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Michal Soltysiak', Ulrich ErIe", and Malgorzata Celuch'"
'QWED Sp. z 0.0., Warsaw, 02010, Poland
**R&D Solon Product Technology, Solon, OR, 44139, United States
••• Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, 00665, Poland
Abstract  In typical simulations of heating processes in
household microwave ovens it is assumed that the frequency of
the magnetron stays constant at its nominal value. In reality, due
to manufacturing variations, load parameters, and the
magnetron temperature, frequency differences or jumps of 50
MHz may occur. This publication shows coupled electromagnetic
and thermal simulations of microwave heating phenomena in
household microwave ovens. Several analyses are performed for
a static load at various frequencies in order to assess possible
effects of frequency changes on the heating patterns. A novel
FDTD regime with moving loads and frequency tuning is then
applied to demonstrate that the load rotation typically
implemented in domestic microwave ovens largely equalizes the
patterns at diferent frequencies. Both, the total absorbed power
and the power distribution in the load are studied.
Inde Terms  electromagnetic simUlations, thermal
simulations, magnetron frequency, microwave oven.
I. INTRODUCTION
Electromagnetic simulations become an essential tool in the
classical high frequency engineering from RF to optical bands
[1][2]. Their relevance to emerging technologies based on
microwave power applications in various sectors of industry
has been recognized later [3][4]. To increase the adequacy of
existing computational electromagnetics to the highpower
microwave processes a number a dedicated models and
procedures have been added to, for example, the finite
difference timedomain (FDTD) method. These include
bilateral coupling with the heat fow equations [5], automatic
variation of material parameters as a function of temperature
[6], and movement of the heated load [7][8].
The resulting multiphysics algorithm proceeds as follows
[6][7][9]. A pure electromagnetic simulation is first used to
calculate the timeaveraged 3D pattern of power dissipated
within the heated material at its initial temperature. The
thermal module treats the above results as its initial condition
and solves the thermodynamic equations over a thermal time
step. Feedback from the thermal solver is then used by the
electromagnetic solver for updating the material parameters
based on the new temperature patterns. The load position may
also be changed at this point, if load movement is
implemented in the real life process. This process is iteratively
repeated until the sum of thermal steps covers the total
processing time.
9781424477326/101$26.00 ©2010 IEEE 1436
Note that simulations following the above algorithm require
a priori assumptions about the operating fequency of the
magnetron. Magnetrons, especially those in household
microwave ovens, have a tendency to change frequency as a
function of size, dielectric properties, position of the heated
material, and also their own temperature. In extreme cases,
frequency deviations of about 50 MHz from its nominal value
can occur [10]. Dielectric properties of food products change
during the heating, and so do the refections from the oven
cavity back to the magnetron. The amount of refected power
is thus frequency and time dependent, as shown in [11].
Concerns have previously been expressed that simulations
with constant excitation frequency may not be representative
of real life microwave heating scenarios, especially in the case
of lightloaded applicators, where a kind of "chaos" is often
experienced [12].
In this work, we address the above concerns through a set of
FDTD simulations carried over the frequency range between
2.4 and 2.5 GHz for the scenario is described in Sec.I1. First,
the results of Sec.I1I A confirm that microwave heating
patterns in a static load strongly depend on the operating
frequency. Then, frequency changes during the process are
approximated by the ad hoc model "pulling" the frequency to
the lowest inband resonance, and the result indicates partial
smoothing of the cold and hot spots. In Sec.I1I B, load rotation
during the heating is automatically modeled in the simulation
and shown to compensate for the effects of frequency changes.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
All simulations are performed using QuickWave3D
software [9], which is based on the conformal FDTD method.
A WhirlpoolMax microwave oven and a cylindrically shaped
piece of beef with 100 mm in diameter and 35 mm in height
are taken into consideration. The model of the investigated
structure is shown in Fig. I.
