Ball mills

Michael Müller-Pfeiffer
Research Institute of the Cement Industry (Düsseldorf)
Seminar Grasim, 28 February 2007
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
3. Ball charge and ball filling level
4. Components of ball mills (linings, diaphragms, mill inlet, drive,
bearing)
5. Mill ventilation, water injection and grinding aids
6. Mill investigation
7. Case studies
8. Summary
Ball mill for dry grinding (e.g. cement)
Coarse grinding chamber
33 % of total grinding path length
Lifter plate lining
100 mm – 60 mm balls
Fine grinding chamber
67 % of total grinding path length
Classifying plate lining
50 mm - 15 mm balls
Intermediate diaphragm
Discharge diaphragm
Open circuit ball mill grinding plant
Open circuit ball mill grinding plant
Advantage: Simple plant layout with minimal cost
Little space requirement
Simple process control
Disadvantage: High energy consumption – only for coarser
cements suitable
High fineness cements cannot be produced
Fineness of cement is only adjustable by feed
mass flow
At big mills very high mill temperatures
Closed-circuit ball mill grinding plant
Closed-circuit ball mill grinding plant
Advantage: Lower power consumption than an open circuit ball mill
High cement fineness achievable
Cement fineness can be controlled with separator adjustment
Disadvantage: Closed-circuit mills are more sophisticated and can have
more technical problems
Larger space requirement
Higher investment cost (+ 25 to 30 % incl. housing)
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
3. Ball charge and ball filling level
4. Components of ball mills (linings, diaphragms, mill inlet, drive,
bearing)
5. Mill ventilation, water injection and grinding aids
6. Mill investigation
7. Case studies
8. Summary
Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
Relative mill speed in %
20 40 60 70 80 90
B
a
l
l
f
i
l
l
i
n
g
l
e
v
e
l
i
n
%
10
20
30
40
Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
• The relative mill speed is the relation of actual mill speed to
critical mill speed
Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
% 100 · =
critical
actual
relative
n
n
n
i
critical
i
critical
D
n
D
g
n
298 . 42
2 30
=
·
· =
t
• The critical mill speed is that speed of rotation at which the balls
stick to the mill shell and do not fall, that means the centrifugal
power neutralizes the force of gravity
Ball filling level
% 100 164 . 1 068 . 1 ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
· ÷ = u
i
g ballfillin
D
h
Recommended ball filling level:
1. Chamber: 26 – 32 %
2. Chamber: 24 – 28 %
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
3. Ball charge and ball filling level
4. Components of ball mills (linings, diaphragms, mill inlet, drive,
bearing)
5. Mill ventilation, water injection and grinding aids
6. Mill investigation
7. Case studies
8. Summary
Necessary ball size
Big particle
Necessary ball size
Big particle
Necessary ball size
Small
particle
Necessary ball size
Small
particle
Ball charge – Size distribution chamber 1
Example for ball size distribution for ball mills in closed circuit with a high
efficiency separator (without pregrinding)
1590 - 20 25 30 25 - %
Average ball-weight
(g/pc)
50 60 70 80 90 100 D
Ball
(mm)
1. Chamber
100 mm-balls are only necessary in case of
• Very coarse clinker or
• Small diameter mills
Ball charge – Size distribution chamber 2
Example for ball size distribution for ball mills in closed circuit with a high
efficiency separator (without pregrinding)
49 15 23 24 20 10 4 %
Average ball-weight
(g/pc)
17 20 25 30 40 50 D
Ball
(mm)
2. Chamber
Some 50 and 40 mm-balls are necessary to ensure the comminution of
oversized particles passing the intermediate diaphragm
Ball charge
• New arrangement of ball charge
• Removal of worn and undersized grinding
balls
• Recommended once a year
Ball filling level – coarse feed material
0
6
12
18
1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0
L/D-Ratio [-]
s
p
e
c
.
p
o
w
e
r
c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n
[
k
W
h
/
t
]
0,0
0,4
0,8
1,2
1,6
2,0
2,4
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t
[
t
/
h
]
15 %
20 %
25 %
throughput
spec. power consumption
Ball filling level – fine feed material
0
6
12
18
1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0
L/D-Ratio [-]
s
p
e
c
.
p
o
w
e
r
c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n
[
k
W
h
/
t
]
0,0
0,4
0,8
1,2
1,6
2,0
2,4
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t
[
t
/
h
]
15%
20%
25%
throughput
spec. power consumption
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
3. Ball charge and ball filling level
