WCNC 2010

2010.04.18
Dr. Hyung G. Myung
Qualcomm / Flarion
Towards 4G
: Technical Overview of LTE and WiMAX
Outline
1
Introduction and Background
Summary and References
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
WiMAX
4G Enabling Technologies
The Beginning
2
Introduction and Background
Wireless Evolution
3
Analog voice
Digital Voice + 7.2 Mbps data + GPS
+ Full Internet browsing
+ Multimedia messaging
+ Multimedia entertainment
+ …
1983: Motorola DynaTAC 8000X 2009: Apple iPhone 3G
Introduction and Background
Impact of Wireless Communications
4
Introduction and Background
Wireless Trends
5
Introduction and Background
Cellular Wireless Evolution
6
1G
2G
3G
4G
Analog speech | FDMA (’80s)
AMPS
Digital modulation & roaming | TDMA & CDMA (’90s)
GSM, IS-95, PDC
IMT-2000 global standard | Wideband CDMA (’00s)
UMTS/WCDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA
Systems beyond IMT-2000 (IMT-Advanced)
LTE/LTE-Advanced, WiMAX (802.16m)
Introduction and Background
Towards 4G
• ITU’s Systems beyond IMT-2000 (IMT-Advanced) is set to
introduce 4G.
• 3GPP is currently developing evolutionary/ revolutionary
systems towards 4G: Long Term Evolution (LTE) and
LTE-Advanced.
• IEEE 802.16-based WiMAX is also evolving towards 4G
through 802.16m.
7
Introduction and Background
Wireless Backgrounds
• Fundamental limits
• Multiple access schemes
• Broadband wireless channel basics
• Cellular system
8
Introduction and Background
Fundamental Constraints
• Shannon’s capacity upper bound
– Achievable data rate is fundamentally limited by bandwidth and signal
-to-noise ratio (SNR).
9
2
log 1 [bits per second]
S
C BW
N
| |
= · +
|
\ .
Signal power
Noise power
Channel bandwidth
Introduction and Background
Fundamental Constraints
• Fundamental constraints for high data rate communications
10
0.1 1 10 100
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
C/BW (Bandwidth efficiency)
E
b
/
N
0

[
d
B
]
Power-limited Bandwidth-limited
2
2
0
0
log 1
log 1
2 1
b
C
BW
b
C S
BW N
E C
N BW
E
C
N
BW
| |
= +
|
\ .
| | ·
= +
|
·
\ .
¹
÷
=
Noise power
spectral density
Energy
per bit
Bandwidth
efficiency
- cont.
Introduction and Background
Challenges of Wireless Communications
• Multipath radio propagation
• Spectrum limitations
• Limited energy
• User mobility
• Resource management
11
Introduction and Background
Duplexing
• Two ways to duplex downlink (base station to mobile) and
uplink (mobile to base station)
– Frequency division duplexing (FDD)
– Time division duplexing (TDD)
12
Downlink (Forward link)
Uplink (Reverse link)
Introduction and Background
Multiple Access Schemes
• Multiple devices communicating to a single base station.
– How do you resolve the problem of sharing a common
communication resource?
13
Introduction and Background
Multiple Access Schemes
• Access resources can be shared in time, frequency, code,
and space.
– Time division multiple access (TDMA): GSM
– Frequency division multiple access (FDMA): AMPS
– Code division multiple access (CDMA): IS-95, UMTS
– Spatial division multiple access (SDMA): iBurst
14
Introduction and Background
- cont.
Wireless Channel
• Wireless channel experiences multi-path radio propagation.
15
Introduction and Background
Multipath Radio Propagation
16
- cont.
Introduction and Background
Multi-Path Channel
• Multi-path channel causes:
– Inter-symbol interference (ISI) and fading in the time domain.
– Frequency-selectivity in the frequency domain.
17
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time [usec]
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

[
l
i
n
e
a
r
]
3GPP 6-Tap Typical Urban (TU6) Channel Delay Profile
0 1 2 3 4 5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Frequency [MHz]
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

G
a
i
n

[
l
i
n
e
a
r
]
Frequency Response of 3GPP TU6 Channel in 5MHz Band
Introduction and Background
Multi-Path Channel
• For broadband wireless channel, ISI and frequency-selectivity
become severe.
• To resolve the ISI and the frequency-selectivity in the channel,
various measures are used.
– Channel equalization in the time domain or frequency domain
– Multi-carrier multiplexing
• Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
– Frequency hopping
– Channel-adaptive scheduling
– Channel coding
– Automatic repeat request (ARQ) and hybrid ARQ (H-ARQ)
18
Introduction and Background
- cont.
Mobile User
• When the user is mobile, the channel becomes time-varying.
• There is also Doppler shift in the carrier frequency.
19
Introduction and Background
Time-Varying Multi-path Channel
20

0
1
2
3
4
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
5
Time [msec]
Mobile speed = 60 km/h (111 Hz doppler)
Frequency [MHz]
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

G
a
i
n

[
l
i
n
e
a
r
]

0
1
2
3
4
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
5
Time [msec]
Mobile speed = 3 km/h (5.6 Hz doppler)
Frequency [MHz]
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