Bilateral coupling between the electromagnetic and thermal
parts of the simulation is automatically performed by the
software. The solution of the heat equation (1) is conducted
with the builtin Heat Flow Module (HFM):
aH(x,y,=) =
V(k(T)VT) [�]
at Nð
(1)
IMS 2010
where: H(x, y, z) is enthalpy density in Jlm3, k(T is heat
conductivity in WI(m°C, T is temperature in DC, and t is time
inS.
Fig. 1. Numerical model of WhirlpoolMax microwave oven.
Equation (1) is also suited for scenarios involving a phase
change of the processed products. Adiabatic boundary
conditions (zero heat fux at the boundary) between the heated
element and air as well as the heated element and the rotating
plate are assumed in the cases reported herein. At each heating
time step, the value of enthalpy density for equation (1) is frst
estimated by the electromagnetic sofware using the average
value of power dissipated per each FDTD cell:
,
.
(
, _
,
.
(
, + P(
x,y,z
)· ! [�]
(2)
x,y,z  x,y,z
(
,
¸
iV x,y,z m
where: H+! (x, y, z) is enthalpy density in Jlm3 frst predicted
at the curent step (and then corrected though the solution of
eq.(1)), H(x, y, z) is enthalpy density in Jlm3 at the previous
step, P(x, y, z) is dissipated power per cell in W , V(x, y, z) is
volume of the cell expressed in m3, ,r is a predefned heating
time step in s.
Microwave heating simulations are performed with
temperature dependent dielectric and thermal properties of
beef, as shown in Table I. The values of enthalpy density and
heat capacity (columns 2 and 5) are taken fom [13]. The
dielectric properties (columns 3 and 4) are based on the
measurements by Ohlsson et al. published in [14]. Density and
heat conductivity (columns 6 and 7) are based on the
measurements performed by the authors for raw beef at room
temperature.
TABLE I
DIELECTRIC AD THERMAL PROPERTIES OF HEATED BEEF
Temperature
Ent halpy Relative Electric Heat
Den sit
Heat
densit permittivity conducti vity capacit conducti vity
" J/kg
(
) (S/m) J/(kg°C) kg/m' W/(m°C)
20 0,0 4,9 0,064 3215,0 1060,0 0,69
15 14840, 0 5,5 0,093 4088,0 1060,0 0,69
5 7568, 0 12,3 0,573 21842,0 1060,0 0,69
3 117024.0 22.0 1.118 26098.0 1060.0 0.69
2.2 153064.0 30,0 1,636 18545,0 1060,0 0.69
1 305704,0 49,2 2,440 2362,0 1060,0 0,69
10 347574,0 48.9 2.317 2442.0 1060.0 0.69
20 405874.0 48.2 2.194 2431.0 1060.0 0.69
50 548974.0 45,5 1,949 2303,0 1060,0 0,69
80 692074,0 41,7 1,908 2269,0 1060,0 0,69
III. RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS
A. Refection Coefcient as a Function of Position and
Temperature of the Object
The following simulations are similar to those performed
for the load curve estimation [11]. The oven cavity is excited
with a pulse of limited spectrum fom 2.4 and 2.5 GHz. The
studied angular positions of the material are shown in Fig. 2.
YL z
X
Fig. 2. Consecutive positions of the object inside the cavity.
The values of relative permittivity and electric conductivity
are constant and set to 49.2 () and 2.44 (Slm) , respectively.
This corresponds to the temperature of _1°C (Table I). Heat
fow effects are not considered. Refection coefcient as a
fnction of the object position and the magnetron fequency
are shown in Fig. 3.
0.8
0,6
I
 0.4
0,2
Û
Position 1
Position 2
I
Position 3
 Position 4
I
!:

�

� � � r
2.4
/
2.425 2.45 2.475
Frequency (GHz)
2,5
Fig. 3. Refection coefficient as a function of the object position
and magnetron frequency for object temperature of _1°C.