4. Components of ball mills (linings, diaphragms, mill inlet, drive,
bearing)
5. Mill ventilation, water injection and grinding aids
6. Mill investigation
7. Case studies
8. Summary
Movement of grinding media in ball mills
Coarse grinding chamber: Movement with cataract portion – lifter plate lining
Fine grinding chamber: cascade movement – smoother lining profile
Lifter lining
Tasks:
• Protection of the mill shell
• Good ball lifting
• Throughput increase
• Wear resistant
(high chromium cast)
Classifying lining
Tasks:
• Protection of the mill shell
• Good ball classification
• Throughput increase
• Wear resistant
(high chromium cast)
8 Kg
Classifying lining – new Magotteaux Xclass
©
Advantage:
• Reduction of lining weight
• Faster and cheaper
installation
• 1 % energy saving
Fixing of liner plates
boltless
bolted
semi-bolted
Fixing of liner plates
bolted
Advantage: mechanically stable
insensitive in case of
breakage of a plate
simple installation
Disadvantage: plates must be
manufactured with the
accurate dimension
boreholes in the mill
shell must be accurately
positioned
Fixing of liner plates
semi-bolted and boltless
Advantage: easier manufacture
boltless lined mills don’t
spread
Disadvantage: plates must be
manufactured with the
accurate dimension
sophisticated installation
sensitive in case of
broken plates
Intermediate diaphragm
Tasks:
• Prevent passing of grinding balls into
the other grinding chamber
• Prevent passing of oversized particles
into the fine grinding chamber
• Material transport:
• Separation of air and material
• Material shall enter the ball
charge in 2. chamber directly
behind the diaphragm
• Control of material filling level in the
coarse grinding chamber
Intermediate diaphragm
• Consists of several cast segments for
easy installation
• Double wall partition with 2 front walls
and lifter scoops
• Central hole for mill ventilation
• Entrance side: Slot plates with slot
width of 6 to 10 mm
• Slot 2 times wider at the exit side
• Active surface 5 – 10 %
Intermediate diaphragm – Separation of air and material
transport
Old design
New design
Intermediate diaphragm – Separation of air and material
transport
FLS-Combidan diaphragm
Screen plate
Coarse grate
Discharge diaphragm
• Design comparable to
intermediate diaphragm
• Central hole for mill
ventilation
• Entrance side: Slot plates
with slot width of 6 to 10 mm
• Slot 2 times wider at the exit
side
• Active surface 5 – 10 %
Lifetime of wear resistant products of ball mills (12 % Cr)
• Mill inlet (liner plates): 12,000 – 17,000 h
• Lifter plates: 35,000 h
• Intermediate wall: slot plates: 13,000 h
back board: 19,000 h
• Classifying liner plates: 60,000 h
• Outlet wall: slot plates: 20,000 h
• Grinding balls: 40 g/t
Mill inlet
• Material shall enter the ball charge
directly behind the mill inlet
• Separation of air and material feeding
Mill drive technology
Girth gear and pinion drive
Central drive
Ring motor
Girth gear and pinion drive
Advantage: Low investment costs
Little space requirement
Disadvantage: With single gear and pinion drive
capacity is limited to 5000 kW
(Double gear and pinion drive far
higher capacities transmittable)
Central drive
Advantage: Low maintenance
Disadvantage: 50 % more expensive than single
gear and pinion drive
With co-rotating planetary stage
transmittable power is limited to
5000 kW
Ring motor
Advantage: Unlimited drive capacity
No gear
Low required space
Rotational speed continuously
adjustable
Lowest maintenance requirement
and highest availability
Disadvantage: High investment costs
Mill bearings
Slide shoe bearings
Trunnion supports
Trunnion supports
Disadvantage:
• High loading of mill front walls (risk of damage by material fatigue)
• Temperature problems of the trunnion bearing in case of the use
of hot gas (e.g. raw mills)
• High gas velocities in mill trunnion
• Difficult material feeding
• Higher investment costs
Slide shoe bearing
Advantage:
• Easy alignment
• Simple foundation
• Reduced Length
• Less weight of mill shell
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
3. Ball charge and ball filling level
4. Components of ball mills (linings, diaphragms, mill inlet, drive,
bearing)
5. Mill ventilation, water injection and grinding aids
6. Mill investigation
7. Case studies
8. Summary
Mill ventilation
Tasks of mill ventilation:
• Dedusting
• Cooling
• Support of material transport
Air volume flow: 0.2 – 1.0 m³/kg
throughput
Limit values for the air velocity in the
free cross section:
Open circuit mills: < 1.2 m/s
Closed circuit mills: < 1.4 m/s
Water injection
• Usually water injection from the discharge side
