedford Workshop.a.~ .it does not suggest that Muslims worshipedidols.i.ii~ ..:-:::::-::-::-::i(-i:/-(i---:liji ---i-i:i-??( . : :: : ?? -iii' :.. served as the illuminators'chief source of information.~~~~i:- ::-' -:--:''''''''''' ---:-: ii: : -- --------.59 The artist'sinsistence on this falsehood reflects medieval attitudes that associated all nonChristianreligions with the practice of idolatry. . particularlyover long temporal or geographicaldistances.ii:iil:iii:i~:i:i-:iii-i::i~i :: i-i--:-:-:-:i:::-::::::::-::::::?j':~ _ :::-_--:-::::::::: : -'.with its extra-textual linkingof Islam and idolatry and its emphasis on Mongol dress. as demonstratedby the praying figure on the far right.60This representationof Muslimspraying.::'::_ -~ai . were a common vehicle for the transmissionof visual information in the Middle Ages.:i -:----_::-: ::--::::::::-:.:_.::::: _-_-_:-~--:: _ :a _: :iiiiiiiiiiii_ ::_:iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii..: :::: i~i . : .. : . ii.. 2810. fol. This was the age contemporary of Timur(Tamerlane). Vicki Porter has observed that.i:i:i-i i-i --:iiii_::i-iii_-: _i_ ... biblical characters are consistentlydressed in traditionalrobes.. this seems unlikely..He was known for his fervent adherenceto Islam and his equally fervent hatredof Christians.-._: -?ii-:i::iiiiii:-:i:: ~___ r._k.. :::-:-: . ::-:::::_:::--:: . When untied.i~i i~~llli~iiii I --":-i:i iiiiii iiiii ._.:. ::. Bibliotheque nationale de France.in particular. Having replaced the previous Mongol Ilkhanidrulersof Persia. While it is possible that Byzantine.--i-" 1-i i--ii-:h::i ::j:ii ii-i-ii :-:---: .. in light of the currentFrench understandingof the Mongol problem. as well as the possible functions andmeaningsof exotic sartorial eclecticism. In warmerweather.:-:-:: ii-i:lii-:::::::::-: jj:.ii ::::::-: ----:::::-::: : iiiiii ~ -~. . In other words.. the earflaps curled gently upward.:.The juxtaposition of Mongol costume with idol worship may also reflect fears aboutMongol expansion.-:..t-~i --.the most aggressive and ruthless Mongol ruler since Genghis Khan. In the first place.--ii:i~~r::~:i i -i-i iitiiiii .-::: iii a :: i:-i ? d:: .riiii:. Islamic.Festivities at the court of the Grand Khan. it seems more likely that clothing.: iii:-_i--:i -iii -~~8Egss~lBB8~~:ili:ii%~s~s~ i ii i~i ii i~i:i-i-i:i-i::i:---:-i----li ~iiiiiii~~ :::: iiiiiii'ii~jiiii. I~--iiii__ ii-iii--i: iiiiiiiiiiiiirii '' :'':-----:--: ---::::::::: : :--_:::.and.i ii ~-i ::-: i --_-i:_:_ i::i -ii-~i i8ii-i i -: i.-----i :: :::::i:i:-:i_ :: -: ii.--. There is a curious relationship between the distinctly Mongol costume and the text by Ricold of Montecroce that it illustrates..:": -i :rr _rrii::iiiiiiiiii%:?'. ::::.:: ::::i:i :. iii~ i~i:iiiiiiiil: i I:-:. It is highly probable that both the Cite des Dames Master and the Limbourgbrothers saw membersof the ByzantinecourtduringtheirParisresi- . 44 (photo: Bibliotheque nationale de France).i?: iiiii:-i:iiiiii~iii :' -i "?~ :'--"':' iiidiii iiii~ ::: :: :-i? ii i:i:i iii :::. : iii__:_:_i:iii -iiiliiiiiiiiiiiiii--::::: i-i -i-i . : i_ i i. as earflaps.. MSfr.__i:i~:::/:_jii ": ~::: iii --: ::i:i : ._ ~ : :_~__~..1 :::::::-:-::::-:ii-:1 :: ::-iiiii:-:::?:--' ii _ i--iii-iii _ -iii_-: . ~ :nii i-:i -i-i-i? ::. :.iiiiiiiiiiii:.. and Hungarianmanuscriptsprovided artists with sartorialmodels.

