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Design Of Electrical Transmission Lines.

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PROJECT REPORT

Thesis submitted as a part of the course curriculum leading to B.Tech


Degree in Electrical Engineering.

AIM : Design Of Electrical


Transmission Lines.

TEAM MEMBER
1. Indranil Sarkar. (Roll No.-14816061058)
2. Souvik Ghosh . (Roll No.-14816061054)
3. Arindam Mukherjee . (Roll No.- 0714801162004)
4. Kaustav Lai . (Roll No.-14816061015)

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF


Prof. Kshirod Kumar Ghosh (H.O.D, Electrical Engineering Dept ,
F.I.E.M.)

COLLEGE
Future Institute Of Engineering & Management , Kolkata .
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Certificate

We hereby recommend that the project report, entitled as “ Design Of Electrical Transmission
Lines ”, prepared by Souvik Ghosh (Roll. No. 14816061054) , Indranil Sarkar (Roll. No.
14816061058) , Kaustav Lai (Roll. No. 14816061015) and Arindam Mukherjee (Roll. No.
0714801162004) under my/our guidance, be accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the Degree of Bachelor of Technology (Electrical Engineering) from the Department of
Electrical Engineering of Future Institute of Technology & Management.

----------------------------------------
Prof. Kshirod Kumar Ghosh
Professor/Lecturer
Department of Electrical Engineering
Future Institute of Technology & Management

Countersigned by:

----------------------------------------
Head
Department of Electrical Engineering
Future Institute of Technology & Management

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful start and completion of this project and report is a matter of
great relief. This has been impossible without the help of some special persons
who gave us the idea and guided us all along the project this far. We are really
obliged and want to take this opportunity to show our gratitude towards Prof.
Kshirod Kumar Ghosh, who aided us throughout the project.

Last but not the least we would like to thank our family for
their support and continuous help and for providing us with all the means and
mediums through which this project could be continued and the report could be
made.

SOUVIK GHOSH

INDRANIL SARKAR

ARINDAM MUKHERJEE

&

KAUSTAV LAI

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CONTENTS

 Introduction.
 Electrical Designing Of Transmission
Lines .
 Mechanical Designing Of
Transmission Line .
 Matlab Simulation Program.
 Conclusion.
 Bibliography.

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INTRODUCTION
The electrical power industry provides the production and delivery of
electrical power (electrical energy), often known as power, or electricity,
in sufficient quantities to areas that need electricity through a grid. Many
households and businesses need access to electricity, especially in
developed nations, the demand being scarcer in developing nations.
Demand for electricity is derived from the requirement for electricity in
order to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, industrial
machinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and
commercial lighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. Because
of this aspect of the industry, it is viewed as a public utility as
infrastructure.
An electric power system (or simply power system) is a network of
electrical components used to supply, transmit and utilise electric power.
The quintessential example of an electric power system is the network
that supplies a region's homes and industry with power - for sizable
regions, this power system is known as the grid and can be broadly
divided into the generators that supply the power, the transmission
system that carries the power from the generating centres to the load
centres and the distribution system that feeds the power to nearby homes
and industries. Smaller power systems are also found in industry,
hospitals, commercial buildings and homes. The majority of these
systems rely upon three-phase AC power - the standard for large-scale
power transmission and distribution across the modern world.
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Specialised power systems that do not always rely upon three-phase AC
power are found in aircraft, electric rail systems, ocean liners and
automobiles.

Power transmission system:

Figure 1
The advantages of adopting high voltage for transmission are given
below:
• With the increase in transmission voltage the size of the conductor
is reduced.
• With the increase in transmission voltage line current is reduced,
which results in reduction of line losses.
• With the increase in transmission voltage reduction in line losses
results in higher efficiency thus voltage regulation is increased.
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What are Transmission Lines?
A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or
part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of
energy, such as electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves, as well as
electric power transmission. Types of transmission line include wires,
coaxial cables, dielectric slabs, striplines, optical fibers, electric power
lines, and waveguides.

What are the necessities for a transmission line?


