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Guidelines Quality Assurance System
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Content 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction to product integrity Taxonomy of defects Introduction to quality procedures Quality control fabric Quality control – spreading and cutting Quality control – sewing Quality control – washing and finishing Style start up procedures Annexure
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In the sense of performance, quality refers to the performance features of a product. Such features are decisive of product performance and of product satisfaction. These features compete with each other in the market place. External customers, especially ultimate users, compare the competing performance features of similar products. Their comparisons then become a deciding factor in their purchase of the product. Due to the competition in the market place, a primary goal for product performance is to at least be equal or superior to the quality of competing products. Product Dissatisfaction The word quality also refers to freedom from deficiencies such as late deliveries, customer claims and returns, high rate of rework and even cancellation of sales. These are the various manifestations of product dissatisfaction. Some deficiencies impact external customers and hence are a threat to future sales as well as a source of higher costs. Other deficiencies impact only internal customers and hence are mainly a source of higher costs. It is important to understand that if something is not as specified, it is defective and if it is indeed defective, then it can either be repaired or it can’t be repaired. Seconds are sold by the factory at a loss. Units to be repaired are also an extra cost because extra costs are incurred in: 1. Handling the unit before repair. 2. Extra labor and materials in repairing. 3. Extra handling to get it back with the first goods.
The time consumed on repairing defective goods can always be used to produce more first class goods. In all cases defective units are extra costs for the factory. Doing it right the first time is the key to minimize costs arising from defective products. Gen-Prom (UNDP) -3KSA Technopak
Many companies require regular reports. Conduct of the quality function depends heavily on the quantification of the product and process characteristics. Only the inspection department or its personnel cannot be held responsible for assurance of quality. A heavy focus is placed on measuring system and methods instead of the results and possible improvements. It is the responsibility of everybody connected with the production. -4- Gen-Prom (UNDP) KSA Technopak . What cannot be measured cannot be improved. and other parameters to satisfy stakeholders. profits. Now the assurance of quality is not the responsibility of a senior person or a department only. no business unit can exist for a long time without adhering to the quality. In today’s competitive industrial world. There is no end to quality improvement processes when results are continuously monitored. The measurement results are dependent on the standards being used. What gets measured gets managed. First of all quality specifications for the product needs to be established. Improvement occurs when the measured results are monitored and compared against standards. Measuring a process without improving it leads to increased costs and lower product quality. Companies measure sales. It is better to monitor the process that provides these results rather than measure the results alone. contain specified characteristics and is fit for the intended use. growth. The process of quantification is called measurement. but take no action to bring about improvements as a result of those reports. Results will follow when input is controlled and the process is monitored. parts. directly or indirectly and each and every department. so that it can meet the requirements of the customer. resulting in actions. components. tools etc. The measurement of current performance is essential for continuous quality improvement. Quality assurance refers to the assurance to customers that the product.
blotted out etc. omitted. components. broken needles. Using entire quality control staff most effectively. components. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 5 KSA Technopak . A Critical Defect is defined as anything that can potentially be considered harmful to the product user or render the product unsaleable and thereby lead to the cancellation of the order. improper or inaccurate country of origin or fiber. tools and equipment etc. parts. appearance defects such as wrinkles or creases which seriously affect appearance. Evaluate operators in all areas of production and take corrective action. parts. A Critical Defect can be. workmanship errors such as stitches per inch less than the number specified on a major stress seam. • • Evaluate production.Suitable quality standards for raw materials. identify bad shipments and take corrective action. production processes and methods and also final products. • • • Ensuring that even with turnover of personnel. a manufacturer can determine whether they all conform to the predetermined quality standards or design specifications or not. incorrect. With the help of inspection and testing. needs to also be determined in advance so as to manufacture quality product. Proper inspection and testing procedures and methods needs to be evolved to check the quality specifications of raw materials. Getting the most of the investment by reducing rejection and rework done on alteration. errors in permanent labels such as any size information on the garment is incorrect or care instructions not printed clearly. quality is maintained. loose components or other foreign items which are potentially harmful and may pose a hazard. but is not limited to sharp points and edges.
Any defect (if not repaired properly) that can potentially lead to cancellation of the entire or a part of the order is classified as a major defect. Defects such as birdseye. A few examples of major defects are: Dye misprints or dye smear in Zone A or B. The quality procedures to be followed in fabric department are fairly simple. It has been noticed that in most cases the operator is not aware of what is required from him/her in terms of stitching quality. fabric not as specified. broken stitch. Stitching: The sewing defects begin and end with the operator. would cause the item to be a ‘second’. Minor defects are those defects that would not cause the product to be termed a second either because of severity or location. the evaluation system will be explained in detail later. needle line and slub are classified as minor defects depending on their severity. So it is essential to check for defects at the fabric stage. As the name suggests these defects are modest and do not affect the salability of a product. The Quality procedures in the fabric department are explained in detail later in the guideline. It is thus imperative that: Gen-Prom (UNDP) 6 KSA Technopak . barre in Zone A and B. are all considered to be major defects. The cutting department does not accept fabric if it has failed the inspection in the fabric department. The fabric is checked using the four point system of evaluation. Major defects are those that if conspicuous on the finished product. open seam etc. A Piece Goods Inspection Report provides information regarding this to the Cutting Manager and the Production Manager. Fabric procurement: Various defects can arise at the time of procuring fabric and can have severe implications on the salability of the finished product.
These defects are particularly severe as they are difficult to repair and can render the garment un-salable. • The broad objective of this is that there needs to never be any legitimate reason for some one not knowing what is happening. sewing. Defects can be further classified as repairable or non-repairable. packaging departments. To overcome the problem of packaging defects a packaging department needs to be setup and timely audits needs to be carried out on the packaged goods. Measurement: Measurement defects arise due to lack of information about the stipulated measurement requirements in the cutting.• One sealed sample / mock up (Sample as per order. correct fabric. As the name suggests Repairable defects are those defects that can be fixed and when fixed will not render the garment unsaleable. Defects arise all the time during cutting. the operator needs to be given a sample of the same for their ready reference. sewing. • In case of certain garment parts that require a skillful operation or for a critical operation. finishing and packaging but to ensure a foolproof garment is sent out to the client we have repair the defects that can be repaired and do away with the defects that can’t be repaired and will Gen-Prom (UNDP) 7 KSA Technopak .) be available and easily accessible to all operators at the shop floor. Thus it is essential to put in place spec sheets at each and every stage of production with clear instructions about what is required in terms of measurement in that stage and ensure that the operators have a clear understanding of specifications so as to avoid defects arising from misunderstanding of measurement requirements. trims etc. Packaging: Clients have very specific demands when it comes to packaging of the finished garments and any packaging defect is generally categorized as severe and or major defects and they are best avoided.