but it is worth noting that written accounts of the battle and the imprisonment of knights do not in any case provide a comprehensive description of dress. the elite of French aristocracy.. Nor do either the fictional or more factual accounts in the travel literatureso popular at the time.. as well as ambassadorsand emissaries visiting the French crown. and November 21.61 accountsof the Duchy of Burgundyalso place Jean The and Herman Limbourg in Paris during these years.62Significantly. BID1 . Doubtless the Nicopolis adventurewas told and retold during these public appearances.. Count John of Nevers. Biblioth que nationale de France.. since the Cite'des Dames Master worked consistently for the royal family... the most accurate French representationsof Byzantine clothing and hats are found in the work of these artists.. But surely.... 14)... MSfr...and stories would have circulatedin aristocraticcircles. If the artistswere made aware of Islamic dress throughdescription. Merveilles du monde..~i_:-ii ~ MOEii" ...... the Duke of Burgundyscheduleda succession of triumphalappearancesin the major towns of Burgundy in the spring of 1398 for his son. it is likely thathe was in Paris duringthis time... ... 1--lot :--INN ::-i::i:::i:i~..While manuscriptsoriginatingin the East could have provided a model for contemporary eastern dress. The transmission of information about contemporary Islamic dress is more complicated...The miniaturists likely borrowed from the repertoireof orientalizing costume depicted by the previous generation of French artists... as both the Dukes of Berry and Burgundy had set up households in the capital..... Most of the Valois family was in Paris during these years. dence between June 3.. fol.. where the capturedFrenchknights were imprisoned. ... 1402. OurFrenchilluminatorswould have heard the tales either at first or second hand. 292v (photo: Bibliotheque nationale de France).. Paris. The odd merchantwould have passed through town. then oral accounts must have supplied more detail than the textual tradition. 1399. they included elements of eastern costume never before represented in Frenchart... ?04- FIGURE 16..There is some evidence in favor of the 175 . : . this repertoire was limited to hats similar to the one worn by Annas in the Duke of Berry's Tres Belles Heures de Notre Dame (Fig... .. and in several other locations within the Ottoman empire... though we wonder what opportunities they had to see Islamic dress. . however. Boucicaut Workshop.Muslims praying... Actual items of clothing may have inspired the artists. f. commanderof the Frenchforces.. no fourteenth-or fifteenth-centuryIslamic text is listed in Valois inventories of the time....... While early fifteenth-century miniaturistsdid include some of these hats in their illuminations. . 2810.. The most significantencounterbetween the West and Islam during these years took place between the artists'patronsand a Turkisharmyin the far off city of Nicopolis.. Indeed..nixi _ _~-_gi~.. although defeated. came home with stories to tell.. ...... But could these oral histories have communicatedthe details of Islamic dress? That question is impossible to answer.

. particularly cynocephali. 2000). New York. 1." 105-122. In his classic three-part monograph. who all read an earlier draftof this article. the Perhapsone way to understand richmelange of eastern dress that appears in early fifteenth-century French manuscripts. esp. and K."TheNew Criterion. cannot be understood as merely pejorative. For reevaluations of Said'swork. then the artistshad to rely on partialinformation.Islamic. 1993]. The term "orientalism. Rather. anxiety coupled with desire. 1978]). Olschki. Les influences orientales dans la peinture toscane (Paris. By creating these "monstrous"assemblages. "Introduction. and Orientalism Now. 1992). "Cul(Baton Rouge. Brownlee. transmittedculturalknowledge not recorded in the chronicles.pseudo-Roman. K.idea that oral recountings. J. "Native Studies: Orientalism and Medievalism. and J. Windschuttle. the Middle Ages. and 19-34.Orientalism: Early Sources. the incrediblevariety of costume depicted by some artists-including Byzantine.One of his emissaries. and K. see B. This son grew up to be Philip the Good. "Muslim monsterization . Orientalism:History. J. Although eastern costume was also depicted in French panel painting. AnnamairiaKovics. I am grateful to the anonymous readers of Gesta and its editor. The odd mixture of costume elements places the protagonistsoutside of recognizable experience-even of foreign experience. and L.made his return appearance at court in July of 1433 dressed in "Saracen" If clothes.and. M.65 More than twenty years ago. or souvenirs they brought back with them. like his father.Building on the suggestion of John Friedman that monsters. Cohen uses Lacanianpsychoanalytical theory to propose that the body of 176 this symbolic hybrid was both loathsome and alluring. even when the depictions appear in pejorative contexts. about one's own identity) but also desire (to possess the foreign body. Soulier." "Time Behind the Veil: The Media. he is said to have dressed his young son up as a Turkto play in the Park at Hesdin. to tame and control its monstrousness in order to hold it close). Early Orientalisms 5-12. . 