G
a
i
n

[
l
i
n
e
a
r
]
Introduction and Background
Wireless Spectrum
21
Introduction and Background
Cellular Wireless System
• A large geographical
region is segmented into
smaller “cell”s.
– Transmit power limitation
– Facilitates frequency
spectrum re-use
• Cellular network design
issues
– Inter-cell synchronization
– Handoff mechanism
– Frequency planning
22
Introduction and Background
Cellular Wireless System
• Frequency re-use
23
F
1
F
1
F
1
F
1
F
1
F
1
F
1
F
1
F
3
F
2
F
7
F
6
F
5
F
4
Frequency re-use = 1
- Higher spectral efficiency
- Higher interference for cell-edge users
Frequency re-use = 7
- Lower interference for cell-edge users
- Lower spectral efficiency
Introduction and Background
- cont.
Cellular Wireless System
• Sectorized cells
24
Introduction and Background
- cont.
Cellular Wireless System
• Frequency re-use = 3
25
Introduction and Background
- cont.
Outline
26
Introduction and Background
Summary and References
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
WiMAX
4G Enabling Technologies
4G Enabling Technologies
• OFDM/OFDMA
• Frequency domain equalization
• SC-FDMA
• MIMO
• Fast channel-dependent resource scheduling
• Fractional frequency reuse
27
4G Enabling Technologies
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
• OFDM can be viewed as a form of frequency division
multiplexing (FDM).
– Divides the transmission bandwidth into narrower equally spaced
tones, or subcarriers.
– Individual information symbols are conveyed over the subcarriers.
28
S
e
r
i
a
l
-
t
o
-
p
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
©
0
2 j f t
e
t
©
1
2 j f t
e
t
©
1
2
N
j f t
e
t
÷
©
Input data block
Output symbol
4G Enabling Technologies
OFDM
• Use of orthogonal subcarriers makes OFDM spectrally
efficient.
– Because of the orthogonality among the subcarriers, they can
overlap with each other.
29
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Subcarrier
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
OFDM
• Since the bandwidth of each subcarrier is much smaller than
the coherence bandwidth of the transmission channel, each
subcarrier sees flat fading.
30
Frequency
Channel response
Subcarrier
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
OFDM
• In the time domain, OFDM takes a high-rate serial data
stream and transmits parallel low-rate substreams.
31
4 Input data symbols
Time Time
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
OFDM symbol
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
OFDM
• OFDM implementation using discrete Fourier transform (DFT)
32
Channel
Channel
inversion
(equalization)
N-
point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
N-
point
IDFT
Add
CP/ PS
*CP: Cyclic prefix
*PS: Pulse shaping (windowing)
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
OFDM
• Design issues of OFDM
– Cyclic prefix (CP): To maintain orthogonality among subcarriers in the
presence of multi-path channel, CP longer than the channel impulse
response is needed. Also CP converts linear convolution of the channel
impulse response into a circular one.
– High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR): Since the transmit signal is a
composition of multiple subcarriers, high peaks occur.
– Carrier frequency offset: Frequency offset breaks the orthogonality
and causes inter-carrier interference.
– Adaptive scheme or channel coding is needed to overcome the
spectral null in the channel.
33
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
• OFDMA is a multi-user access scheme using OFDM.
– Each user occupies a different set of subcarriers.
– Scheduler can exploit frequency-selectivity and multi-user
diversity.
34
subcarriers
User 1
User 2
User 3
4G Enabling Technologies
Frequency Domain Equalization
• For broadband multi-path channels, conventional time
domain equalizers are impractical because of complexity.
– Very long channel impulse response in the time domain.
– Prohibitively large tap size for time domain filter.
• Using discrete Fourier transform (DFT), equalization can be
done in the frequency domain.
• Because the DFT size does not grow linearly with the length of
the channel response, the complexity of FDE is lower than
that of the equivalent time domain equalizer for broadband
channel.
35
4G Enabling Technologies
FDE
36
h
x y
1
*
y h x
x h y
÷
= -
=
1
Y H X
X H Y
÷
= ·
= ·
Time domain
Frequency domain
Fourier
transform
Channel
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
FDE
• In DFT, frequency domain multiplication is equivalent to time
domain circular convolution.
• Cyclic prefix (CP) longer than the channel response length is
needed to convert linear convolution to circular convolution.
37
CP Symbols
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
FDE
• Most of the time domain equalization techniques can be
implemented in the frequency domain.
– MMSE equalizer, DFE, turbo equalizer, and so on.
• References
– M. V. Clark, “Adaptive Frequency-Domain Equalization and
Diversity Combining for Broadband Wireless Communications,”
IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 8, Oct. 1998
– M. Tüchler et al., “Linear Time and Frequency Domain Turbo
Equalization,” Proc. IEEE 53rd Veh. Technol. Conf. (VTC), vol. 2,
May 2001
– F. Pancaldi et al., “Block Channel Equalization in the Frequency
Domain,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 3, Mar. 2005
38
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Single Carrier with FDE
39
Channel
N-
point
IDFT
Equalization
N-
point
DFT
SC/FDE
OFDM
Detect
Remove
CP
{ }
n
x
Add
CP/
PS
* CP: Cyclic Prefix, PS: Pulse Shaping
Channel Equalization
N-
point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
N-
point
IDFT
Add
CP/
PS
{ }
n
x
4G Enabling Technologies
SC/FDE
• SC/FDE delivers performance similar to OFDM with essentially
the same overall complexity, even for long channel delay.
• SC/FDE has advantage over OFDM in terms of:
– Low PAPR.
– Robustness to spectral null.
– Less sensitivity to carrier frequency offset.
• Disadvantage to OFDM is that channel-adaptive subcarrier bit
and power loading is not possible.
40
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
SC/FDE
• References
– H. Sari et al., “Transmission Techniques for Digital Terrestrial TV
Broadcasting,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 33, no. 2, Feb. 1995, pp. 100-
109.
– D. Falconer et al., “Frequency Domain Equalization for Single-Carrier
Broadband Wireless Systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, Apr.
2002, pp. 58-66.
• Single carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) is an extension of SC/FDE to
accommodate multiple-user access.
41
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
CDMA with FDE
• Instead of a RAKE receiver, use frequency domain
equalization for channel equalization.
• Reference
– F. Adachi et al., “Broadband CDMA Techniques,” IEEE Wireless
Comm., vol. 12, no. 2, Apr. 2005, pp. 8-18.
42
Spreading Channel
M-
point
IDFT
Equalization
M-
point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
{ }
n
x
Add
CP/
PS
De-
spreading
4G Enabling Technologies
Single Carrier FDMA
• SC-FDMA is a new multiple access technique.
– Utilizes single carrier modulation, DFT-spread orthogonal frequency
multiplexing, and frequency domain equalization.
• It has similar structure and performance to OFDMA.
• SC-FDMA is currently adopted as the uplink multiple access
scheme in 3GPP LTE.
43
4G Enabling Technologies
TX & RX structure of SC-FDMA
44
Subcarrier
Mapping
Channel
N-
point
IDFT
Subcarrier
De-
mapping/
Equalization
M-
point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
N-
point
DFT
M-
point
IDFT
Add CP
/ PS
DAC
/ RF
RF
/ ADC
SC-FDMA:
OFDMA:
+
* N < M
* S-to-P: Serial-to-Parallel
* P-to-S: Parallel-to-Serial
P
-
t
o
-
S
S
-
t
o
-
P
S
-
t
o
-
P
P
-
t
o
-
S
4G Enabling Technologies
Why “Single Carrier” “FDMA”?
45
Subcarrier
Mapping
N-
point
DFT
M-
point
IDFT
Add CP
/ PS
DAC
/ RF
Time
domain
Frequency
domain
Time
domain
“FDMA”
“Single Carrier”
P
-
t
o
-
S
: Sequential transmission of the
symbols over a single frequency carrier.
: User multiplexing in the frequency domain.
4G Enabling Technologies
Subcarrier Mapping
• Two ways to map subcarriers; distributed and localized.
• Distributed mapping scheme for (total # of subcarriers) =
(data block size) × (bandwidth spreading factor) is called
Interleaved FDMA (IFDMA).
46
Distributed Localized
0
X
1 N
X
÷
1
X
Zeros
Zeros
0
X
1 M
X
÷
Zeros
0
X
Zeros
1
X
2
X
1 N
X
÷
0
X
1 M
X
÷
Zeros
4G Enabling Technologies
Subcarrier Mapping
• Data block size (N) = 4, Number of users (Q) = 3, Number of
subcarriers (M) = 12.
47
subcarriers
Terminal 1
Terminal 2
Terminal 3
subcarriers
Distributed Mode Localized Mode
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Subcarrier Mapping
48
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
X
0
X
1
X
2
X
3
frequency
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
X
0
X
1
X
2
X
3
{ }
:
k
X X
0
X
1
X
2
X
3
{ }
:
n
x
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
DFT
2
1
0
, 4
N
j nk
N
k n
n
X x e N
t
÷
÷
=
| |
= =
|
\ .
¯
{ }
IFDMA l
X
,
~
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
X
0
X
1
X
2
X
3 { }
DFDMA l
X
,
~
{ }
LFDMA l
X
,
~
Current
implementation
in 3GPP LTE
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Time Domain Representation
49
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
{ }
n
x
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
* * * * * * * *
x
0
x
2
x
0
x
2
time
* * * * * * * *
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
{ }
, m IFDMA
Q x ·
{ }
, m DFDMA
Q x ·
{ }
, m LFDMA
Q x ·
3
, ,
0
* , : complex weight
k m k k m
k
c x c
=
= ·
¯
4G Enabling Technologies
Amplitude of SC-FDMA Symbols
50
10 20 30 40 50 60
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Symbol
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

