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1

PROJECT REPORT

Degree in Electrical Engineering.

Transmission Lines.

TEAM MEMBER

1. Indranil Sarkar. (Roll No.-14816061058)

2. Souvik Ghosh . (Roll No.-14816061054)

3. Arindam Mukherjee . (Roll No.- 0714801162004)

4. Kaustav Lai . (Roll No.-14816061015)

Prof. Kshirod Kumar Ghosh (H.O.D, Electrical Engineering Dept ,

F.I.E.M.)

COLLEGE

Future Institute Of Engineering & Management , Kolkata .

2

Certificate

We hereby recommend that the project report, entitled as “ Design Of Electrical Transmission

Lines ”, prepared by Souvik Ghosh (Roll. No. 14816061054) , Indranil Sarkar (Roll. No.

14816061058) , Kaustav Lai (Roll. No. 14816061015) and Arindam Mukherjee (Roll. No.

0714801162004) under my/our guidance, be accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for

the Degree of Bachelor of Technology (Electrical Engineering) from the Department of

Electrical Engineering of Future Institute of Technology & Management.

----------------------------------------

Prof. Kshirod Kumar Ghosh

Professor/Lecturer

Department of Electrical Engineering

Future Institute of Technology & Management

Countersigned by:

----------------------------------------

Head

Department of Electrical Engineering

Future Institute of Technology & Management

3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful start and completion of this project and report is a matter of

great relief. This has been impossible without the help of some special persons

who gave us the idea and guided us all along the project this far. We are really

obliged and want to take this opportunity to show our gratitude towards Prof.

Kshirod Kumar Ghosh, who aided us throughout the project.

Last but not the least we would like to thank our family for

their support and continuous help and for providing us with all the means and

mediums through which this project could be continued and the report could be

made.

SOUVIK GHOSH

INDRANIL SARKAR

ARINDAM MUKHERJEE

&

KAUSTAV LAI

4

CONTENTS

Introduction.

Electrical Designing Of Transmission

Lines .

Mechanical Designing Of

Transmission Line .

Matlab Simulation Program.

Conclusion.

Bibliography.

5

INTRODUCTION

The electrical power industry provides the production and delivery of

electrical power (electrical energy), often known as power, or electricity,

in sufficient quantities to areas that need electricity through a grid. Many

households and businesses need access to electricity, especially in

developed nations, the demand being scarcer in developing nations.

Demand for electricity is derived from the requirement for electricity in

order to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, industrial

machinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and

commercial lighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. Because

of this aspect of the industry, it is viewed as a public utility as

infrastructure.

An electric power system (or simply power system) is a network of

electrical components used to supply, transmit and utilise electric power.

The quintessential example of an electric power system is the network

that supplies a region's homes and industry with power - for sizable

regions, this power system is known as the grid and can be broadly

divided into the generators that supply the power, the transmission

system that carries the power from the generating centres to the load

centres and the distribution system that feeds the power to nearby homes

and industries. Smaller power systems are also found in industry,

hospitals, commercial buildings and homes. The majority of these

systems rely upon three-phase AC power - the standard for large-scale

power transmission and distribution across the modern world.

6

Specialised power systems that do not always rely upon three-phase AC

power are found in aircraft, electric rail systems, ocean liners and

automobiles.

Figure 1

The advantages of adopting high voltage for transmission are given

below:

• With the increase in transmission voltage the size of the conductor

is reduced.

• With the increase in transmission voltage line current is reduced,

which results in reduction of line losses.

• With the increase in transmission voltage reduction in line losses

results in higher efficiency thus voltage regulation is increased.

7

What are Transmission Lines?

A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or

part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of

energy, such as electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves, as well as

electric power transmission. Types of transmission line include wires,

coaxial cables, dielectric slabs, striplines, optical fibers, electric power

lines, and waveguides.