12 vols." in Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern EuropeanArt of the Late Middle Ages [Berkeley. S. MillardMeiss rarelyrefers to the exotic and orientalizing motifs in French manuscriptillumination and never attempts to explain them. Ruth Mellinkoff ("Headgear:Holy and Unholy. esp. its Origin and Character (New York. This study will focus on eastern fashion as found in manuscriptillumination." tural Comparison:Crusade as Constructin Late Medieval France.64 a major source for the eastern fashions depicted by early fifteenth-century French illuminators was the recollection of the Nicopolis knights. However. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen addressed the issue of alterity in the hybrid bodies of medieval The association of monsters and hybrid beasts monsters. Davis. ConklinAkbari.67 with the infidel was a commonplace in the travel literatureso assiduously read by the patrons of our miniaturists. Mackenzie. Theory. despite the fact that Said applied it to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Turner. the story informs us that Turkishdress held a certain fascination in French popular culture-a fascination that was long lasting. he supporteda pan-European crusade against the Turks. whose eye for fashion design and skill in its construction first piqued my interest in how the body is clothed. More recently. 1967-68. became a symbol for Muslims. .This may accountfor some of the eclecticism of French orientalizing dress. and Maria Parani."Orientalism Orientation."68 The eclectic costumes created by French miniaturistsmight be viewed as sartorial parallels to the somatic hybrid. M. He suggests that.63 What did this child's Turkishcostume look like? Was it Turkish-madeand brought home by the Duke after his captivity or was it purchased at a later time from a traveling merchant? Was it a gift from the Ottoman court? Did the Duke's tailors construct it at the Frenchcourt according to the Duke's specifications? Or was it something more casual: a dishtowel wrapped around his son's head in imitation of a turban?Although we will never know for certain. (London. particularlythose illuminatedby the Limbourgbrothers. which he then gave to the Duke. 1324. along with certain activities of leisure time. Duke of Burgundy. Nor does Erwin Panofsky in his Early Netherlandish Painting. 30-38. is to place it within a modern discourse of otherness. He also added to his father's and grandfather'slibrary of travel literature by commissioning memoirs from the various ambassadorshe sent eastward. Bertrandonde la Broquibre. 57-94) suggests that these exotic hats are fantastic variationson the Jewish pointed hat. "EdwardSaid's 'Orientalism'Revisited.66 the miniaturistshave accomplished throughtheir eclectic use of ethnic dress. For recent studies of medieval orientalism. peoples representedin exotic dress inspired fear mingled with fascination.ed. I would like to acknowledge the generous advice on matters of dress offered by Anne van Buren. The denaturedquality of western representations of eastern dress. I would like to dedicate this short study to Catherine Brandt Kubiski. 1924). and the Arts (New York. Frenchminiaturistsmet culturally producedexpectations. 3. is what recognizable humanexperience. Several years after his returnto France. Elizabeth Sears. who suggested many needed improvementsto the text. as John the "Fearless..andFrench features-would indicate that this eclecticism was more purposeful than accidental. when western attitudesto the East were motivated by the politics of colonialism. see J. S. is used throughoutthis study to refer to medieval European constructs of the East. M." 123-134. 1974). The Postcolonial Middle Ages (New York. Farrell." popularizedby EdwardSaid (Orientalism[New York. Lastly.XVII/5 (1999). See also G. 2.French Painting in the Timeof Jean de Berry (London. the scarcity of extant panels makes it impossible to trace the development of an orientalizing trend in this medium. Ganim. 1953). activates not only anxiety (about one's own body. NOTES * This researchwas supportedby a grant from the Faculty Research and Creative Activities Support Fund at Western Michigan University. 1995). when.. like the liminal body of the medieval hybrid. Edward Said proposed that one way Muslims were indicated as "other"was by representing them outside the confines of nature-by divorcing them from This. Germaneto this studyis a storytold aboutJohnof Nevers. 1999). L. in some sense. then."he became Duke of Burgundy. Cohen. ed. whose wife gave birth to their son while the Turks held the count ransom.

