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ED-19, 2, FEBRUARY 1972 NO.

273

itance diode with large figure-of-merit,” IRE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-8, pp.370-377, Sept. 1961. [j] M . Shinoda, “Capacitance of the hyperabrupt junction fabricated with alloy diffusion technique,” J . Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng., Jup. (Abstracts), vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 14-15, 1964. [6] T. Sukegawa, K. Fujikawa, and J . Nishizawa, “Silicon alloydiffused variable capacitance diode, ’I Solid-state Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-24, 1960. [7] S. Nakanuma, “Siliconvariablecapacitancediodes with high voltage sensitivity by low temperature epitaxial growth,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 578-559, July 1966.

[SI P. Brook and C. S. Whitehead, “Hyperabrupt junctions in Electron. Lett., Au-Si Schottkydiodesbyion-implantation,” vol. 4,no. 16, pp. 335-337, 1968. 191 M. P. Lepselter and S. M. Sze, “Silicon Schottky barrier diode with near-ideal I-V characteristics,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 47, p. 195, 1968. [lo] J. W. Mayer, L. Eriksson, and J. A. Davies, Ion-Implantation in Semiconductors. Kew York: Academic Press. [ l l ] R. A. Moline, “Ion-implantedphosphorus in silicon:Profiles using C-Vanalysis,” J. Appl. Phys., Aug. 1971. [12] R. W. Treible and R.A. Moline, unpublishel.

**Theory and Experiments on Surface l / f Noise
**

HORNG-SEN FU,

MEMBER, IEEE, AND.

CHIH-TANG SAH,

FELLOW, IEEE

Absfracf-A theoretical low-frequency noise model the for epitaxial-channel surface field-effect structure is presented where random modulation of the channel conductance arises from fluctuation of charges trapped at the oxide trap states near the Si-SiOz interface. In this model, charge fluctuation in the oxide traps arises from c,arrier tunneling between the fast interface surface states and the oxide trap states. A second fluctuation, at higher frequencies, arises from the random thermal emission and capture of electrons and holes at the fast interface states through the thermal or ShockleyRead-Hall process. Different oxide trap densities were introduced into the interface region of the metal-oxide-silicon field-effect structures using a carefully controlled and reproducible oxygen heat treatment technique. Energy distributions of the oxide trap densities are obtained from capacitance measurements. Humps are observed betwelen theflatbandandtheonset of strongsurfaceinversion (lower half of the bandgap) in both the noise power and the oxide trap density versus gate voltage(or surface band bending) plots. Theoretical noise power calculations using the experimental oxide trap densityprofile fromthe capacitance-voltage data agree very well with theexperimentalnoisehumpsinbothmagnitudesand fine structures. It is shown that the frequency spectra of noise depend strongly on the oxide trap density profile in theoxide. It issuggested that theoxide traps are due to the excess oxygen at theSiOz-Si interface.

I. INTRODUCTION

HE noise has been studied by many investigators. Early studies were primarily on germanium filaments whose surfaces exposed were to differentambients.nlanydifferentmodelshavebeen proposed to explain the noise d a t a [1]-[9]. McWhorter [ l o ] proposed -the tunneling model to explain the wide range of frequency spectrum observed in Ge filaments, which has beenused by many authors to account for the surface l/f noise in RlOS field-effect devices [11]Manuscript received March 23, 1971; revised September 18,1971. This work was supported in part by the U. S. Air Force Office of ScientificResearch andthe AdvancedResearch Projects Agency. The work is based in part on the doctoral thesis of H. S. F u submitted to the Graduate College of the University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering and the Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. 61801.