Transmission Lines should transmit power over the required distance

economically and satisfy the electrical and mechanical requirements

prescribed in particular cases. It would be necessary to transmit a

certain amount of power, at a given power factor , over a given distance

and within a given regulation, efficiency and losses. As far as the

general requirements of transmission lines are concerned , it should

have enough capacity to transmit the required power , should maintain

continuous supply without failure , should be mechanically strong so

that there are no failures due to mechanical breakdowns .

Long transmission lines are required

to transmit power from hydro-electric power stations to the spaces of

load as the sites for water-power would be far away from the load -

centres . These are also required for interconnecting power systems

having a number of power systems for transfer of power or energy from

one system to the other at the time of peak load or outage due to fault

8

conditions . The transmission system consists of all the equipment from

generating end switchyard lines , switching stations , equipment at the

receiving ends till the entrance to sub-transmission circuits or

distribution circuits.

A Typical Transmission Line

Figure 2

The design methodology:

Gather preliminary line design data and available climatic data

Select reliability level in terms of return period of design

Calculate climatic loading on components

Calculate loads corresponding to security requirements (failure

containment)

9

Calculate loads related to safety during construction and

maintenance

Select appropriate correction factors, if applicable, to the design

components such as use factor, strength factors related to numbers

of components, strength coordination, quality control, and the

characteristic strength.

Design the components for the above loads and strength.

The Design

Problem:- To design a transmission line to transmit 3-phase , 100 MW

at 0.9 power factor lagging , over a distance of 200 Km . The regulation

of the line should be within 12% of the receiving end voltage , efficiency

95% and corona loss not to exceed 0.6 KW/Km .

a. Choose voltage, size of the conductor and spacing between

conductors.

b. Calculate the constants of the line and determine the regulation.

c. Find the efficiency on full load.

d. Predict corona loss per-km of the line and the total corona loss.

e. Choose the number of insulator units. Find the voltage distribution

on insulator units.

f. Mechanical design of the line.

10

THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL :-

1. Electrical Design:-

1.1. Line Load Calculation-

1.1.1. Loading on the line=100*10^3*10^2

=20*10^6 kw-km

1.2. Voltage selection

1.3. Standard Voltage - 66,110,132, 220, 400 KV

Tolerances - ±10% up to 220 KV & ±5% for 400

KV

1.4. Selection Criterion of Economic Voltage –

1.4.1. Quantum of power to be evacuated

1.4.2. Length of line

1.4.3. Voltage regulation

1.4.4. Power loss in Transmission

1.4.5. Initial and operating cost

1.4.6. Present and future voltage in neighborhood

11

Now by the table drawn below, we calculate the line-to-line voltage

(operating voltage).

11 24*10^3

33 200*10^3

66 600*10^3

110 11*10^6

132 20*10^6

166 35*10^6

230 90*10^6

Table 1

So, from table 1, the voltage required for this loading is 132 kv. So,for a

length of line 200kms the preferred voltage will be 132kv.

1.5. Receiving end current calculation

For line voltage of 132 kv the current at the receiving

end,

Ir = (20*10^6)/(√3*132*0.9*10^3)

=97.2 A

=97.2<-25.84°

12

1.6. Phase angle calculation

Φ = cos¯1 (0.9)

=-25.84 (the minus sign is for lagging power factor)

corresponding to an offset in the displacement from a specified reference

point at time t = 0. Phase is a frequency domain or Fourier transform

domain concept, and as such, can be readily understood in terms of

simple harmonic motion. The same concept applies to wave motion,

viewed either at a point in space over an interval of time or across an

interval of space at a moment in time. Simple harmonic motion is a

displacement that varies cyclically, as depicted to the right.

elapsed time, and θ is the phase of the oscillation. The phase determines

or is determined by the initial displacement at time t = 0. A motion with

frequency f has period T = 1 / f .

13

1.7. Spacing calculation

The spacing of conductors depends on the voltage of the lines and the

spans used. The conductors should not touch each other at the sag

conditions,under different loadings because of wind pressure,ice loading

The spacing arrangement maybe horizontal or vertical or equilateral

triangular as may suit the circumstances. The approximate equivalent

spacing of the line is given in table 3.