mareschal de France et gouverneurde Jennes (Geneva. For a description of all the miniaturesin the two manuscripts. 1988). 207-208. In his early fourteenth-centurytravel account. 381. S. 56. and she stresses the importance of Greek fashions on Italian pictures of the Adoration of the Magi (Renaissance Theatre Costume and the Sense of the Historic Past [New York. Laland. 1934). 95-106.L. Chronicles of England. See I. and Pseudo-Callisthenes. J. 1979]. 1879.Arab Dress: A ShortHistory From the Dawn of Islam to Modern Times(Leiden. 10v. Markham (London. gr. written in 1409. Le livre des fais du bon messire Jehan le Maingre. ed."cviii-cix. 8.Jean II le Meingre. John Froissart. dit Boucicaut. 1975]. Further French documents include Chronique du religieux de Saint-Denys contenant le regne de Charles VI de 1380 a' 1422. fol. P1." xiii-xxxvi. Pons (Louvain-la-Neuve. La France en Orient au XIVesiecle: Expeditions du marechal Boucicaut. and trans. J. Paviot and M. Slav.including the Cite des Dames Master. 162. was worn in Trebizond. 601-608. The Council ofFlorence (Cambridge. NJ. and the hats were bound with the skins of martens. ed. II. fols. Personalitiesof the Council of Florence (New York. Bellaguet. Spain and Adjoining Countries. Manuel's son. 18. mid-twelfthcentury (Madrid. The book della Chiesa describes has elementsnot presentin the Turincopy. see J.Biblioteca Nazionale. Charles Sterling (La peinture midievale a Paris. Atiya. I. and Africa. better known as Boucicaut. rpt. 5. 153-166. ed. trans. 180. I want to thankMariaParani. 135. Paris. 1999). 1993). Nicopolis. None of these efforts met with success. describes the hats worn by the emperor of Trebizond. Jean II le Meingre. and his son as "tall hats surmounted with golden cords. Gill. Byzance et la France mddievale[Paris. 147-140. See TheBondage and Travelsof Johann Schiltberger."Le sens de l'histoiredans les manuscrits du XVe sibcle. Cumans were a part of King Sigismund's army. 1963). S. ca. The Greek Alexander Roman [Athens. M. 221-321. discuss particularitems of costume nor their potential sources. A. 1345 (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. withoutprojectingbrim. 151. he does not. Asia. 1995)."A Critical Edition of Thomas III of Saluzzo's 'Le Livre du Chevalier Errant'"(Dissertation. rpt. marshal of the French troops at Nicopolis. 6. 97. 1958]. MS Vitr. I. 492515. des 1966]. suggests that Cuman fashions inspired an orientalizing trend in late fourteenth-centuryItalian art. 12559. The Crusade ofNicopolis. 644-653. Hellenic Institute. TheMiniatures of the Chronicle AlexanderRomance of Manasse [Sofia. on the top of which were cranes' feathers. 17. The Portrait in Byzantine Illuminated Manuscripts (Leiden. those on the latter cannot be identified. 183v. 53. ed. Hansen. 1985). R.C. The LimbourgBrothers. Dujiev. For the Council of Reconciliation of Ferrara-Florence. J. 39. In the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries. (London. See H. The most engaging account is the personal memoir of a German soldier. Atyia.. For use of the term "Saracen"in medieval French literature. See Ward. but no longer made up a separate auxiliary force. Manuel II Palaeologus (1391-1425): A Study in Late Byzantine Statesmanship (New Brunswick.ExeterCollege.. 377. 1997]). opposite the Princes of the East on fol. trans. W. See J. the Spanish ambassador to the Mongol court of Timur. 1362 (Paris. Bibliotheque nationale de France. 1963). 56. See her "Reconstructingthe Reality of Images: Byzantine Material Culture and Religious Iconog(Dissertation. "A Critical Edition. John VIII resided in Italy (1338-1340). 16. see D. 1839-1852. (Paris. trans. LXVIII/3 (1996 [1997]). and trans. It was during his 1403/5 trip that Saluzzo secured a marriagecontract with Margueritede Roucy. Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo. C. and a poem writtenin 1396 by Phillipe de M6zibres. 85. University of North Carolina. Meiss. Ward. 1 and Fig. J. II. 515-528." See Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the Court ofTimour. 1969). I. Dress in the MiddleAges. Chapel Hill. T. J. Surviving examples of Mongol hats of a similar design indicate that the vertical sections were created by quilting the fabric. MS gr. H. 1974). 3-9.MS fr. On the sources and methods employed by historiansof medieval dress. 20. 145. The Crusade of Nicopolis (London.." in Pratiques de la culture ecrite en France au XVe siecle. 1997). The miniatureof the Princes of the West in the camp of Dame Fortune appears on fol. the Byzantine emperors made extreme efforts to enlist western military aid in fighting the Turks. "Crusadeas Construct. Book of Job. ca. 157. 161v. see Y. P1. Chauney-Bouillot. 13. K. but does not describe it. 1). Lalande. 11.Biblioteca nacional. Trahoulias. 141. D. 10. A. Pseudo-Kodinos (Traite' offices. H. visited Budapest and Rome. XXVI (1944). 1396-1996 = Annales de Bourgogne. see 9. 1862). The other known copy of the Chevalier errant. whose arms are also included in the manuscript. 14. and the Limbourg brothers. 1300-1500 [Paris. The tents in both are decorated with coats-of-arms: those in the former belong to some of the most importanthouses of Europe. spared from execution by Bayezid'sson because of his young age. S. however. 1963]). including the emperor. Jean II le Meingre. 1859. Chronicle of Manasse. In 1366 Manuel's father. 161v). reproducedin N. 132. For lists of fourteenth. II. 195. 4. 61. Verpeaux [Paris. 14-16. France. 159. Writing in 1430. 1964). 1994). 1403-6. Turin. 