One important basis of the quality calculations explained here before we discuss the QA procedures is– DHU. For example. it makes Gen-Prom (UNDP) 8 KSA Technopak . which we will need to correct. The identification of defects is done with the motive that they will be corrected. From the product perspective. This tends to inflate the figures. the focus is clearly on 1) Productivity 2) Quality Both Productivity and Quality needs to go hand in hand. and in terms of corrections it is the ‘defects’. the cutting. This implies that if hundred shirts are being checked and seven shirts are found to be defective with presence of two defects in each of the seven. the cutting department needs to treat itself as the supplier to its customer. which will be repeatedly used in this guideline. Each department needs to treat the following department in the chain as its customer and itself as the supplier to that customer. It is normally found that one gains at the expense of the other. The garment in its manufacturing process moves through the fabric. at least up till the finishing stage. then the DHU is 14. which means Defects per Hundred Units. These guidelines provide a detailed outline regarding the quality systems to be followed in the factory. Quality Procedures are to be followed in each of these departments. For this to be possible it is necessary that standardized procedures be followed in the field of Quality Assurance. Hence. and NOT the ‘defective units’ itself amongst the sample of hundred units. which is the Sewing department. This guideline describes the procedures to be followed in the field of Quality Assurance. hence it needs to be well understood. DHU calculates the ‘defects’ found in a sample of hundred units. and NOT 7. This is a term. Once the garment is finally ready after the finishing. but the factory endeavor would be to achieve both up to the desired degree and beyond. the sewing and finally the finishing department. but not without a sound logic behind it. it is important to record the defects rather than the defective garments. immaterial of whether these defects are spread across many garments or one.cause the garment to be termed as a reject.
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 9 KSA Technopak . The following flowchart gives an overview of the checking procedures the garment goes through. as that is what ultimately matters to the buyer. during its various stages of being manufactured.sense to record the defective garments rather than the DHU.
Departmental Procedures Quality Assurance Aids: 1) Style Startup Check sheet 2) Key inspection points (for each style) 3) Quality Specification Sheets ( for each operation) 4) Monthly individual operator inline sampling report 5) Daily prime targets 6) Quality drills 7) Operator trainer’s quality checks 8) Linking of operator DHU to various schemes. The ‘systems’ and the ‘formats’ have to be executed in tandem. with focus on the formats to be followed and made use of. Fabric Department Reports and Decision support systems: 1) Piece Goods Inspection Report 2) Cutting room Inspection report 3) Cut-Audit report 4) In-line Sampling report 5) In-line sampling defect record 6) Daily end line inspection report 7) Daily end line Summary sheet 8) Quality audit form 9) Daily finishing report 10) Presentation check report 11) Daily Line quality report 12) Weekly quality report 1) Piece goods inspection Cutting Department 1) In-line inspection 2) Cutting Audit Sewing Department 1) In-line random inspection 2) End line inspection 3) Daily Audit Finishing Department 1) 2) 3) 4) Final checking Presentation Check Checker’s Audit Pre-shipment audit This guideline provides a department wise description of the quality systems to be followed in each department. etc. ‘N’ number of Gen-Prom (UNDP) 10 KSA Technopak . like Star operator. Graduation. For example. working in ‘B’ particular line. the In-line sampling report mentioned in the previous table collects information on ‘A’ particular operator. producing ‘C’ particular defect.
The defect. does not ‘correct’ the problem. have played their respective part in bringing about the correct quality. (The presence of one defect in a sample size of 8 pieces. and correcting only the particular piece. the Inline checker can play truant. the guideline goes on to describe the Formats. Whereas. 2) the Quality System itself. would use one of the Quality assurance aids — ‘The red tab’. the system if correctly followed. It is also important to note that the formats being filled up would be of little use if the information gathered were not effectively made use of. but on the other hand.1) The Formats. and if the bundle passes the rechecking only then it would be allowed to pass on to the next operator. It needs a pro-active approach from both. once he finds the bundle to pass the re-check. which was detected by the Inline Q. bundle number.C using a sample size of 8 for a bundle of 20.C would add a red tab provided to him. and the Quality Assurance aids to be used in the various departments. the bundle would be re-examined by the Q. The quality system prescribed directs that the bundle. The system further prescribes that the entire bundle of 20 pieces be checked by the Inline checker himself. the Q. does ‘solve’ the problem. Now. The Q. which was caught by the Q. as being defective. Now. by NOT checking the entire bundle for defects.C. The Q. Now.C in the report. the QA team as well as the Production team. Systems.times. To ensure that this does not happen. Now.C is the only one who has the replacement for the red tab to a green tab (Only Available with the QC).C. and made defect free. this report on one hand provides useful information on ‘the problem’. and 3) The Quality Assurance Aids. Based on the above. Some of these are general points and do not figure under a particular department and hence have been covered either in the beginning or towards the end. This information can be very effectively used for analysis and to take decisions regarding corrective actions to be taken. This would ensure correct quality pieces to be passed on to the next operation. selected randomly in a bundle size of 20 pieces. and the operator name are duly recorded by the Q. renders the bundle as a “defective bundle”). all three . would be ‘rejected’. and NO operator is allowed to accept a bundle from previous operation if it has a red tab. keeping in view the flow of the Gen-Prom (UNDP) 11 KSA Technopak .C.
The abbreviations used in the table are: • • • QAD: Quality Assurance Department QAM: Quality Assurance Manager QA: Quality Auditor (reports directly to the QAM. the focus of the guideline would be on the Quality Assurance Formats to be used at various stages.C’s and Checkers) • • • • F. However.M: Production Manager S: Supervisor IED: Industrial Engineering Department Gen-Prom (UNDP) 12 KSA Technopak . The table on the next page describes “Quality assurance distribution list” which gives a detailed list of the formats to be followed by the QAD in various departments. The list also describes that the information once collected would be passed on to whom. For the purpose of standardization each format has been given a particular code. and is in charge of all Q. for effective use of the information.M: Factory Manager P.information. which are used for the collection of useful information.
Daily Finishing In-charge Gen-Prom (UNDP) 13 KSA Technopak . PM. Cutting Room Inspection report 2. I. Finishing In-charge Daily QAM Merchandiser. Daily End Line Inspection Report QAE QAM. Merchandiser QAE QAD.End Line Quality Auditor QAE. QAM b. c.Quality Assurance – Distribution List No. QAD. Fabric Store 1. 100% Presentation Report 3. Cutting In-charge. PM. Finishing Section 1. Style Start up 1. PM. QAD. Line-Incharge Monthly QAE QAM. Quality Specifications Sheet Line-Incharge. Cutting Incharge. Start-up Check Sheet 2. Cutting section 1. Key Inspection Points 3. Quality Audit Form. QAM and Line Every Style Incharge PM Description Originator Distribution Freq.Every Style QAM. CuttingIncharge. Quality Audit Form. Pre Shipment Quality Audit Form QAEQAM. Daily End Line Summary Sheet QAE QAM. Line-Incharge Daily Line-Incharge Daily QAM. Piece Goods Inspection report QAE QAM. ach Cut E QAE QAM. II. Cut Audit report Sewing Section IV. Line-Incharge Quality Audit a. Measurement Checking Sheet QAE QAM. Monthly individual inline sampling report 100% Inspection a. PM. Each Cut Line-Incharge QAE QAE QAE QAM. Merchandiser III. Line-Incharge Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily b. In-Line Sampling Report b. Finishing In-charge Daily QAEQAM. In-Line Sampling Defect Record c. In Line Sampling a. PM IED Every Style QAM QAD.Sewing QAM QAD V. FM. Daily Finishing Report 2.