14

Line to line voltage(kv) Equivalent spacing (m)

11 1

33 1.3

66 2.6

110 5

132 6

166 8

230 10.2

Table 3

1.8. Diameter of the conductor selection

From the above table 3,the approximate equivalent

spacing of the conductors for a 132 kv line is Dm=6m.

For high voltage lines, ACSR conductors will be used.

15

From the table:

Nominal Number of Number Approx. Calculated Approx Calculated

copper strands and of strands overall resistance total breaking

area wire(aluminium) and diameter per km at weight load of

wire(steel) 20°c per km composite

conductor

0.161 6/0.236 1/0.236 0.708 1.0891 106.2 954.8

0.322 6/0.335 1/0.335 1.005 0.5400 214.0 1864.3

0.387 6/0.365 1/0.365 1.097 0.4550 255.0 2204.3

0.484 6/0.409 1/0.409 1.227 0.3640 318.0 2742.3

0.645 6/0.472 1/0.157 1.417 0.2720 395.0 3311.2

0.645 7/0.439 7/0.193 1.458 0.2700 451.0 4152.6

0.805 30/0.236 7/0.236 1.654 0.2200 605.0 5764.0

0.968 30/0.259 7/0.259 1.814 0.1832 728.0 6883.0

1.125 30/0.279 7/0.279 1.956 0.1572 847.0 7953.0

Table 4

The nearest size of ACSR conductor will be, 6/0.236 aluminum and

1/0.236 steel. The overall diameter is 0.708 cm. The overall radius will

therefore be 0.354 cm.

16

1.9. Total resistance selection

From table 4 we can find the total resistance at 20°c to be=1.0891Ω

Self GMD for 37 stranded wire=0.768R

Now self GMD=0.768*1.0891

=0.836cm

Inductance per phase for 200kms line= 2*10^7*ln(Dm/Ds)

=0.1315H

Therefore reactance per phase,

X=2*∏*f*L

=41.3119Ω

17

1.12. Line impedance calculation

The impedance per phase, Z=R+jX

=108.9+j41.3119

The capacitance per phase per meter

= 1/(18*10^9*ln(1649.915))

The capacitance of 200km line per phase

CN =100*10^3*capacitance per phase per meter

= 7.47*10^(-7)µF

To choose the final voltage and conductor size, it is necessary to

calculate the regulation and to check whether it would be within the

permissible limits. For this, it is necessary to find the constants of the

line ABCD,

Y/phase= 2*∏*f*CN

=2.3467*10^(-10)<90°

18

Z= 108.9+j41.3119

=116.4727<20.77°

Therefore,

YZ=2.3467*10^(-10)<90° * 116.4727<20.77°

=-3.69*10^(-9)+j*2.556*10^(-8)

YZ/2= -4.845*10^(-9)+j*1.2778*10^(-8)

YZ/6=-1.615*10^(-9)+j*4.2593*10^(-9)

Y2Z2=7.47*10^(-16)<221.54°

=-5.59*10^(-16)-j*4.954*10^(-16)

Y2Z2/120= -4.6583*10^(-18)-j*4.218*10^(-18)

A = D= 1+YZ/2

=0.99999+j*1.2778*10^(-8)

=0.99999<7.32*10^(-7)°

B=Z(1+YZ/6+Y2Z2/120)

=116.4725<20.770

19

C=Y*(1+YZ/6+Y2Z2/120)

=0.9999998+j*4.259*10^(-9)

=2.3466*10^(-10)<90°

To find the sending end voltage and the regulation from the

constants ABCD

Vs=AVR+BIR

=80.869<0.1315°

Thus the sending end voltage is 80869V per phase and the receiving end

voltage per phase is 76210V.

