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• Strong Relationships between Customers and

Retailers (Webster, 2000: 18)

Mass Mass
Production Marketing

(Webster, 2000: 18 cited Reed 1929:3; Tedlow 1990:12-14)

Push Strategy Pull Strategy
Reseller Manufacturer
Personal Selling Mass Communication

(Webster, 2000: 18)

In this three-way relationship, the quality of that relationship for any single player
depends on the quality and strength of the relationship between the other two

(Webster, 2000: 20)

Original Mass Medium: Magazines

Webster, 2000: 18 cited Rowsome 1959:2-8

Original Mass Medium: Magazines

Webster, 2000: 18 cited Rowsome 1959:2-8

Individual Goods-Focus Brand Era
(1900s – 1930s)
• Brands as Identifiers
• The focus of brand value creation was on the
individual goods
• Brand value embedded in the physical goods
• Academic Research focused on branded
versus unbranded goods
Value-Focus Brand Era
(1930s – 1990s)
Differentiate a
brand from its
Communication of competitors
a clearly defined
Brand Image Identify the needs
a brand promises
to satisfy

• The focus of brand value creation was on the

creation of this brand image
Value-Focus Brand Era
(1930s – 1990s)

Utilitarian, externally
Functional Benefit generated
consumption needs
Value-Focus Brand
Internally generated
needs for self-
Symbolic Benefit
enhancement, social,
or ego-identification
Relationship-Focus Brand Era
• General focus on the customer as a significant
actor in the brand value creation process
• Scholars examined the role of customers in
the brand value creation process
Relationship-Focus Brand Era
Brand as Knowledge


Focus Brand


Brand as a Promise Brand as a Relationship Partner

Anthropological Approach
• What are the meanings of Meaning Transfer Model
the brand?
• What are the meanings of
the competitive brands?
• What are the meanings now
sought by consumers?
• What are the best vehicles
for the delivery of the right

• It helps to reconceptualize
the brands
McCracken 1993: 125 - 139
Central Concept
Brand Behavior
 Positioning – Building right relationship with the right
customers (Kotler)
 Personality (Jennifer L. Aaker)
Brand Behavior
• How can brand communicate itself
- Name
- Logo
- Advertising
- Packaging
- Product
- Brand Story (Daryl Travis)
Consumer Behavior
 Cultural Factors
 Social Factors
 Personal Factors
 Psychological Factors (Kotler)
Brand Relationship Model
Brand as a relationship partner
• Customers
form affect-laden relationship with brands that
match with consumers' personality – self-
expression, self-definition, self-enhancement
• Brand Value
Brands like human have personalities and
Co-created through affective relationship from
direct or indirect contact with brands.
• Customer shows greater preference for a
particular brand that show the same
Brand as a relationship partner
• Brand is not the passive object but as an
active contributing relationship dyad
• Customers form the strong bond with brand
that are meaningful to them, captivate
them, enrich their life
Consumer – brand Relationship Forms
Casual Marriages of Committed
Arranged Marriages
Friends/Buddies Convenience Partnerships

Compartmentalized Rebounds/Avoidance-
Best Friendships Kinships
Friendships driven Relations

Childhood Friendships Courtships Dependencies Flings

Enmities Secret Affairs Enslavements

Brand Relationship Model
Brand Relationship Quality(BRQ)
 Influence stability and durability
 evolve meaningful brand and consumer actions

 Consumer-based measure of the strength and depth

of consumer-brand relationship
 Predict a range of 5 important dyadic consequence

of relationship
- accommodation,Tolerance, biased partner
perceptions,devaluation of alternatives,attribution
 Highlights that there is more to keeping a

relationship alive than the pull of positive feeling

Brand Relationship Quality(BRQ)
• Contain six different sub-dimensions
• Combine to yield the stability and durability
• Love/Passion
• Self-connection
• Commitment Relationship quality Relationship
• Interdependence
• Intimacy
• Partner quality
BRQ Sub-dimensions
• Love/Passion
• This brand and I were really meant to each other
• No other brand in this category can take place of this brand

• Self-connection
• This brand and I have a lot in common
• This brand remind me of who I am

• Commitment
• I will to make small sacrifices in order to keep using this brand
• I feel very loyalty to this brand

BRQ sub-dimensions
• Interdependence
• This brand play an important role in my life

• Intimacy
• I know a lot of this brand

• I feel as though I really understand this brand

• Partner quality
• This brand is dependable and reliable
• This brand take good care of me
Brand Relationship Model
Dyadic Relationship Consequence
 Deliver these 5 benefits
- Accommodation
- Tolerance/Forgiveness
- Biased Partner Perception
- Devaluation of Alternatives
- Attribution Biased
 Lead to relationship stability and durability
Understanding the model
• Example
Consumer and Brand - Karen and Mary Kay

Relationship form – Dependencies

Relationship Quality – Love/Passion

Relationship Consequence – Accommodation,

Attribution biased

Relationship stability and durability over time

• Webster, Frederick E. (2000) Understanding the
Relationships Among Brands, Consumers, and
Resellers, Journal of the Academy of Marketing
Science 28, 1: 17-23
• McCracken, Grant ( 1993), "The Value of the
Brand: An Anthropological Perspective," in Brand
Equity and Advertising: Advertising's Role in
Building Strong Brands, ed. David Aaker and
Alexander Biel, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 125-139.