[
l
i
n
e
a
r
]


IFDMA
LFDMA
DFDMA
QPSK
4G Enabling Technologies
SC-FDMA and OFDMA
• Similarities
– Block-based modulation and use of CP.
– Divides the transmission bandwidth into smaller subcarriers.
– Channel inversion/equalization is done in the frequency domain.
– SC-FDMA is regarded as DFT-precoded or DFT-spread OFDMA.
51
4G Enabling Technologies
SC-FDMA and OFDMA
• Difference in time domain signal
52
OFDMA symbol
SC-FDMA symbols*
Input data symbols
* Bandwidth spreading factor : 4
time
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
SC-FDMA and OFDMA
• Different equalization aspects
53
Subcarrier
De-
mapping
Equalizer
Equalizer
Equalizer
Subcarrier
De-
mapping
Detect
Detect
Detect
Equalizer IDFT Detect SC-FDMA
OFDMA
DFT
DFT
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
SC-FDMA and DS-CDMA
• In terms of bandwidth expansion, SC-FDMA is very similar to
DS-CDMA system using orthogonal spreading codes.
– Both spread narrowband data into broader band.
– Time symbols are compressed into “chips” after modulation.
– Spreading gain (processing gain) is achieved.
54
4G Enabling Technologies
SC-FDMA and DS-CDMA
• Conventional spreading
55
x
1
x
2
x
3
1 1 1
x
1
x
1
x
1
x
1
x
2
x
2
x
2
x
2
x
3
x
3
x
3
x
3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Signature Sequence
Data Sequence
×
time
x
0
x
0
x
0
x
0
1 1 1 1
x
0
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
SC-FDMA and DS-CDMA
• Exchanged spreading
56
time
1
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
1 1
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
×
Data Sequence
Signature Sequence
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
1
IFDMA
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
SC-FDMA and Other Schemes
57
SC-FDMA
OFDMA
DS-CDMA
/FDE
* DFT-based FDE
* Block-based
processing & CP
* SC transmission:
Low PAPR
* Time-compressed
“chip” symbols
* Time-domain
detection
* Subcarrier mapping:
Frequency-selective
scheduling
4G Enabling Technologies
PAPR Characteristics of SC-FDMA
58
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
P
r
(
P
A
P
R
>
P
A
P
R
0
)
PAPR
0
[dB]
CCDF of PAPR: 16-QAM, Rolloff = 0.22, N
fft
= 512, N
occupied
= 128
Dotted lines: no PS
Dashed lines: RRC PS
Solid lines: RC PS
IFDMA
DFDMA
LFDMA
OFDMA
(a) QPSK (b) 16-QAM
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
P
r
(
P
A
P
R
>
P
A
P
R
0
)
PAPR
0
[dB]
CCDF of PAPR: QPSK, Rolloff = 0.22, N
fft
= 512, N
occupied
= 128
Dotted lines: no PS
Dashed lines: RRC PS
Solid lines: RC PS
IFDMA
DFDMA
LFDMA
OFDMA
H. G. Myung et al., “Peak-to-Average Power Ratio of Single Carrier FDMA Signals with Pulse Shaping", IEEE
International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) 2006.
4G Enabling Technologies
MIMO
• Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technique improves
communication link quality and capacity by using multiple
transmit and receive antennas.
• Two types of gain; spatial diversity gain and spatial
multiplexing gain.
59
Transmitter Receiver
MIMO channel
4G Enabling Technologies
MIMO
• Spatial diversity
– Improves link quality (SNR) by combining multiple independently
faded signal replicas.
– With N
t
Tx and N
r
Rx antennas, N
t
×N
r
diversity gain is achievable.
– Smart antenna, Alamouti transmit diversity, and space-time coding.
• Spatial multiplexing
– Increases data throughput by sending multiple streams of data
through parallel spatial channels.
– With N
t
Tx and N
r
Rx antennas, min(N
t
,N
r
) multiplexing gain is
achievable.
– BLAST (Bell Labs Space-Time Architecture) and unitary precoding.
60
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Basic Idea of Spatial Diversity
• Coherent combining of multiple copies
61
1
x
1
y
2
y
r
N
y
1
h
* Narrowband channel
2
h
r
N
h
Coherent
combining
1
x
4G Enabling Technologies
Basic Idea of Spatial Multiplexing
• Parallel decomposition of a MIMO channel
62
1
x
2
x
t
N
x
1
y
2
y
r
N
y
11
h
21
h
1
r
N
h
r t
N N
h
* Narrowband channel
4G Enabling Technologies
Basic Idea of Spatial Multiplexing
63
11 1
1 1 1
1
t
r r r t t r
N
N N N N N N
h h
y x n
y h h x n
y H x n
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
= · +
| | | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
¬ = · +
H H
H H H H
I
H H H
x n
y
H UDV y UDV x n
U y U U DV x U n
U y D
y x
U
D
V n
n
x
=
= ¬ = +
= +
= +
= +
Diagonal matrix
Singular value decomposition (SVD)
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Basic Idea of Spatial Multiplexing
64
1
x
2
x
t
N
x
1
y
2
y
r
N
y
11
h
21
h
1
r
N
h
r t
N N
h
1
x
2
x
t
N
x
1
y
2
y
r
N
y
11
d
21
d
t t
N N
d
* N
t
< N
r
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Multicarrier MIMO Spatial Multiplexing
• Frequency domain for k
th
subcarrier
65
11, 1 ,
1, 1, 1,
, 1, , , ,
t
r r r t t r
k k k k
k N k
k k k
N k N k N N k N k N k
Y N X H
k k k k
H
k k k
H
k k k
H
k
k k k k
k k
H H
Y X N
Y H H X N
Y H X N
Y U Y
X V X
N U
Y D X N
N
= = = =
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
= · +
| |
¬ = +
| |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
¬ = · +
¦
=
¦
=
´
¦
=
¹
4G Enabling Technologies
Unitary Precoding
66
Unitary
Precoding
MIMO Channel
H
k
Receiver ©
k
X
k
X
k k
H X
k
N
k
Y
k
Z
k
V
k k k
X V X =
( )
H
k k k k k
k k k
U D V V X
U D X
=
=
4G Enabling Technologies
Channel-Dependent Scheduling
67
Subcarriers
Frequency
User 1
User 2
Channel gain
4G Enabling Technologies
Channel-Dependent Scheduling
• Assign subcarriers to a user in good channel condition.
• Two subcarrier mapping schemes have advantages over each
other.
– Distributed: Frequency diversity.
– Localized: Frequency selective gain with CDS.
• CDS is a scheme to find an optimal set of subcarriers that are
allocated to each user that maximizes some utility based on
each user’s channel response.
68
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Channel-Dependent Scheduling
69
0 50 100 150 200 250
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Subcarriers
|
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