The voltage regulation=(80869-76210)*100/76210

=6.11%

20

1.18. Summarizing results for 132 kv line

Line Current(A) Spacing Equivalent Current carrying

voltage in m copper capacity(A)percentage

kv section of regulation

conductor

132 97.2 6 0.1935 6.11

Table 5

With the conductor radius of 0.354cm, and spacing 6 cm, the disruptive

voltage Ed is given by,

Ed=21.1*m*r*δ*ln(d/r) Kv

=49.9841 Kv

The ratio, E/Ed=76.21/49.9841=1.5246<0.5805°

Pc=21*10^*(-6)*f*E2*F*3/[log(D/r)]2

=0.0662 Kw/Km

The line therefore gives a corona loss less than the permissible corona

loss.

21

1.20. Sending end current calculation

The sending end current can be found out as follows,

Is= CVR+DIR

=87.39-j*42.3

=97.08<25.08°

The sending end power can be found out as follows,

Ps= 3*VS*IS*cosΦS

=21186.6<25.9°

The transmission line efficiency can be found out by the following

formula,

Efficiency=receiving end power/(sending end power+corona loss)

=(3*76.2*97.2*cos25.84*100)/(21186.6+0.0662)%

=94.44%

22

1.23. Selection of insulators

clearance from ground and structure.

Insulator material-

High grade Electrical Porcelain

Toughened Glass

Fiber Glass

23

Choice of insulator material is govern by availability, price

and ease of maintenance.

Porcelain insulator are largely used in India.

Type of Insulator-

Disc Type

Strut Type

Disc type Insulator

It consist of central suitable shaped porcelain/ glass body like a

disc with an metal clamp on one side and metal ball pin on other

side

Cap is made of malleable cost iron and the ball pins is of forged

steel.

Strut Type Insulator

It consist of several insulator disc cemented altogether without any

link.

It is rigid and can take both tension and compression load.

These are used for holding the conductor out of way of structure.

For the design of a transmission line of 132 Kv we used 13 string

insulators as per the norms.

24

2.0 Mechanical design

Design the main mechanical features for the transmission line discussed

above,

Voltage(Kv) Current Current Equivalent Equivalent

carrying copper spacing

capacity section

132Kv 97.2 A 280A 0.1935 6m

cm2

Table 6

2.1. Span:

The span or the distance between poles or towers is chosen according to

the voltage and the size of the conductor used for the transmission line.

For 132 Kv, the span in meters s given as=300 meters as according to

the table 7 given below,

Voltage in Kv Span in meters

11 100

33 100

66 200

110 250-300

132 300

230 300

Table 7

25

2.2. Ground clearance calculation

When transmission lines are constructed it is necessary to maintain a

clearance from the lowest point of the conductors to the ground for

safeguarding life and property. The distance to be thus kept depends on

the voltage level of the transmission line. As an approximation, it maybe

taken as (6+0.01)meter per Kv. Actually there are rules stating a certain

minimum clearance under certain conditions for different locations. The

minimum distance is 6 meter at low voltage level ad it increases at high

voltage levels.

Also it depends on the situation of the line, that is, whether it is crossing

a main road or is passing over buildings in which cases necessary

additional precautions are to be taken. The table below gives the

minimum clearances normally used.

Voltage Minimum clearance from

ground in meter

Low voltage(less than 650v 5.8

dc or 325v ac)

Less than 66 Kv 6.0

Between 66 Kv and 110 Kv 6.4

Between 110 Kv and 166 6.7

Kv

Above 166 Kv 7.0

Table 6

Therefore, minimum clearance from ground in meters from the table 6 is

6.7 meters.

26

2.3. Area of ice coating calculation

The area of ice coating can be calculated as follows,

The area is given as=∏/4*{(0.708+2)2+0.7082}

=5.3658 cm2

The density of ice=915 kg/m3

=5.3658*10-4*915

=0.1909 kg

=(0.708+2)*39/100 kg/m2

=1.056 Kg

Thus the loads on the line are due to,

Weight of conductor=0.728 Kg/m

Weight of ice=0.4909 Kg/m

Wind pressure=1.056 kg/m

27

2.7. Vertical loading

V= 0.728+0.4909

=1.2189 Kg/m

W=√(1.21892+1.0562)

=1.61 Kg/m

The breaking load is selected as 6883 kg.