into chamber 2 (warmest part of the mill)
• In case of high clinker temperature also water
injection into chamber 1 possible
• It is better to cool the balls than to cool the air
• Right positioning of the water injection is important
Water injection chamber 1
ai
r
water
w
a
t
e
r
a
i
r
Grinding aids
Specification:
• Reduce adhesive forces between fine particles
• Prevent coating of linings and grinding balls in the 2. Chamber
• Improve the flowability of cement
• Improve the separation efficiency in the classifier
• Water is the most simple grinding aid
• Surface active organic liquids are more effective
(e.g.Triethanolamin 0.02 - 0.06 %, Ethylenglycol 0.02 – 0.08 % )
• By addition of grinding aids energy saving up to 25 % and
throughput increases up to 40 % are possible
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
3. Ball charge and ball filling level
4. Components of ball mills (linings, diaphragms, mill inlet, drive,
bearing)
5. Mill ventilation, water injection and grinding aids
6. Mill investigation
7. Case studies
8. Summary
Mill investigation
• Control of condition of wearing parts
(lining, slot plates, etc.)
• Control of ball filling level
• Sampling at each meter of the grinding path
• Recommended once a year
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
3. Ball charge and ball filling level
4. Components of ball mills (linings, diaphragms, mill inlet, drive,
bearing)
5. Mill ventilation, water injection and grinding aids
6. Mill investigation
7. Case studies
8. Summary
1. Chamber - Ball charge too coarse
Cause: Too big ball charge
Effect: Inefficient grinding
Number of ball impacts on
material too low
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Length of grinding path in m
R
e
s
i
d
u
e
i
n
%
2000 µm
1000 µm
400 µm
200 µm
90 mm
40 µm
Chamber 1 Chamber 2
1. Chamber - Ball charge too coarse
1. Chamber – Ball charge too fine
Cause: Very big clinker pieces,
Too small ball charge
Effect: Coarse material particles are
not sufficiently comminuted and
accumulated in front of the
diaphragm
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Length of grinding path in m
R
e
s
i
d
u
e
i
n
%
4000 µm
2000 µm
1000 µm
400 µm
200 µm
90 µm
40 µm
Chamber 1 Chamber 2
1. Chamber – ball charge too fine
2. Chamber – Ball charge to coarse
Cause: Too big grinding balls,
Effect: Inefficient grinding
Low throughput
High energy consumption
2. Chamber – Ball charge to coarse
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Lenth of grinding path m
R
e
s
i
d
u
e
i
n
%
4000 µm
2000 µm
1000 µm
400 µm
200 µm
90 µm
40 µm
Chamber 1 Chamber 2
2. Chamber – Ball charge too fine
Cause: Too small grinding balls,
worn grinding balls (ball scrap)
Oversized particles passing
into the 2. chamber
Effect: Oversized particles are not
comminuted and accumulated
in the 2. chamber
2. Chamber – Ball charge too fine
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Length of grinding path in m
R
e
s
i
d
u
e
i
n
%
4000 µm
2000 µm
1000 µm
400 µm
200 µm
90 µm
40 µm
Chamber 1 Chamber 2
Too high material filling level
Cause: blocked slots in the outlet
diaphragm
Effect: Ball hits partly are absorbed
high energy consumption
low throughput
Too high material filling level
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Length of grinding path in m
R
e
s
i
d
u
e
i
n
%
4000 µm
2000 µm
1000 µm
400 µm
200 µm
90 µm
40 µm
Chamber 1 Chamber 2
Too low material filling level
Cause: Too high ball filling level
Effect: high energy consumption
high wear
Bad material supply in the mill inlet
Cause: High air velocity in mill inlet
Bad material supply
Effect: Material is sucked into the mill
The first meter of the coarse
grinding chamber get lost
Bad material supply in the mill inlet
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Length of grinding path in m
R
e
s
i
d
u
e
i
n
%
10000 µm
4000 µm
2000 µm
1000 µm
400 µm
200 µm
90 µm
Chamber 1 Chamber 2
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill
3. Ball charge and ball filling level
4. Components of ball mills (linings, diaphragms, mill inlet, drive,
bearing)
5. Mill ventilation, water injection and grinding aids
6. Mill investigation
7. Case studies
8. Summary
Ball mills - summary
• High grinding energy consumption - less than 10 % of
total grinding energy is used for comminution
• Optimal adjustment of the ball mill (ball charge, ball
filling level, mill ventilation) is very important
• Regularly control of the condition of the wearing parts
(lining, diaphragm)
• Possible optimisation potentials:
• Ball charge
• Diaphragm
• Lining
• Water spray equipment
Summary
Thank you for your attention!
Any questions?