Transmission Lines should transmit power over the required distance
economically and satisfy the electrical and mechanical requirements
prescribed in particular cases. It would be necessary to transmit a
certain amount of power, at a given power factor , over a given distance
and within a given regulation, efficiency and losses. As far as the
general requirements of transmission lines are concerned , it should
have enough capacity to transmit the required power , should maintain
continuous supply without failure , should be mechanically strong so
that there are no failures due to mechanical breakdowns .
Long transmission lines are required
to transmit power from hydro-electric power stations to the spaces of
load as the sites for water-power would be far away from the load -
centres . These are also required for interconnecting power systems
having a number of power systems for transfer of power or energy from
one system to the other at the time of peak load or outage due to fault
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conditions . The transmission system consists of all the equipment from
generating end switchyard lines , switching stations , equipment at the
receiving ends till the entrance to sub-transmission circuits or
distribution circuits.
A Typical Transmission Line

Figure 2
The design methodology:
 Gather preliminary line design data and available climatic data
 Select reliability level in terms of return period of design
 Calculate climatic loading on components
 Calculate loads corresponding to security requirements (failure
containment)

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 Calculate loads related to safety during construction and
maintenance
 Select appropriate correction factors, if applicable, to the design
components such as use factor, strength factors related to numbers
of components, strength coordination, quality control, and the
characteristic strength.
 Design the components for the above loads and strength.

The Design
Problem:- To design a transmission line to transmit 3-phase , 100 MW
at 0.9 power factor lagging , over a distance of 200 Km . The regulation
of the line should be within 12% of the receiving end voltage , efficiency
95% and corona loss not to exceed 0.6 KW/Km .
a. Choose voltage, size of the conductor and spacing between
conductors.
b. Calculate the constants of the line and determine the regulation.
c. Find the efficiency on full load.
d. Predict corona loss per-km of the line and the total corona loss.
e. Choose the number of insulator units. Find the voltage distribution
on insulator units.
f. Mechanical design of the line.

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THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL :-
1. Electrical Design:-
1.1. Line Load Calculation-
1.1.1. Loading on the line=100*10^3*10^2
=20*10^6 kw-km
1.2. Voltage selection
1.3. Standard Voltage - 66,110,132, 220, 400 KV
Tolerances - ±10% up to 220 KV & ±5% for 400
KV
1.4. Selection Criterion of Economic Voltage –
1.4.1. Quantum of power to be evacuated
1.4.2. Length of line
1.4.3. Voltage regulation
1.4.4. Power loss in Transmission
1.4.5. Initial and operating cost
1.4.6. Present and future voltage in neighborhood

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Now by the table drawn below, we calculate the line-to-line voltage
(operating voltage).

Line to line voltage (Kv) Line loading (Kw-km)


11 24*10^3
33 200*10^3
66 600*10^3
110 11*10^6
132 20*10^6
166 35*10^6
230 90*10^6
Table 1
So, from table 1, the voltage required for this loading is 132 kv. So,for a
length of line 200kms the preferred voltage will be 132kv.
1.5. Receiving end current calculation
For line voltage of 132 kv the current at the receiving
end,
Ir = (20*10^6)/(√3*132*0.9*10^3)
=97.2 A
=97.2<-25.84°

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1.6. Phase angle calculation
Φ = cos¯1 (0.9)
=-25.84 (the minus sign is for lagging power factor)

The phase of an oscillation or wave is the fraction of a complete cycle


corresponding to an offset in the displacement from a specified reference
point at time t = 0. Phase is a frequency domain or Fourier transform
domain concept, and as such, can be readily understood in terms of
simple harmonic motion. The same concept applies to wave motion,
viewed either at a point in space over an interval of time or across an
interval of space at a moment in time. Simple harmonic motion is a
displacement that varies cyclically, as depicted to the right.

It is described by the formula:

where A is the amplitude of oscillation, f is the frequency, t is the


elapsed time, and θ is the phase of the oscillation. The phase determines
or is determined by the initial displacement at time t = 0. A motion with
frequency f has period T = 1 / f .

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1.7. Spacing calculation
The spacing of conductors depends on the voltage of the lines and the
spans used. The conductors should not touch each other at the sag
conditions,under different loadings because of wind pressure,ice loading

and changes in temperature.