The permissible tension is assumed to be 3500 kg.

H=T-W2l2/2T

=3491.6 Kg

28

2.11. The sag calculation

When a conductor is supported between poles or towers,it will sag or dip

due to its own weight. It is necessary to maintain a certain minimum

clearance between the lowest point of the conductor and the ground for

safety as per regulations prevailing in the country.

The sag can be calculated as,

d= H/W{cos(Wl/H)-1}

=5.164 meter

=H/W*sinh*(Wl/H)

=149.8 meter

Therefore the length of the conductor

=299.93 meter

2.14. Vertical sag calculation

The vertical sag can be calculated as=

d*vertical loading/total load=3.90 meters

29

2.15. Factor of safety calculation:

The formulae for the factor of safety=breaking strength of

conductors/tension=6883/350

=1.96

l=20*10^6

L=100*10^3;

ph=sqrt(3);

vr=132*10^3;

pf=0.9;

Ir=(l/(ph*vr*pf)); %%calculation of receiving end current

p=acos(pf);

r=1.0891;

R=r*100; %%total resistance per 100km

Vr=vr/ph;

GMD=0.768*r; %%calculation of gmd

30

Dm=600;

Ds=0.836;

Ind=2e-2*log(Dm/Ds); %%calculation of inductance per phase

F=50;

x=2*3.14*f*Ind;

z=R+x*j; %%calculation of x,z

rad=0.354;

Cn=(L/(18e9*log(Dm/rad))); %%calculation of capacitance

y= 1.4369e-026+ 2.3467e-010*j;

z=108.9+41.3119*j %%calculation of line parameters

e=y*z;

f=e/2;

g=f/3;

h=e*e;

i=h/120;

A=1+f;

D=A;

B=z*(1+g+i);

C=y*(1+g+i);

Is=C*Vr+D*Ir;

31

Vs=A*Vr+B*Ir;

phi_s=(180*25.9)/3.14;

pow_s=3*Vs*Is*cos(phi_s); %%calculationof sending end power

phi_r=(180*25.84)/3.14;

pow_r=3*Vr*Ir*cos(phi_r); %%calculation of receiving end power

eff=(pow_r/pow_s)*100; %%calculation of efficiency

Pc=(21e-6*F*Vr^2*0.2*3)/[log(Dm/rad)]^2; %%corona calculation

Different Types Of Transmission Lines :

1. Coaxial cable

Coaxial lines confine the electromagnetic wave to the area inside the

cable, between the center conductor and the shield. The transmission of

energy in the line occurs totally through the dielectric inside the cable

between the conductors. Coaxial lines can therefore be bent and twisted

(subject to limits) without negative effects, and they can be strapped to

conductive supports without inducing unwanted currents in them. In

radio-frequency applications up to a few gigahertz, the wave propagates

in the transverse electric and magnetic mode (TEM) only, which means

that the electric and magnetic fields are both perpendicular to the

direction of propagation (the electric field is radial, and the magnetic

field is circumferential). However, at frequencies for which the

wavelength (in the dielectric) is significantly shorter than the

circumference of the cable, transverse electric (TE) and transverse

32

magnetic (TM) waveguide modes can also propagate. When more than

one mode can exist, bends and other irregularities in the cable geometry

can cause power to be transferred from one mode to another.

The most common use for coaxial cables is for television and other

signals with bandwidth of multiple megahertz. In the middle 20th

century they carried long distance telephone connections.

2. Microstrip

A microstrip circuit uses a thin flat conductor which is parallel to a

ground plane. Microstrip can be made by having a strip of copper on one

side of a printed circuit board (PCB) or ceramic substrate while the other

side is a continuous ground plane. The width of the strip, the thickness

of the insulating layer (PCB or ceramic) and the dielectric constant of

the insulating layer determine the characteristic impedance. Microstrip is

an open structure whereas coaxial cable is a closed structure.