g
a
i
n
|
2
256 total subcarriers, 16 chunks, 16 subcarriers per chunk


User 1
User 2
Chunk allocated to user 1
Chunk allocated to user 2
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Distributed vs. Localized Subcarrier Mapping
• Two subcarrier mappings
have advantages over
each other.
– Distributed: Frequency
diversity, lower PAPR in
case of IFDMA.
– Localized: Frequency
selective gain with channel
dependent scheduling
(CDS), higher PAPR than
the case of IFDMA but
similar PAPR to the case of
DFDMA.
70
* J. Lim, H. G. Myung, K. Oh, and D. J. Goodman, "Proportional Fair Scheduling
of Uplink Single-Carrier FDMA Systems", IEEE International Symposium on
Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) 2006.
4 8 16 32 64 128
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Number of users
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
p
s
]


LFDMA: Static
LFDMA: CDS
IFDMA: Static
IFDMA: CDS
4G Enabling Technologies
Fractional Frequency Re-use
71
F F1 F2 F3 = + +
Cell-center users: 
Cell-edge users: 
Cell-center users: 
Cell-edge users: 
4G Enabling Technologies
FFR
72
Cell-center users: 
Cell-edge users: 
F F1 F2 F3 = + +
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
FFR
• Frequency re-use improves cell-edge performance but
sacrifices the cell-center performance.
• Fractional frequency re-use (FFR)
– Frequency re-use = 1 at cell center: Improves overall cell capacity.
– Higher re-use factor at the cell edge to reduce interference: Improves
cell-edge performance.
73
- cont.
4G Enabling Technologies
Outline
74
Introduction and Background
Summary and References
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
WiMAX
4G Enabling Technologies
3GPP Evolution
• Release 99 (2000): UMTS/WCDMA
• Rel-5 (2002): HSDPA
• Rel-6 (2005): HSUPA
• Rel-7 (2007) and beyond: HSPA+
• Long Term Evolution (LTE)
– 3GPP work on the Evolution started in November 2004.
– Standardized in the form of Rel-8 (Dec. 2008).
• LTE-Advanced
– More bandwidth (up to 100 MHz) and backward compatible with LTE.
– Standardization in progress (targeted for Rel-10).
75
3GPP LTE
Requirements of LTE
• Peak data rate
– 100 Mbps DL/ 50 Mbps UL within 20 MHz bandwidth.
• Up to 200 active users in a cell (5 MHz)
• Less than 5 ms user-plane latency
• Mobility
– Optimized for 0 ~ 15 km/h.
– 15 ~ 120 km/h supported with high performance.
– Supported up to 350 km/h or even up to 500 km/h.
• Enhanced multimedia broadcast multicast service (E-MBMS)
• Spectrum flexibility: 1.25 ~ 20 MHz
• Enhanced support for end-to-end QoS
76
3GPP LTE
Key Features of LTE
• Multiple access scheme
– DL: OFDMA with CP.
– UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP.
• Adaptive modulation and coding
– DL/UL modulations: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM
– Turbo coding
• Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing techniques
– (2 or 4)x(2 or 4) downlink and uplink supported.
– Multi-user MIMO also supported.
• Support for both FDD and TDD
• H-ARQ, mobility support, rate control, security, and etc.
77
3GPP LTE
Release 10
LTE-Advanced
LTE Standardization Status
78
2008 2009 2010
Release 8
First version of LTE
Release 9
Enhancements to LTE
Source: 3GPP
3GPP LTE
2011
LTE Standard Specifications
• Freely downloadable from
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm
79
Specification index Description of contents
TS 36.1xx Equipment requirements: Terminals, base stations, and repeaters.
TS 36.2xx Physical layer.
TS 36.3xx
Layers 2 and 3: Medium access control, radio link control, and radio
resource control.
TS 36.4xx
Infrastructure communications (UTRAN = UTRA Network) including base
stations and mobile management entities.
TS 36.5xx Conformance testing.
3GPP LTE
Protocol Architecture
80
PHY: Physical layer
MAC: Medium Access Control
RLC: Radio Link Control
Logical channels
Transport channels
C
o
n
t
r
o
l

