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Vol. 9, No. 3 Fall 1981
Voyager 2 at Saturn—Early Findings
On August 25th, 2.7 seconds early and only 30 miles from the aim point, Voyager 2 ended its four-year journey to Saturn with a second spectacular view of the planet. Its images equalled those of Voyager 1 and its experiments provided an abundance of riches with new data. Taking advantage of knowledge gained from the Voyager 1 flyby, Voyager 2's instruments were adjusted to
concentrate on selected targets: a closer study of the planet's atmospheric motion, the rings, five of the near and seven of the new satellites, and the magnetosphere. Its path took it 23,000 kilometers closer to the planet than Voyager 1 and it approached from above the rings, with the Sun behind it. The resultant photographic conditions were superb and, along with better cameras that produced sharper images, allowed the spacecraft to send back remarkably detailed pictures. The early results were stunning.
August 23. 1981. Saturn's C Ring from a distance of 2.7 million kilometers.
The Atmosphere. The placid, bland-looking Saturn seen through a telescope was shown by Voyager 1 to be a sphere of many colored bands, violent weather storms, jet streams, high and low pressure systems. Voyager 1 passed under the South Pole. Voyager 2 imaged more of the planet covering the northern hemisphere up to the North Pole, and showed the formation of bands and clouds that circle it in much greater detail. This second look at the turbulent atmosphere revealed new features: clouds vortices (small hurricanes), high-speed jet streams, and eddies evident at higher latitudes (up to 80°N); a train of vortices at about 40°N; and a curious cloud system that curled into a figure 6. Saturn is cold. Voyager 2's infrared interferometer spectrometer data show that its temperature ranges from 80°K to 95°K at the cloudtops. However, the planet still radiates almost 2.5 times as much energy as it receives from the Sun. Saturn's upper, or outer, atmospheric mass is 89% hydrogen with most of the remaining 11%, helium. This is much less helium than has been measured in Jupiter's atmosphere (19%), and lends credence to the theory that on Saturn the helium, which is heavier than hydrogen, separates out and sinks toward the center of the planet. The separation process provides a source of heat. Traces of ammonia, phosphine, methane, and other hydrocarbons have also been detected in its atmosphere.
The Rings. Before last fall, it was believed there were five rings about Saturn. Voyager 1's cameras showed hundreds. Voyager 2's photographs have revised the count to thousands. Both spacecraft showed the ring system as complex and mysterious. Areas of concentrated study by Voyager 2 were the B Ring and its spokes, the braided F Ring and its satellites, the eccentric rings (C Ring and one in the Cassini Division) and the Encke Division, and a photopolarimeter observation of the rings. Voyager photographed the A, B, C, and F Rings and re-verified the existence of and photographed the D and G Rings; the E Ring was detected by the fields and particles instruments. Voyager 2's observations tested several theories of the rings' stability, what mechanism is holding the ring panicles in orbit around the planet. One theory supposes that the ring particles are in resonance with one of the larger satellites, and some of the larger gaps in the rings do occur at distances corresponding to orbital resonances with Mimas (in a 2:1 resonance, the particles make two orbits for every one orbit by Mimas; Mimas also exerts a gravitational pull). A second theory proposes that small moonlets herd each ringlet; the imaging cameras searched the rings for evidence of new moonlets, but none were found beyond those already known in the F Ring. A third theory proposes density waves
100 200 300
Wind Velocity (meters/sec)
Wind velocities plotted on a photograph of Saturn's northern hemisphere. A westward-flowing wind current appears to drive a wedge through a train of vortices (small hurricanes) with obvious eastward streams above and below. As the vortice separates, smaller cyclones are formed. Those to the north route clockwise, to the south, counterclockwise. This is one of the many interesting phenomena observed by Voyager 2.