The fabric manager needs to always inspect fabric as soon as it reaches his facility. Line Incharge QAE Director. Even the most outstanding manufacturing methods cannot compensate for defective material. 2. Finishing In-charge The formats of these are included in the annexure. The fabric needs to always be stored in clean and moisture free environment. Increased productivity of the cutting department. QAM. QAM. To identify and mark fabric faults on the fabric. a swatch needs to be submitted to laboratory for checking whether the fabric adheres to fabric performance standards. PM. a spreader is concerned primarily with spreading the fabric and not with inspecting the quality of the fabric. Many companies prefer to do fabric checking while spreading though the fabric needs to be checked beforehand as a separate operation. PM. 3. Quality control Fabric 1. Weekly Cutting In-charge. As soon as the fabric arrives. 2. Daily Line Quality Report 2. This is because while spreading. This section provides recommendations to help you create an aggressive piece goods quality control program and eliminate many quality problems before the manufacturing process begins 1.VI Process Monitoring / Feed Back 1. Postponing piece goods inspection till the fabric is on the cutting table could have the Gen-Prom (UNDP) 14 KSA Technopak . Decision to cut the fabric lot or not. Weekly Quality Summary Daily QAE GM. 3. 4.
A shipment between 200 . inspection needs to be carried out for100% fabric. The blockage of the cutting table and the time of the cutting master wasted during the process of spreading and then putting the fabric back into rolls or folds needs to also be considered. the time lost between fabric receipt and inspection (spreading) would be additional delay in the lead-time of the order. not only the effort and time of spreading this fabric is wasted.following effects: 1. For a shipment/ order of upto 200 Kg – It is recommended that for a shipment of up to 200 Kg. At least 10% of the meterage to be inspected.Inspection needs to be done for at least 200 Kg or 10% whichever is greater. In case the fabric is found to be defective and has to be rejected. Roll Size It is advised for better utilization of fabric that there needs to not be more than 10-15% of “short rolls” (rolls of 20 Kg and less) in an order. 2. Delay: This is due to the fact that if fabric inspection is done at the cutting stage and then fabric is found to be defective. Loss of Time and Effort: The decision to accept or reject the fabric would be taken only once the entire fabric has been checked. Selection of Rolls At least one roll of each colour (even if it exceeds 10% of the total meterage) needs to be Gen-Prom (UNDP) 15 KSA Technopak . Fabric meterage to inspect 1. in other words spread.2000 Kg. but also the time and effort of rolling the fabric again to be returned is wasted. 2. The four point system is widely accepted in the textile and garment trade because it is easy to understand and implement. This system also lays down standards that have proven to be acceptable in the garment trade and it is recommended to use the same system while checking fabric.
runner. then select the number in proportion to the no. holes. No penalty points are recorded for minor defects. end out. needle line. o Only major defects are considered. slub. colour smear or shading. conspicuous yarn variation. machine stop. but not over 6 inches Over 6.selected. since the Inspector will not know where the defect may occur on the item. barre. hole. o Major dye or printing defects are print out. Defect Classification The four point system classifies defects as shown in the following table: Length of Defect. but not over 9 inches Over 9 inches Holes and openings 1 inch or less Over 1 inch 2 points 4 Points Penalty Points 1 Point 2 Points 3 Points 4 Points o A maximum of 4 points is charged to one linear meter. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 16 KSA Technopak . it is necessary to rate questionable defects as major. Major Defects are classified as follows: o Major woven fabric defects such as slubs. soiled yarn. yarn variation. and press off. Note -When inspecting piece goods prior to cutting. and wrong yarn. o Major knitted fabric defects are mixed yarn. of total rolls per colour received. missing yarn. In case more than one roll per colour is to be checked. either length or width 3 Inches or less Over 3. o Defects less than 1” from the selvedge of the fabric will not be counted. dye spots.
The bowing and skewing are calculated as follows: Bow: A bow is an uneven deviation of a weft from a line drawn perpendicular to the selvedge of the fabric. Skew%= Dip of the Skew (Maximum deviation from perpendicular line) X 100 Width of the fabric If the average Bowing or Skewing for a roll is more than 2-3%. bowed and biased fabric. A bow may have different forms: Single Bow%= Dip of the Bow (Maximum deviation from perpendicular line) X 100 ½ Width of the fabric Double Bow%= Dip of the Bow (Maximum deviation from perpendicular line) X 100 ¼ Width of the fabric Skew: Skew is a straight line deviation of a weft from a line drawn perpendicular to the selvedge of the fabric. Other considerations for rejection: Any noticeable shading within the roll 17 Gen-Prom (UNDP) KSA Technopak . The points are calculated on a 100 square meter basis. Bowing and Skewing Check for skewed. For this purpose check the bowing and skewing at every 10 meters.Acceptance Point Count This method of acceptance uses a projection of total defects based on the number of defects found in the inspection of a sample. reject the roll. To calculate the average points/100 square meters for the shipment: Total points counted for all rolls inspected X 39 X 100 Total meters inspected X Cut table width (inches) Up to 40 points per 100 square meters is the acceptable defect rate.
o Off shade fabric o Hands feel not to standard. o Pattern repeat not up to standard or unacceptable variations. These samples need to be stuck in the form of a booklet along with their classification as major or minor. or re-dye the fabric. It is thus imperative that these checkers needs to have ready actual samples of these defects. The easiest way to make this reference guide is to collect various defects in fabrics as and when they occur. This is augmented by the fact that these checkers check fabric every day and their eyes become so accustomed to the colour/design of the fabric that there is a high probability of them not noticing certain defects. refinish. This guide needs to serve as a ready reckoner and thus needs to be in a simple/local language with as many visuals as possible in order to make judgments in visual fabric evaluations easier and more ‘accurate’. there is a chance that the fabric checker does not notice a defect at all. The management would take this decision after discussion. In case the audit fails. They are unaware of the nature of fabric defects and their causes. The Quality/ Buying head and the vendor shall discuss the commercial implications of such an action and arrive at a Gen-Prom (UNDP) 18 KSA Technopak . In such a case it may be advantageous to conduct a 100% inspection of the piece goods. o Appearance not up to standard or objectionable Often fabric checkers who check the fabric are not trained. Thus. o Critical defects running for more than 2 meters. In case of a failure it is the responsibility of the vendor to get new fabric. Quality manager needs to then send a written document to the buying head and the team subsequently decides whether to pass the fabric. the quality auditor is required to inform the quality manager. This guide needs to ideally be developed by the fabric department themselves and needs to be available and easily accessible to all personnel involved with the activity of fabric checking. o All major defects running for more than 2 meters in the fabric needs to be cut out.