Structure

1. Introduction 2. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill 3. Ball charge and ball filling level 4. Components of ball mills (linings, diaphragms, mill inlet, drive, bearing) 5. Mill ventilation, water injection and grinding aids 6. Mill investigation 7. Case studies 8. Summary

Ball mill for dry grinding (e.g. cement)

Intermediate diaphragm Fine grinding chamber 67 % of total grinding path length Classifying plate lining 50 mm - 15 mm balls

Coarse grinding chamber 33 % of total grinding path length Lifter plate lining 100 mm – 60 mm balls

Discharge diaphragm

Open circuit ball mill grinding plant .

Open circuit ball mill grinding plant Advantage: Simple plant layout with minimal cost Little space requirement Simple process control Disadvantage: High energy consumption – only for coarser cements suitable High fineness cements cannot be produced Fineness of cement is only adjustable by feed mass flow At big mills very high mill temperatures .

Closed-circuit ball mill grinding plant .

housing) .Closed-circuit ball mill grinding plant Advantage: Lower power consumption than an open circuit ball mill High cement fineness achievable Cement fineness can be controlled with separator adjustment Disadvantage: Closed-circuit mills are more sophisticated and can have more technical problems Larger space requirement Higher investment cost (+ 25 to 30 % incl.

bearing) 5. Introduction 2. diaphragms. mill inlet. drive. Ball charge and ball filling level 4.Structure 1. Summary . water injection and grinding aids 6. Mill investigation 7. Case studies 8. Components of ball mills (linings. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill 3. Mill ventilation.

Movement of grinding media in a tube mill Ball filling level in % 10 20 30 40 20 40 60 70 80 Relative mill speed in % 90 .

Movement of grinding media in a tube mill .