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[18]. In adopting McWhorter’s tunneling model, these authors assumed that carriers in conduction or valence bands tunnel directly into the surface states which are located at some energy in the semiconductor bandgap and at some distance away from the hterface in the surface oxide. Electron energyof about half of the semiconductorgap (-0.5 eV) mustbedissipated. I t was shown Kane by [19] that neither auger-impact the mechanism, nor the photon mechanism, nor the multiphoton processes are plausible. Thus, an intermediate s t a t e is essential. In paper, this a new model of carrier tunneling through intermediate an state is proposed t h a t is analogous to the tunneling model used earlier to explain the excess currents observed in gold-doped silicon tunnel diodes [20]. In this model, the carriers in conduction orvalencebandscommunicatewiththe fast surface states located at the interface through the ShockleyRead-Hall (SRH) process. T h e carriers tunnel then into or out of the oxide traps located a t some distance away from the interface elastically. This model is more plausible than early models since it is well known that thethermal SRH process is very efficient andthat continuous (in energy) distribution of fast surface states at the interface is a commoncharacteristic of silicon-silicon-dioxide interface. In t.his model, a separate time constant for the tunneling process is then obtained, in addition to the Shockley-Read time constant. This is in contrast to the earlier models just referred where tunneling to the process is tacitlyabsorbedintotheShockley-Readthermalcapturerate coefficients. I n gettingacorrelationbetweenthesurfacestates oroxidetrapsandthe l/f noise, themain difficulty encounteredinthepreviousinvestigations lies in the lack of detailed data on the spatial and energy distributions of the surface states. A certain type of spatial or energy distribution was generally assumed a priori in the earlier work. Recently, Sah and Hielscher [ l l ] have

analysis also applied the this can be to 3.. are known as fast surface states or interface states a r d they can exchange charges readily with the conductic.- Drain Section thin s l a b Fig.state located at (x = 0 . Thesetransitionmechanismsarediscussed 11 tact will drift into the channel to maintain the same more detail in the following sections. A trappedelectronin t h e fastinterfa#::(: ( x = 0 . a derivation of the noisepowerfrom the generatioilrecombination-tunneling kinetics based on the new model is summarized. Similarly. Th. theenergybanddiagram of thedeviceareshown 11 channel[process At the same time. The transition processes a r d from the conduction band (a)] and becomenegativelycharged. I t will thermallycapture ele':. Fig. Energy band diagram and charge changing a n infinitesimally thin layer a t t h e interface (x=O. This circuit is used 113 extracttheoxidetrapdensityfromthecapacitanx data. 1 showsthecoordinatesystemandthe crcljs section of theepitaxialn-channelsurface field-effe:t transistor used in this analysis. y). Epitaxial-channel silicon surface field-effect strt. Definitions of fast surface states and oxide traps in an MOS transistor structure. These devices were fab catedour in laboratory under carefully control'l8:'d conditions. T h e results will bepresentedinthreeparts. a.e study of the l/f noise and the surface states or oxiil:e traps will begiven. a small-signal equivale I t circuit is given t h a t includes the SRH process betwel:ln the fast surface states and the conduction or valen :e bands and the tunneling process between the fast surface states and the oxide traps.Fir.cturesareused.:e state or oxide trap density and the l/f noise power a re presented correlated each and to other through tll'e theory developed.Consideranemptysurface cannot readily exchange charges directly with the co:1. Cross section and coordinate system for the epitaxial n-channel MOS translstor. ~ throughthe new theory.I L X ' . J ) processes in the epitaxial n-channel MOS transistor. The electrons captured by the surface states can also be thermally excited to trons from the conduction band or emit trapped ele:trons to the conduction band.^: the conduction band [process (b)] or recombine with a ] from the valence band at transitions between the surface states and the valen1::e hole captured [process (c) bandstates. electronsmajority Since are A . Second.t. In this paper. It can capture an electron at the same position in the duction or valence bands. f i x e d oxide charge '4 dra(in fast surfoce state gate electrode state) source Fig. . number of electrons.m changes. Those states which are located at : surface state can also tunnel into an empty oxide trap i at some distance away from the certain distance away from the interface ( x = x . A fast surface state with energy level at ET with.theelectrondrifttime is thedielectric time. 2.channelas well.sincethisallowsustoprobe a mu:h wider range of energy in the bandgap in both noise anld surface state measurements.11 relaxation which T h e foregoing capture processthereforecauses a net the energy bandgap will act as a Shockley-Read-H::Il recombinationcenter. FEBRUARY 1972 shown explicitly t h a t a linear relationship betwcm surfacestatedensityandthe l/f noise exists.charge fluctuation at ( x = 0. 3. 1. 2 showssomedefinitions of tlue Metal Semiconductor Oxide terminologies used here. y).274 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES. Finally. i h 11.:y noise and the surface state density as a function of c n ergy in the band gap. Surface states which occur 11 Fig. With suitable notatic. an electron from the n+ source conFig. 3. If the trapped electron is thermally excited X . the experimental results on the surfa. y ) . holes will mal.andcomparedtothe noisie data. is of the order of s [21]. Thesurfacestatedensities a Id distributions are obtained from capacitance measur ements that are then used to calculate the noise P O M .:. y ) a -13 located in the oxide known as slow surface states or oxide traps since t h t y interfaceandviceversa.:y demonstrated occurrence the of corresponding fi r1. SURFACE NOISETHEORY Fig.111 and valence bands. Charge Trapping Mechanism carriershere.e structures in both the magnitude of the low-frequen. so that the oxide trap and interface states are reproduced overa wide range of density. a comprehensir.