64-76). who died in 1404 (fol. New York.. M. John V.See Ward. Stella Mary Newton (Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince [Woodbridge."AB. della Chiesa reportsthat Saluzzo broughthome from this trip a decoratedcopy of his own work. Grabar."A CriticalEdition. Meiss.the Masterof Flavius Josephus. Similar hats are found in the following manuscripts:Chronicle of Joannes Scylitzes. 24. 1987]."13 n. Johnes.cod. 57-74. between 1438 and 1440.see M. Beamish (New Haven. dit Bouciquaut. See Lalande. (Venice. Barker. Ibid.. 1886). Stillman. eds. 227) indicates that the hat was worn by all members of court. Universityof raphy. MS L.D. Telfer (London. 16 and passim. 1396-1427. Figs. 7. 123-199. 291) notes that several French miniaturists. Grabar. They personally traveled to Europe with promises of a church reconciliation. Mongol Costumes (London. Atiya. 177 ."Asiatic Exoticism in Italian Art of the Early Renaissance. 66. I. ed. Bibliothbquenationalede France. Clavijo was also received at the court of Manuel II in Constantinople. 5. A. 15. Paris. 263. 622-633. Delaville Le Roulx. 939-940. II. fol. which also includes the arms of Philip the Bold. except for one that refers to the kingdom of Jerusalem.the Christian kingdom lying between Byzantium and the Mongol Empire. J. 1984). The Limbourg Brothers and Their Contemporaries(New York. A. rpt. B. see E Piponnierand P Mane. 49. 2 vols. fol. On the eclectic natureof Islamic dress. at Samarcand. Spatharakis. Lalande. A. 1366-1421 (Geneva. 943-944. trans. 6. 47-49.may have derived their orientalizing costume from Arab and Turkish miniatures. The most complete contemporaryaccount is found in the anonymous biography of John le Meingre II. 1980]. 4. Epistre lamentableet consolatoire sur le fait de desconfiturelacrimable du noble et vaillant roy de honguerie.1959). 381. 26-2.26). idem. 92-94). 143. 2 vols.see Brownlee. 212-219. v. 167-208. 2000). in Europe. New York. shortly after the emperor returned from Paris.and fifteenthcentury primary sources that describe the Battle of Nicopolis.I Ith -15th Centuries" Oxford. Manuel Comnenus III. (Paris. Pruato and N. Vat. 1976). The Crusade of Nicopolis. van Buren. A similarhat.L'illustrationdu manuscrit de Skylitzes de la Bibliothbque nationale de Madrid [Venice. 198-201. 6 vols. 117.who sharedinformationabout Byzantine dress from her dissertation while she was writing it. 12. For the funeral portrait of Manuel Laskares Chatzikes painted in the church of Pantanassa in Mistra shortly after his death in 1445. a Native of Bavaria. was damaged in the fire of 1904: twenty-four of its original twentyfive miniatures survive in poor condition.

Pil6czi Horvith. 6. III. 22. "The OpulentWorldof Tiraz and Precious Textiles. Blochet (Paris. . 35. 132." 28. A. 15. 7) describes the Mongol braid. however. For Pisanello. MamlukCostume. 1983). Medieval Warfare. 62-68. which are dated between the late fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. 25. 1050-1250 (London. Oriental Armour. II: Christian Europe and its Neighbors (London. 53-63. 1980). D. 404. 3 vols. 1986). there is an equestrianportraitof the emperorwearing the older style skiadion without the bisected brim. A. M. A.ByzantineArmies (London. Budapest." 407-409. 193."59. Steinweg. fol. Cursorydescriptions of the caftans worn in CentralAsia are providedin two mid-fourteenthcentury travel accounts. Magyarorszaigon. 72. (Princeton. Dercsenyi. 1989)." 62. 44. 33.as well as for her guidance on numerouspoints. "Reconstructingthe Reality of Images. 1979). 408. "Quelques remarques sur les portraits figures dans les JOB. "OrientalArmourof the Near and Middle East from the Eighth to the Fifteenth Centuries as shown in Works of Art. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. E. Mayer. 65-66. 41. and A. c. P A. 23. 1970). 29. 26. 50. see Robinson. Newton.Vickers. 44. ed. Pil6czi-Horvith. Dawson. 96.and Persian ethnic features in the manuscript. The untimely death of Louis' daughterended the arrangement. Toronto. 178 . Gorelik. and L. see n. see Parani. Mamluk Costume. 1996). R. 161. Parani. 54). 67."Reconstructing Realityof Images." Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. they are fastened on the left with one tie. gary in the 14th-15th Centuries(Budapest. The Hungarian IlluminatedChronicle (New York. 39. Cuman headgear appears occasionally in late fourteenth-century French miniatures and then more frequently in fifteenth-century works. 65-68. 2000)." See. II. "Le costume Coman au moyen age.. and M."Some Preparatory Drawings. Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek. 40. Blair. in C. Robinson. 1994)." 5. Oriental Armour (New York. Arab Dress. 68. 30v). 1952). Barker. ed.Perhapssimilar observationswill someday be able to be made about Persian Ilkhanid and Timurid costume. Oriental Armour of the Near and Middle East. Mongol Costumes. XXI. but the Tartarson the right. in Islamicdress. "Le costume Coman.1. 20. See a fourteenth-century Egyptiancopy of the Maqdmat(Vienna. 1996). Nicolle. 35-40. fol. 25. Arab Dress. 754-755. Bibliotheque nationale de France. Etzeoglou. Saracen Faris. E 9." in Islamic Arms and Armour. see Pail6czi-Horvaith. Hansen. Nicolle. 