/

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
RRC: Radio Resource Control
Physical channels
Transceiver
3GPP LTE
LTE Network Architecture
• E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network)
81
NB: NodeB (base station)
RNC: Radio Network Controller
SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node
RNC RNC
SGSN
GGSN
NB NB NB NB
UMTS 3G: UTRAN
* 3GPP TS 36.300
eNB
MME
S-GW/P-GW
MME
S-GW/P-GW
S1
X2
E-UTRAN
EPC (Evolved Packet Core)
eNB eNB
eNB
eNB: E-UTRAN NodeB
MME: Mobility Management Entity
S-GW: Serving Gateway
P-GW: PDN (Packet Data Network) Gateway
* 3GPP TS 36.300
3GPP LTE
LTE Network Architecture
• eNB
– All radio interface-related
functions
• MME
– Manages mobility, UE
identity, and security
parameters.
• S-GW
– Node that terminates the
interface towards E-UTRAN.
• P-GW
– Node that terminates the
interface towards PDN.
82
* 3GPP TS 36.300
eNB
MME
S-GW/P-GW
MME
S-GW/P-GW
S1
X2
E-UTRAN
EPC (Evolved Packet Core)
eNB eNB
eNB
eNB: E-UTRAN NodeB
MME: Mobility Management Entity
S-GW: Serving Gateway
P-GW: PDN (Packet Data Network) Gateway
* 3GPP TS 36.300
3GPP LTE
- cont.
LTE Network Architecture
83
* Non-roaming architecture
* 3GPP TS 23.401

SGi
S12
S3
S1-MME
PCR
F
S7
S6a
HSS
Operator's IP Services
(e.g. IMS, PSS etc.)
Rx+
S10
UE
SGSN
"LTE-Uu"
E-UTRAN
MME
S11
S5
Serving
Gateway
PDN
Gateway
S1-U
S4
UTRAN
GERAN
3GPP LTE
- cont.
LTE Network Architecture
84
* 3GPP TS 36.300

internet
eNB
RB Control
Connection Mobility Cont.
eNB Measurement
Configuration & Provision
Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)
PDCP
PHY
MME
S-GW
S1
MAC
Inter Cell RRM
Radio Admission Control
RLC
E-UTRAN EPC
RRC
Mobility
Anchoring
EPS Bearer Control
Idle State Mobility
Handling
NAS Security
P-GW
UE IP address
allocation
Packet Filtering
RRM: Radio Resource Management
RB: Radio Bearer
RRC: Radio Resource Control
PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol
NAS: Non-Access Stratum
EPS: Evolved Packet System
3GPP LTE
- cont.
LTE Network Architecture
85
User-Plane
Protocol
Stack
Control-Plane
Protocol
Stack
* 3GPP TS 36.300
eNB
PHY
UE
PHY
MAC
RLC
MAC
PDCP PDCP
RLC
eNB
PHY
UE
PHY
MAC
RLC
MAC
MME
RLC
NAS NAS
RRC RRC
PDCP PDCP
3GPP LTE
- cont.
Frame Structure
• Two radio frame structures defined.
– Frame structure type 1 (FS1): FDD.
– Frame structure type 2 (FS2): TDD.
• A radio frame has duration of 10 ms.
• A resource block (RB) spans 12 subcarriers over a slot
duration of 0.5 ms. One subcarrier has bandwidth of 15 kHz,
thus 180 kHz per RB.
86
3GPP LTE
Frame Structure Type 1
• FDD frame structure
87
One subframe = TTI (Transmission Time Interval)
#0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19
One slot = 0.5 ms
One radio frame = 10 ms
3GPP LTE
Frame Structure Type 2
• TDD frame structure
88
Subframe #0 Subframe #2 Subframe #3 Subframe #4 Subframe #5 Subframe #7 Subframe #8 Subframe #9
DwPTS GP UpPTS DwPTS GP UpPTS
One subframe = 1 ms
One half-frame = 5 ms
One radio frame = 10 ms
One slot = 0.5 ms
3GPP LTE
Resource Grid
89
Slot #0 #19
One radio frame
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r

(
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
)
OFDM/SC-FDMA symbol (time)
RB
RB sc
N N ×
12
RB
sc
N
=
symb
N
Resource block
Resource element
RB
symb sc
N N = × resource elements
3GPP LTE
Length of CP
90
symb
N
Configuration
Normal CP 7
Extended CP 6
Extended CP (Af = 7.5 kHz)† 3
Configuration CP length N
CP,l
[samples]
Normal CP
160 (~ 5.21 us) for l = 0
144 (~ 4.69 us) for l = 1, 2, …, 6
Extended CP 512 (~ 16.67 us) for l = 0, 1, …, 5
Extended CP (Af = 7.5 kHz) † 1024 (~ 33.33 us) for l = 0, 1, 2
† Only in downlink
3GPP LTE
LTE Bandwidth/Resource Configuration
91
Channel
bandwidth [MHz]
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
Number of
resource blocks (N
RB
)
6 15 25 50 75 100
Number of
occupied subcarriers
72 180 300 600 900 1200
IDFT(Tx)/DFT(Rx) size 128 256 512 1024 1536 2048
Sample rate [MHz] 1.92 3.84 7.68 15.36 23.04 30.72
Samples per slot 960 1920 3840 7680 11520 15360
*3GPP TS 36.104
3GPP LTE
Bandwidth Configuration
92
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
time
300
UL RB
RB sc
N N ×
= 12
RB
sc
N
=
(7.68 MHz)
512
M
=
(4.5 MHz) (180 kHz)
Resource
block
Zeros
Zeros
1 slot
DL or UL symbol
* 5 MHz system with
frame structure type 1
3GPP LTE
LTE Physical Channels
• DL
– Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
– Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
– Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
– Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
– Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
– Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
• UL
– Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
– Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
– Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
93
3GPP LTE
LTE Transport Channels
• Physical layer transport channels offer information transfer to
medium access control (MAC) and higher layers.
• DL
– Broadcast Channel (BCH)
– Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)
– Paging Channel (PCH)
– Multicast Channel (MCH)
• UL
– Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)
– Random Access Channel (RACH)
94
3GPP LTE
LTE Logical Channels
• Logical channels are offered by the MAC layer.
• Control Channels: Control-plane information
– Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
– Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
– Common Control Channel (CCCH)
– Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)
– Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
• Traffic Channels: User-plane information
– Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
– Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)
95
3GPP LTE
Channel Mappings
96
PCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH
Logical
channels
PMCH PDCCH PBCH PDSCH
PCH DL-SCH MCH
CCCH DCCH DTCH
PUSCH PUCCH PRACH
RACH BCH UL-SCH
Transport
channels
Physical
channels
Downlink Uplink
3GPP LTE
LTE Layer 2
• Layer 2 has three sublayers
– MAC (Medium Access Control)
– RLC (Radio Link Control)
– PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol)
97
DL UL
ROHC: Robust Header Compression
* 3GPP TS 36.300