This may lead to a rescheduling of production dates and a penalty (if any) to be imposed The format to be used for piece good inspection is explained below. total points are the frequency of the number of defects multiplied by penalty points depending on the length/diameter of defect.decision. calculated with the formula at bottom of format. this continues through the entire order processing. Total Yards Inspected: All self explanatory. o Points per hundred square yards: Average number of points per hundred square yards of fabric checked. Inspected by. o Total penalty points: Summation of the total points assigned for each roll. o Style: As all orders are tracked through style number it is important to mention the style number. Purchase Order. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 19 KSA Technopak . o Accept/Reject Shipment: Mark according to the desired quality standards. o Date. Fabric supplier. Total Rolls Received.
selection of rolls needs to be made as explained above. needs to be inspected in each colour. o Colour: Colour of roll being inspected at least two hundred yards or ten percent. which ever is more.o Roll Number: Number of roll being inspected. o Width: Width of the roll ordered and maximum and minimum width of the rolls inspected (measured at regular intervals). o Defect Marking: Each defect when observed on the fabric is measured and then a code of the defect as mentioned on the bottom of the format is marked on the corresponding column classified by length of defect. o Length: Length of the roll as marked on the roll by the supplier and actual length as observed during the inspection in yards. o Shade Diff: Marked as yes if there is a shade variation in the roll from either start to end or from selvedge to selvedge. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 20 KSA Technopak .
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In case of knits. 2. is a critical checkpoint. the quality assurance inspector is to check the fabric lay for the following defects: • • In case of a marker always compare the marker with the original pattern. Marker making: To make sure that all parts of a particular garment appear on the marker. damaged. check the far edges of the spread to see that all piles extend beyond the marker line. Allow no minus tolerance for splicing [a minimum of one inch of overlap]. to ensure that the ply height is stable.Quality Control Spreading and cutting 1. • Spread Height: To ensure that the height of the spread is at least two inches less than the cutting blade knife.sewing measurement defects found in a garment can in most cases be attributed to in-correct spreading and cutting. 3. unknowingly the marker gets pulled and the sizes get distorted. • Markers: To ensure that the marker is not creased. The post. • Marker Placement: To check that the marker is placed on the spread with the edge parallel to the selvedge of the piece goods. To ensure that all garment parts are cut as per the pattern. • Narrow Goods: After completion of the spread. or has overlapped parts. • Tension and Creasing: To ensure that there is no artificial/excessive tension due to a Gen-Prom (UNDP) 24 KSA Technopak . • Table Marks: To check the table for all table marks. check for the smaller parts [collars/cuffs] and their presence in pairs. Increased productivity of the sewing room. Decision to re-cut the garment parts. Spreading though not considered an important operation in garment manufacturing and is normally carried out manually without supervision of the cutting master. Some times while making a blueprint of the marker. Also to ensure that all cut pieces are complete. While spreading. • Marker Blueprint: To make a random check of some measurements in the marker.
Count all plies at both ends. • Count: To check the count after completion of spreading.very tight’ spread. Such a practice. pass on a decision of re-cutting in the cutting room to “trimming” or “snipping” in the sewing room. This refers to all parts being cut exact as per the marker. Visually inspect to ensure the alignment of the edge with the tabletop. • Always try and inspect without disturbing the cut block. • • Do not disturb the order of the cut pieces as they have yet not been numbered. Also to check randomly for any creasing of the fabric. In case of respreading or redevelopment of marker. In case such a situation arises. a new pattern and marker needs to be developed. Provision must be made for matching stripes. must be correctly placed on the fabric. Often changes are made to markers to adjust certain production problems. Under no circumstance needs to changes be made to the same marker. Under no circumstance needs to this happen. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 25 KSA Technopak . • • • Fabric faults must be marked and defective parts replaced. Sometimes manufacturers in order to save time. Under no circumstance needs to any tolerance be allowed in spreading or cutting as a defect in spreading/cutting would lead to accelerated defects in the sewing process. all changes needs to be made in consultation with merchandisers/ quality inspectors. There is no tolerance for this. This is essential in case the particular piece has to be re-cut. Pattern pcs. Needs to there be any changes required in the pattern/marker. the Inspector needs to decide on the date along with the spreader and inform Quality Inspector. leads to added cost in the sewing room for trimming of each and every piece instead of it being cut in bulk in the cutting room. and before cutting. The Spreading Inspector has to inform the spreading master/cutting masters of the irregularities in the spreading and ensure that corrective steps are taken. • The cutting department needs to give “ready cut” pieces to the sewing room at all times. • Leaning: To check that one edge of the fabric is square to the table.top.
In case there are a lot of measurement problems observed in the sewing room. middle and bottom pieces. While inspecting a garment part three pieces needs to be taken from the stack in order to compare. placket. This is recommended to take care of both small and big parts of the garment. In case of particular problems in measurements (under/exceeding tolerances) the quality team needs to check all the garment parts in cutting room as per recommended system. Parts must be fully marked within the defined lay width. it is advisable that all garment parts be checked in the cutting room. In case all garment parts are cut on one type of cutting machine.. the parts selected needs to be a combination of both the big and the small parts.top. In case of fusing.• • • • • • All pcs.. The garment parts lying near the selvedge and the ends needs to always be inspected. incorrect fusing etc. 26 Gen-Prom (UNDP) KSA Technopak . back and sleeves (straight knife). For example the big parts of a polo shirt are cut on straight knife and the small parts are cut on band knife. check for bubbles. Parts cut on different types of cutting machines needs to be taken in the ratio of 1:1. style nos. Selection of garment cut parts A combination of both big and small garment parts needs to be inspected. yoke half-moon and cuffs (band knife). Bundling needs to be checked (sampled) for bundle nos. For the purpose of inspection. Line definition must be satisfactory (neither too thin nor too thick). must be correctly identified by style and size. Defective parts must be replaced. etc. Number of parts to inspect It is recommended that at least 50% of the garment parts in the marker be inspected. the parts chosen for size ‘M’ would be front.
This occurs while cutting when the knife blade tilts. for certain parts such as pockets and collars ragged cutting can be a critical problem whereas for some parts like front the defect would be less severe in case the ragged edges are not too severe.Defect Classification • • • Miscuts: Check for miscuts or for failure of the cutter to “split the line”. In a case where excessive wastage is found for e. • Check pattern: Compare the pattern with the marker to ensure that the marker is correct. • Quality Inspector needs to try and assess the wastage of fabric in cutting. tolerance for band knife 2mm and tolerance for dye-cuts 1mm. Ragged cutting: This is a judgment defect. • Measurement Checks: Tolerance for straight knife 3mm. • Notches: The notch location needs to be checked by placing the pattern over the top ply. • Slant knife: Check the top and the bottom ply for slant knife. the inspector needs to make a note and discuss it with the senior management. Matching plies: Check the top ply with the bottom ply. This results in a difference in sizes throughout the ply height. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 27 KSA Technopak . end wastage.g.
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Cutting Room Inspection Report is used to identify and minimize defects during layering and after the pieces have been cut.: Refers to the number of the lay in the style. • • • • • Date: Self explanatory. Style: Style number given by the buyer. 32 Gen-Prom (UNDP) KSA Technopak . the lay is allowed to be cut. Cut No. Inspected by: Name of the cutting checker conducting the audit. Only after the lay and cut parts have been inspected needs to they be forwarded for numbering. Spreader: Name/Number of the team spreading. Once the lay is ready for cutting the checker goes and inspects the lay and only if it is approved.
