History Exam Key Terms List Nivelle is the French General that replaces Joffre after the majority

of the French troops become tired of Joffre s trends towards attrition at the Somme and Verdun. Rises to fame end of Verdun, innovative artillery techniques. Wants to destroy Germans on front with large-scale tactics. Promises that any offensives will not go in bad weather or if they don t penetrate in 48 hours they will stop; breaks both promises at 2nd Battle of the Aisne; Germans had moved backwards (boxing). Loses command during the French Mutinies; Germans stepped out of range of the opponent Flanders was the operation put out by General Haig; was the base for the Gothas attacking London, close to a key railway behind German lines; believed a victory here would clear the coast; was not viewed well by Petain and Foch; July 1917; close eye towards the channel ports, too close for comfort Flexible Defensive this was the German s strategy for 1917; they were short on men so they didn t want to get baited into more counter attacks; have a defense in depth, the lines go far back to cushion the blow, make overall defenses more efficient; basically a retreat, undermined plans by Nivelle and the French; changes shape of the sectors on the Western Front; Hindenburg Line: destroyed everything in their path, atrocities 2nd Battle at the Aisne April-May 1917; is an allied offensive that Nivelle promises to only go through with if good weather and immediate gains; breaks both promises; failure to advance more than 4 miles in 30 days; lots of casualties; not good for the morale of the French soldiers, may have assisted in the mutinites of 1917 The Battle of Arras this is a British and Canadian offensive where they are attacking eastward, moving into the flat plains East of Arras; similar types of problems as Aisne; included the Battle of Vimy Ridge April 9 1917; performed in conjunction with the Nivelle offensives; was an attempt for the allied to get back to open warfare; this is the northern arm of the envelopment; is just a subsection of the failed strategy of 1917; overall is an offensive that is failure; Nivelle s offensives fail Vimy Ridge all that we ve really done with Vimy Ridge is advance the line a few miles forward; 11,000 casualties in 4-5 days, the capture of Vimy Ridge is the most expensive battle in Canadian history; was part of another battle that was inconsequential to the overall offensive; this meant that conscription was implemented in order to keep the army afloat; tore the country apart; urban vs rural Set Piece Operation trying to hold the line; characterized by lots of planning and logistics; not a war-winning stroke, just a limited territory objective; have to continue with the attritional approached; test of National Endurance French Mutinies was a sit down strike where the French soldiers (some) refused to carry one with attacks; wanted more food, more time for rest, longer time for soldiers to go one leaves; Petain takes over command from Nivelle; he grants concessions to the men but made examples of a few, the incidents began to effect more people at this point; 30-40,000 troops, leave was extended 7-10 days; Agreed that French would not launch any more great offensives; no more large scale reckless offensives; (January-May 1917); mostly in the Chemin des Dames region; is about discipline not justice; Petain restored combat; protests changed the attitude of Petain, it did have a larger policy implication Passchendaele (3rd Battle of Ypres) July 31 1917; this was a BEF offensive where the strategicoffensive was to have a breakthrough in Flanders to advance from Ypres and Eliminate and important German Supply hub (Roulere); 2ndary purpose is to reclaim channel ports (Middlekirk and Ostend); operational objective revolves around ridgeline around Passchendaele village, this ridge was not the objective, they just never reached the final objective; Germans had mustard gas; crazy August Rain; there was hampering visibility which made logistics very difficult for the BEF, had

Turkey. fought in river valley where the Isonzo river flows. no chemical weapons. want to press forward with concentrated attacks. injection of manpower from British/French troops. don t have sufficient manpower to be safe. compare to the allied peace terms. there is no need to keep thinking about it. breakdown in discipline of high command. almost broke the resolve. not a smart thing to do. share experience 1916 Brusilov Russian Offensives Southern part of the front. destruction is an end to itself Hague Conventions international agreement signed in 1807 limit the violence of warfare. find that they were all broken in WWI. the heat of battle one was not able to take prisoners. one portion wont effect the whole front. got to the ridge by 2 Weeks into Nov. the Germans were in a very bad position in the war. they are not sustainable and not good enough to have a decisive impact Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 1918. just do your job. great deal of controversy over the article Fatalism a theme across the troops that if there was a bullet with your name on it you would die. sent off to Mesopotamian government. difficult to make any advance. reparations. just as Germans are taking people away from East. localized. smash Italians. no merchant ships. tells us the conditions of morale. Allieds set precedent of supreme allied command [Foch] . battle of attrition. Allieds have to add men Christmas Truce in late 1914. started early in the conflict as early reprisals. draconian. AH. heavy number of POWs. they hold all cards.to launch a massive barrage which destroyed the landscape. every man had his bayonet fixed on their weapon Politics of Surrender Canadian soldiers did not usually take prisoners. Armando Diaz replaces Cadorno. don t exist. (not all). not seen elsewhere on front. Germany can transfer resources back to Western front. was used to promote a cause. Hindenburg/Ludendorff try to win the war on Western front. did not limit violence German Offensives (Reasons/Overall) had to do these offensives because there was no other choice for the German Army. atrocities were not as bad as we all thought it was Bayonet Controversy different than shooting from far away. executed by Brusilov. Battle of Caporetto Autumn 1917. Armenian Genocide the 1st genocide in the 20th century. instructions given that shouldn t take POWs. the nation is starving and they will lose unless something is done. without him we would barely have any pictures of the British soldiers. joint AH/German attack. organized attacks against civilians become regularized.. shows an argument that the war was not that brutal. problem with no overarching head. German condiditions in respect to Russians vs the final peace treaty are very severe. was a good war leader. is a wasteful failure Sir Max Aitken was a newspaper/media tycoon that was responsible for the wartime images that were taken during the War. men are fighting on the sides of mountains/cliffs. Italians had most discipline. is about taking advantage of wartime chaos to attack an enemy. therefore the importance of bayonets in fighting shows the brutalization of the war. Russians surrender control of a lot of their territory to Germany. ends the fighting on the Eastern front. in 1915 decide they are settling Armenian problem under cover of war. attritional cost had drained on Italian army. troops stopped fighting had a part in no mans land. rates of injuries are higher than we believe. Turk gov t attacked its own Armenian population. no sea mines. failure in monitoring Haig s progress. more German troops brought in onto the front to keep the Russians under control. nature qualitatively different of being killed up close. the consequences are primarily on A-H. the peace treaty that is signed with the Germans. get fresh Canadian troops in Oct. couldn t end well[Beginning of 1918].