Segm.
ARQ etc
Multiplexing UE1
Segm.
ARQ etc
...
HARQ
Multiplexing UEn
HARQ
BCCH PCCH
Scheduling / Priority Handling
Logical Channels
Transport Channels
MAC
RLC
Segm.
ARQ etc
Segm.
ARQ etc
PDCP
ROHC ROHC ROHC ROHC
Radio Bearers
Security Security Security Security
...

Multiplexing
...
HARQ
Scheduling / Priority Handling
Transport Channels
MAC
RLC
PDCP
Segm.
ARQ etc
Segm.
ARQ etc
Logical Channels

ROHC ROHC
Radio Bearers
Security Security
3GPP LTE
RRC Layer
• Terminated in eNB on the network side.
• Functions
– Broadcast
– Paging
– RRC connection management
– RB (Radio Bearer) management
– Mobility functions
– UE measurement reporting and control
• RRC states
– RRC_IDLE
– RRC_CONNECTED
98
3GPP LTE
Resource Scheduling of Shared Channels
• Dynamic resource scheduler resides in eNB on MAC layer.
• Radio resource assignment based on radio condition, traffic
volume, and QoS requirements.
• Radio resource assignment consists of:
– Physical Resource Block (PRB)
– Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS)
99
3GPP LTE
Radio Resource Management
• Radio bearer control (RBC)
• Radio admission control (RAC)
• Connection mobility control (CMC)
• Dynamic resource allocation (DRA) or packet scheduling (PS)
• Inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC)
• Load balancing (LB)
100
3GPP LTE
Other Features
• ARQ (RLC) and H-ARQ (MAC)
• Mobility
• Rate control
• DRX (Discontinuous Reception)
• MBMS
• QoS
• Security
101
3GPP LTE
DL Overview
• DL physical channels
– Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
– Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
– Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
– Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
– Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
– Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
• DL physical signals
– Reference signal (RS)
– Synchronization signal
• Available modulation for data channel
– QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM
102
3GPP LTE
DL Physical Channel Processing
103
Scrambling
Modulation mapping
Layer mapping
OFDM signal generation
Resource element mapping
MIMO-related
processing
Precoding
Mapping onto one or more
transmission layers
Generation of signals for each
antenna port
IDFT operation
3GPP LTE
DL Reference Signal
• Three types of DL reference signals
– Cell-specific reference signals
• Associated with non-MBSFN transmission
– MBSFN reference signals
• Associated with MBSFN transmission
– UE-specific reference signals
104
3GPP LTE
DL Reference Signal
• Cell-specific 2D RS sequence is generated as the symbol-by-
symbol product of a 2D orthogonal sequence (OS) and a 2D
pseudo-random sequence (PRS).
– 3 different 2D OS and ~170 different PRS.
– Each cell (sector) ID corresponds to a unique combination of one OS
and one PRS ¬~510 unique cell IDs.
• CDM of RS for cells (sectors) of the same eNodeB (BS)
– Use complex orthogonal spreading codes.
• FDM of RS for each antenna in case of MIMO
105
3GPP LTE
- cont.
DL Reference Signal
106
*With normal CP
*3GPP TS 36.211

0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l
O
n
e

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
T
w
o

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
s
Resource element (k,l)
Not used for transmission on this antenan port
Reference symbols on this antenna port
0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l
0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l
F
o
u
r