Saturn's northern hemisphere in a photograph taken on Aug. 21 from a distance of 5.4 million km shows weather patterns at all latitudes. A stream of clouds attached to a large spot about 3000 km in diameter is moving westward at about IS meters per second; the spot moves eastward at about 10 meters per second and shows counterclockwise rotation. The ribbonlike feature in the latitude band centered at 47°N marks a high-speed jet of about 150 meters per second. Further small scale clouds are evident toward the polar region.
in the ring particles and some evidence of such waves is seen in Voyager data. A fourth theory involves collisions between the ring particles themselves, though a narrow ring says that something is preventing collisions. Photopolarimeter experiment A spectacular and ambitious experiment used a device called a photopolarimeter. During approach it locked on a single star, Delta Scorpii, and measured the star's light as it filtered through the rings to gather information about the rings' composition and structure. The results were highly successful, providing a tremendous amount of detailed data. Analysis of the data will yield a map of an area the size of the U.S. with the resolution of a city block. The main ring system extends from near the planet out to about 75,000 km above the cloudtops, a vast sheet of icy debris varying in thickness, composition, and orbital characteristics. With resolution down to a city block—about 150 meters—the photopolarimeter's data present new questions: where does one ring end and another begin? what is the shoulder of one ring or the body of another? The photopolarimeter found evidence of pressure waves which are responsible for changes in the thickness of the ringlets
(thus, they have so-called "shoulders"). Many of the ringlets are non-circular, indicating that structure changes rapidly, perhaps continuously, in the rings. B Ring The mysterious finger-like structures Voyager 1 found in the B Ring received a great deal of attention from Voyager 2, including some special ring plane crossing photographs and a series of time-lapse movies to study their formation and lifespans. The spokes form over very short time periods (minutes), primarily near the point where the ring particles emerge from Saturn's shadow. Most dissipate before completing a single orbit of the planet, but some remnants do persist and other spokes form on top of them. The spokes form radially (they extend outward from the planet like spokes in a wagon wheel) and are seen on both faces of the rings, north and south (illuminated and unilluminated, but the features on the unlit side could possibly be shadows of spokes). One theory proposes that the spokes are electrostatically-levitated particles of fine dust lifted above the plane of the rest of the B Ring by Saturn's magnetic field lines which pass through the B Ring in the spokes region. Three pictures were taken during ring plane crossing when the rings could be viewed nearly edge-on in hopes of seeing this phenomenon, with the most
For several days in late August, a large vortex in Saturn's northern mid-latitudes unfolded and Voyager 2 recorded its progress. Initially corkscrew-shaped, over a period of seven rotations it became more like a "6" and eventually formed a closed loop. Such studies give clues to the planet's atmospheric dynamics.
spectacular picture '/2 degree above the plane. However, no evidence of particle levitation could be seen from any of these pictures. F Ring An analysis of the imagery of the F Ring and its shepherding satellites revealed no satellite effects on the ring structure, no ring perturbations due to the presence of
the satellites which could have caused the peculiar braiding seen by Voyager 1. Encke Division Voyager 2 discovered a new "kinked" ring inside the Encke Division that looks similar to the F Ring. Seen as close as a 15-km resolution, the new ring has no satellites.
Herding the thin F Ring between them, satellites 1980S27 (inner) and 1980S26 (outer) are about 1800 km apart in this image. Traveling slightly faster, the inside moon overtook the outer one about two hours later, a lapping that occurs every 25 days.
The Satellites. Saturn's 17 satellites fall into three main classes: giant Titan, seven intermediate-sized icy satellites, and eight small moonlets. Phoebe, the outermost satellite, may represent a fourth class, captured asteroids. Voyager 2 flew closer and took higher resolution photographs of Enceladus, Tethys, Hyperion, lapetus, and Phoebe than did Voyager 1. It also photographed seven of the planet's newly discovered satellites. Enceladus The closer look at Enceladus showed a varied topography—the flat plains seen earlier, but also craters, ridges, and valleys, which suggest an active geologic past. One possibility is volcanic activity, which would be water
volcanoes since the satellite is comprised mostly of ice. Scientists believe the moon's age ranges from 100 million years old in some parts to a few billion years old in others. Tethys Two distinctive features have been found on Tethys: a chasm several kilometers deep, 100 km wide, and 2000 km long circling nearly three-fourths of its circumference, and the largest crater in the Saturnian system. The crater is about 400 km in diameter, several kilometers deep, and so large that the satellite Mimas could fit within it. Hyperion An enigma. Hyperion is one of Saturn's outermost moons, some 1,440,000 kilometers away from
A high-resolution image of Enceladus made from several images taken by Voyager 2 on Aug. 25 from a range of 119,000 km.