When the material is placed in Position 3 closest to the
feeding waveguide (cf. Fig.2 and Fig.3), the value of the
refection coefcient for fequencies higher than 2.46 GHz
decreases below 0.1, and at fequency of 2.5 GHz it is around
0.008 . The whole amount of power available fom the
magnetron is delivered to the load and dissipated inside the
heated material. For the same material position, but magnetron
operating with fequency between 2.4 and 2.44 GHz, the value
of the refection coefcient is around 0.45. This corresponds
to 20% of power being refected back to the magnetron. Other
positions of the object do not lead to such drastic changes of
the refection coeffcient over fequency. The outermost
position of the heated material (Position 1) results in 10%
variation of the refection coefcient over fequency, while its
maximum value does not exceed 0.35.
In real life processing, the heated object temperature
increases and afects its dielectric properties (Table I). The
9781424477326/101$26,00 ©201 0 IEEE 1437 IMS 2010
curves in Fig.4 are obtained for the object at the fixed Position
1 and uniformly heated to the temperature of 20°C, _1°C, 20
°C, and 60°C.
0.8
0.6
.
0 4
0.2
U
20 degC
1 degC
20 degC
f
60 degC
.
�
r
Z.4
� � �
"
Z.4ZO Z.4O Z.4JO
Frequency (GHz)
Z.O
Fig. 4. Refection coeffcient as a fnction of the object
temperature and magnetron frequency for object at Position I.
As indicated in Table I, rapid changes of the beef
parameters occur around its thawing point. At 20 °C, the
values of relative permittivity and electric conductivity are 10
and 38 times lower, with respect to those at _1°C. Hence the
refection coefficient obtained at 20°C deviates strongly from
the curves obtained at the remaining temperature points
(Fig.4). Note that, due to load pull effects [10], the refection
coefficient further infuences the actual operating frequency of
the magnetron.
B. Coupled ElectromagneticThermal Simulation of Static
Object
Position 1 (Fig.2) of the object is assumed. The total heating
time is set to 30 seconds and it is divided into three heating
time steps, 10 seconds each. This means that the dielectric
properties of the heated object in each FDTD cell are updated
3 times during the coupled simulation. over the changes of
temperature. For simulations of microwave heating patters
the waveguide was excited by the magnetron of 625 W time
averaged available power, estimated for WhirlpoolMax oven
using a standard 1 liter test [15].
�
X
Fig. 5. A profle line for temperature monitoring in the static
object at Position I.
The fnal temperature is captured along the profle defned
in Fig.5. The profle is located in the middle of the object
height (zcoordinate), along its diameter parallel to the xaxis
(Fig.5).
9781424477326/101$26.00 ©201 0 IEEE 1438
2
0
. =
�
�
·��·���
~�::� ��� h
Frequency = Z.44
"¯
.
c
1
5
+� ��·��·��� � ��� �
� ��
�
�
·�
�
�
·�
�
��
������
"
¯
� ��
�
1
0 1
O
Q
g
5
+������������M1

0 0.
2
5 0.5 0.75
Normalized diameter ()
Fig. 6. Temperature as a function of the magnetron frequency
along the profle shown in Fig. 5 in the static object at Position I.
As seen in Fig. 6, the heating patter in the static load is
strongly infuenced by the fequency of the magnetron. At
some locations, fequency changes within the 2.4 .. 2.5 GHz
band lead to the fnal temperature variations by over 10°C
degrees (in the context of the maximum heating by 16 °C
degrees fom the initial state). Moreover, the profle of Fig.6
demonstrates clear cold and hot spots, differing in temperature
by over 18°C.
It can be expected that fequency changes during the
heating, which are typical for domestic oven magnetrons, may
reduce nonuniformities of the heating patter. A new FDTD
regime with automatic fequency tuning to the lowest
resonance inside the user defned fequency band has been
applied to verif this claim. Indeed, temperature variations
along the profle is suppressed to 6 °C (Fig.6). In general the
temperature distribution shows higher heating along the edges
and a central cold spot, both controlled by the food shape and
composition.