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
s
0 = l 6 = l 0 = l
2
R
6 = l 0 = l 6 = l 0 = l 6 = l
2
R
2
R
2
R
3
R 3
R
3
R
3
R
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 0
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 1
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 2
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 3
3GPP LTE
- cont.
DL MIMO
• Supported up to 4x4 configuration.
• Support for both spatial multiplexing (SM) and Tx diversity
(TxD).
– SM
• Unitary precoding based scheme with codebook based feedback
from user.
• Multiple codewords (up to two).
– TxD: SFBC and CDD (Cyclic Delay Diversity).
• MU-MIMO supported.
• 3G Americas, “MIMO Transmission Schemes for LTE and HSPA
Networks,” Jun. 2009, available at http://3gamericas.org
107
3GPP LTE
UL Overview
• UL physical channels
– Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
– Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
– Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
• UL physical signals
– Reference signal (RS)
• Available modulation for data channel
– QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM
• Single user MIMO not supported in Release 8.
– But it will be addressed in the future release.
– Multi-user collaborative MIMO supported.
108
3GPP LTE
UL Resource Block
109
1 slot (0.5 ms)
Resource
block (RB)
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Time
One SC-FDMA symbol
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
Reference
symbols (RS)
*PUSCH with normal CP
3GPP LTE
UL Physical Channel Processing
110
Scrambling
Modulation mapping
Transform precoding
SC-FDMA signal generation
Resource element mapping
SC-FDMA
modulation
DFT-precoding
IDFT operation
3GPP LTE
SC-FDMA Modulation in LTE UL
111
Serial-
to-
Parallel
M-
IDFT
N-
DFT
Zeros
{ }
0 1 1
, ,
N
x x x
÷
Parallel
-to-
Serial
{ }
0 1 1
, ,
M
x x x
÷
Subcarrier
Mapping
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
0
M
-
1
Zeros
One SC-FDMA
symbol
Localized mapping
with an option of
adaptive scheduling
or random hopping.
3GPP LTE
UL Reference Signal
• Two types of UL RS
– Demodulation (DM) RS ¬Narrowband.
– Sounding RS: Used for UL resource scheduling ¬Broadband.
• RS based on Zadoff-Chu CAZAC (Constant Amplitude Zero
Auto-Correlation) polyphase sequence
– CAZAC sequence: Constant amplitude, zero circular auto-
correlation, flat frequency response, and low circular cross-
correlation between two different sequences.
112
2
2 , 0,1,2, , 1; for even
2
( 1)
2 , 0,1,2, , 1; for odd
2
k
r k
j qk k L L
L
r k k
j qk k L L
L
e
a
e
t
t
| |
÷ + = ÷ |
|
\ .
+ | |
÷ + = ÷
|
\ .
=
¦
¦
´
¦
¹
* r is any integer relatively prime
with L and q is any integer.
B. M. Popovic, “Generalized Chirp-like Polyphase Sequences with Optimal Correlation Properties,”
IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. 38, Jul. 1992, pp. 1406-1409.
3GPP LTE
UL RS Multiplexing
113
subcarriers
User 1
User 2
User 3
subcarriers
FDM Pilots CDM Pilots
3GPP LTE
UL RS Multiplexing
• DM RS: Associated with PUSCH or PUCCH
– For SIMO: FDM between different users.
– For SU-MIMO: CDM between RS from each antenna
– For MU-MIMO: CDM between RS from each antenna
• Sounding RS: Not associated with PUSCH or PUCCH
– CDM when there is only one sounding bandwidth.
– CDM/FDM when there are multiple sounding bandwidths.
114
3GPP LTE
- cont.
Cell Search
• Cell search: Mobile terminal or user equipment (UE) acquires
time and frequency synchronization with a cell and detects
the cell ID of that cell.
– Based on hierarchical synchronization signals.
• Primary SS (PSS) and secondary SS (SSS) are
transmitted twice per radio frame (10 ms) for FDD.
• Cell search procedure
1. 5 ms timing identified using PSS.
2. Radio timing and group ID found from SSS.
3. Full cell ID found from DL RS.
4. Decode BCH.
115
3GPP LTE
Random Access
• Non-synchronized random access.
• Open loop power controlled with power ramping similar to
WCDMA.
• RACH signal bandwidth: 1.08 MHz (6 RBs)
• Preamble based on CAZAC sequence.
116
UE eNB
Random Access Preamble 1
Random Access Response 2
Scheduled Transmission 3
Contention Resolution 4
CP Preamble
T
CP
T
GP
RA slot = 1 ms
* T
CP
= 0.1 ms, T
GP
= 0.1 ms
3GPP LTE
Other Procedures
• Power control
• Uplink synchronization and uplink timing control
• Hybrid ARQ related procedures
117
3GPP LTE
LTE-Advanced Requirements
• Peak data rate:
– 1 Gbps DL and 500 Mbps UL
• Latency
– Less than 10 ms within Connected mode
– Less than 50 ms from Idle to Connected mode
• Spectrum
– Up to 100 MHz bandwidth
– Support for non-consecutive bands (spectrum aggregation)
• Peak spectrum efficiency
– 30 bps/Hz DL and 15 bps/Hz UL
118
3GPP LTE
LTE-A Features
• Carrier aggregation
• Enhanced MIMO
• Coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmission and reception
• Relaying
119
3GPP LTE
- cont.
LTE-A: Carrier Aggregation
• In order to support up to 100 MHz bandwidth, two or more
component carriers aggregated
– Component carrier (CC): Basic frequency block which comply with R8
LTE numerology
– Each CC is limited to 20 MHz bandwidth (110 resource blocks).
– Maintains backward compatibility with R8 LTE.
• Supports both contiguous and non-contiguous spectrum.
• Also supports asymmetric bandwidth for FDD.
120
3GPP LTE
- cont.
LTE-A: Carrier Aggregation
121
3GPP LTE
- cont.
20 MHz
100 MHz
CC
60 MHz
Non-contiguous
20 MHz
R8 LTE
60 MHz
Contiguous
LTE-A: Carrier Aggregation
• Downlink multiple access scheme
– OFDMA with CC-based structure: Re-use R8 spec for low cost & fast
development
– One transport block is mapped within one CC.
• Uplink multiple access scheme
– N-times DFT-spread OFDM: Clustered DFT spreading
122
3GPP LTE
- cont.
LTE-A: Enhanced MIMO
• Downlink MIMO
– Up to 8x8 (8 layer) configuration
– Additional RS: CSI-RS and UE-specific DM RS
– Support for MU-MIMO
– Enhancements to CSI feedback
• Uplink MIMO
– Introduction of UL transmit diversity
– Introduction of up to 4x4 SU-MIMO
– Use of turbo serial interference canceller
123
3GPP LTE
LTE-A: CoMP TX & RX
• Improves coverage, cell-edge performance, and system
throughput
– DL: Joint processing, coordinated scheduling/beamforming
– UL: Multi-point reception
124
3GPP LTE
LTE-A: Relaying
• Improves coverage and cell-edge performance.
• Relay node is wirelessly connected to RAN via a donor cell.
125
Relay node
Donor cell
3GPP LTE
LTE-A Documentations
• Ongoing progress highlighted in:
– 3GPP TR 36.913, Requirements for Further Advancements for E-UTRA
(LTE-Advanced)
– 3GPP TR 36.814, Further Advancements for E-UTRA Physical Layer
Aspects
126
3GPP LTE
- cont.
Outline
127
Introduction and Background
Summary and References
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
WiMAX
4G Enabling Technologies
What is WiMAX?
• Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
• IEEE 802.16-based system profile maintained by WiMAX
Forum
– IEEE 802.16 standards only specify PHY and MAC layers. WiMAX
specifies overall system profile based on 802.16 air interface.
– WiMAX Forum certifies system components to ensure inter
-operability.
• Mobile WiMAX