The spacing arrangement maybe horizontal or vertical or equilateral
triangular as may suit the circumstances. The approximate equivalent
spacing of the line is given in table 3.

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Line to line voltage(kv) Equivalent spacing (m)
11 1
33 1.3
66 2.6
110 5
132 6
166 8
230 10.2
Table 3
1.8. Diameter of the conductor selection
From the above table 3,the approximate equivalent
spacing of the conductors for a 132 kv line is Dm=6m.
For high voltage lines, ACSR conductors will be used.

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From the table:
Nominal Number of Number Approx. Calculated Approx Calculated
copper strands and of strands overall resistance total breaking
area wire(aluminium) and diameter per km at weight load of
wire(steel) 20°c per km composite
conductor
0.161 6/0.236 1/0.236 0.708 1.0891 106.2 954.8
0.322 6/0.335 1/0.335 1.005 0.5400 214.0 1864.3
0.387 6/0.365 1/0.365 1.097 0.4550 255.0 2204.3
0.484 6/0.409 1/0.409 1.227 0.3640 318.0 2742.3
0.645 6/0.472 1/0.157 1.417 0.2720 395.0 3311.2
0.645 7/0.439 7/0.193 1.458 0.2700 451.0 4152.6
0.805 30/0.236 7/0.236 1.654 0.2200 605.0 5764.0
0.968 30/0.259 7/0.259 1.814 0.1832 728.0 6883.0
1.125 30/0.279 7/0.279 1.956 0.1572 847.0 7953.0
Table 4
The nearest size of ACSR conductor will be, 6/0.236 aluminum and
1/0.236 steel. The overall diameter is 0.708 cm. The overall radius will
therefore be 0.354 cm.

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1.9. Total resistance selection
From table 4 we can find the total resistance at 20°c to be=1.0891Ω

1.10. Self GMD calculation


Self GMD for 37 stranded wire=0.768R
Now self GMD=0.768*1.0891
=0.836cm

1.11. Inductance per phase calculation


Inductance per phase for 200kms line= 2*10^7*ln(Dm/Ds)
=0.1315H
Therefore reactance per phase,
X=2*∏*f*L
=41.3119Ω

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1.12. Line impedance calculation
The impedance per phase, Z=R+jX
=108.9+j41.3119

1.13. Capacitance per phase calculation


The capacitance per phase per meter
= 1/(18*10^9*ln(1649.915))
The capacitance of 200km line per phase
CN =100*10^3*capacitance per phase per meter
= 7.47*10^(-7)µF

1.14. Calculation of line parameter


To choose the final voltage and conductor size, it is necessary to
calculate the regulation and to check whether it would be within the
permissible limits. For this, it is necessary to find the constants of the
line ABCD,
Y/phase= 2*∏*f*CN
=2.3467*10^(-10)<90°

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Z= 108.9+j41.3119
=116.4727<20.77°
Therefore,
YZ=2.3467*10^(-10)<90° * 116.4727<20.77°
=-3.69*10^(-9)+j*2.556*10^(-8)

YZ/2= -4.845*10^(-9)+j*1.2778*10^(-8)
YZ/6=-1.615*10^(-9)+j*4.2593*10^(-9)
Y2Z2=7.47*10^(-16)<221.54°
=-5.59*10^(-16)-j*4.954*10^(-16)
Y2Z2/120= -4.6583*10^(-18)-j*4.218*10^(-18)

1.15. Calculation of ABCD parameters


A = D= 1+YZ/2
=0.99999+j*1.2778*10^(-8)
=0.99999<7.32*10^(-7)°

B=Z(1+YZ/6+Y2Z2/120)
=116.4725<20.770

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C=Y*(1+YZ/6+Y2Z2/120)
=0.9999998+j*4.259*10^(-9)
=2.3466*10^(-10)<90°

1.16. Calculation of sending end voltage


To find the sending end voltage and the regulation from the
constants ABCD
Vs=AVR+BIR
=80.869<0.1315°

1.17. Calculation of percentage regulation

Thus the sending end voltage is 80869V per phase and the receiving end
voltage per phase is 76210V.
The voltage regulation=(80869-76210)*100/76210
=6.11%