Movement of grinding media in a tube mill .

Movement of grinding media in a tube mill .

Movement of grinding media in a tube mill • The relative mill speed is the relation of actual mill speed to critical mill speed nactual 100% n relative = ncritical • The critical mill speed is that speed of rotation at which the balls stick to the mill shell and do not fall.298 Di . that means the centrifugal power neutralizes the force of gravity ncritical = ncritical = 30 2 g Di 42.

068 1.Ball filling level ballfilling = 1. Chamber: 26 – 32 % 2. Chamber: 24 – 28 % .164 h Di 100% Recommended ball filling level: 1.

Mill investigation 7. bearing) 5. mill inlet. Summary .Structure 1. water injection and grinding aids 6. Case studies 8. Ball charge and ball filling level 4. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill 3. drive. Mill ventilation. Components of ball mills (linings. Introduction 2. diaphragms.

Necessary ball size Big particle .

Necessary ball size Big particle .

Necessary ball size Small particle .

Necessary ball size Small particle .

Chamber DBall (mm) % 100 90 25 80 30 70 25 60 20 50 Average ball-weight (g/pc) 1590 100 mm-balls are only necessary in case of • Very coarse clinker or • Small diameter mills .Ball charge – Size distribution chamber 1 Example for ball size distribution for ball mills in closed circuit with a high efficiency separator (without pregrinding) 1.

Ball charge – Size distribution chamber 2 Example for ball size distribution for ball mills in closed circuit with a high efficiency separator (without pregrinding) 2. Chamber DBall (mm) % 50 4 40 10 30 20 25 24 20 23 17 15 Average ball-weight (g/pc) 49 Some 50 and 40 mm-balls are necessary to ensure the comminution of oversized particles passing the intermediate diaphragm .

Ball charge • New arrangement of ball charge • Removal of worn and undersized grinding balls • Recommended once a year .

Ball filling level – coarse feed material 18 2. power consumption 1.4 15 % spec. power consumption [kWh/t] 20 % 25 % 2.6 .8 0.2 6 throughput 0.0 3.0 L/D-Ratio [-] 0.0 throughput [t/h] 12 spec.5 3.4 0 1.5 2.0 1.0 2.5 4.

0 0.Ball filling level – fine feed material 18 2.4 throughput 0 1.6 1.5 3.4 15% 20% spec.0 .2 6 0.0 2.0 L/D-Ratio [-] 3.8 0.5 2. power consumption [kWh/t] 2.0 25% throughput [t/h] 12 spec. power consumption 1.5 4.

drive. mill inlet. Mill ventilation. diaphragms. Summary . Movement of grinding media in a tube mill 3. Components of ball mills (linings. water injection and grinding aids 6. Mill investigation 7. Introduction 2. Ball charge and ball filling level 4.Structure 1. Case studies 8. bearing) 5.

Movement of grinding media in ball mills Coarse grinding chamber: Movement with cataract portion – lifter plate lining Fine grinding chamber: cascade movement – smoother lining profile .

Lifter lining Tasks: • Protection of the mill shell • Good ball lifting • Throughput increase • Wear resistant (high chromium cast) .

Classifying lining Tasks: • Protection of the mill shell • Good ball classification • Throughput increase • Wear resistant (high chromium cast) 8 Kg .

Classifying lining – new Magotteaux Xclass Advantage: • Reduction of lining weight • Faster and cheaper installation • 1 % energy saving .

Fixing of liner plates bolted semi-bolted boltless .

Fixing of liner plates bolted Advantage: mechanically stable insensitive in case of breakage of a plate simple installation Disadvantage: plates must be manufactured with the accurate dimension boreholes in the mill shell must be accurately positioned .

Fixing of liner plates semi-bolted and boltless Advantage: easier manufacture boltless lined mills don’t spread Disadvantage: plates must be manufactured with the accurate dimension sophisticated installation sensitive in case of broken plates .