– Based on IEEE 802.16e-2005 and IEEE 802.16-2004 standards.
128
WiMAX
IEEE 802.16 Evolution
• 802.16 (2002): Line-of-sight fixed operation in 10 to 66 GHz
• 802.16a (2003): Air interface support for 2 to 11 GHz
• 802.16d (2004): Minor improvements to fixes to 16a
• 802.16e (2006): Support for vehicular mobility and
asymmetrical link
• 802.16m (in progress): Higher data rate, reduced latency, and
efficient security mechanism
129
WiMAX
Mobile WiMAX System Profile
130
System
profile
Release 1.0 Release 1.5 Release 2.0
IEEE
Standard
802.16-2004
802.16e-2005
802.16Rev2
802.16j
802.16m
Certification
Wave 1
Wave 2
Comments
•TDD only
•1x2 SIMO in Wave 1
•2x2 MIMO & beamforming
in Wave 2
•Bandwidth: 5, 8.75, & 10
MHz
•TDD & (H)FDD
•Higher VoIP capacity
•2x2 UL MIMO
•UL 64-QAM
•Bandwidth: up to 20
MHz
•Multi-hop relay
•TDD & FDD
•Candidate for
IMT-Advanced
WiMAX
Source: WiMAX Forum
Mobile WiMAX Network Architecture
131
Mobile
terminals
Mobile
WiMAX
base station
ASN-GW CSN
ASN-GW: Access Service Network Gateway
ASN: Access Service Network
CSN: Core Service Network
ASN
ASN
WiMAX
Mobile WiMAX Network Architecture
• Security
– Strong mutual device authentication based on IEEE 802.16
security framework.
• Mobility and handover
– Vertical (inter-technology) handover
– IPv4 or IPv6-based mobility management
– Dynamic and static home address configuration
– Dynamic assignment of Home Agent
• QoS
– Support for different levels of QoS
– Admission control
– Implementation of policies
132
WiMAX
- cont.
Frame Structure
133
*IEEE Std 802.16e-2005
WiMAX
Frame Structure
• Preamble: Used for synchronization.
• FCH (Frame Control Header): Provides frame configuration
information such as MAP (Media Access Protocol) message
length, coding scheme, and usable sub-channel.
• DL-MAP and UL-MAP: Provide sub-channel allocation
information.
• UL Ranging: Used to perform closed-loop time, frequency, an
d power adjustment as well as bandwidth requests.
• UL CQICH (Channel Quality Indicator Channel): Used to
feedback channel state information.
• UL ACK: Used to feedback DL H-ARQ acknowledgement.
134
WiMAX
- cont.
Subchannelization and Slots
• Subchannelization schemes: Ways to divide frequency/time
resources among users
– PUSC (Partial Usage Subchannelization)
– FUSC (Full Usage Subchannelization)
– TUSC (Tile Usage Subchannelization)
– AMC (Adaptive Modulation and Coding)
• Slot is the basic unit of time/frequency grid.
– Slot contains 48 data subcarriers.
• Localized and distributed resource allocation
135
WiMAX
Advanced PHY Layer Features
• Adaptive modulation and coding
• Hybrid ARQ
• Fast channel feedback via CQICH
• Support for QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM (optional in UL)
136
WiMAX
MAC Features
• QoS Support
– 5 Categories of QoS: Unsolicited grant service (UGS), real-time
polling service (rtPS), extended real-time polling service (ErtPS),
non-real-time polling service (nrtPS), and best-effort service (BE).
• Scheduling service
– Fast data scheduler for both DL and UL
– Dynamic resource allocation
– QoS oriented
– Frequency-selective scheduling
• Mobility management
• Security
137
WiMAX
MIMO Features
• Beamforming
– Improves coverage and capacity and reduces outage
probability.
• Space-time code
– Provides spatial diversity and reduces fade margin.
• Spatial multiplexing
– Achieves higher data rate.
– Up to 2x2 MIMO.
• Adaptive switching among beamforming, space-time coding,
and spatial multiplexing
138
WiMAX
Other Features
• Fractional frequency re-use.
• Ranging: Closed-loop adjustments of time, frequency, and
power.
• Power management through periodic sleep and listen.
139
WiMAX
802.16m Minimum Requirements
• OFDMA for both DL and DL
• Scalable bandwidth
– 5 MHz to 40 MHz as a single RF carrier.
– Higher bandwidth supported by carrier aggregation.
• Full duplex FDD, half-duplex FDD, and TDD
• Data latency: Less than 10 ms
• Up to 8x8 MIMO
• Integrated relay
• IEEE 802.16m working document
– System requirements document (IEEE 802.16m-07/002r6)
– System description document (IEEE 802.16m-07/003r6)
140
WiMAX
Outline
141
Introduction and Background
Summary and References
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
WiMAX
4G Enabling Technologies
Summary
• Key technologies of 4G systems
– Multicarrier-based radio air interface
• OFDMA and SC-FDMA
– Frequency domain equalization
– IP-based flat network architecture
– Multi-input multi-output (MIMO)
– Active interference avoidance and coordination
• Fractional frequency re-use (FFR)
– Fast multi-carrier frequency-selective resource scheduling
142
Summary and References
References and Resources
• 4G enabling technologies
– OFDM/OFDMA
• R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications,
Artech House, 2000.
– Frequency domain equalization
• D. Falconer et al., “Frequency Domain Equalization for Single-Carrier
Broadband Wireless Systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, Apr. 2002,
pp. 58-66.
• H. Sari et al., “Transmission Techniques for Digital Terrestrial TV
Broadcasting,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 33, no. 2, Feb. 1995, pp. 100-109.
– SC-FDMA
• H. G. Myung & D. Goodman, Single Carrier FDMA: A New Air Interface for Long
Term Evolution, John Wiley & Sons, Nov. 2008
• H. G. Myung et al., “Single Carrier FDMA for Uplink Wireless Transmission,”
IEEE Vehicular Technology Mag., vol. 1, no. 3, Sep. 2006.
• http://hgmyung.googlepages.com/scfdma
143
Summary and References
References and Resources
– MIMO
• A. Paulraj et al., Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications,
Cambridge University Press, May 2003.
• G. L. Stüber et al., “Broadband MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communications,”
Proceedings of the IEEE, Feb. 2004, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 271-294.
– Multicarrier scheduling
• G. Song and Y. Li, “Utility-based Resource Allocation and Scheduling
in OFDM-based Wireless Broadband Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.,
vol. 43, no. 12, Dec. 2005, pp. 127-134.
144
Summary and References
- cont.
References and Resources
• 3GPP LTE
– Spec
• http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm
• http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm (old)
– 3G Americas
• http://3gamericas.org
– http://www.LTEwatch.com
145
Summary and References
- cont.
References and Resources
• WiMAX
– IEEE 802.16e Spec
• http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.16e-2005.pdf
– IEEE 802.16m working document (http://wirelessman.org/tgm/index.
html)
• System requirements document (IEEE 802.16m-07/002r6)
• System description document (IEEE 802.16m-07/003r6)
• Evaluation methodology document (IEEE 802.16m-07/004r4)
– WiMAX Forum, “Mobile WiMAX - Part I: A Technical Overview and Per
formance Evaluation,” available at http://www.wimaxforum.org/sites
/wimaxforum.org/files/documentation/2009/mobile_wimax_part1_o
verview_and_performance.pdf
146
Summary and References
- cont.
WCNC 2010
2010.04.18
Dr. Hyung G. Myung
Qualcomm / Flarion
Questions? Thank you!