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1.18. Summarizing results for 132 kv line
Line Current(A) Spacing Equivalent Current carrying
voltage in m copper capacity(A)percentage
kv section of regulation
conductor
132 97.2 6 0.1935 6.11
Table 5

1.19. Corona loss calculations

With the conductor radius of 0.354cm, and spacing 6 cm, the disruptive
voltage Ed is given by,
Ed=21.1*m*r*δ*ln(d/r) Kv
=49.9841 Kv
The ratio, E/Ed=76.21/49.9841=1.5246<0.5805°

Therefore by Petersons formula, the corona loss is given by,


Pc=21*10^*(-6)*f*E2*F*3/[log(D/r)]2
=0.0662 Kw/Km
The line therefore gives a corona loss less than the permissible corona
loss.

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1.20. Sending end current calculation
The sending end current can be found out as follows,
Is= CVR+DIR
=87.39-j*42.3
=97.08<25.08°

1.21. Sending end power calculation


The sending end power can be found out as follows,
Ps= 3*VS*IS*cosΦS
=21186.6<25.9°

1.22. Transmission line efficiency


The transmission line efficiency can be found out by the following
formula,
Efficiency=receiving end power/(sending end power+corona loss)
=(3*76.2*97.2*cos25.84*100)/(21186.6+0.0662)%
=94.44%

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1.23. Selection of insulators

Insulator are required to support the line conductor and provide


clearance from ground and structure.

 Insulator material-
 High grade Electrical Porcelain
 Toughened Glass
 Fiber Glass

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 Choice of insulator material is govern by availability, price
and ease of maintenance.
 Porcelain insulator are largely used in India.
Type of Insulator-
 Disc Type
 Strut Type
 Disc type Insulator
 It consist of central suitable shaped porcelain/ glass body like a
disc with an metal clamp on one side and metal ball pin on other
side
 Cap is made of malleable cost iron and the ball pins is of forged
steel.
 Strut Type Insulator
 It consist of several insulator disc cemented altogether without any
link.
 It is rigid and can take both tension and compression load.
 These are used for holding the conductor out of way of structure.
For the design of a transmission line of 132 Kv we used 13 string
insulators as per the norms.

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2.0 Mechanical design
Design the main mechanical features for the transmission line discussed
above,
Voltage(Kv) Current Current Equivalent Equivalent
carrying copper spacing
capacity section
132Kv 97.2 A 280A 0.1935 6m
cm2
Table 6
2.1. Span:
The span or the distance between poles or towers is chosen according to
the voltage and the size of the conductor used for the transmission line.
For 132 Kv, the span in meters s given as=300 meters as according to
the table 7 given below,
Voltage in Kv Span in meters
11 100
33 100
66 200
110 250-300
132 300
230 300
Table 7

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2.2. Ground clearance calculation
When transmission lines are constructed it is necessary to maintain a
clearance from the lowest point of the conductors to the ground for
safeguarding life and property. The distance to be thus kept depends on
the voltage level of the transmission line. As an approximation, it maybe
taken as (6+0.01)meter per Kv. Actually there are rules stating a certain
minimum clearance under certain conditions for different locations. The
minimum distance is 6 meter at low voltage level ad it increases at high
voltage levels.
Also it depends on the situation of the line, that is, whether it is crossing
a main road or is passing over buildings in which cases necessary
additional precautions are to be taken. The table below gives the
minimum clearances normally used.
Voltage Minimum clearance from
ground in meter
Low voltage(less than 650v 5.8
dc or 325v ac)
Less than 66 Kv 6.0
Between 66 Kv and 110 Kv 6.4
Between 110 Kv and 166 6.7
Kv
Above 166 Kv 7.0
Table 6
Therefore, minimum clearance from ground in meters from the table 6 is
6.7 meters.
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2.3. Area of ice coating calculation
The area of ice coating can be calculated as follows,
The area is given as=∏/4*{(0.708+2)2+0.7082}
=5.3658 cm2

2.4. Density of ice


The density of ice=915 kg/m3

2.5. Weight of ice/meter length


=5.3658*10-4*915
=0.1909 kg

2.6. Load due to wind pressure on projected area on conductor


=(0.708+2)*39/100 kg/m2
=1.056 Kg
Thus the loads on the line are due to,
Weight of conductor=0.728 Kg/m
Weight of ice=0.4909 Kg/m
Wind pressure=1.056 kg/m

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2.7. Vertical loading
V= 0.728+0.4909
=1.2189 Kg/m

2.8. Total load calculation


W=√(1.21892+1.0562)
=1.61 Kg/m

2.9. Breaking load


The breaking load is selected as 6883 kg.
The permissible tension is assumed to be 3500 kg.