C Coupled ElectromagneticThermal Simulation of Rotating
Object
The efect of load rotation on the heating performance was
originally investigated by postprocessing the results obtained
for several load positions independently [8 ]. A novel FDTD
approach [7] incorporates the movement of the load directly
into the coupled electromagneticthermal simulation. The load
position is automatically changed at each heating step. This
approach is more accurate and also faster, since simulation at
each new position is restared fom the steady state felds
calculated at the previous pOSItIOn, wherefom the
convergence to the new steady state is faster than fom the
zero initial conditions.
In this computational experiment, Position I (Fig. 2) is
assumed as the initial position for the object rotating with
constant speed of 5 rm. The continuous rotation is discretized
into the 12 angular steps, 30 degree each. The total heating
time is again equal to 30 seconds. This encompasses 2.5 fll
revolutions of the object around the center of the plate, with
heating simulations through eq.(1) and eq.(2) applied at 30
consecutive angular positions. Afer each heating simulation,
the material parameters are updated for each FDTD cell based
on the data in Table I. The fnal position of the object is shown
in Fig. 7. The fnal temperature is captured along the profle
defned in Fig.7. The profle is located in the middle of the
IMS 2010
object height (zcoordinate), along its diameter parallel to the
xaxIs.
'L
` X
Fig. 7. A profile line for temperature monitoring at the fnal
position of the rotating object.
.·
L · �
�
� · �����������
(
Q
� · ���������
·.. ·. ··.
Normalized diameter ()
Fig. 8. Temperature as a function of the magnetron frequency for
the profile shown in Fig. 7 for the rotating object at its fnal position.
As shown in Fig.8 , rotation of the object during the heating
substantially reduces the infuence of the operating fequency
on the heating patter. In fact, visible differences (within a 5°C
margin) between the heating patters at diferent fequencies
only occur along the object circumference, where the edge
overheating mechanism dominates. Elsewhere the margin IS
less than 1°C. Cold and hot spots are almost annihilated.
IV. CONCLUSION
Coupled electromagnetic and thermal simulations have
become a useful tool for the prediction of temperature patters
inside materials processed with microwaves. Besides
replacing complex hardware prototyping, the simulations may
also give new insight into the physics of the microwave
processes, difcult to extract or even unavailable fom the
measurements. In this paper, novel multiphysics FDTD
regimes have been applied to demonstrate that a "chaos" in
lightloaded microwave appliances [12] is actually evened up
by the superposition of load rotation efects and magnetron
fequency changes in domestic microwave ovens.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors wish to than Whirlpool Sweden AS for
providing CAD fles with the MAX mIcrowave oven
geometry.
REFERENCES
[1] W. K. Gwarek, "Analysis of an arbitrarilyshaped planar
circuit  a timedomain approach," IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theor Tech., vol. 33, pp. 10671072, 1985
[2] M. Celuch and W. K. Gwarek, "Industrial design of
axisymmetrical devices using a customized FDTD solver fom
9781424477326/101$26.00 ©201 0 IEEE 1439
R to optical fequency bands," IEEE Microwave Magazine,
vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 150158,2008.
[3] P. O. Risman, M. CeluchMarcysiak, "Electromagnetic
modeling for microwave heating applications,"
13
th
International Conference on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless
Communication MIKON2000, Wroclaw, vol. 3, pp. 167182,
May 2224, 2000.
[4] M. Celuch, W. K. Gwarek, "Properties of the FDTD method
relevant to the analysis of microwave power problems," J
Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energ, vol. 41, pp.
6280,2007.
[5] P. Kopyt, M. Celuch, "Coupled electromagnetic
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usin
g
the FDTD al
g
orithm," J Microwave Power and
Electromagnetic Energ, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 1829,2007.