27. R.. see ibid. Bellaguet. 13. Dawson. on the left side also they are open as far as the waist. 35-40. 144-146. Carpini (ed. Mayer. Dercs6nyi. see note 10. Nicolle. The Kariye Djami. Vickers. was also made king of Hungary. Undoubtedlythe clothing is indicativeof fourteenth-century fashion.ArabDress." William of Rubruck (The Journey of William of Rubruk. 40-41. 143v. Turkish. Central European University. On Cumandress. Note that on the reverse of this medal. Stillman. notes that "the Turkstie their tunics on the left. IV. sect. 47. 35. brother to King Charles V of France. Chantilly. p. a royal wedding was negotiated between the son of King Louis the Great of Hungary (Angevin line) and the daughter of Louis d'Orleans. andlasians idem. who dismemberedthe manuscriptin the early twentieth century for sale. Nicolle. Reproductionsof the dispersedfolios are gatheredin O. Mamluk Costume (Geneva. MS 65. 41. 152) describes jewels on the hats of Timur and his grandson. "CourtFashion and Representation:The HungarianIlluminatedChronicle Revisited" (Dissertation.National Szechenyi Library. Fig. Arab Dress. Underwood. 1980]." 66-68.. 53-63. the "Reconstructing Reality of Images. there is currentlynot enough comparableevidence available to make many accuratedistinctions between Mongol. Arab Dress. for example. "Introduction. 83 (fols. The braid was already used in mid. 36. Puppi. 1966-75). Frenchlord of the Kingdomof Naples. LX (1978). There were significant ties between Hungaryand France. see S. OrientalArmour. the 19. "Le with a bibliographyof additional Hungariansources. Livre de la mutacion. 397. Petchenegs. Pil6czi-Horvith. 309.velvet or brocade . Chronique du religieux. Trbs Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. XXXII (1980). Islamic Arabs preferred to shave their heads." 18. Image and Likeness: Art and Reality in Hun249. 1000-1568 (London. The baldric was rarely used in the West. See D. ibid. Mayer. 32-88. trans. For the roundshields used by armies of the Asiatic Steppes. 535-536. "Le costume Coman. A. ed. Pisanello (Milan. 23. 37v. Clavijo (Narrative of the Embassy. Parani. 42. 58). 37. 250.Hungaryand the Fall of EasternEurope. 1350-1500 (London. Nicolle. XXII (1982). 417-425. 31. I would like to thank Dr. Kovics. Manuel II. "Some Preparatory Drawings for Pisanello's Medallion of John Palaeologus. Mission to Asia. See Inventaire et description des miniatures des manuscrits orientaux conserves a la Bibliotheque nationale. 1898). For the Council of Ferrara-Florence. MS turc. 32. 35-41. Cumans are also represented in Italian art. see D. Medieval Warfare.to late fourteenth-century western art to represent "Saracens" and "Tartars. Kovics for allowing me to read the dissertationin progress. Medieval WarfareSource Book. and chap.. for Byzantine short tunics. Epic Images and Contemporary History: The Illustrations of the Great Mongol Shahnama (Chicago. Serin toglu. 161. 33. cod. Paris. 1979]. 34. For hat count. 21. John of Plano Carpini (History of the Mongols. Both authors describe them as side-wrapped garments. Nicolle.ed. Demotte. 38. ibid. 15-16.cod. 112. as well as the fresco of the Pentecost in the Spanish Chapel at Santa Maria Novella (R. Armies of the Ottoman Turk(London..Studies of OttomanTurkishcostume books. Gorelik. 7. headgear. fol. on the right with three. Bibliothbque nationale de France. 68.76. Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince. 7) writes that Tartartunics of "buckram. for long sleeves in Byzantine dress. 62 (see n." AB. 20.Oriental Armour. 513-521.ed. Cumans. E Mehmed (Istanbul. Arab Dress. 18. Fig. 24. 1967). rpt. The Age of Tamerlane: Warfare in the Middle East. 43. Grabar and S. Budapest. Offner and K. open from top to bottom and folded over the breast. ed. 22.68. 73v). Andrea Bonaiuti. Stillman. (Budapest. Gorelik. 1990). For the Byzantine kite-shaped shield.1995). 603. Heath. 34. Mission to Asia [London. 57. 30. 63.Between 1374 and 1378. 1995). The Demotte Shahnama is named after the notorious art dealer. 30-63. 54. vol. see D. 67. reproduced in Stillman. idem.Arab Dress. "Christ in the Temple" in the Trbs Belles Heures de Notre Dame. See L. This richly illuminated text records the history of Hungary from the tenth to the fourteenth century. D. MS fr.and militaryequipment identify the wearer'soccupation and rank in a strict professional and social hierarchy. beginning in 1342 when Robertof Anjou. Sumptuarylaws regulated the length of fabric that could be wound into a turbanand the length of the turban's trailing end-pieces based on social class and religious affiliation. VI [New York. See M. For a facsimile. 141. 13-14. H." OttomanCostumeBook: A Facsimile Edition of Osmanli Kiyafetleri. 1955. See. and I. 1988).R. Stillman. Ibid. Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle.. Mus~e Cond6. . lat. For the baldric. 73. Elgood (London." 120-133.in ibid. in Pisanello's drawings. eglises de Mistra. Robinson.. Stillman. For dating of the manuscript."403-427. Stillman.indicatethat details of costume. 48. costume Coman. 102). English summary." 409. Stillman.