2.10. Horizontal component of tension


H=T-W2l2/2T
=3491.6 Kg

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2.11. The sag calculation
When a conductor is supported between poles or towers,it will sag or dip
due to its own weight. It is necessary to maintain a certain minimum
clearance between the lowest point of the conductor and the ground for
safety as per regulations prevailing in the country.
The sag can be calculated as,
d= H/W{cos(Wl/H)-1}
=5.164 meter

2.12. Half length of the conductor


=H/W*sinh*(Wl/H)
=149.8 meter

2.13 Length of the conductor


Therefore the length of the conductor
=299.93 meter
2.14. Vertical sag calculation
The vertical sag can be calculated as=
d*vertical loading/total load=3.90 meters

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2.15. Factor of safety calculation:
The formulae for the factor of safety=breaking strength of
conductors/tension=6883/350
=1.96

3.0. Simulation programming

l=20*10^6
L=100*10^3;
ph=sqrt(3);
vr=132*10^3;
pf=0.9;
Ir=(l/(ph*vr*pf)); %%calculation of receiving end current
p=acos(pf);
r=1.0891;
R=r*100; %%total resistance per 100km
Vr=vr/ph;
GMD=0.768*r; %%calculation of gmd

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Dm=600;
Ds=0.836;
Ind=2e-2*log(Dm/Ds); %%calculation of inductance per phase
F=50;
x=2*3.14*f*Ind;
z=R+x*j; %%calculation of x,z
rad=0.354;
Cn=(L/(18e9*log(Dm/rad))); %%calculation of capacitance
y= 1.4369e-026+ 2.3467e-010*j;
z=108.9+41.3119*j %%calculation of line parameters
e=y*z;
f=e/2;
g=f/3;
h=e*e;
i=h/120;
A=1+f;
D=A;
B=z*(1+g+i);
C=y*(1+g+i);
Is=C*Vr+D*Ir;

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Vs=A*Vr+B*Ir;
phi_s=(180*25.9)/3.14;
pow_s=3*Vs*Is*cos(phi_s); %%calculationof sending end power
phi_r=(180*25.84)/3.14;
pow_r=3*Vr*Ir*cos(phi_r); %%calculation of receiving end power
eff=(pow_r/pow_s)*100; %%calculation of efficiency
Pc=(21e-6*F*Vr^2*0.2*3)/[log(Dm/rad)]^2; %%corona calculation

4. CONCLUSION AND APPLICATION


Different Types Of Transmission Lines :

1. Coaxial cable
Coaxial lines confine the electromagnetic wave to the area inside the
cable, between the center conductor and the shield. The transmission of
energy in the line occurs totally through the dielectric inside the cable
between the conductors. Coaxial lines can therefore be bent and twisted
(subject to limits) without negative effects, and they can be strapped to
conductive supports without inducing unwanted currents in them. In
radio-frequency applications up to a few gigahertz, the wave propagates
in the transverse electric and magnetic mode (TEM) only, which means
that the electric and magnetic fields are both perpendicular to the
direction of propagation (the electric field is radial, and the magnetic
field is circumferential). However, at frequencies for which the
wavelength (in the dielectric) is significantly shorter than the
circumference of the cable, transverse electric (TE) and transverse
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magnetic (TM) waveguide modes can also propagate. When more than
one mode can exist, bends and other irregularities in the cable geometry
can cause power to be transferred from one mode to another.

The most common use for coaxial cables is for television and other
signals with bandwidth of multiple megahertz. In the middle 20th
century they carried long distance telephone connections.