This series of pictures of Tethys shows its large crater, 400 km in diameter. as it rotates toward the termination and limb of the satellite (to the right).
Three views of Hyperion taken (from top) from 1.2 million km, 700,000 km, and 500,000 km, show the changing aspect of the satellite.
the planet. Passing by within 480,000 kilometers, Voyager 2 clearly showed it to have the shape of a squat cylinder. Roughly 360 x 325 x 200 km, Hyperion was likened to an unshelled peanut, a hocky puck, and a hamburger as closer images were transmitted. Its appearance was a complete surprise to scientists. Voyager 1's images were uninteresting, but now a pock-marked surface with a 96-km-wide crater is evident. The huge crater could be the result of a collision with another body that left it not only out of shape but also disoriented in relation to Saturn. The longest axis of an irregular shaped body should point to the planet it is orbiting, but Hyperion travels around Saturn with its long axis pointing forward. lapetus and Phoebe lapetus is equally mysterious. It has a bright and a dark face, the greatest contrast of any object in the solar system. Its dark side, as black as asphalt, faces forward in its orbit around Saturn. Two theories compete for an explanation: the black coat is thick and comes from lapetus' interior, or it is external in origin and lapetus is sweeping up debris in its orbit, perhaps a coating of dust from Phoebe. On Sept. 4 Voyager made its closest approach to Phoebe, traveling within 2.2 million kilometers to provide our first images. If scientists find a surface likeness that parallels lapetus, this will support the theory that lapetus' dark side
developed from an accumulation of particles in the atmosphere. There is evidence that Phoebe, Saturn's outermost satellite, is a captured asteriod. Observations show that it is about 200 kilometers in diameter, is darker than any other of Saturn's satellites, and has a rotation period of 9 to 10 hours. It is the only Saturn satellite that does not always show the same face to the planet. Orbiting Saturn every 550 days in the ecliptic plane rather than in the equatorial plane as do the others, Phoebe's orbit is retrograde, in the direction opposite to that of the other satellites. New Satellites Voyager 2 took high-resolution photographs of seven of Saturn's newly discovered satellites: 1980S26 and 1980S27, the pair that shepherds the F Ring: 1980S6, the satellite that occupies Dione's orbit; 1980S 1 and 1980S3, the two moons that share an orbit; and 1980S25 and 1980S 13, the two satellites recently discovered in Earth observations that orbit Saturn about 60 degrees behind and ahead of Tethys. The seven appear to be irregularly-shaped and heavily cratered by impacts with cosmic debris. They range in size from 96 to 320 kilometers across. 1980S3 appears to be irregular and heavily battered. Scientists believe it and 1980S 1 are two halves of a satellite that was split into two.
Eight of Saturn's small satellites are shown in this composite of Voyager I and 2 images. Just 50 km separate the orbits of I980S3 and 1980S I. the co-orbitals.
Magnetosphere. Voyager 2 discovered a doughnut-shaped plasma torus around Saturn; with temperatures from 600 million to over one billion degrees Fahrenheit, it is the hottest found in the solar system. The torus encircles Saturn at an altitude ranging from 273,600 kilometers above the planet's cloudtops to as high as 724,000 km. Its temperatures are about 300 times hotter than the solar corona, and twice as hot as the torus Voyager 1 discovered in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The Low-Energy Charged Particle instrument that made the discovery is designed to measure fast ions and electrons in the magnetospheres of the planets and in the interplanetary medium. The instrument can distinguish several charged particles and measure both the direction in which the high-speed particles are moving and their temperature. Saturn is surrounded by a series of tori. The newly discovered hot torus is comprised of ionized oxygen and extends from about the orbit of cnceladus to about halfway between the orbits of Dione and Rhea. There it meets the inner edge of the neutral hydrogen torus discovered by Voyager 1 which extends beyond the orbit of Titan. The Platform Problem. Voyager 2's mission at Saturn was marred by one malfunction. Shortly after closest approach the spacecraft's scan platform stuck while the spacecraft was in the planet's shadow and out of communication with Earth. The platform holds the narrow and wide angle cameras, the infrared radiometer, ultraviolet spectrometer, and photopolarimeter instruments. On Aug. 28 the platform was successfully moved by ground command; although initial response was hesitant and slow, its response has steadily improved. If the response is not dependable at Uranus, Voyager 2's next destination, the spacecraft itself can be moved to focus the platform. Voyager 2's Legacy. Voyager 2's encounter with Saturn has left over 11,000 images and trillions of bits of data on the several properties of the planet, its rings, and its satellites—a wealth of information that scientists will be studying for years. For scientists, its success was an exhilarating accomplishment. It allowed them once more to look at our neighborhood in the universe, to explore where we live, and to learn more about our own small world. It is also a challenge. The enormous amount.of new information brought new Saturnian mysteries. A trajectory correction on Sept. 29 refined the spacecraft's flight path to Uranus, where it is scheduled to make the first closeup encounter in January 1986. It will continue on for the first flyby of Neptune in August 1989. Educators Conference. As at Voyager 1's encounter with Saturn, an Educators Conference was hosted by the Office of Education and Community Relations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Ambassador College in Pasadena, August 23-25. Benito Casados, Manager of the Office, guided
over 150 participants through a program that included presentations on Voyager, spacecraft communications, and future astronomy programs, briefings during the encounters, and a discussion of the "Shuttle at Work" by Astronaut Robert A. R. Parker. A highlight of the program was a tour of JPL with visits to several of the laboratories.
New Leadership at NASA
NASA's new Administrator, James M. Beggs, assumed office on July 10 succeeding Dr. Robert A. Frosch, who served from 1977 until his resignation in January. Mr. Beggs came to NASA from General Dynamics Corp., in St. Louis, where he was Executive Vice President, Aerospace as well as a director. In 1968-69 he served NASA as Associate Administrator for Advanced Research and Technology, and from 1969 to 1973 served as Under Secretary of Transportation. His next position was as managing Director, Operations for Summa Corp. until he joined General Dynamics in January 1974. A 1947 graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, Mr. Beggs served with the Navy until 1954. The following year he received a master's degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. He holds an honorary LL.D. degree from Washington and Jefferson College (PA) and an honorary doctor of engineering management degree from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (FL). Mr. Beggs also enjoys affiliation with several professional organizations.
Also on July 10 Dr. Hans Mark was sworn in as NASA's new Deputy Administrator. And Dr. Mark is also returning to NASA having served for several years as Director of the Ames Research Center. Dr. Mark was Secretary of the Air Force from July 1979 to February 1981 after serving as Air Force Under Secretary from 1977. He received his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1951 and his doctorate in physics from MIT in 1954. His professional career includes positions as research physicist, professor, and administrator at laboratories with both institutions.
1981 Science Fair Program
ISEF. Among the attendees at the Voyager 2 Encounter educational conference were the eight NASA award winners who won the trip with their teachers at the International Science and Engineering Fair in May. The students who were awarded Honorable Mention at the ISEF received a mounted photograph of the Space Shuttle Columbia signed by the astronaut crew and John F. Yardley, then Associate Administrator for Transportation Systems. State and Regional Fairs. The directors of 214 state and regional fairs requested NASA's participation in their programs this year. At each fair up to five winners could be cited for outstanding achievement in aerospace research. In addition, several NASA Centers provided special programs. Three Centers scheduled one-day visits for the NASA award-winners in their respective geographic areas. At their own expense, the students, accompanied by families or teachers, visited the Centers for onsite introductions to NASA projects and activities. For the 14th year the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, welcomed their winners. On June 26, 21 students and their families from nearby states and the District of Columbia, were introduced to GSFC and its programs. A highlight was a lecture on "The Fun of Space Science." The Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, OH, honored its science fair winners on July 13. Students and their parents from four states, including distant Minnesota,
enjoyed an introduction to LeRC's activities that included visits to the 10 x 10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel, Solar Test Field, and the Electronic Propulsion Lab. High school students representing five of the Center's seven-state service area, attended the Marshall Space Flight Center's third annual Science Fair Winners' Conference on June 26. Students, parents, and teachers were briefed on current research and development projects and visited MSFC laboratories where they talked with scientists and engineers. One student, who was recognized for her construction of a wind tunnel, was ready to work there "right now."
Second Space Shuttle Student Involvement Project
The second Space Shuttle Student Involvement Project (SSIP) in which experiments from high school students across the nation are chosen for possible use on future Space Shuttle missions, has been announced. The project is a joint venture of NASA and the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). Any student is eligible to enter the competition who is regularly enrolled in grades 9 through 12 in U.S. public, private, parochial, and overseas schools, including U.S. civil and military overseas establishments, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and outlying U.S. territories. Students first will submit'proposals to their science teachers to review for adherence to the rules of the competition. Then eligible projects will be submitted to the NSTA Regional Directors by the Feb. 1, 1982 deadline. Interdisciplinary teams of teachers, scientists, and engineers, selected by NSTA will review the proposals at ten regional centers. Up to 20 students from each of the regions will be selected as semifinalists. These semifinalists and their teachers will attend regional Space Shuttle conferences at NASA research centers where they will present their proposed experiments before NASA and industry scientists, and attend an awards ceremony. From the 200 semifinalists, as many as 20 proposals will be selected on the basis of scientific or engineering merit for potential flight aboard the Space Shuttle. These national winners and their teachers will attend a national symposium at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in late summer of 1982. Winning students, their teachers, and their schools will receive commemorative medallions. The ten national winners of the first SSIP competition were announced in May (see Vol. 9, No. 2). With the assistance of NASA consultants and their corporate sponsors, these students are currently reviewing their experiments for actual Space Shuttle missions or other accommodations as appropriate. Teachers should write to the NSTA for an official entry form, rules booklet, and supplementary material: Space Shuttle Involvement Project, National Science Teachers Association, 1742 Connecticut Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20009.
Science fair winners and their parents are briefed about the operation of test cells 3 and 4 in the Lewis Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory.
The Solar Terrestrial Environment Slide Program
A 40-color slide/15-minute audiocassette presentation titled The Solar Terrestrial Environment has been produced by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, Huntsvilie. The program includes a script and user's guide and is appropriate for astronomy, Earth science, general science, and space physics classes from the 6th grade to adult levels. Through photographs and diagrams, the program examines the structure and dynamics of the solar terrestrial environment, looking at in detail, the Sun and solar phenomena, the solar wind, the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere. The program introduces the interactive processes that couple these components, presents auroras and other effects of magnetic storms, and surveys the recent history of explorations in the solar terrestrial environment, including some of the unsolved puzzles in current research. The Solar Terrestrial Environment may be purchased from the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, Tranquility Base, Huntsville, AL 35807; the cost is $12.95 plus $1.00 for postage and handling.
dedication and outstanding accomplishments in guiding NASA's efforts to disseminate information related to NASA's activities and the results thereof to the education community." A native of New Haven, Connecticut, and graduate of Yale university where he received both bachelor's and doctoral degrees, Dr. Tuttle's career included positions as public school teacher, principal, and superintendent as well as dean and director of graduate studies, summer sessions, and extension division of the State University of New York at Plattsburgh. In 1973 he received the Frank G. Brewer trophy for outstanding service to aerospace education and in 1979, the Crown Circle award for aerospace education leadership.
Recent NASA Publications
NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency research and technology development program is the subject of a series of NASA Facts pamphlets: Laminar Flow Control Technology, NF-86, 8 pp.; Propulsion, NF-93, 12 pp.; Aerodynamics, NF-94, 8 pp.; Guidance and Control, NF-95, 8pp.; and Materials and Structures, NF-117, 8 pp. $1.75 each. Viking Site Selection and Certification, SP-429, reviews the landing site selection and certification process tor the Viking mission to Mars. It evaluates the utility and limitations of the orbital television and infrared data and ground-based radar observations of candidate and actual landing sites. Paperbound, 40 pp. $5.50. Wind Tunnels of NASA, SP-440, is a description of the contribution of these important tools of aeronautical research, which are among the least understood facilities. Both factual and readable, this book goes a long way to bridging the gap between engineers and laity. Hardcover, 154pp. $13.25. Materials Processing in Space: Early Experiments, SP-443, reviews early U.S. efforts to study the behavior—under conditions of weightlessness—of materials undergoing alteration (melting and resolidification, combining two or more materials, growing crystals from aqueous solutions) in order to produce new or more useful products. It includes experiments that took place on the orbiting Skylab and during the Apollo program, and experiments from drop towers. Paperbound, 123 pp. $11.00. Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/ Saturn Launch Vehicles, SP-4206, is a history of the launch vehicles that made the Moon landing possible. The narrative is largely predicated on the questions that may be asked by future generations: How were the Saturns made? How did they work? The bulk of the book deals with the technological program. Paperbound, 535 pp. $10.50. The above publications are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. II
To Worlds Unknown, New Planetarium Program
The Hansen Planetarium, Salt Lake City, has designed and produced a new program, To Worlds Unknown, in cooperation with NASA's Education Services. Written, directed, and produced by Mark Littman, To Worlds Unknown is a voyage aboard the Space Shuttle that follows the paths of NASA spacecraft to the planets and their moons whose features have just recently been unveiled. The program is available to all U.S. plane tar i urns free of cost. For information, contact the Hansen Planetarium, 15 South State Street, Salt Lake City, UT 84111.
Frederick B. Turtle
The NASA staff and professional colleagues in the educational community were saddened by the death of Dr. Frederick B. Tuttle in May. At the time of his death Dr. Tuttle was special assistant for education in NASA's Academic Affairs Division. Dr. Tuttle joined NASA in 1963 to continue a career in aerospace education that began in 1946 when he helped develop the Civil Aeronautics Administration's education program. At NASA he served for eight years as Director of Educational Programs during which time, in addition to supervising the national program in education, he was responsible for the development of many of the agency's curriculum resource materials. In October, NASA's Exceptional Service Medal was awarded posthumously to Dr. Tuttle in recognition of "his unswerving devotion to the principles of the education process and his absolute
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1981-361-166:125
Where to Write for Services
NASA publications should be ordered from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington. DC 20402. Publication lists, film lists, and information about other services are available from the Educational Office at the NASA center serving your state. See the list below. There are special resource centers for educators at the Kennedy Space Center, Lewis Research Center, and Alabama Space and Rocket Center. Huntsville, AL. NASA Ames Research Center Moffet Field, California 94035 Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has determined that the publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business required by law of this Agency. Use of funds for printing this periodical has been approved by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget through December 31. 1981. NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas 77058 Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, N. Dakota. Oklahoma, S. Dakota, Texas NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center, Florida 32899 Florida, Georgia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia 23665 Kentucky, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia NASA Lewis Research Center 21000 Brook park Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama 35812 Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri. Tennessee NASA REPORT TO EDUCA TORS is published four times per year for the community of educators. Recommendations are solicited from readers, and should be addressed to the Education Services Branch, Academic Affairs Division (LCG-9), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC 20546. Photocopying for school use is approved. Muriel M. Thome. Editor NASA Report to Educators Vol. 9, No. 3 Fall 1981
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, D.C. 20546
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