2 vols. 1993). Mellinkoff has noted (ibid. but it was left unfinished due to the artists' deaths. Kitnig. Labarge. "'Uomini Illustri': The Revival of the Author Portraitin Renaissance Florence"(Dissertation. about 1409. J. 131-133. Ibid. Le Maitre des Heures du marechal Boucicaut (Paris. Figs. 64. Lowden. Les TrksRiches Heures of Jean du Duc de Berry.La peinturemdie'vale a'Paris. 43. H. (Paris. and R. 70. Meiss."in Florilegium in honorem Carl Nordenfalk octogenarii contextum (Stockholm. commentary. Millard Meiss believes it was begun about 1382. Beatson. See Meiss. Johns Hopkins University. 189-199. but it was probably begun about 1405. 57. 53. 2000). van Buren. 3093 (surviving fragment with Hours of Virgin. 1400-1500.-H.University of Washington. P1. 156-168.18. one for himself and one for his uncle. 261. My appreciation to Anne van Buren for this information. Sterling. 54. CLI (1993)."10) suggests that in France. This miniaturist received his appellation from the book of hours he created for the French crusader marshal. and J. Heures de Turin-Milan: 64. 63. 1000. Duke of Berry (New York. 81-105. The Limbourg Brothers. that of the Duke of Berry's brother. TheBoucicautMaster (New York." Between China and Iran: Painting from Four Istanbul Albums. Nicolle.1. 268. Paris. particularly at New Year celebrations. 1906). commentary. Late Gothic Europe. Jean le Meingre or Boucicaut. The Limbourg Brothers. 1983). including vulgar gestures. 167. see P Durrieu. 539-540. Meiss and E. 1999).. Cazelles. Bibliotheque nationale de France. Hansen. Chatelet'scritique of Eberhard's dating in BMon. Marrow. Grube and E. Others. (University Park. Heath. Dating is based on circumstantial information regarding the patrons and at times date when an author completed a given text. The Duke of Berry died in 1416. MetropolitanMuseum of Art. The Making of the Bibles Moralisdes. V. 252-284. 216-217. 60. fol. assign the beginning or end date of a first painting campaign to 1404. 99. Meiss. I. notably. PA. Nicolle. Hours of the Holy Spirit. Gousset.71. Tesnibre. see M. 1892). 1300-1500. No. R. The Belles Heures was completed about 1408. Torino(Lucern. and aspects of some of the more extravagantfeaturesof Frenchfashion such as particolored. P1. Fauce (Lucerne. This assumes the calendar was integral to the first painting campaign and posits for the Parement Master a very long (thirty-year) painting career. 1987-90). 49. 1-44. "Armsand Armorin the Album Paintings. Meiss. On dagging. Museo Civico d'Arte. Saracen Faris. Stillman. 73) that medieval signs of alterity could be used both benignly and malevolently depending on the context. 164. 43. 55-81. Biblioteca Laurenziana. 122-206. and Office of the Dead). Blanks and M. 1996). 2 vols. The Late Fourteenth Century and the Patronage of the Duke (London. 179 . ed. No 47. 70. The TresRiches Heures of Jean. 50. Cf."The West Looks at the East. C. or excessively dagged garments. 218-244. lat. 184-193. fr. J. 54. The Cloisters. 62)." WesternViewsof Islam in Medieval in and Early Modern Europe: Perception of Other. Berry's library alreadycontained an unillustratedcopy of Marco Polo's account and an illustratedmanuscriptof this and other travel narratives. Ms. Ibid. 1968). also owned by the Duke of Berry. MS fr. MS fr. No. 105. Ibid. 1970). Philip the Good: The Apogee of Burgundy (London. Le livre des merveilles: extrait du Livre des merveilles du monde. Byzantine Armies. Paris. checked..Inventairesde Jean Duc de Berry (Paris. The artistsof the Merveilles du monde made use of such extra-textualpropagandaelsewhere in the manuscript. M.they multiply not only sartorial signs of alterity but also gestural and morphological ones. the Duke of Burgundy. See M. 1977). 138-140. See R. 1. 56. and M.Porter ("The West Looks at the East. of commentary by T. See R. It had appeared in late fourteenth-centuryFrench manuscripts. 55. John the Fearless had commissioned two copies of this Merveilles. 120. 51. 1980). See also J. 59. See for the sash. Seattle. Based on her analysis of French costume. M.including equally incorrectreferencesto Muslim cannibalism (ibid. 102-142. Guiffrey. The History of Dress Series (London. and Bayezid I died a prisonerof Timur in 1402. The Crusade of Nicopolis. MS 54. Porter. See Atiya. 1974). See Meiss. E. 343. 1969). 