[6] M. CeluchMarcysiak, W. K. Gwarek and M. Sypniewski, "A
novel FDTD system for microwave heating and thawing
analysis with automatic timevariation of enthalpydependent
media parameters," Bth International Conerence on
Microwave and High Frequency Heating, Bayreuth, pp.108
110, 2001; full text in Advances in Microwave and Radio
Frequency Processing, Springer Verlag, pp. 199209, 2006,
[7] P. Kopyt and M. Celuch, "Modeling microwave heating in
foods ", in: Development of packaging and products for use in
microwave ovens, ed. M. W. Lorence and P.S.Pesheck,
Wodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC, pp. 305
348, August 2009.
[8] P. Kopyt, M. CeluchMarcysiak, W. K. Gwarek: "Microwave
processing of temperaturedependent and rotating objects:
development and experimental verifcation of FDTD
algorithms," Proceedings of the third World Congress on
Microwave and Radio Frequency Applications, The American
Ceramic Society, pp.716, 2003.
[9] QuickWave3D, QWED Sp. z \.\.. 19972009
http://www. qwed.eu.
[10] 1. M. Osepchuk, "Microwave engineering problems in the
microwave oven," IEEE MTTS Inti. Microwave Symp. Dig.,
pp.334336, 1976.
[11] M. Soltysiak, U. Erie, and M. Celuch, (2008) "Load curve
estimation for the microwave ovens: experiments and
electromagnetic modeling,"
1
7th International Conference on
Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications MIKON
200B, Wroclaw, pp 873876, May 1921,2008.
[12] 1. M. Osepchuk, "Microwave power applications," IEEE
Transactions on Microwave Theor and Techniques, vol. 50,
no. 3, pp. 975985, March 2002.
[13] A. M. Tocci and R. H. Mascheroni, "Characteristics of
diferential scanning calorimetry determination of
thermophysical properties of meats," Lebensmittel
Wissenschaf undTechnologie, vol. 31, pp. 418426,1998.
[14] T. Ohlsson, N. E. Bengtsson, and P. O. Risman, "The
fequency and temperature dependence of dielectric food data
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Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energ, vol. 9, pp.
129145,1974.
[15] "Household microwave ovens  Methods for measuring
performance ", Interational Electrotechnical Commission,
Standard Nr. 60705.
IMS 2010
0 1060.0 18545.H"( x.z ) + P(x.0 1060.3 22. The dielectric properties (columns 3 and 4) are based on the measurements by Ohlsson et al.. Equation (1) is also suited for scenarios involving a phase change of the processed products. The 9781424477326/101$26. 0 11 7024.0 14840.4 and 2. Fig.69 0. y. z) is enthalpy density in Jlm3 first predicted at the current step (and then corrected though the solution of eq.0 1060..69 0. The oven cavity is excited with a pulse of limited spectrum from 2. z YL X Fig.0 49. Fig. H"+1( x.2 and Fig. Density and heat conductivity (columns 6 and 7) are based on the measurements performed by the authors for raw beef at room temperature.425 r. 3. In real life processing.0 5 48974. . 2. the heated object temperature increases and affects its dielectric properties (Table I).y. and at frequency of 2. k(T) is heat conductivity in WI(m°C).69 0.0 305704.4 IE !:::.0 1060.475 2.194 1. z) is volume of the cell expressed in m3.0 2431.0 153064. Adiabatic boundary conditions (zero heat flux at the boundary) between the heated element and air as well as the heated element and the rotating plate are assumed in the cases reported herein. the value of enthalpy density for equation (1) is first estimated by the electromagnetic software using the average value of power dissipated per each FDTD cell: .908 J/(kg°C) 3215.118 1.0 When the material is placed in Position 3 closest to the feeding waveguide (cf.44 (Slm) .69 0.44 GHz.0 26098. while its maximum value does not exceed 0.0 2442.0 1060. published in [14].2 48. This corresponds to the temperature of _1 °C (Table I). Consecutive positions of the object inside the cavity.1 V(x.69 "C 20 15 5 3 2.440 2. Other positions of the object do not lead to such drastic changes of the reflection coefficient over frequency.008 .1.45 Fig.y..y.00 ©2010 IEEE 1437 IMS 2010 .  0.064 0.z)· !H' ) i1V( x.2 ° r � 2.949 1. This corresponds to 20% of power being reflected back to the magnetron.5 12.. respectively..69 0. The whole amount of power available from the magnetron is delivered to the load and dissipated inside the heated material. The outermost position of the heated material (Position 1) results in 10% variation of the reflection coefficient over frequency.0 4088.0 The values of relative permittivity and electric conductivity are constant and set to 49..317 2.636 2.. 1.46 GHz decreases below 0. but magnetron operating with frequency between 2. Reflection Coefficient as a Function of Position and Temperature of the Object The following simulations are similar to those performed for the load curve estimation [11].0 347574.0 Heat conducti vity W/(m°C) 0. . Microwave heating simulations are performed with temperature dependent dielectric and thermal properties of beef. z) is dissipated power per cell in W.0 1060. 3. as shown in Table I. and t is time inS.9 5. y. 2. Reflection coefficient as a function of the object position and magnetron frequency for object temperature of _1°C.5 GHz.093 0.0 1060.0 2269.2 () and 2.z ) . Den sity kg/m' 1060. H"(x.69 0.5 41. .0 2362.0 405 874.0 1060.2 45.1r is a predefined heating time step in s.4 and 2. The values of enthalpy density and heat capacity (columns 2 and 5) are taken from [13]. /  �� � = 2. y.9 48. At each heating time step. 0 75684 . RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS A.. For the same material position.69 0.2 1 10 20 50 80 () 4. the value of the reflection coefficient for frequencies higher than 2. Reflection coefficient as a function of the object position and the magnetron frequency are shown in Fig. Heat flow effects are not considered.0 2303.45.3).0 30. P(x.0 692074.5 2. y....where: H(x.8 0. the value of the reflection coefficient is around 0.0.y. Position 1 Position 2 IPosition 3 IPosition 4 0. z) is enthalpy density in Jlm3. The studied angular positions of the material are shown in Fig.0 21842.7 (S/m) 0..35. z) is enthalpy density in Jlm3 at the previous step.z _ [�] m 3 (2) where: H"+! (x.69 0.573 1.5 GHz it is around 0.69 0. TABLE I DIELECTRIC AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF HEATED BEEF Temperature Ent halpy Relative Electric Heat density permittivity conducti vity capacity J/kg 0. y.6 . T is temperature in DC.4 Frequency (GHz) 2. III..0 1060. Numerical model of WhirlpoolMax microwave oven.(1)).
over the changes of temperature.00 ©2010 IEEE 1438 IMS 2010 . The continuous rotation is discretized into the 12 angular steps. 5. The final position of the object is shown in Fig.5 GHz band lead to the final temperature variations by over 10 °C degrees (in the context of the maximum heating by 16 °C degrees from the initial state).44 ��� h� z GH 5 E 1 ++r�H = ��:��:���: �:::��� H�f. wherefrom the convergence to the new steady state is faster than from the zero initial conditions. Fig. frequency changes within the 2. In this computational experiment. Frequency (GHz) as a Fig.2) of the object is assumed. estimated for WhirlpoolMax oven using a standard 1 liter test [15]. the profile of Fig. B. A new FDTD regime with automatic frequency tuning to the lowest resonance inside the user defined frequency band has been applied to verify this claim.5 Fig. 30 degree each. 7..425 ��� ". temperature variations along the profile is suppressed to 6 °C (Fig.475 0..6 .75 Normalized diameter () 'C2. Moreover. For simulations of microwave heating patterns the waveguide was excited by the magnetron of 625 W time averaged available power. x A profile line for temperature monitoring in the static The final temperature is captured along the profile defined in Fig. This approach is more accurate and also faster. As seen in Fig.45 2. The total heating time is set to 30 seconds and it is divided into three heating time steps. This encompasses 2. the material parameters are updated for each FDTD cell based on the data in Table I. Indeed. Position I (Fig. may reduce nonuniformities of the heating pattern. Note that. _1°C. The effect of load rotation on the heating performance was originally investigated by postprocessing the results obtained for several load positions independently [8 ]. At 20 °C. Temperature as a function of the magnetron frequency along the profile shown in Fig. At some locations. 20 degC 1 degC 20 degC 60 degC  �::� ��:��:���: 2.4 .curves in Fig../ 2. due to load pull effects [10]. In general the temperature distribution shows higher heating along the edges and a central cold spot.5 0. The final temperature is captured along the profile defined in Fig.4 2. Coupled ElectromagneticThermal Simulation of Rotating Object �L object at Position I. A novel FDTD approach [7] incorporates the movement of the load directly into the coupled electromagneticthermal simulation.2. The load position is automatically changed at each heating step. and 60°C. The total heating time is again equal to 30 seconds. differing in temperature by over 18°C.2 ro 2. since simulation at each new position is restarted from the steady state fields calculated at the previous pOSItIOn. the heating pattern in the static load is strongly influenced by the frequency of the magnetron. The profile is located in the middle of the object height (zcoordinate). As indicated in Table I. 4 f.6 demonstrates clear cold and hot spots. The profile is located in the middle of the 9781424477326/101$26.5). 6. � 0.5. This means that the dielectric properties of the heated object in each FDTD cell are updated 3 times during the coupled simulation.4 are obtained for the object at the fixed Position 1 and uniformly heated to the temperature of 20°C. which are typical for domestic oven magnetrons. Coupled ElectromagneticThermal Simulation of Static Object Position 1 (Fig.. the values of relative permittivity and electric conductivity are 10 and 38 times lower.6).'>rl GH � rh��+== � ==� :������g = Z=�_ ==� :�� � ���� hL�t� � 10 120 . C. Reflection coefficient function of the object temperature and magnetron frequency for object at Position I. 6.25 0. 5 in the static object at Position I. rapid changes of the beef parameters occur around its thawing point. 2) is assumed as the initial position for the object rotating with constant speed of 5 rpm.(1) and eq. with respect to those at _1°C. 4. 10 seconds each.ri = Frequency = 0. After each heating simulation. both controlled by the food shape and composition.7. along its diameter parallel to the xaxis (Fig. the reflection coefficient further influences the actual operating frequency of the magnetron.4).0.. It can be expected that frequency changes during the heating.8 0. I g 5 +H���� ������ ��M 1 a .(2) applied at 30 consecutive angular positions. Hence the reflection coefficient obtained at 20°C deviates strongly from the curves obtained at the remaining temperature points (Fig.5 full revolutions of the object around the center of the plate. 20 °C.n <II c. with heating simulations through eq.
Tocci and R. "Characteristics of calorimetry of determination of meats.pp. K. � " thermodynamic simulations of microwave heating problems using the FDTD algorithm. by Wissenschaft undTechnologie. As shown in Fig. no. "Microwave power applications. Co M. Besides replacing complex hardware prototyping. Elsewhere the margin IS less than 1 °C. pp. K. O. [9] [10] QuickWave3D. [6] � 5 +��������� 0. IV.S." 17th International Conference on Microwaves. International Standard Nr.2008. 60705. 20.2006. the simulations may also give new insight into the physics of the microwave processes. "Household microwave ovens Methods for measuring performance ". K. determined properties E. Communication MIKON2000.pp 873876.no. "Microwave engineering problems in the microwave oven." IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ed. Kopyt. 41.2000.. Celuch.no. World Congress on Microwave and Radio Frequency Applications. Soltysiak. along its diameter parallel to the xaxIs. Celuch. Celuch. Kopyt and M. Microwave Symp. M." O. 150158. Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy." J. CONCLUSION Coupled electromagnetic and thermal simulations have become a useful tool for the prediction of temperature patterns inside materials processed with microwaves. Kopyt. U. [3] P. 7 for the rotating object at its final position. CeluchMarcysiak. 1976. pp. Wodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC. "The technique. [15] frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric food data perturbation J. 975985.August 2009. Erie. [13] A. 4.1974. Temperature as a function of the magnetron frequency for the profile shown in Fig. [5] P. RF to optical frequency bands.pp. full text in Advances in Microwave and Radio Frequency Processing.00 ©2010 IEEE 1439 IMS 2010 . as Ohlsson. W.May 1921. qwed. pp. in: Development of packaging and products for use in microwave ovens.Pesheck. 6. M. "Analysis of an arbitrarilyshaped planar circuit .a timedomain approach.2007.pp. Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy.. The American 19972009 http://www. visible differences (within a 5°C margin) between the heating patterns at different frequencies only occur along the object circumference. 9. Lebensmittel Risman. "Properties of the FDTD method relevant to the analysis of microwave power problems. REFERENCES [1] W." Proceedings of the third Ceramic Society. scanning H. vol. rotation of the object during the heating substantially reduces the influence of the operating frequency on the heating pattern. Osepchuk.pp. vol. Dig.1998. Bengtsson. (2008) "Load curve estimation for the microwave ovens: experiments and electromagnetic modeling. and P. "Modeling microwave heating in foods ". Wroclaw. Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy.108 Normalized diameter () 0. March 2002. pp.pp. May 2224. novel multiphysics FDTD regimes have been applied to demonstrate that a "chaos" in lightloaded microwave appliances [12] is actually evened up by the superposition of load rotation effects and magnetron frequency changes in domestic microwave ovens. CeluchMarcysiak. 1985 [2] M.8 .75 [7] 110. "A novel FDTD system for microwave heating and thawing analysis with automatic timevariation of enthalpydependent media parameters.1 6280. [4] M. vol.334336. 1. [8] P. Lorence and P. Celuch and W. N. Gwarek.716. z 0." International Conference on Microwaves. Bayreuth. 129145. Gwarek. In this paper. W. M. Osepchuk. M. Gwarek: "Microwave processing of temperaturedependent and rotating objects: development and experimental verification of FDTD algorithms.2007. where the edge overheating mechanism dominates. Gwarek. [11] M. 167182.25 Fig. 3. M. and M. Cold and hot spots are almost annihilated. Microwave Theory Tech. M. "Coupled electromagnetic and E 15 F. Electrotechnical Commission. Celuch." IEEE Microwave Magazine. "Industrial design of axisymmetrical devices using a customized FDTD solver from 9781424477326/101$26." IEEE Trans. pp.�1 � 10 ���� \a��==�==��� � (j." Bth International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating.2008. Sypniewski. pp. vol. 9. A profile line for temperature monitoring at the final position of the rotating object. 3. Risman." differential thermophysical [14] T. Radar and Wireless Communications MIKON200B. pp. 10671072. 7. 31.0. vol. 1829. 50. Gwarek and M. 8.object height (zcoordinate). vol. 2003. Wroclaw. 33. 305348. 199209. Springer Verlag." IEEE MTTS Inti. K. W. QWED Sp. 41. P. M. vol. for modeling microwave CeluchMarcysiak. Radar and Wireless 'L z x Fig.eu. Mascheroni. a cavity The authors wish to thank Whirlpool Sweden AS for providing CAD files with the MAX mIcrowave oven geometry. 418426. W. [12] 1.5 0.. In fact. 2001. difficult to extract or even unavailable from the measurements. pp. "Electromagnetic 13th heating applications." J. vol. K.
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