This is to ensure fabric is not wasted. No. part name. one collar band. 7. 2. one back. one front placket. fabric direction is right and number of pieces marked is according as per the marker.g. no pieces are overlapped and all plies in the lay are aligned properly from one side. All parts present: Comparison of parts that needs to be in marker (from total no. one collar. Alignment defects: This is to check all parts are on grain line. 10. Check matching: Specifically for checks or stripes. So it also acts as a guideline to check that excess plies are not spread. two sleeves. of parts) and those present on the marker. of Plies: This is to check the number of plies present in the lay as against the lay order report. This is to check that no parts are missing as per requirements. Here it is also important to check that all parts have the right information on the marker including the style number. For this the checker has to physically count the number of plies in the lay at both ends. 9. To check the garment has all parts matching and the completed garment would have no matching problems. Specified Length: Specified length of the lay (marker length + buffer). of parts: Number of garment parts that are to be present on the marker (number of parts per garment x sizes marked). It needs to be mention how many garments are placed on the marker e. No of parts/garment: This is the total number of parts per garment for that style (for example two front.g. 4. 3. 6way /8 ways marker. two cuffs. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 33 KSA Technopak . Marker way: This is to check that the marker is placed on the grain line. 5. Actual Length: Marker length is as per the specification and needs to be measured from one end of the lay to the other. Sizes Marked: Specify the sizes in the ratio to be marked. E. 8. 6. Total no. two sleeve placket). grain line etc.• Cutter: Name of the cutter who has cut the lay This format is further sub-divided into two parts 1. matching of stripes/checks.
Defects: a. the top. 1. d. b. This helps us to take a corrective action before the cake is disturbed. Others: These include other cutting defects like frayed edges. g. middle and bottom ply of each part and each size in the lay is measured against the hard pattern and for each defect a “1” is put against the part name and ply position. It is important to note that all parts being cut needs to be inspected before the cut is passed by the checker. For this.After the lay has been cut. The above listing is for all parts in a full sleeve shirt.top. For this. the whole part is considered as one and for each notch in that part a point is allocated. Alignment: This is checked in case of stripes/checks where in we check that the stripes on the cut part are in tune with that on the pattern. fused edges etc. middle and bottom for some defects and entire lay for others). e. Parts: List of all parts present in the marker. 2. middle and bottom ply for each part. Size: The first and most important parameter which is checked after the lay has been cut is the measurement or the size matching in top. the cutting checker checks each part cut in the lay for all sizes (3 plies of each part. Remark: Any Specific remarks for the cut parts checked Total defects: As per the calculations shown in the format. f. Notches: Here we check each part cut in the lay for the presence of notches/burnt marks in the right location and right depth as in the pattern. It is very important to check that all notches are present in the right place and right depth so that they are easily visible while sewing. DHU: Defects/ hundred units used to keep follow on the quality standards and Gen-Prom (UNDP) 34 KSA Technopak . The checker marks a “1” for every defect found and “0” for the every defect free piece. c.
It is important to note here that each size cut in the lay is separately audited. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 35 KSA Technopak . For example if the cut has the ratio S/1.maintain minimum DHU and minimize it further. as this is an audit and not hundred percent inspection. L/3. The cutting room checker prepares Cut Audit Report based on the AQL chart. Before the cut parts are issued to the sewing room. M/2. they are audited by the quality checker once all the processes in the cutting are over. then there will be 6 different audits for each size.
Style Number: Style Number given by the buyer and being used for identification in the factory. Accept/Reject: Final decision on whether the size in the cut is accepted or rejected Gen-Prom (UNDP) 36 KSA Technopak . of pieces checked x parts/piece)] X 100 • • Date: Self Explanatory. It is the same as that recorded in the all the process in the cutting room. Cut Number: Identification number for the cut being inspected. • • • Size: To check that size marked on the cut detail is same as the piece present.DHU = [(a + b + c + d)/(no. • • Inspected by: Name of checker inspecting the cut. DHU: Defects per hundred Units as calculated at the after filling the format.
• Sequence of plies: Sequence of plies has to be maintained as mismatch in sequence might result in shade variation during sewing. • Matching: This is checked in case of stripe or check garments. • Shade Variation: The checker takes out all parts for the ply number being checked and ascertains if there is any shade variation in different parts of the same garment. • Fusing: In case if a part with fusing is selected by the checker for audit. the checker performs a quality check on the selected parts and number of pieces as per AQL. then the checker will assign “1” point for the whole garment if the matching is inappropriate and “0” if it is OK. of pieces: Check that the numbers of pieces present in the bundle is same as mentioned on the bundle ticket. number of parts to select per bundle and number of pieces per bundle to inspect. The checker assigns “1” point if there is shade variation in the ply number being checked and “0” if no shade variation. size and number of pcs in the bundle. • Bundle/Parts/No of pieces selection: This is done as per AQL chart where in we select the number of bundles to inspect. Also for shade variation. • • Remark: Any Specific remarks for the pieces checked. Total defects: As per the calculations shown in the format. • • Bundle number: Number of the bundle being checked. Points are assigned for the garment as a whole and not for individual parts. Bundle ticket: Check if the bundle ticket contains all desired information regarding number. • No.based on the DHU calculated. • Piece inspection: In this section. The checker assigns “1” point for each part if the notch is missing or not right depth. then he will assign “1” point for fusing to be incorrect and “0” if it is right for each part checked. The various parameters checked on all selected pieces are detailed below. • Notch Position: For notch position. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 37 KSA Technopak . checker will check all parts for the garment and not only the ones selected as per AQL. If the parts being checked have a requirement for matching. the checker places the selected parts of the garment on the hard patterns and checks if the notches marked on the patterns are present in the part or not.
• DHU: Defects/ hundred units used to keep follow on the quality standards and maintain minimum DHU and minimize it further. The approach of this method is to be pro-active rather than corrective.Sewing This system describes how monitoring of quality is an on going process and not merely a control mechanism. correct fabric. • The broad objective of this is that there needs to never be any legitimate reason for some one not knowing what is happening. It is thus imperative that: • One sealed sample (Sample as per order. The sewing defects begin and end with the operator. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 38 KSA Technopak . reference. it is mentioned one the report at the bottom and the re-audit report made on a new format and attached with the previous one.) be available and easily accessible to all operators at the shop floor. It has been noticed that in most cases the operator is not aware of what is required from him/her in terms of stitching quality. • In case of certain garment parts that require a skillful operation or for a critical the operator needs to be given a sample of the same for their ready operation. Quality Control . trims etc. • In case of the cut/size being rejected in the audit and a second audit is conducted. The entire system revolves around “building” quality into the garment and not “inspecting” quality into the garment.
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 39 KSA Technopak . 4. 3. In-Process Sampling Sampling is more economical and feasible than checking everything. The workmanship quality pertaining to that particular part for e. All operators (if possible) needs to have a quality specification sheet at their workstation which describes: 1. 5. It is the responsibility of the supervisor that each operator understands his/ her specification clearly before production starts. The components of the 3-part system are: 1.g. The objectives of in-process sampling are: Maintaining a steady and tight control over all operators. Any quality problems likely to occur at their particular operation. a straight seam or a curved one.The 3-part system is suggested to be used in the sewing room. 2. stitching details. 3. Concentrating attention where poor quality is being produced. workmanship quality required and manufacturing standards for the garments. The part/ parts they are to stitch together 2. The Inspector needs to have adequate knowledge of the garment being produced in terms of tolerances. A proper sampling system can give results that are closely representative of the actual situation. In-process sampling 100% Inspection Quality Audit 1. The tolerance pertaining to their respective sewing operation. This information needs to be available to all the operators at their workstations where it is easy to read and needs to be legible (neat and if required in the local language) 6. Attention can also be focused on areas where defects are being produced. The “Inspector” needs to be a person who is not directly responsible for production.