Intermediate diaphragm Tasks: • Prevent passing of grinding balls into the other grinding chamber • Prevent passing of oversized particles into the fine grinding chamber • Material transport: • Separation of air and material • Material shall enter the ball charge in 2. chamber directly behind the diaphragm • Control of material filling level in the coarse grinding chamber .

Intermediate diaphragm • Consists of several cast segments for easy installation • Double wall partition with 2 front walls and lifter scoops • Central hole for mill ventilation • Entrance side: Slot plates with slot width of 6 to 10 mm • Slot 2 times wider at the exit side • Active surface 5 – 10 % .

Intermediate diaphragm – Separation of air and material transport Old design New design .

Intermediate diaphragm – Separation of air and material transport .

FLS-Combidan diaphragm Screen plate Coarse grate .

Discharge diaphragm • Design comparable to intermediate diaphragm • Central hole for mill ventilation • Entrance side: Slot plates with slot width of 6 to 10 mm • Slot 2 times wider at the exit side • Active surface 5 – 10 % .

000 h 35.000 h slot plates: 13.000 h slot plates: 20.000 h • Classifying liner plates: • Outlet wall: • Grinding balls: 60.Lifetime of wear resistant products of ball mills (12 % Cr) • Mill inlet (liner plates): • Lifter plates: • Intermediate wall: 12.000 h back board: 19.000 – 17.000 h 40 g/t .

Mill inlet • Material shall enter the ball charge directly behind the mill inlet • Separation of air and material feeding .

Mill drive technology Girth gear and pinion drive Central drive Ring motor .

Girth gear and pinion drive Advantage: Low investment costs Little space requirement Disadvantage: With single gear and pinion drive capacity is limited to 5000 kW (Double gear and pinion drive far higher capacities transmittable) .

Central drive Advantage: Low maintenance Disadvantage: 50 % more expensive than single gear and pinion drive With co-rotating planetary stage transmittable power is limited to 5000 kW .

Ring motor Advantage: Unlimited drive capacity No gear Low required space Rotational speed continuously adjustable Lowest maintenance requirement and highest availability Disadvantage: High investment costs .

Mill bearings Trunnion supports Slide shoe bearings .

Trunnion supports Disadvantage: • • • • • High loading of mill front walls (risk of damage by material fatigue) Temperature problems of the trunnion bearing in case of the use of hot gas (e. raw mills) High gas velocities in mill trunnion Difficult material feeding Higher investment costs .g.

Slide shoe bearing Advantage: • • • • Easy alignment Simple foundation Reduced Length Less weight of mill shell .

Movement of grinding media in a tube mill 3. water injection and grinding aids 6. diaphragms. Introduction 2. drive. Ball charge and ball filling level 4. mill inlet. Components of ball mills (linings. Mill investigation 7. Case studies 8.Structure 1. Mill ventilation. bearing) 5. Summary .

Mill ventilation
Tasks of mill ventilation: • Dedusting • Cooling • Support of material transport Air volume flow: 0.2 – 1.0 m³/kgthroughput Limit values for the air velocity in the free cross section: Open circuit mills: < 1.2 m/s Closed circuit mills: < 1.4 m/s

Water injection
• Usually water injection from the discharge side into chamber 2 (warmest part of the mill) • In case of high clinker temperature also water injection into chamber 1 possible • It is better to cool the balls than to cool the air • Right positioning of the water injection is important

Water injection chamber 1

water

ai r

water

air

Chamber • Improve the flowability of cement • Improve the separation efficiency in the classifier • Water is the most simple grinding aid • Surface active organic liquids are more effective (e.08 % ) • By addition of grinding aids energy saving up to 25 % and throughput increases up to 40 % are possible . Ethylenglycol 0.Grinding aids Specification: • Reduce adhesive forces between fine particles • Prevent coating of linings and grinding balls in the 2.02 .06 %.Triethanolamin 0.02 – 0.0.g.

diaphragms. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill 3. bearing) 5. Components of ball mills (linings. water injection and grinding aids 6. Case studies 8. Introduction 2. Summary . drive. mill inlet.Structure 1. Ball charge and ball filling level 4. Mill investigation 7. Mill ventilation.

etc.) • Control of ball filling level • Sampling at each meter of the grinding path • Recommended once a year . slot plates.Mill investigation • Control of condition of wearing parts (lining.