2810. MS nouv. the artist'sorientalism is more conspicuous in the Merveilles du monde. Meiss. 145-158. W. Hours of the Cross. 145-149. H. 27. 262. Cazelles. and Eberhard Kinig. 110. Meiss. the Tres Belles Heures de Notre Dame (p. This follows iconographic tradition. ed. 1987). Bibliothbque nationale de France. acq. Le Voyage d'Outremer de Bertrandon de la Broquibre. 46. fol. 143-224. and M. No. Tamerlane. E Avril. See Meiss.-T. E The Limbourg brothers were not the first to represent this turbantype in the West. 105. 1370-the dating of the manuscript is controversial. Figs. Arab Dress. "PopularAttitudes towardIslamin MedievalEurope. Mongol Costume. Schaefer (Paris. My observations on eastern costume also suggest that these miniatures were painted in the last twenty years of the fourteenth century. 131v. The Limbourg Brothers. Vaughan. 61-62. 52.indecentexposureof the body. 183-186. Timur was able to defeat the Ottoman Turkish leader who outwitted the French. Porter. 7-22. Scott. 1984). Moran Cruz. OrientalArmour. 278-325. 83. 2810 (Tournai. See J. See also J. the date at which all three Limbourg brothersare first recorded as being in Berry's service. Baltimore. Mellinkoff. 265-268. A. perhaps suggesting that the artists used western models for some of their eastern dress. cod. TheLibrary and Manuscripts of Piero di Cosimo de' Medici (New York. There are no documents related to the Citd des Dames Master.. and. Kubiski. R. 1992). 62. 107-116. Longnon. Duke of Berry (New York. 23. The Limbourg Brothers. 1967). Nicolle. n. M. and 268. with English trans. Manuscripts are attributed to his workshop on the basis of style alone. Les TresBelles Heures de NotreDame du Duc Jean de Berry (Paris. The Boucicaut Master. and M. Both books of hours use many of the signs of othernessnoted by Mellinkoff (Outcasts. Bibliotheque nationale de France. When the artists choose to denigrate their characters.1. "Christianand Jewish Mitres: A Paradox. 270. "The West Looks at the East in the Middle Ages: The Livre des Merveilles du Monde" (Dissertation. Sims (New York. for the shield. only Berry'ssurvives. E. most likely during the plague of 1415. 1984). While the Boucicaut Hours contains many of the elements of easterncostume discussed above. 166. New York. falls in that year. 47. 104). 53. Charles Sterling... Gorelik. Pettenati. For the Boucicaut Hours. 58. Figs. 104. 1980). J. 48. A. 61. The Tres Riches Heures was begun shortly after the completion of the Belles Heures. S. Pls.8. including Paul Durrieu. While it is generally agreed that most of the miniatures in the TrksBelles Heures de Notre Dame were executed by the artist who painted the Parement de Narbonne-a grisaille painting on silk representing Passion scenes made for Charles V ca. volumes of travel literature were popular gifts. C. in D. Medieval Travellers (New York. 1984). because the last recorded death date in the calendar. 42. It is believed the workshop was operating in Paris as early as 1400. The Belles Heures of Jean. Anne van Buren dates the manuscript 1390/92.striped. 1999). Inv.45. Florence. The portraitof Argyropoulos was painted by Francesco di Antonio del Chierico in a copy of Aristotle's De interpretatione.40.passim) to denigratethe other. 128. 982. perhaps this is why the most richly illuminated examples were produced in French courtly circles.physical distortionsanddeformities." 104-108. See E Ames-Lewis. ed. See below. D. and S. 377-382. for a complete facsimile. Frassetto(New York.

Freedman and G. E R. and idem. 2000). Monster Theory. "MedievalismsOld and New: The Rediscoveryof Alterity in North American Medieval Studies. Monster Theory: Reading Culture. Cohen (Minneapolis. ed. 67. 132. 85-104.." The American Historical Review CIII (1998).Monsters. Orientalism. There is currentlya prodigious volume of literatureaddressingnotions of alterity in the Middle Ages. 667-704. Cohen. Van D' Elden. 180 . Akehurst and S. 1998). Said. 1997). Goodich. eds." in The Postcolonial Middle Ages (New York. Borderlands:The Bodies of Geraldof Wales. 66. ed. and M.. Pertinentto this study are: P. P. Cohen. Spiegel. Other Middle Ages: Witnesses at the Margins of Medieval Society (Philadelphia. C. 1996). J.65.passim. 68. "Hybrids. J. The Stranger in Medieval Society (Minneapolis.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful