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Towards 4G

: Technical Overview of LTE and WiMAX

WCNC 2010
2010.04.18
Dr. Hyung G. Myung
Qualcomm / Flarion
Outline

Introduction and Background

4G Enabling Technologies

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

WiMAX

Summary and References

1
Introduction and Background

The Beginning

2
Introduction and Background

Wireless Evolution

1983: Motorola DynaTAC 8000X 2009: Apple iPhone 3G


Digital Voice + 7.2 Mbps data + GPS
+ Full Internet browsing
Analog voice + Multimedia messaging
+ Multimedia entertainment
+…

3
Introduction and Background

Impact of Wireless Communications

4
Introduction and Background

Wireless Trends

5
Introduction and Background

Cellular Wireless Evolution

Systems beyond IMT-2000 (IMT-Advanced)


4G LTE/LTE-Advanced, WiMAX (802.16m)

IMT-2000 global standard | Wideband CDMA (’00s)


3G UMTS/WCDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA

Digital modulation & roaming | TDMA & CDMA (’90s)


2G GSM, IS-95, PDC

Analog speech | FDMA (’80s)


1G AMPS

6
Introduction and Background

Towards 4G

• ITU’s Systems beyond IMT-2000 (IMT-Advanced) is set to


introduce 4G.

• 3GPP is currently developing evolutionary/ revolutionary


systems towards 4G: Long Term Evolution (LTE) and
LTE-Advanced.

• IEEE 802.16-based WiMAX is also evolving towards 4G


through 802.16m.

7
Introduction and Background

Wireless Backgrounds

• Fundamental limits

• Multiple access schemes

• Broadband wireless channel basics

• Cellular system

8
Introduction and Background

Fundamental Constraints
• Shannon’s capacity upper bound
– Achievable data rate is fundamentally limited by bandwidth and signal
-to-noise ratio (SNR).

Signal power

 S
C  BW  log 2 1   [bits per second]
 N
Channel bandwidth Noise power

9
Introduction and Background

Fundamental Constraints - cont.

• Fundamental constraints for high data rate communications

50
C  S
 log 2 1   Energy
BW  N per bit 40

 E C 
 log 2 1  b 
30

 N  BW  Power-limited Bandwidth-limited
Eb/N0 [dB]
0
20
 Noise power
C spectral density
Eb 2 BW  1 10
 Bandwidth
N0 C
BW efficiency 0

-10
0.1 1 10 100
C/BW (Bandwidth efficiency)

10
Introduction and Background

Challenges of Wireless Communications

• Multipath radio propagation

• Spectrum limitations

• Limited energy

• User mobility

• Resource management

11
Introduction and Background

Duplexing
• Two ways to duplex downlink (base station to mobile) and
uplink (mobile to base station)
– Frequency division duplexing (FDD)
– Time division duplexing (TDD)

Downlink (Forward link)

Uplink (Reverse link)

12
Introduction and Background

Multiple Access Schemes


• Multiple devices communicating to a single base station.
– How do you resolve the problem of sharing a common
communication resource?

13
Introduction and Background

Multiple Access Schemes - cont.

• Access resources can be shared in time, frequency, code,


and space.
– Time division multiple access (TDMA): GSM
– Frequency division multiple access (FDMA): AMPS
– Code division multiple access (CDMA): IS-95, UMTS
– Spatial division multiple access (SDMA): iBurst

14
Introduction and Background

Wireless Channel
• Wireless channel experiences multi-path radio propagation.

15
Introduction and Background

Multipath Radio Propagation - cont.

16
Introduction and Background

Multi-Path Channel
• Multi-path channel causes:
– Inter-symbol interference (ISI) and fading in the time domain.
– Frequency-selectivity in the frequency domain.

3GPP 6-Tap Typical Urban (TU6) Channel Delay Profile Frequency Response of 3GPP TU6 Channel in 5MHz Band
2.5

2
0.8

Channel Gain [linear]


Amplitude [linear]

1.5
0.6

1
0.4

0.2 0.5

0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5
Time [sec] Frequency [MHz]

17
Introduction and Background

Multi-Path Channel - cont.

• For broadband wireless channel, ISI and frequency-selectivity


become severe.

• To resolve the ISI and the frequency-selectivity in the channel,


various measures are used.
– Channel equalization in the time domain or frequency domain
– Multi-carrier multiplexing
• Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
– Frequency hopping
– Channel-adaptive scheduling
– Channel coding
– Automatic repeat request (ARQ) and hybrid ARQ (H-ARQ)

18
Introduction and Background

Mobile User
• When the user is mobile, the channel becomes time-varying.

• There is also Doppler shift in the carrier frequency.

19
Introduction and Background

Time-Varying Multi-path Channel

Mobile speed = 3 km/h (5.6 Hz doppler) Mobile speed = 60 km/h (111 Hz doppler)
Channel Gain [linear]

Channel Gain [linear]


5 5

0 0
5 5 5 5
4 4 4 4
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
Frequency [MHz] 0 0 Time [msec] Frequency [MHz] 0 0 Time [msec]

20
Introduction and Background

Wireless Spectrum

21
Introduction and Background

Cellular Wireless System

• A large geographical
region is segmented into
smaller “cell”s.
– Transmit power limitation
– Facilitates frequency
spectrum re-use

• Cellular network design


issues
– Inter-cell synchronization
– Handoff mechanism
– Frequency planning

22
Introduction and Background

Cellular Wireless System - cont.

• Frequency re-use

F1 F3

F1 F1 F4 F2

F1 F1

F1 F1 F5 F7

F1 F6

Frequency re-use = 1 Frequency re-use = 7


- Higher spectral efficiency - Lower interference for cell-edge users
- Higher interference for cell-edge users - Lower spectral efficiency

23
Introduction and Background

Cellular Wireless System - cont.

• Sectorized cells

24
Introduction and Background

Cellular Wireless System - cont.

• Frequency re-use = 3

25
Outline

Introduction and Background

4G Enabling Technologies

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

WiMAX

Summary and References

26
4G Enabling Technologies

4G Enabling Technologies

• OFDM/OFDMA

• Frequency domain equalization

• SC-FDMA

• MIMO

• Fast channel-dependent resource scheduling

• Fractional frequency reuse

27
4G Enabling Technologies

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing


• OFDM can be viewed as a form of frequency division
multiplexing (FDM).
– Divides the transmission bandwidth into narrower equally spaced
tones, or subcarriers.
– Individual information symbols are conveyed over the subcarriers.

Serial-to-parallel

e j 2 f0t
  Output symbol
Input data block
e j 2 f1t


e j 2 f N 1t
28
4G Enabling Technologies

OFDM - cont.

• Use of orthogonal subcarriers makes OFDM spectrally


efficient.
– Because of the orthogonality among the subcarriers, they can
overlap with each other.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Subcarrier
29
4G Enabling Technologies

OFDM - cont.

• Since the bandwidth of each subcarrier is much smaller than


the coherence bandwidth of the transmission channel, each
subcarrier sees flat fading.

Channel response

Frequency
Subcarrier
30
4G Enabling Technologies

OFDM - cont.

• In the time domain, OFDM takes a high-rate serial data


stream and transmits parallel low-rate substreams.
Frequency

Frequency
Time Time

4 Input data symbols OFDM symbol

31
4G Enabling Technologies

OFDM - cont.

• OFDM implementation using discrete Fourier transform (DFT)

N-
Add
point
CP/ PS
IDFT

*CP: Cyclic prefix


*PS: Pulse shaping (windowing) Channel

Channel N-
Remove
Detect inversion point
CP
(equalization) DFT

32
4G Enabling Technologies

OFDM - cont.

• Design issues of OFDM


– Cyclic prefix (CP): To maintain orthogonality among subcarriers in the
presence of multi-path channel, CP longer than the channel impulse
response is needed. Also CP converts linear convolution of the channel
impulse response into a circular one.
– High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR): Since the transmit signal is a
composition of multiple subcarriers, high peaks occur.
– Carrier frequency offset: Frequency offset breaks the orthogonality
and causes inter-carrier interference.
– Adaptive scheme or channel coding is needed to overcome the
spectral null in the channel.

33
4G Enabling Technologies

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

• OFDMA is a multi-user access scheme using OFDM.


– Each user occupies a different set of subcarriers.
– Scheduler can exploit frequency-selectivity and multi-user
diversity.

User 1

User 2

User 3

subcarriers

34
4G Enabling Technologies

Frequency Domain Equalization

• For broadband multi-path channels, conventional time


domain equalizers are impractical because of complexity.
– Very long channel impulse response in the time domain.
– Prohibitively large tap size for time domain filter.

• Using discrete Fourier transform (DFT), equalization can be


done in the frequency domain.

• Because the DFT size does not grow linearly with the length of
the channel response, the complexity of FDE is lower than
that of the equivalent time domain equalizer for broadband
channel.

35
4G Enabling Technologies

FDE - cont.

Time domain y  h x
Channel  x  h 1 * y
Fourier
x h y
transform

Y HX
Frequency domain  X  H 1  Y

36
4G Enabling Technologies

FDE - cont.

• In DFT, frequency domain multiplication is equivalent to time


domain circular convolution.

• Cyclic prefix (CP) longer than the channel response length is


needed to convert linear convolution to circular convolution.

CP Symbols

37
4G Enabling Technologies

FDE - cont.

• Most of the time domain equalization techniques can be


implemented in the frequency domain.
– MMSE equalizer, DFE, turbo equalizer, and so on.

• References
– M. V. Clark, “Adaptive Frequency-Domain Equalization and
Diversity Combining for Broadband Wireless Communications,”
IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 8, Oct. 1998
– M. Tüchler et al., “Linear Time and Frequency Domain Turbo
Equalization,” Proc. IEEE 53rd Veh. Technol. Conf. (VTC), vol. 2,
May 2001
– F. Pancaldi et al., “Block Channel Equalization in the Frequency
Domain,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 3, Mar. 2005

38
4G Enabling Technologies

Single Carrier with FDE

SC/FDE
Add N- N-
 xn  CP/ Channel
Remove
CP
point Equalization point Detect
PS DFT IDFT

OFDM
N- Add N-
 xn  point CP/ Channel
Remove
CP
point Equalization Detect
IDFT PS DFT

* CP: Cyclic Prefix, PS: Pulse Shaping

39
4G Enabling Technologies

SC/FDE - cont.

• SC/FDE delivers performance similar to OFDM with essentially


the same overall complexity, even for long channel delay.

• SC/FDE has advantage over OFDM in terms of:


– Low PAPR.
– Robustness to spectral null.
– Less sensitivity to carrier frequency offset.

• Disadvantage to OFDM is that channel-adaptive subcarrier bit


and power loading is not possible.

40
4G Enabling Technologies

SC/FDE - cont.

• References
– H. Sari et al., “Transmission Techniques for Digital Terrestrial TV
Broadcasting,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 33, no. 2, Feb. 1995, pp. 100-
109.
– D. Falconer et al., “Frequency Domain Equalization for Single-Carrier
Broadband Wireless Systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, Apr.
2002, pp. 58-66.

• Single carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) is an extension of SC/FDE to


accommodate multiple-user access.

41
4G Enabling Technologies

CDMA with FDE


• Instead of a RAKE receiver, use frequency domain
equalization for channel equalization.

• Reference
– F. Adachi et al., “Broadband CDMA Techniques,” IEEE Wireless
Comm., vol. 12, no. 2, Apr. 2005, pp. 8-18.

Add M- M-
 xn  Spreading CP/ Channel
Remove
CP
point Equalization point
De-
spreading
Detect
PS DFT IDFT

42
4G Enabling Technologies

Single Carrier FDMA

• SC-FDMA is a new multiple access technique.


– Utilizes single carrier modulation, DFT-spread orthogonal frequency
multiplexing, and frequency domain equalization.

• It has similar structure and performance to OFDMA.

• SC-FDMA is currently adopted as the uplink multiple access


scheme in 3GPP LTE.

43
4G Enabling Technologies

TX & RX structure of SC-FDMA

N- M-

P-to-S
S-to-P

Subcarrier Add CP DAC


point point
Mapping / PS / RF
DFT IDFT

Channel

Subcarrier
N- M-
P-to-S

S-to-P
De- Remove RF
Detect point point
mapping/ CP / ADC
IDFT DFT
Equalization

*N<M
SC-FDMA: +
* S-to-P: Serial-to-Parallel
* P-to-S: Parallel-to-Serial OFDMA:

44
4G Enabling Technologies

Why “Single Carrier” “FDMA”?

“Single Carrier” : Sequential transmission of the


symbols over a single frequency carrier.

Time Frequency Time


domain domain domain

N- M-

P-to-S
Subcarrier Add CP DAC
point point
Mapping / PS / RF
DFT IDFT

“FDMA” : User multiplexing in the frequency domain.

45
4G Enabling Technologies

Subcarrier Mapping
• Two ways to map subcarriers; distributed and localized.

• Distributed mapping scheme for (total # of subcarriers) =


(data block size)  (bandwidth spreading factor) is called
Interleaved FDMA (IFDMA).

X0 X0 X0
Zeros
Zeros X0
X1 X1
Zeros
X2
X N 1

X N 1 Zeros
Zeros
X M 1 X M 1
Distributed Localized
46
4G Enabling Technologies

Subcarrier Mapping - cont.

• Data block size (N) = 4, Number of users (Q) = 3, Number of


subcarriers (M) = 12.

Terminal 1

Terminal 2

Terminal 3
subcarriers subcarriers

Distributed Mode Localized Mode

47
4G Enabling Technologies

Subcarrier Mapping - cont.

 xn  : x0 x1 x2 x3
2
 N 1 j 
DFT  X k   xn e
nk
N
, N  4
 n 0 
X k : X0 X1 X2 X3

X~ l , IFDMA  X0 0 0 X1 0 0 X2 0 0 X3 0 0

X~ l , DFDMA  X0 0 X1 0 X2 0 X3 0 0 0 0 0

X 
Current
~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 implementation
X0 X1 X2 X3
l , LFDMA in 3GPP LTE

frequency

48
4G Enabling Technologies

Time Domain Representation

 xn  x0 x1 x2 x3

Q  x m , IFDMA  x0 x1 x2 x3 x0 x1 x2 x3 x0 x1 x2 x3

Q  x m , LFDMA  x0 * * x1 * * x2 * * x3 * *

Q  x m , DFDMA  x0 * * x2 * * x0 * * x2 * *
time
3
*   ck ,m  xk , ck ,m : complex weight
k 0

49
4G Enabling Technologies

Amplitude of SC-FDMA Symbols

0.5
IFDMA
LFDMA
0.4 DFDMA
Amplitude [linear]

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 QPSK
10 20 30 40 50 60
Symbol

50
4G Enabling Technologies

SC-FDMA and OFDMA

• Similarities
– Block-based modulation and use of CP.
– Divides the transmission bandwidth into smaller subcarriers.
– Channel inversion/equalization is done in the frequency domain.
– SC-FDMA is regarded as DFT-precoded or DFT-spread OFDMA.

51
4G Enabling Technologies

SC-FDMA and OFDMA - cont.

• Difference in time domain signal

Input data symbols

OFDMA symbol

SC-FDMA symbols*
time
* Bandwidth spreading factor : 4

52
4G Enabling Technologies

SC-FDMA and OFDMA - cont.

• Different equalization aspects

Equalizer Detect
Subcarrier Equalizer Detect
OFDMA DFT De-
mapping
Equalizer Detect

Subcarrier
SC-FDMA DFT De- Equalizer IDFT Detect
mapping

53
4G Enabling Technologies

SC-FDMA and DS-CDMA

• In terms of bandwidth expansion, SC-FDMA is very similar to


DS-CDMA system using orthogonal spreading codes.
– Both spread narrowband data into broader band.
– Time symbols are compressed into “chips” after modulation.
– Spreading gain (processing gain) is achieved.

54
4G Enabling Technologies

SC-FDMA and DS-CDMA - cont.

• Conventional spreading

x0 x1 x2 x3
Data Sequence

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Signature Sequence

x0 x0 x0 x0 x1 x1 x1 x1 x2 x2 x2 x2 x3 x3 x3 x3

time

55
4G Enabling Technologies

SC-FDMA and DS-CDMA - cont.

• Exchanged spreading

1 1 1 1
Signature Sequence

x0 x1 x2 x3 x0 x1 x2 x3 x0 x1 x2 x3 x0 x1 x2 x3

Data Sequence
IFDMA
x0 x1 x2 x3 x0 x1 x2 x3 x0 x1 x2 x3 x0 x1 x2 x3

time

56
4G Enabling Technologies

SC-FDMA and Other Schemes

* Subcarrier mapping: * SC transmission:


Frequency-selective
scheduling
SC-FDMA Low PAPR
* Time-compressed
“chip” symbols
* Time-domain
detection

DS-CDMA
* DFT-based FDE
* Block-based
OFDMA /FDE
processing & CP

57
4G Enabling Technologies

PAPR Characteristics of SC-FDMA


CCDF of PAPR: QPSK, Rolloff = 0.22, N = 512, N = 128 CCDF of PAPR: 16-QAM, Rolloff = 0.22, N = 512, N = 128
fft occupied fft occupied
0
10 0
10
OFDMA OFDMA

-1
10 -1
10
Pr(PAPR>PAPR )
0

Pr(PAPR>PAPR )
0
-2 IFDMA -2 IFDMA
10 10
DFDMA DFDMA

-3 -3
LFDMA
10 10
Dotted lines: no PS Dotted lines: no PS
Dashed lines: RRC PS Dashed lines: RRC PS
Solid lines: RC PS LFDMA Solid lines: RC PS
-4 -4
10 10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
PAPR [dB] PAPR [dB]
0 0

(a) QPSK (b) 16-QAM

H. G. Myung et al., “Peak-to-Average Power Ratio of Single Carrier FDMA Signals with Pulse Shaping", IEEE
International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) 2006.

58
4G Enabling Technologies

MIMO
• Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technique improves
communication link quality and capacity by using multiple
transmit and receive antennas.

• Two types of gain; spatial diversity gain and spatial


multiplexing gain.

Transmitter Receiver

MIMO channel

59
4G Enabling Technologies

MIMO - cont.

• Spatial diversity
– Improves link quality (SNR) by combining multiple independently
faded signal replicas.
– With Nt Tx and Nr Rx antennas, NtNr diversity gain is achievable.
– Smart antenna, Alamouti transmit diversity, and space-time coding.

• Spatial multiplexing
– Increases data throughput by sending multiple streams of data
through parallel spatial channels.
– With Nt Tx and Nr Rx antennas, min(Nt,Nr) multiplexing gain is
achievable.
– BLAST (Bell Labs Space-Time Architecture) and unitary precoding.

60
4G Enabling Technologies

Basic Idea of Spatial Diversity


• Coherent combining of multiple copies

y1
h1

y2
h2
Coherent
x1
combining
x1
hN r
yNr
* Narrowband channel

61
4G Enabling Technologies

Basic Idea of Spatial Multiplexing


• Parallel decomposition of a MIMO channel

h11
h21 y1
x1 hNr 1
y2
x2

hNr Nt
xNt
yNr
* Narrowband channel

62
4G Enabling Technologies

Basic Idea of Spatial Multiplexing - cont.

 y1   h11 h1Nt   x1   n1 
       
  
     
 y N   hN 1 hNr Nt   xNt   nNr 
 r  r
 y  Hxn
Singular value decomposition (SVD)

H  UDV H  y  UDV H x  n
U H y  U H U DV H x  U H n
I

U H y  DV H x  U H n
y x n

y  Dx  n
Diagonal matrix

63
4G Enabling Technologies

Basic Idea of Spatial Multiplexing - cont.

h11
d11
h21 y1 y1
x1 hNr 1 x1
d21
y2 y2
x2 x2

d Nt Nt
hNr Nt
xNt xNt
yNr yNr

* Nt < Nr
64
4G Enabling Technologies

Multicarrier MIMO Spatial Multiplexing


• Frequency domain for kth subcarrier

 Y1,k   H11,k H1Nt ,k   X 1,k   N1,k 


       
  
  
  
 YN ,k   H N 1,k H N r Nt ,k   X Nt ,k   N N r ,k 
 r   r
Yk Hk Xk  Nk

 Yk  H k  X k  N k
 Yk  Dk X k  N k
 Yk  U k H Yk

 k
X  V H
k Xk

N
 k  U H
k Nk

65
4G Enabling Technologies

Unitary Precoding

Unitary Xk
Xk Precoding
X k  Vk X k
MIMO Channel
Hk
Yk
 Receiver Zk
Hk X k
Nk
Vk
 
 U k DkVkH Vk X k
 U k Dk X k

66
4G Enabling Technologies

Channel-Dependent Scheduling

Channel gain

User 2

User 1

Frequency

Subcarriers

67
4G Enabling Technologies

Channel-Dependent Scheduling - cont.

• Assign subcarriers to a user in good channel condition.

• Two subcarrier mapping schemes have advantages over each


other.
– Distributed: Frequency diversity.
– Localized: Frequency selective gain with CDS.

• CDS is a scheme to find an optimal set of subcarriers that are


allocated to each user that maximizes some utility based on
each user’s channel response.

68
4G Enabling Technologies

Channel-Dependent Scheduling - cont.

256 total subcarriers, 16 chunks, 16 subcarriers per chunk


3
User 1
User 2
2.5

2 Chunk allocated to user 1


|Channel gain| 2

Chunk allocated to user 2

1.5

0.5

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Subcarriers

69
4G Enabling Technologies

Distributed vs. Localized Subcarrier Mapping


45
LFDMA: Static
• Two subcarrier mappings 40 LFDMA: CDS
IFDMA: Static

have advantages over 35


IFDMA: CDS

Aggregate throughput [Mbps]


each other.
30
– Distributed: Frequency
diversity, lower PAPR in 25

case of IFDMA. 20

– Localized: Frequency
15
selective gain with channel
dependent scheduling 10

(CDS), higher PAPR than


5
the case of IFDMA but 4 8 16 32 64
Number of users
128

similar PAPR to the case of


DFDMA. * J. Lim, H. G. Myung, K. Oh, and D. J. Goodman, "Proportional Fair Scheduling
of Uplink Single-Carrier FDMA Systems", IEEE International Symposium on
Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) 2006.

70
4G Enabling Technologies

Fractional Frequency Re-use

F = F1 + F2 + F3

Cell-center users:  Cell-center users: 


Cell-edge users:  Cell-edge users: 

71
4G Enabling Technologies

FFR - cont.

F = F1 + F2 + F3

Cell-center users: 
Cell-edge users: 

72
4G Enabling Technologies

FFR - cont.

• Frequency re-use improves cell-edge performance but


sacrifices the cell-center performance.

• Fractional frequency re-use (FFR)


– Frequency re-use = 1 at cell center: Improves overall cell capacity.
– Higher re-use factor at the cell edge to reduce interference: Improves
cell-edge performance.

73
Outline

Introduction and Background

4G Enabling Technologies

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

WiMAX

Summary and References

74
3GPP LTE

3GPP Evolution
• Release 99 (2000): UMTS/WCDMA
• Rel-5 (2002): HSDPA
• Rel-6 (2005): HSUPA
• Rel-7 (2007) and beyond: HSPA+
• Long Term Evolution (LTE)
– 3GPP work on the Evolution started in November 2004.
– Standardized in the form of Rel-8 (Dec. 2008).

• LTE-Advanced
– More bandwidth (up to 100 MHz) and backward compatible with LTE.
– Standardization in progress (targeted for Rel-10).

75
3GPP LTE

Requirements of LTE
• Peak data rate
– 100 Mbps DL/ 50 Mbps UL within 20 MHz bandwidth.

• Up to 200 active users in a cell (5 MHz)


• Less than 5 ms user-plane latency
• Mobility
– Optimized for 0 ~ 15 km/h.
– 15 ~ 120 km/h supported with high performance.
– Supported up to 350 km/h or even up to 500 km/h.

• Enhanced multimedia broadcast multicast service (E-MBMS)


• Spectrum flexibility: 1.25 ~ 20 MHz
• Enhanced support for end-to-end QoS

76
3GPP LTE

Key Features of LTE


• Multiple access scheme
– DL: OFDMA with CP.
– UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP.

• Adaptive modulation and coding


– DL/UL modulations: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM
– Turbo coding

• Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing techniques


– (2 or 4)x(2 or 4) downlink and uplink supported.
– Multi-user MIMO also supported.

• Support for both FDD and TDD


• H-ARQ, mobility support, rate control, security, and etc.

77
3GPP LTE

LTE Standardization Status

Release 10
Release 9
Release 8

First version of LTE Enhancements to LTE LTE-Advanced

2008 2009 2010 2011


Source: 3GPP

78
3GPP LTE

LTE Standard Specifications


• Freely downloadable from
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm

Specification index Description of contents

TS 36.1xx Equipment requirements: Terminals, base stations, and repeaters.

TS 36.2xx Physical layer.

Layers 2 and 3: Medium access control, radio link control, and radio
TS 36.3xx
resource control.

Infrastructure communications (UTRAN = UTRA Network) including base


TS 36.4xx
stations and mobile management entities.

TS 36.5xx Conformance testing.

79
3GPP LTE

Protocol Architecture

RRC: Radio Resource Control Layer 3


Control / measurements

RLC: Radio Link Control


Logical channels Layer 2
MAC: Medium Access Control
Transport channels

PHY: Physical layer Layer 1

Physical channels

Transceiver

80
3GPP LTE

LTE Network Architecture


• E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network)

UMTS 3G: UTRAN EPC (Evolved Packet Core)

MME MME
GGSN S-GW/P-GW S-GW/P-GW

SGSN S1

RNC RNC

eNB eNB
X2

NB NB NB NB eNB eNB
E-UTRAN
NB: NodeB (base station) eNB: E-UTRAN NodeB
RNC: Radio Network Controller MME: Mobility Management Entity
SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node S-GW: Serving Gateway
* 3GPP TS 36.300
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node P-GW: PDN (Packet Data Network) Gateway

81
3GPP LTE

LTE Network Architecture - cont.

• eNB
– All radio interface-related EPC (Evolved Packet Core)

functions MME MME


S-GW/P-GW S-GW/P-GW
• MME
– Manages mobility, UE S1
identity, and security
parameters.

• S-GW eNB eNB


– Node that terminates the X2

interface towards E-UTRAN.


eNB eNB
E-UTRAN
• P-GW
eNB: E-UTRAN NodeB
– Node that terminates the MME: Mobility Management Entity
S-GW: Serving Gateway
interface towards PDN. * 3GPP TS 36.300
P-GW: PDN (Packet Data Network) Gateway

82
3GPP LTE

LTE Network Architecture - cont.

UTRAN

SGSN
GERAN HSS
S3
S1-MME S6a
MME
PCR
S12 F Rx+
S11 S7
S4
"LTE-Uu" S10
Serving S5 PDN SGi
UE E-UTRAN Gateway Gateway Operator's IP Services
S1-U (e.g. IMS, PSS etc.)

* Non-roaming architecture
* 3GPP TS 23.401

83
3GPP LTE

LTE Network Architecture - cont.

RRM: Radio Resource Management


RB: Radio Bearer
RRC: Radio Resource Control
PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol
eNB NAS: Non-Access Stratum
EPS: Evolved Packet System
Inter Cell RRM

RB Control

Connection Mobility Cont.


MME
Radio Admission Control
NAS Security
eNB Measurement
Configuration & Provision
Idle State Mobility
Handling
Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)
EPS Bearer Control
RRC

PDCP
S-GW P-GW
RLC
Mobility UE IP address
MAC Anchoring allocation
S1
PHY Packet Filtering
internet

E-UTRAN EPC

* 3GPP TS 36.300

84
3GPP LTE

LTE Network Architecture - cont.

UE eNB

PDCP PDCP

User-Plane RLC RLC


Protocol
Stack MAC MAC

PHY PHY

UE eNB MME

NAS NAS

RRC RRC
Control-Plane
Protocol PDCP PDCP

Stack RLC RLC

MAC MAC

PHY PHY

* 3GPP TS 36.300

85
3GPP LTE

Frame Structure

• Two radio frame structures defined.


– Frame structure type 1 (FS1): FDD.
– Frame structure type 2 (FS2): TDD.

• A radio frame has duration of 10 ms.

• A resource block (RB) spans 12 subcarriers over a slot


duration of 0.5 ms. One subcarrier has bandwidth of 15 kHz,
thus 180 kHz per RB.

86
3GPP LTE

Frame Structure Type 1


• FDD frame structure

One radio frame = 10 ms


One slot = 0.5 ms

#0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19

One subframe = TTI (Transmission Time Interval)

87
3GPP LTE

Frame Structure Type 2


• TDD frame structure

One radio frame = 10 ms

One half-frame = 5 ms

One subframe = 1 ms

One slot = 0.5 ms

Subframe #0 Subframe #2 Subframe #3 Subframe #4 Subframe #5 Subframe #7 Subframe #8 Subframe #9

DwPTS GP UpPTS DwPTS GP UpPTS

88
3GPP LTE

Resource Grid
One radio frame

Slot #0 #19
N symb

Resource block
 N symb  N scRB resource elements
Subcarrier (frequency)

N RB  N scRB N scRB Resource element


 12

OFDM/SC-FDMA symbol (time)

89
3GPP LTE

Length of CP

Configuration N symb
Normal CP 7
Extended CP 6
Extended CP (Df = 7.5 kHz)† 3

Configuration CP length NCP,l [samples]


160 ( 5.21 s) for l = 0
Normal CP
144 ( 4.69 s) for l = 1, 2, …, 6
Extended CP 512 ( 16.67 s) for l = 0, 1, …, 5
Extended CP (Df = 7.5 kHz) † 1024 ( 33.33 s) for l = 0, 1, 2

† Only in downlink

90
3GPP LTE

LTE Bandwidth/Resource Configuration

Channel
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
bandwidth [MHz]

Number of
6 15 25 50 75 100
resource blocks (NRB)

Number of
72 180 300 600 900 1200
occupied subcarriers

IDFT(Tx)/DFT(Rx) size 128 256 512 1024 1536 2048

Sample rate [MHz] 1.92 3.84 7.68 15.36 23.04 30.72

Samples per slot 960 1920 3840 7680 11520 15360

*3GPP TS 36.104

91
3GPP LTE

Bandwidth Configuration
1 slot

Zeros
DL or UL symbol

Resource
block frequency

N scRB UL
N RB  N scRB M
 12  300  512
(180 kHz) (4.5 MHz) (7.68 MHz)

Zeros

time * 5 MHz system with


frame structure type 1

92
3GPP LTE

LTE Physical Channels

• DL
– Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
– Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
– Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
– Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
– Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
– Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)

• UL
– Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
– Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
– Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)

93
3GPP LTE

LTE Transport Channels

• Physical layer transport channels offer information transfer to


medium access control (MAC) and higher layers.

• DL
– Broadcast Channel (BCH)
– Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)
– Paging Channel (PCH)
– Multicast Channel (MCH)

• UL
– Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)
– Random Access Channel (RACH)

94
3GPP LTE

LTE Logical Channels

• Logical channels are offered by the MAC layer.

• Control Channels: Control-plane information


– Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
– Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
– Common Control Channel (CCCH)
– Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)
– Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)

• Traffic Channels: User-plane information


– Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
– Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)

95
3GPP LTE

Channel Mappings

PCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH Logical CCCH DCCH DTCH
channels

Transport
PCH BCH DL-SCH MCH RACH UL-SCH
channels

Physical
PDSCH PBCH PMCH PDCCH channels PRACH PUSCH PUCCH

Downlink Uplink

96
3GPP LTE

LTE Layer 2
• Layer 2 has three sublayers
– MAC (Medium Access Control)
– RLC (Radio Link Control)
– PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol)

Radio Bearers Radio Bearers

ROHC ROHC ROHC ROHC ROHC ROHC


PDCP PDCP
Security Security Security Security Security Security

Segm. Segm. Segm. Segm. Segm. Segm.


RLC ... ... RLC ...
ARQ etc ARQ etc ARQ etc ARQ etc BCCH PCCH ARQ etc ARQ etc

Logical Channels Logical Channels

Scheduling / Priority Handling Scheduling / Priority Handling

MAC Multiplexing UE1 Multiplexing UEn MAC Multiplexing

HARQ HARQ HARQ

Transport Channels Transport Channels

DL UL
ROHC: Robust Header Compression * 3GPP TS 36.300

97
3GPP LTE

RRC Layer
• Terminated in eNB on the network side.

• Functions
– Broadcast
– Paging
– RRC connection management
– RB (Radio Bearer) management
– Mobility functions
– UE measurement reporting and control

• RRC states
– RRC_IDLE
– RRC_CONNECTED

98
3GPP LTE

Resource Scheduling of Shared Channels

• Dynamic resource scheduler resides in eNB on MAC layer.

• Radio resource assignment based on radio condition, traffic


volume, and QoS requirements.

• Radio resource assignment consists of:


– Physical Resource Block (PRB)
– Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS)

99
3GPP LTE

Radio Resource Management

• Radio bearer control (RBC)

• Radio admission control (RAC)

• Connection mobility control (CMC)

• Dynamic resource allocation (DRA) or packet scheduling (PS)

• Inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC)

• Load balancing (LB)

100
3GPP LTE

Other Features

• ARQ (RLC) and H-ARQ (MAC)

• Mobility

• Rate control

• DRX (Discontinuous Reception)

• MBMS

• QoS

• Security

101
3GPP LTE

DL Overview
• DL physical channels
– Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
– Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
– Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
– Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
– Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
– Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)

• DL physical signals
– Reference signal (RS)
– Synchronization signal

• Available modulation for data channel


– QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM

102
3GPP LTE

DL Physical Channel Processing

Scrambling

Modulation mapping

Mapping onto one or more


Layer mapping
transmission layers
MIMO-related
processing
Generation of signals for each
Precoding
antenna port

Resource element mapping

OFDM signal generation IDFT operation

103
3GPP LTE

DL Reference Signal

• Three types of DL reference signals


– Cell-specific reference signals
• Associated with non-MBSFN transmission
– MBSFN reference signals
• Associated with MBSFN transmission
– UE-specific reference signals

104
3GPP LTE

DL Reference Signal - cont.

• Cell-specific 2D RS sequence is generated as the symbol-by-


symbol product of a 2D orthogonal sequence (OS) and a 2D
pseudo-random sequence (PRS).
– 3 different 2D OS and ~170 different PRS.
– Each cell (sector) ID corresponds to a unique combination of one OS
and one PRS  ~510 unique cell IDs.

• CDM of RS for cells (sectors) of the same eNodeB (BS)


– Use complex orthogonal spreading codes.

• FDM of RS for each antenna in case of MIMO

105
3GPP LTE

DL Reference Signal - cont.

R0 R0

*With normal CP
One antenna port

R0 R0
*3GPP TS 36.211
R0 R0

R0 R0
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6

Resource element (k,l)

R0 R0 R1 R1
Two antenna ports

R0 R0 R1 R1
Not used for transmission on this antenan port

R0 R0 R1 R1
Reference symbols on this antenna port

R0 R0 R1 R1
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3 R3
Four antenna ports

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3 R3

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6

even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 0 Antenna port 1 Antenna port 2 Antenna port 3

106
3GPP LTE

DL MIMO
• Supported up to 4x4 configuration.

• Support for both spatial multiplexing (SM) and Tx diversity


(TxD).
– SM
• Unitary precoding based scheme with codebook based feedback
from user.
• Multiple codewords (up to two).
– TxD: SFBC and CDD (Cyclic Delay Diversity).

• MU-MIMO supported.

• 3G Americas, “MIMO Transmission Schemes for LTE and HSPA


Networks,” Jun. 2009, available at http://3gamericas.org

107
3GPP LTE

UL Overview
• UL physical channels
– Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
– Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
– Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)

• UL physical signals
– Reference signal (RS)

• Available modulation for data channel


– QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM

• Single user MIMO not supported in Release 8.


– But it will be addressed in the future release.
– Multi-user collaborative MIMO supported.

108
3GPP LTE

UL Resource Block
*PUSCH with normal CP

Resource Reference
block (RB) symbols (RS)
Frequency
Subcarrier

1 slot (0.5 ms) One SC-FDMA symbol

Time

109
3GPP LTE

UL Physical Channel Processing

Scrambling

Modulation mapping

Transform precoding DFT-precoding

SC-FDMA
Resource element mapping
modulation

SC-FDMA signal generation IDFT operation

110
3GPP LTE

SC-FDMA Modulation in LTE UL

Localized mapping
Subcarrier with an option of
Mapping adaptive scheduling
or random hopping.

M-
Zeros

1
subcarrier
Serial- Parallel
 x0 , x1 , xN 1 to-
N- M-
-to-  x0 , x1 , xM 1
DFT IDFT
Parallel Serial
One SC-FDMA
symbol
Zeros
0

111
3GPP LTE

UL Reference Signal
• Two types of UL RS
– Demodulation (DM) RS  Narrowband.
– Sounding RS: Used for UL resource scheduling  Broadband.

• RS based on Zadoff-Chu CAZAC (Constant Amplitude Zero


Auto-Correlation) polyphase sequence
– CAZAC sequence: Constant amplitude, zero circular auto-
correlation, flat frequency response, and low circular cross-
correlation between two different sequences.

  j 2 r  k 2  qk  , k  0,1,2, , L 1; for L even * r is any integer relatively prime
 e L 2  with L and q is any integer.
ak  
r k ( k 1)
  j 2 L  2  qk  , k  0,1,2, , L 1; for L odd
e
B. M. Popovic, “Generalized Chirp-like Polyphase Sequences with Optimal Correlation Properties,”
IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. 38, Jul. 1992, pp. 1406-1409.

112
3GPP LTE

UL RS Multiplexing

User 1

User 2

User 3

subcarriers subcarriers

FDM Pilots CDM Pilots

113
3GPP LTE

UL RS Multiplexing - cont.

• DM RS: Associated with PUSCH or PUCCH


– For SIMO: FDM between different users.
– For SU-MIMO: CDM between RS from each antenna
– For MU-MIMO: CDM between RS from each antenna

• Sounding RS: Not associated with PUSCH or PUCCH


– CDM when there is only one sounding bandwidth.
– CDM/FDM when there are multiple sounding bandwidths.

114
3GPP LTE

Cell Search
• Cell search: Mobile terminal or user equipment (UE) acquires
time and frequency synchronization with a cell and detects
the cell ID of that cell.
– Based on hierarchical synchronization signals.

• Primary SS (PSS) and secondary SS (SSS) are


transmitted twice per radio frame (10 ms) for FDD.

• Cell search procedure


1. 5 ms timing identified using PSS.
2. Radio timing and group ID found from SSS.
3. Full cell ID found from DL RS.
4. Decode BCH.

115
3GPP LTE

Random Access
• Non-synchronized random access.

• Open loop power controlled with power ramping similar to


WCDMA.

• RACH signal bandwidth: 1.08 MHz (6 RBs)

• Preamble based on CAZAC sequence. UE eNB

1 Random Access Preamble

RA slot = 1 ms Random Access Response 2

TCP TGP
3 Scheduled Transmission

CP Preamble Contention Resolution 4

* TCP = 0.1 ms, TGP = 0.1 ms

116
3GPP LTE

Other Procedures

• Power control

• Uplink synchronization and uplink timing control

• Hybrid ARQ related procedures

117
3GPP LTE

LTE-Advanced Requirements
• Peak data rate:
– 1 Gbps DL and 500 Mbps UL

• Latency
– Less than 10 ms within Connected mode
– Less than 50 ms from Idle to Connected mode

• Spectrum
– Up to 100 MHz bandwidth
– Support for non-consecutive bands (spectrum aggregation)

• Peak spectrum efficiency


– 30 bps/Hz DL and 15 bps/Hz UL

118
3GPP LTE

LTE-A Features - cont.

• Carrier aggregation

• Enhanced MIMO

• Coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmission and reception

• Relaying

119
3GPP LTE

LTE-A: Carrier Aggregation - cont.

• In order to support up to 100 MHz bandwidth, two or more


component carriers aggregated
– Component carrier (CC): Basic frequency block which comply with R8
LTE numerology
– Each CC is limited to 20 MHz bandwidth (110 resource blocks).
– Maintains backward compatibility with R8 LTE.

• Supports both contiguous and non-contiguous spectrum.

• Also supports asymmetric bandwidth for FDD.

120
3GPP LTE

LTE-A: Carrier Aggregation - cont.

100 MHz
CC 20 MHz

60 MHz
Non-contiguous

60 MHz
Contiguous
20 MHz
R8 LTE

121
3GPP LTE

LTE-A: Carrier Aggregation - cont.

• Downlink multiple access scheme


– OFDMA with CC-based structure: Re-use R8 spec for low cost & fast
development
– One transport block is mapped within one CC.

• Uplink multiple access scheme


– N-times DFT-spread OFDM: Clustered DFT spreading

122
3GPP LTE

LTE-A: Enhanced MIMO

• Downlink MIMO
– Up to 8x8 (8 layer) configuration
– Additional RS: CSI-RS and UE-specific DM RS
– Support for MU-MIMO
– Enhancements to CSI feedback

• Uplink MIMO
– Introduction of UL transmit diversity
– Introduction of up to 4x4 SU-MIMO
– Use of turbo serial interference canceller

123
3GPP LTE

LTE-A: CoMP TX & RX


• Improves coverage, cell-edge performance, and system
throughput
– DL: Joint processing, coordinated scheduling/beamforming
– UL: Multi-point reception

124
3GPP LTE

LTE-A: Relaying
• Improves coverage and cell-edge performance.

• Relay node is wirelessly connected to RAN via a donor cell.

Donor cell
Relay node

125
3GPP LTE

LTE-A Documentations - cont.

• Ongoing progress highlighted in:


– 3GPP TR 36.913, Requirements for Further Advancements for E-UTRA
(LTE-Advanced)
– 3GPP TR 36.814, Further Advancements for E-UTRA Physical Layer
Aspects

126
Outline

Introduction and Background

4G Enabling Technologies

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

WiMAX

Summary and References

127
WiMAX

What is WiMAX?

• Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

• IEEE 802.16-based system profile maintained by WiMAX


Forum
– IEEE 802.16 standards only specify PHY and MAC layers. WiMAX
specifies overall system profile based on 802.16 air interface.
– WiMAX Forum certifies system components to ensure inter
-operability.

• Mobile WiMAX
– Based on IEEE 802.16e-2005 and IEEE 802.16-2004 standards.

128
WiMAX

IEEE 802.16 Evolution

• 802.16 (2002): Line-of-sight fixed operation in 10 to 66 GHz

• 802.16a (2003): Air interface support for 2 to 11 GHz

• 802.16d (2004): Minor improvements to fixes to 16a

• 802.16e (2006): Support for vehicular mobility and


asymmetrical link

• 802.16m (in progress): Higher data rate, reduced latency, and


efficient security mechanism

129
WiMAX

Mobile WiMAX System Profile

System
Release 1.0 Release 1.5 Release 2.0
profile
IEEE 802.16-2004 802.16Rev2 802.16m
Standard 802.16e-2005 802.16j
Wave 1
Certification
Wave 2
•TDD only •TDD & (H)FDD •TDD & FDD
•1x2 SIMO in Wave 1 •Higher VoIP capacity •Candidate for
•2x2 MIMO & beamforming •2x2 UL MIMO IMT-Advanced
Comments in Wave 2 •UL 64-QAM
•Bandwidth: 5, 8.75, & 10 •Bandwidth: up to 20
MHz MHz
•Multi-hop relay

Source: WiMAX Forum

130
WiMAX

Mobile WiMAX Network Architecture

Mobile
Mobile
WiMAX ASN-GW CSN
terminals
base station

ASN

ASN
ASN-GW: Access Service Network Gateway
ASN: Access Service Network
CSN: Core Service Network

131
WiMAX

Mobile WiMAX Network Architecture


- cont.