2. Microstrip
A microstrip circuit uses a thin flat conductor which is parallel to a
ground plane. Microstrip can be made by having a strip of copper on one
side of a printed circuit board (PCB) or ceramic substrate while the other
side is a continuous ground plane. The width of the strip, the thickness
of the insulating layer (PCB or ceramic) and the dielectric constant of
the insulating layer determine the characteristic impedance. Microstrip is
an open structure whereas coaxial cable is a closed structure.

3. Stripline
A stripline circuit uses a flat strip of metal which is sandwiched between
two parallel ground planes. The insulating material of the substrate
forms a dielectric. The width of the strip, the thickness of the substrate
and the relative permittivity of the substrate determine the characteristic
impedance of the strip which is a transmission line.

4. Balanced line
A balanced line is a transmission line consisting of two conductors of
the same type, and equal impedance to ground and other circuits. There
are many formats of balanced lines, amongst the most common are
twisted pair, star quad and twin-lead.

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5. Twisted pair
Twisted pairs are commonly used for terrestrial telephone
communications. In such cables, many pairs are grouped together in a
single cable, from two to several thousand. The format is also used for
data network distribution inside buildings, but in this case the cable used
is more expensive with much tighter controlled parameters and either
two or four pairs per cable.

6. Star quad
Star quad is another balanced format used at low frequencies.
Applications include 4-wire telephony and microphone circuits.

7. Twin-lead
Twin-lead consists of a pair of conductors held apart by a continuous
insulator.

8. Lecher lines
Lecher lines are a form of parallel conductor that can be used at UHF for
creating resonant circuits. They are a convenient practical format that
fills the gap between lumped components (used at HF/VHF) and
resonant cavities (used at UHF/SHF).

9. Single-wire line
Unbalanced lines were formerly much used for telegraph transmission,
but this form of communication has now fallen into disuse. Cables are
similar to twisted pair in that many cores are bundled into the same cable
but only one conductor is provided per circuit and there is no twisting.
All the circuits on the same route use a common path for the return
current (earth return). There is a power transmission version of single-
wire earth return in use in many locations.

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10. Waveguide (electromagnetism)
Waveguides are rectangular or circular metallic tubes inside which an
electromagnetic wave is propagated and is confined by the tube.
Waveguides are not capable of transmitting the transverse
electromagnetic mode found in copper lines and must use some other
mode. Consequently, they cannot be directly connected to cable and a
mechanism for launching the waveguide mode must be provided at the
interface.

11. Optical fiber


Optical fibers are a solid transparent fiber of glass or polymer which
transmits a signal at optical, or near infrared, wavelengths. They form
the backbone of all modern terrestrial communications networks due to
the very high bandwidths that can be achieved. Optical fiber are another
variety of waveguide.

General applications

1. Signal transfer
Electrical transmission lines are very widely used to transmit high
frequency signals over long or short distances with minimum power
loss. One familiar example is the down lead from a TV or radio aerial to
the receiver.

2. Pulse generation
Transmission lines are also used as pulse generators. By charging the
transmission line and then discharging it into a resistive load, a
rectangular pulse equal in length to twice the electrical length of the line
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can be obtained, although with half the voltage. A Blumlein
transmission line is a related pulse forming device that overcomes this
limitation. These are sometimes used as the pulsed energy sources for
radar transmitters and other devices.

3. Stub filters
If a short-circuited or open-circuited transmission line is wired in
parallel with a line used to transfer signals from point A to point B, then
it will function as a filter. The method for making stubs is similar to the
method for using Lecher lines for crude frequency measurement, but it is
'working backwards'. One method recommended in the RSGB's
radiocommunication handbook is to take an open-circuited length of
transmission line wired in parallel with the feeder delivering signals
from an aerial. By cutting the free end of the transmission line, a
minimum in the strength of the signal observed at a receiver can be
found. At this stage the stub filter will reject this frequency and the odd
harmonics, but if the free end of the stub is shorted then the stub will
become a filter rejecting the even harmonics.

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5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Electrical Power Systems by Dr. S. L. Uppal & Prof. S. Rao.


2. Modern Power System Analysis by D. P. Kothari &
I. J. Nagrath.
3. Electrical Power Systems : Design & Analysis by
M. E. El-Hawary.
4. Electrical Power Systems by J. B. Gupta.

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