3. Stripline

A stripline circuit uses a flat strip of metal which is sandwiched between

two parallel ground planes. The insulating material of the substrate

forms a dielectric. The width of the strip, the thickness of the substrate

and the relative permittivity of the substrate determine the characteristic

impedance of the strip which is a transmission line.

4. Balanced line

A balanced line is a transmission line consisting of two conductors of

the same type, and equal impedance to ground and other circuits. There

are many formats of balanced lines, amongst the most common are

twisted pair, star quad and twin-lead.

33

5. Twisted pair

Twisted pairs are commonly used for terrestrial telephone

communications. In such cables, many pairs are grouped together in a

single cable, from two to several thousand. The format is also used for

data network distribution inside buildings, but in this case the cable used

is more expensive with much tighter controlled parameters and either

two or four pairs per cable.

6. Star quad

Star quad is another balanced format used at low frequencies.

Applications include 4-wire telephony and microphone circuits.

7. Twin-lead

Twin-lead consists of a pair of conductors held apart by a continuous

insulator.

8. Lecher lines

Lecher lines are a form of parallel conductor that can be used at UHF for

creating resonant circuits. They are a convenient practical format that

fills the gap between lumped components (used at HF/VHF) and

resonant cavities (used at UHF/SHF).

9. Single-wire line

Unbalanced lines were formerly much used for telegraph transmission,

but this form of communication has now fallen into disuse. Cables are

similar to twisted pair in that many cores are bundled into the same cable

but only one conductor is provided per circuit and there is no twisting.

All the circuits on the same route use a common path for the return

current (earth return). There is a power transmission version of single-

wire earth return in use in many locations.

34

10. Waveguide (electromagnetism)

Waveguides are rectangular or circular metallic tubes inside which an

electromagnetic wave is propagated and is confined by the tube.

Waveguides are not capable of transmitting the transverse

electromagnetic mode found in copper lines and must use some other

mode. Consequently, they cannot be directly connected to cable and a

mechanism for launching the waveguide mode must be provided at the

interface.

Optical fibers are a solid transparent fiber of glass or polymer which

transmits a signal at optical, or near infrared, wavelengths. They form

the backbone of all modern terrestrial communications networks due to

the very high bandwidths that can be achieved. Optical fiber are another

variety of waveguide.

General applications

1. Signal transfer

Electrical transmission lines are very widely used to transmit high

frequency signals over long or short distances with minimum power

loss. One familiar example is the down lead from a TV or radio aerial to

the receiver.

2. Pulse generation

Transmission lines are also used as pulse generators. By charging the

transmission line and then discharging it into a resistive load, a

rectangular pulse equal in length to twice the electrical length of the line

35

can be obtained, although with half the voltage. A Blumlein

transmission line is a related pulse forming device that overcomes this

limitation. These are sometimes used as the pulsed energy sources for

radar transmitters and other devices.

3. Stub filters

If a short-circuited or open-circuited transmission line is wired in

parallel with a line used to transfer signals from point A to point B, then

it will function as a filter. The method for making stubs is similar to the

method for using Lecher lines for crude frequency measurement, but it is

'working backwards'. One method recommended in the RSGB's

radiocommunication handbook is to take an open-circuited length of

transmission line wired in parallel with the feeder delivering signals

from an aerial. By cutting the free end of the transmission line, a

minimum in the strength of the signal observed at a receiver can be

found. At this stage the stub filter will reject this frequency and the odd

harmonics, but if the free end of the stub is shorted then the stub will

become a filter rejecting the even harmonics.

36

5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

2. Modern Power System Analysis by D. P. Kothari &

I. J. Nagrath.

3. Electrical Power Systems : Design & Analysis by

M. E. El-Hawary.

4. Electrical Power Systems by J. B. Gupta.

37

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