• Security
– Strong mutual device authentication based on IEEE 802.16
security framework.

• Mobility and handover


– Vertical (inter-technology) handover
– IPv4 or IPv6-based mobility management
– Dynamic and static home address configuration
– Dynamic assignment of Home Agent

• QoS
– Support for different levels of QoS
– Admission control
– Implementation of policies

132
WiMAX

Frame Structure

*IEEE Std 802.16e-2005


133
WiMAX

Frame Structure - cont.

• Preamble: Used for synchronization.


• FCH (Frame Control Header): Provides frame configuration
information such as MAP (Media Access Protocol) message
length, coding scheme, and usable sub-channel.
• DL-MAP and UL-MAP: Provide sub-channel allocation
information.
• UL Ranging: Used to perform closed-loop time, frequency, an
d power adjustment as well as bandwidth requests.
• UL CQICH (Channel Quality Indicator Channel): Used to
feedback channel state information.
• UL ACK: Used to feedback DL H-ARQ acknowledgement.

134
WiMAX

Subchannelization and Slots

• Subchannelization schemes: Ways to divide frequency/time


resources among users
– PUSC (Partial Usage Subchannelization)
– FUSC (Full Usage Subchannelization)
– TUSC (Tile Usage Subchannelization)
– AMC (Adaptive Modulation and Coding)

• Slot is the basic unit of time/frequency grid.


– Slot contains 48 data subcarriers.

• Localized and distributed resource allocation

135
WiMAX

Advanced PHY Layer Features

• Adaptive modulation and coding

• Hybrid ARQ

• Fast channel feedback via CQICH

• Support for QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM (optional in UL)

136
WiMAX

MAC Features
• QoS Support
– 5 Categories of QoS: Unsolicited grant service (UGS), real-time
polling service (rtPS), extended real-time polling service (ErtPS),
non-real-time polling service (nrtPS), and best-effort service (BE).

• Scheduling service
– Fast data scheduler for both DL and UL
– Dynamic resource allocation
– QoS oriented
– Frequency-selective scheduling

• Mobility management

• Security

137
WiMAX

MIMO Features
• Beamforming
– Improves coverage and capacity and reduces outage
probability.

• Space-time code
– Provides spatial diversity and reduces fade margin.

• Spatial multiplexing
– Achieves higher data rate.
– Up to 2x2 MIMO.

• Adaptive switching among beamforming, space-time coding,


and spatial multiplexing

138
WiMAX

Other Features

• Fractional frequency re-use.

• Ranging: Closed-loop adjustments of time, frequency, and


power.

• Power management through periodic sleep and listen.

139
WiMAX

802.16m Minimum Requirements


• OFDMA for both DL and DL
• Scalable bandwidth
– 5 MHz to 40 MHz as a single RF carrier.
– Higher bandwidth supported by carrier aggregation.

• Full duplex FDD, half-duplex FDD, and TDD


• Data latency: Less than 10 ms
• Up to 8x8 MIMO
• Integrated relay
• IEEE 802.16m working document
– System requirements document (IEEE 802.16m-07/002r6)
– System description document (IEEE 802.16m-07/003r6)

140
Outline

Introduction and Background

4G Enabling Technologies

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

WiMAX

Summary and References

141
Summary and References

Summary

• Key technologies of 4G systems


– Multicarrier-based radio air interface
• OFDMA and SC-FDMA
– Frequency domain equalization
– IP-based flat network architecture
– Multi-input multi-output (MIMO)
– Active interference avoidance and coordination
• Fractional frequency re-use (FFR)
– Fast multi-carrier frequency-selective resource scheduling

142
Summary and References

References and Resources


• 4G enabling technologies
– OFDM/OFDMA
• R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications,
Artech House, 2000.
– Frequency domain equalization
• D. Falconer et al., “Frequency Domain Equalization for Single-Carrier
Broadband Wireless Systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, Apr. 2002,
pp. 58-66.
• H. Sari et al., “Transmission Techniques for Digital Terrestrial TV
Broadcasting,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 33, no. 2, Feb. 1995, pp. 100-109.
– SC-FDMA
• H. G. Myung & D. Goodman, Single Carrier FDMA: A New Air Interface for Long
Term Evolution, John Wiley & Sons, Nov. 2008
• H. G. Myung et al., “Single Carrier FDMA for Uplink Wireless Transmission,”
IEEE Vehicular Technology Mag., vol. 1, no. 3, Sep. 2006.
• http://hgmyung.googlepages.com/scfdma

143
Summary and References

References and Resources - cont.

– MIMO
• A. Paulraj et al., Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications,
Cambridge University Press, May 2003.
• G. L. Stüber et al., “Broadband MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communications,”
Proceedings of the IEEE, Feb. 2004, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 271-294.
– Multicarrier scheduling
• G. Song and Y. Li, “Utility-based Resource Allocation and Scheduling
in OFDM-based Wireless Broadband Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.,
vol. 43, no. 12, Dec. 2005, pp. 127-134.

144
Summary and References

References and Resources - cont.

• 3GPP LTE
– Spec
• http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm
• http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm (old)
– 3G Americas
• http://3gamericas.org
– http://www.LTEwatch.com

145
Summary and References

References and Resources - cont.

• WiMAX
– IEEE 802.16e Spec
• http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.16e-2005.pdf
– IEEE 802.16m working document (http://wirelessman.org/tgm/index.
html)
• System requirements document (IEEE 802.16m-07/002r6)
• System description document (IEEE 802.16m-07/003r6)
• Evaluation methodology document (IEEE 802.16m-07/004r4)
– WiMAX Forum, “Mobile WiMAX - Part I: A Technical Overview and Per
formance Evaluation,” available at http://www.wimaxforum.org/sites
/wimaxforum.org/files/documentation/2009/mobile_wimax_part1_o
verview_and_performance.pdf

146
Questions? Thank you!

WCNC 2010
2010.04.18
Dr. Hyung G. Myung
Qualcomm / Flarion