The main features of the system are: The Inspector moves round the sewing room. if possible. When the operator has been cleared he/she is not checked again until her name comes up in the normal random sampling procedure. The rules. During clearance. Of course. The supervisor also seeks and rectifies. This continues until the operator is “cleared” by steady good production. Accepted bundles needs to proceed to the next operation ad rejected bundles are passed to the supervisor for action. usually a bundle. neither the Inspector nor the supervisor is expected to calmly allow an operator to remain “uncleared for quality” for long. the cause of the defect. Under clearance the Inspector returns to the operator after a short interval and takes a recently completed bundle or bundles. which decide what constitutes a satisfactory or unsatisfactory bundle. This number is called the “clearance number”. the whole bundle is accepted as being of satisfactory quality or rejected as being unsatisfactory. The supervisor will speak to the operator on the first rejection and needs to take urgent action after a second Gen-Prom (UNDP) 40 KSA Technopak . are laid down as part of the factory’s system. accepted bundles are passed on to the next operation and any rejected bundles are given to the supervisor for action as with any faulty bundle. The findings of the check are recorded on a sampling record. which brings the operator under a closer scrutiny than the usual random sampling. From the bundle he/she selects a given number of garments or parts of a garment and checks them against the specification of the operation concerned. When the supervisor gets a rejected bundle he/she assesses the problem and instructs the operator to repair the defect and check the rest of the bundle. visiting operators or operations at random. the Inspector keeps checking an operator whose quality is bad while still going around the factory checking other operators. The operator is “cleared” when a given number of bundles are accepted. The operator who had sewn the rejected bundle now comes under a procedure called “clearance”. In this way. These bundles are checked and accepted or rejected using the same rules as for the random sampling. He/she then takes a quantity of garments. Depending on the results of the check.
He/she will then judge the reason for the defect and take the appropriate action. 1. and cure it. LOT . Gen-Prom (UNDP) 41 KSA Technopak . not someone there to create trouble. only the supervisor returns work for repair. 3. 100% examination needs to be done within the line and at the end of the line.g.The number of lots that must be accepted in succession to take the operator out of the clearance procedure e. The supervisor needs to be educated to see the Inspector as a helper. The ideal situation is where the supervisor feels that the Inspector is there to help by finding quality problems for before they become serious.The number of faulty garments/parts that a sample may have without the entire lot being rejected e. SAMPLE SIZE . Objective 1. 0 out of 6. the system will not work. and when installing a sampling system this attitude must be introduced from the start. ACCEPTANCE NUMBER . 4.The no.g. He/she is responsible for his/her section and needs to see all work that is being returned. There are 4 parameters that need to be defined before starting in-process sampling. machine.The collection of garments/parts from where the sample is to be taken e. of garments/parts to be taken for inspection from the lot e.g. an extra pair of eyes. 1 lot.g. 1 bundle. An important point of this system is that at no time does the Inspector return the work directly to the operator. 2. 100 % Examination 100 % examination is the process to check all stitched garments and some garment parts in production. CLEARANCE NUMBER . Prevent defective garments from being passed. dealing with operator. Unless the supervisors and Inspectors cooperate. 2. If there is even 1 defective in the sample the entire lot will be rejected. cut work etc.rejection to find out what is wrong. 6 garments from one bundle of 25 pieces.
The objective of the 100% inspection is to prevent faulty garments from being passed on to the next operation. This implies that there needs to be a pre-defined set of actions that he/she undertakes to examine each garment/ part for visual. reports and other work aids he/she needs to carry out the inspection. it needs to be considered how many defects are actually being produced by each operation. Repair faulty garments. before attaching it to the main garment: for example. On the other hand. examination points needs to be placed before any operation which over sews an earlier one. Inspection Guideline (100% Inspection within the line and at the end of the line) The Inspector needs to be trained to inspect. how many are found at the examination point and whether or not these defects will show in the finished garment. He/she under no circumstance needs to be harassed by the operator to pass on the bundle just because the production target for the day has 42 Gen-Prom (UNDP) KSA Technopak . 3. after ‘make shirt collar’. To avoid this. there needs to be as few examination points as possible. His/ her workstation needs to be adequately large to handle garment parts.2. It is likely that even after in-process sampling some faulty garments will be produced. To reconcile these opposing objectives. Examination tends to be a boring job and any Inspector can become jaded after a while and simply not see what he/she is looking at. and remove the cause of the defects. measure ment and workmanship. for easy repairs. an operation description must be written for this job detailing how the Inspector checks the garment. Examination Points For economic reasons. The usual position for in-line examination points is after a critical component has been made. The Inspector needs to be positioned within the line similar to a sewing operation. The Inspector needs to have adequate authority not to forward a bundle to the next opera tion in case faults are found.
to be met. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 43 KSA Technopak .
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 44 KSA Technopak .
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 45 KSA Technopak .
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 46 KSA Technopak .
Quality Audit Gen-Prom (UNDP) 47 KSA Technopak .3.
These are taken as representative of the quality going to finishing room. All end-line checkers are audited individually 4 times a day to ensure a control on checking Objective To check the other parts of the system. 1. The Auditor needs to himself randomly pick up the garments from each checker’s passed pieces. and needs to be able to check a garment thoroughly as per buyer’s specifications. 3. To obtain figures which can be compared with figures of in-process sampling and final inspection giving comparisons of the effectiveness of the above two systems. These pieces needs to not be given to him by the supervisor or any other personnel. To look at the garment from the customer’s viewpoint and analyze results.Quality audit is an examination of small number of garments from finished stock from sewing. 2. He needs to audit each checker at least 4 times a day in order to get a representative checking efficiency of the checker. 4. The Auditor for the Sewing floor needs to be a qualified and experienced quality controller. The Formula for checking efficiency of checker is: Checking Efficiency = 100% Inspection DHU x 100 100% Inspection DHU + Quality Audit DHU The various reports generated are explained now Gen-Prom (UNDP) 48 KSA Technopak .
30pcs. 6. 10. Analysis by operator: This gives the overall weekly DHU for that operator i. Acceptance number: The acceptance number for defects is zero for higher quality standards.Inline Sampling record helps to identify an operator’s performance over a period of one week and the need of improving quality with individual operators. The sewing in line checkers generate the report. Style: Style number as per the specification. Bundle size: Average number of pieces present in the bundle e. Section: Line number or the section of line for which the report is being made. 8. as per the operation he/she is doing. Sample to inspect: The sample to be inspected from the bundle is mentioned here. as this is a weekly report. 5. Operator: Name of operator in front of the operation mentioned earlier. each operator is checked as per the procedure explained above.e.g. This report also helps in identifying low quality 1. 7. 9. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 49 KSA Technopak . 4. 2. Operation: List of operations being done in the section. This report gives feedback regarding the quality produced by the operator and also analysis of the operation he is doing. 3. defects /sample inspected for that operator. The report is updated daily so that follow-up can be done on daily basis and improvement in quality monitored. Week starting: Date as on Monday. Inspected by: Name of Inline checker doing the checking.
Every time the checker checks an operation he fills in the number of defects found in the pieces checked. a separate daily report is also maintained. Inline DHU: Defects per hundred units using the formula defects/pieces checked. 13. 14.e. To identify the operator who is responsible for a particular defect. In line sampling defects record are generated along with inline sampling report by the in line checkers. the serial number in Inline Sampling Report and Inline Sampling Defects Records is kept same in both the reports. which details the type of defects found. Total defects found: Total defects found out of the pieces checked in that day. Analysis by operation : This gives the overall weekly DHU for that operation i. this is a daily report and carries the description of the defect so that proper follow up can be done and maximum defect producing operators and operations be identified. defects /sample inspected for that operator 12.11. In addition to the above report. if there are no defects he puts a tick in the corresponding block showing that no defects were present. Total pieces checked: Gives daily total pieces checked for of all operation and operators. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 50 KSA Technopak .
4. 7. Bundle Number: Self explanatory. Defects description: Self explanatory. 100% Check by the Supervisor: If the defects are consistent the supervisor checks the entire bundle and signs after repair has been done. Inspected by: Name of the checker doing the inspection. Style: Style number as per the specification. 5. 9. Defects found: Total defects found in the bundle. 3.g. 10. Recheck by QC: QC rechecks the entire bundle and signs his approval 4. if the operator number 2 produces a defect and it is marked in the Inline sampling report then number 2 needs to appear in the Inline Sampling Defects Record front of the explanation of the defect as this would help identify the operator responsible for the defect. Date: self explanatory.1. Serial number: This number is the serial number taken from the Inline Sampling Report and helps to identify the operator who has generated the defect. 8. Operation: Name of the operation where the defect was identified. Pieces checked: Total number of pieces checked from the bundle. e. 100% Part Checking (In Line) At any critical point in the line (for eg. 11. at the end of collar attach or placket attach in case 51 Gen-Prom (UNDP) KSA Technopak . 6. 2.
of Full sleeve-shirts. END LINE INSPECTION REPORT Refer format in annexure • • • • • Line No. However.: Self explanatory. It also forms a feedback for the inline checkers to target the defects and avoid the same in the production. No. It is very important to note that since here inspection will be done bundle-wise. it is put into end line checking in bundle form. All the parts have to pass through this checking point in order to be fed to the next stage.M. Defects description: Description of defect found in the garment e. The QAM needs to discuss the location of the 100% checking with the Line In charge and the P. Concept of end line inspection is that if ever any defects are missed in inline checking then those can be rectified. Style No. Since checking is done bundle wise all alterations are sent to the operator who had performed that particular operation (matching the bundle number with gum sheet). Checker: Name of the checker checking the garment.g. Date. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 52 KSA Technopak . material and measurements. These 100% checking locations needs to normally be kept at not more than two in the line. To ensure all seams and quality characteristics are inspected in a short period of time a defined inspection method needs to be followed. The inspections needs to be effective in identifying all defects in a garment based on operations completed till then. 100% End Line Checking After the garment and thread trimming is complete. skip stitch. a 100% inspection facility is provided. End line checking is a 100% inspection of the garment with regard to workmanship (quality). of passed qty: Number of garments passed by the checker in the hour.. Total Pieces Checked: Number of pieces checked by the checker in an hour. any pieces given back for alteration to the lines have to be replaced in the same bundle and only after the bundle is completed will it be given to the next operation. this number may vary according to the style and critical points in the garment.).
If he is to find a defective part he needs to separate it and ask the operator why the part was not identified. • Supervisor Sign: Line supervisor signs so that she also is aware of the exact defects being produced in the line. To prevent repairs and to ensure good quality there is a useful tool called “Quality Drill”. It is very effective in making operators quality conscious.• • • No. DHU: Defects per Hundred Units to be calculated as per the formula. 3 4 Ask the operator to mark any part that is out of tolerance with the tape. The supervisor then proceeds to inspect at random a number of parts of any bundle. and the bundle he is going to work on next. 5 The supervisor makes sure that the instructions have been understood and then leaves to continue with the regular activities. The operator needs to be Gen-Prom (UNDP) 53 KSA Technopak . based on the Quality Specification. The production supervisor is responsible of the operator’s work so it is of utmost importance that he or she has control over the quality level at which the operators produce. This way the operator has the chance to see if the work he is doing is of good quality and also make sure that the work he is receiving from the previous operation is not defective. In Line QC sign: Signature of roaming QA so that she can check those operations where most defects are occurring on regular basis. the bundle in which he is working on. 8 If the operator has found no defects then the supervisor needs to select a part and ask the operator to explain why this part is of acceptable quality. Ask the operator to do it while standing up and when he or she is finished he needs to signal the supervisor that he is ready to have the results evaluated. of defects: Total defects found in that particular hour (sum of all defects found). 6 7 When the operator has signaled that he is finished. The procedure is the following: 1 2 Give the masking tape to operator and ask him to mark defects. Ask the operator to inspect. the supervisor returns. If there are no defective parts found by the supervisor he turns to the operator and asks the operator to show him the defective parts he found. the bundle he has already finished. During this exercise you confirm to the operator the commitment to good quality that the company has made and motivate him/her to produce with quality.
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 54 KSA Technopak . then the Quality specification sheet needs to be reviewed point by point. It is necessary that the trainer and the supervisor explain the importance of the Quality Drill to the operators stressing that its sole purpose is to help them improve their quality. During this time the commitment of everyone to guarantee a job is done well is strengthened.able to explain why based on the points described in the quality specification. the operators will take the initiative to do the exercise themselves. The contact that a supervisor and the operator have during the Quality Drill is very valuable. 11 If the supervisor notices that the operator “overlooks” the defects then the supervisor needs to review with him the importance of doing a job properly every time. 9 If defective parts are identified then the operator needs to explain why they are defective based on the points described in the quality specification. This exercise needs to be performed on standard time and at least once a day. At this time the operator needs to be encouraged to learn the quality requirements of his operation. The initial resistance by the operators is normal. but as soon as positive results from the exercise are seen. He needs to be complimented if he knows the requirements and works to achieve them every time. 10 If the supervisor notices that the operator is not very clear of what the requirements for operation are or how to find out if these requirements have been met or not.
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 55 KSA Technopak .
1. • • Inspection could be combined with thread trimming in case of normal washes.g. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 56 KSA Technopak . This eases out the creases from the garment and aids the inspectors in identifying defects. it is advisable to check all garment after washing. fraying of collar etc. Inspection Guideline • Emphasis needs to be on those areas that are affected by washing e. Incase the wash process is rigorous or a special wash is being done. It is recommended that the garments be slightly ironed and then inspection be carried out. It is recommended that the garments be ironed lightly (“a quick iron”) before inspection.Quality Control .Washing It is recommended that 100% inspection and an audit be carried out either after washing or finishing. 100% Inspection Objective To identify defects that occurs after washing. button attachment.
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 57 KSA Technopak .
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 58 KSA Technopak .
These pieces need to not be given to him by the supervisor or any other personnel. Quality audit is an examination of small number of garments from finished stock. and needs to be able to check a garment thoroughly as per buyer’s specifications.Daily Quality audits are recommended to ensure consistency in quality. under no circumstance needs to the audit be missed or its results overlooked. A quality audit is recommended to be followed after packing of the goods begins. Quality Audit is an every day process and needs to be undertaken without fail. 3. To look at the garment from the customer’s viewpoint and analyze results. 4.) 5. 2. 2. 3. These Gen-Prom (UNDP) 59 KSA Technopak . Finishing Quality audit is an examination of small number of garments passed by the Checkers from finished stock. These are taken as representative of the finished quality going to customers as “firsts”. He needs to do and audit of each checker at least 4 times a day in order to get a representative checking efficiency of the checker. However. The Auditor for the Checkers audit needs to be a qualified and experienced Quality Controller. To check the other parts of the system. emphasis needs to be given to areas affected by washing/ finishing (e. To obtain figures that can be compared with figures of 100% final inspection giving comparisons of the effectiveness of the above system. trimming holes. fraying at the collar due to washing etc.g. For the washing/ finishing audit. The Auditor needs to himself randomly pick up the garments from each checker’s passed pieces. Objective 1. Inspection Guideline 1. It is acceptable to inspect a small number of garments thoroughly. The audit needs to be conducted daily to ensure that the shipment is of consistent quality.
k. No loose pcs. The Auditor needs to ideally be from the senior management and needs to try and scrutinize the product from the buyer’s point of view. Type of fold according to packing instructions. m. The garments needs to then be rectified/ altered the first Gen-Prom (UNDP) 60 KSA Technopak . unless specified on P.are taken as representative of the finished quality going to customers as “firsts”. f. codes. the auditor is required to discuss the matter with the concerned Supervisor/ Production Head. d. printed Cartons marking needs to be clearly marked. o. address etc.O. p. Packing size ratio in a carton. l. fit and measurement quality as per the Packed quantity . g. All garments to be in individual poly bags. e. i. c. Size clips present (if required). Un-assorted or broken pre-pack carton numbers packing list must show all the details. h. These pieces needs to not be given to him by the supervisor or any other personnel Specifically. The Auditor needs to himself randomly pick up the garments to inspect from the day’s production. 2. packed. the following points must be checked for conformity with standard: a. b. n. Carton size (oversized cartons not allowed) Carton quality carton gross weight/net weight Carton tape Cartons do not have factory/vendor name.use scanners to read the bar washing audit Non Conformance to quality standards In case the audit fails. Inspection Guideline 1. Check garments for workmanship. Correct Bar coded ticket with correct placement. j. Adhesive size strip placement. Hang tag positions.
100% Inspection During the finishing process an inspection is required to be done on all garments. the only variation being in the defects description as at this stage in addition to the sewing defects. At this check point. we will also check for any packing defects like wrong hang tag etc. The report being used for 100% inspection in finishing is explained below. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 61 KSA Technopak . To ensure that all seams and quality characteristics are inspected in a short period of time a defined inspection method needs to be followed. 100% Presentation Report This report is generated at the presentation check stage to so see if any defective pieces are getting passed from the prior check points and if any defective pieces are found proper feedback be given and action taken. This report is almost similar to the 100% inspection report. The inspection operators need to have their forms filled out correctly. If the checker finds any defect in the garment he/she needs to make a note of the same in the report and put the indicative clip on the garment before returning the garment to the hanger stand.thing the next day before production of new pieces begins. A good source of information to determine the quality performance is the point of 100% inspection. the checker’s sole aim is to ascertain if the packed/folded garment meets the buyers’ specifications and “A” zone of the garment does not have any defects. From the 100% inspection reports the supervisor needs to analyze the most frequently occurring defects and needs to take corrective action to prevent the occurrence of these defects in future. This way the helper can take the garment to the desired operator to get the defect amended. The inspection form is totaled 4 times a day so a supervisor can actually see the results of what he or she has done to stop defects. The inspection needs to be effective in identifying all defects and size variations in garments.
The team moves to each station checking whether all the necessary requirements for starting an operation are met or not. and that the description is lucid and unambiguous. a check is made on whether the method documentation sheet for that particular operation. and the operator. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 62 KSA Technopak . stitch formation etc. has been installed at each workplace. and the production has to be executed in accordance with it. c) The methods describing the positioning of the parts. This sheet is generated by the QAH/QA and requires the presence of the IE. thread tension. attachments. pick up. sewing movements. and that care has been taken for housekeeping.1) The start of a new style in the production line entails a detailed look into the quality requirements from the buyer and preparations for the same. folders etc. dispose etc are properly described to the Q. The style start up procedures is provided exactly for that. which have to be carefully studied. The style start up plan will have following parts: • • • Style start up check list Key inspection points Quality specification sheet The style start up check list is a sheet which details all points that need to be in proper order on the sewing floor before the production begins. Each buyer has a set of his own requirements. b) The workplace has the guides. Also.A. This is done along with the mechanic. For example the industrial engineering department would check whether: a) The machine has proper settings. which is prepared by the IED for each operation. guards. line-In charge. Then a feedback is sought from them to ensure understanding of the same. QA/QAH. Mechanic (The sheet is different than Style start up Plan prepared by the Planning Department).
The format is otherwise self-explanatory. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 63 KSA Technopak .The sheet requires only a tick mark to be put to indicate “correct and as required” and a cross if not.
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 64 KSA Technopak .
Gen-Prom (UNDP) 65 KSA Technopak .
at most noticeable locations in the garment. If you apply this to every process in the system you get the foundation of TQC: every process is a system in itself where incoming quality will determine outgoing quality. We could waste our resources in trying to guarantee quality by inspecting finished goods and eliminating those that seem to be defective. What we propose to do is to prevent the defects and guarantee quality at every step of the process through effective planning and controls. This is a list of quality parameters as desired by the buyer. These are also instructed to the operator trainers so that they can ensure knowledge of these points down to the individual operator level. Good quality needs to come out of every process in order for every process to produce good quality.The Key Inspection Points are prepared by the QAH / QA for the benefit of all. This also includes information derived from the comments of the buyer during the sampling stages. To ensure good quality goods at the end you have to ensure good quality inputs. Then. the operator trainer permanently puts up these sheets at respective workstations for future reference of the operator. Quality needs to be built into every process of the system to ensure results at the end. The Quality Specification sheets are prepared by the QAE/ QAM. for each and every operation in the operation bulletin. Gen-Prom (UNDP) 66 KSA Technopak . The Quality specification sheet for each operation is discussed with the individual operator and the respective operator trainer at the style start up.
Annexure 1 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 67 KSA Technopak .
Annexure 2 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 68 KSA Technopak .
Annexure 3 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 69 KSA Technopak .
Annexure 4 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 70 KSA Technopak .
Annexure 9 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 75 KSA Technopak .
Annexure 10 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 76 KSA Technopak .
Annexure 11 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 77 KSA Technopak .
Annexure 12 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 78 KSA Technopak .
Annexure 13 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 79 KSA Technopak .
Annexure 14 Gen-Prom (UNDP) 80 KSA Technopak .
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