no logistical capacity Operation Georgette (April 1918) the original name for this operation was George but it wasn t supposed to succeed to they gave it a woman s name.Operation Michael (March 1918) was highly locally successful. Foch sent French troops to aid the british. etc. naval mutinites. Haig released this to the army. men. wanted peace The Final Hundred Days (August to November 1918) implications of Amiens unclear in August. caused the Austrians to lose faith in invincibility of Germans. Germans in retreat until the end of the war. 4th battle of Ypres. loss of the backbone of the German army Order of the Day (April 11 1918) two days after the start of the 4th battle of Ypres. truly allied effort. Germans were succeeding but eventually got distracted by Allied depots. all main allies participating. German logistics fell apart and they couldn t sustain it. limited objectives. first tank on tank battle. didn t meet goals Chemin Des Dames (May 27th 1918) 4th phase of the German offensives.make significant advance of 8-11 miles. free trade. the throw up lines of resistance of machine guns and self-supporting positions. did not go. big tank operation. starts out relatively small. predicated on the requirement to push German troops off of Important railways in Amiens to secure the hub. should have launched both attacks at same time. there is no real defensives. Germans have failed and lost by this point. there is no time for the Germans to build forts. fog. Southern part of the Western Front Elite Unit Syndrome took most of their best and most experienced men and pooled them together. the main issue is that the Germans have lost the element of surprise they had with Michael and now are subject to the regrouped Allied forces. where to allocate troops. German morale is now at the breaking point. for ordinary solider not much had changed. the crisis of not having a single aspect of control organization comes into play. also allies had warning of the attack. arms reductions. and were less skilled.national self-determination in colonial matters. pure determination at this point in the war. Germans had gained more ground than Allied in 1917 but had done so by crippling their army with no reserves left 2nd Battle of the Marne (July 15th 1918) French well prepared to defend the poor German attack. tank diversion (air). with more weapons. Germans got drunk off food/wine. b/c of the cost of Michael there were less troops available. shows a sense of understanding by high command that they have exhausted all avenues Battle of Amiens (August 1918) begins the Final Hundred days. go through lines smoothly. logistical problem. Americans join the offensive. fight to the death. wasn t aware what was going on a large scale Royal Navy Blockade caused the turnip winter. freedom of the seas. called off on April 29th 1918. was a major problem for Germany as a whole Wilson s 14 points (1918) Woodrow Wilson calls for these 14 points outlining the peace agreements at the end of the war: open covenants. tried to send out Germans for one more mission against the RN. make a 10 mile advance on Paris. move guns close enough to hit Paris. lacked manpower/discipline. threat to Paris was removed. Germans crippled by influenza. thinking in terms of these. secured the railway and town. . the success of this was due to the ability for the Allied to stop when they needed to and regrouped. stating that the war will be won by attrition and the side which is the strongest. outran their logistical capacity. was called off on April 5 by Ludendorff to avoid another attrition Operation Mars (Late March 1918) was another offensive launched by Germans. the Germans sent a lot of artillery at the front and manage to penetrate the line 40 miles in a matter of days.

compensate allied for damages. others were also possible. they had already done this prior to the Treaty of Versailles War Guilt Clause Germans didn t like admitting that they were solely responsible for the war. also had to protect against revolution. government is replaced with more political moderates (Ebert) and the SPD party takes over. this was needed in the treaty in order to pay reparations.V and were let down by allies. surrender heavy artillery to the allieds. they can now put the blame on them for the war and wash their hands of the repucussions Terms of Armistice all German forces have to evacuate any occupied terrioty. these 2 points were really the only thing that the Germans didn t like Great War for Civilization was this a Great War for civilization? The Backstab Myth perpetuate the mythology of the war experience that the average person will accept.Armistice (28 September) Gemans are no longer able to fight and don t want the Allieds to invade gemany. wouldn t have happened if they used only their own corps .o. maybe they weren t defeated in the battlefield. maybe they were tricked into the T.allies to occupy 3 rhine bridgeheads. have to give back forced labour.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.