Mill ventilation. Introduction 2. diaphragms. Ball charge and ball filling level 4. Summary . mill inlet. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill 3.Structure 1. drive. Components of ball mills (linings. water injection and grinding aids 6. Mill investigation 7. Case studies 8. bearing) 5.

Chamber .1.Ball charge too coarse Cause: Too big ball charge Effect: Inefficient grinding Number of ball impacts on material too low .

Chamber .Ball charge too coarse 100 Chamber 1 Chamber 2 90 80 70 2000 µm 1000 µm 400 µm 200 µm 90 mm 40 µm Residue in % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Length of grinding path in m .1.

Too small ball charge Effect: Coarse material particles are not sufficiently comminuted and accumulated in front of the diaphragm .1. Chamber – Ball charge too fine Cause: Very big clinker pieces.

Chamber – ball charge too fine 100 Chamber 1 Chamber 2 90 80 70 Residue in % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 4000 µm 2000 µm 1000 µm 400 µm 200 µm 90 µm 40 µm 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Length of grinding path in m .1.

Chamber – Ball charge to coarse Cause: Too big grinding balls. Effect: Inefficient grinding Low throughput High energy consumption .2.

Chamber – Ball charge to coarse 100 Chamber 1 Chamber 2 90 80 70 Residue in % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4000 µm 2000 µm 1000 µm 400 µm 200 µm 90 µm 40 µm 11 12 Lenth of grinding path m .2.

chamber . Chamber – Ball charge too fine Cause: Too small grinding balls.2. chamber Effect: Oversized particles are not comminuted and accumulated in the 2. worn grinding balls (ball scrap) Oversized particles passing into the 2.

Chamber – Ball charge too fine 100 Chamber 1 Chamber 2 90 80 70 Residue in % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4000 µm 2000 µm 1000 µm 400 µm 200 µm 90 µm 40 µm 10 11 Length of grinding path in m .2.

Too high material filling level Cause: blocked slots in the outlet diaphragm Effect: Ball hits partly are absorbed high energy consumption low throughput .

Too high material filling level 100 Chamber 1 Chamber 2 90 80 70 Residue in % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4000 µm 2000 µm 1000 µm 400 µm 200 µm 90 µm 40 µm 9 10 Length of grinding path in m .

Too low material filling level Cause: Too high ball filling level Effect: high energy consumption high wear .

Bad material supply in the mill inlet Cause: High air velocity in mill inlet Bad material supply Effect: Material is sucked into the mill The first meter of the coarse grinding chamber get lost .

Bad material supply in the mill inlet 100 90 80 70 Chamber 1 Chamber 2 10000 µm 4000 µm 2000 µm 1000 µm 400 µm 200 µm Residue in % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 90 µm 11 12 Length of grinding path in m .

Structure 1. water injection and grinding aids 6. Case studies 8. mill inlet. Introduction 2. Mill ventilation. Mill investigation 7. Movement of grinding media in a tube mill 3. Components of ball mills (linings. Summary . drive. diaphragms. bearing) 5. Ball charge and ball filling level 4.

Ball mills .summary • High grinding energy consumption . diaphragm) • Possible optimisation potentials: • Ball charge • Diaphragm • Lining • Water spray equipment . mill ventilation) is very important • Regularly control of the condition of the wearing parts (lining. ball filling level.less than 10 % of total grinding energy is used for comminution • Optimal adjustment of the ball mill (ball charge.

Summary Thank you for your attention! Any questions? .

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