% ) / x . in the oxidetrapslocatedfrom x t o x + A x .there will be no netcharge at the surface states and oxide traps (located from x to change a t (x = 0 . (b). Let Surfacedensities of electronsandholes. y ) by the surface electric field in trations in the conduction and the x’ direction. in the conduction B.Thesameapplies if a hole is rates of these processes. In order to calculate the trapping time constants for The fluctuating components of ns. in number/cm2. y). i t will be swept away rapidly vaSence bands. The algebra is giveninAppendix I. trapped in a sheet of interface states. thus.. This involves four time constants whose exact solutions are tedious to obtain. sps Nss 6nss sjN %TO‘ = 1VTO’ j~ = J N where NE. beobtained by substituting (3a)--(3e) into (2a)-(2d). A trap located in the oxide close to the interface can exchange charge with the fast surface states or the band states at the interface through tunneling. by a sheet of interface states. (d) . and 6nTo’. However. rating the steady-state components. Charge Trapping Time Constants band. respectively.28x). NSS. 6 p . if a hole from the valence bandis captured by (neglectingother cesses). a t t h einterface x = 0. where x is the thickness of the the presence of the electric field. Emission for rates electrons holes. holetransitionsbe4 tween the surface states and valence band states will notinducenetchargefluctuationintheconduction channel and thereforewill not give low-frequency noise. capture and emission processes at the fast surface states a t (x all generation--recombination proHowever. from the interface states. and respectively. 3 can then be expressed as ns = = Ns + 6ns + + + &%TO‘ (34 (3b) (3 4 (3d) (34 ps nss = Ps $. noise oxide. and respectively. ~&ass. An electron capturedbyafastsurfacestate will tunnelintoan oxide trap at the same energy level [process (e)] located a t a distance from the interface and induce a charge of wherejN is the density of electron drift current due to q ( x .___ (44 where Tl = r l exp ( .it due to the large barrier from x+Ax fromtheinterface)canbeobtainedfromthe surfacebandbending.PU AND SAH: SURFACE I / ~ N O I S ~ 275 The net rate of change of electron and hole conceninto the conduction band. in number/s. this problem can be simplified by considering the slower time constants only since we are interested in thelow-frequencynoise. Electronand hole concentrations in the oxide traps.s) of processes (a). dns N . reslpectively. and (f) in Fig. y)sinceholescannotcommunicate with the external circu. and Here 0 is theattenuatingconstant [ 2 2 ] of thewave . in cm2/s. the time constant for the conduction electron fluctuation 6ns is much shorter than those of the trapped charges 6p8.) Tunnelingprobabilitiesforelectrontunneling into or out of a trap.jBecause the hole pocket is isolated from the external at circuit (there is no hole current).and J N are the sLeady-state quantities and S denoted the fluctuating component. causing a net charge change = 0. Densities of electrons holes. PB. in number/cm2.(b) . respectively. The time constants associated with 6nss and 6nTo’ are given by 78s = c ~ ~ ~ ens ~. and the net rate of change of trapped electrons occupiedsurfacestates.NTO’. y) to (x‘. y).eps $ sI I + 1 .’(n’To( = nToAx) and $TO’( = p r o a x ) are the sheet densities of electrons and holes. The time dependence of 6ns. in nUmber/Cm.x ) / x . They are thermallyexcitedfrom a surfacestate[process(d)]. T2= r 2 exp ( -28x). and 8nTO’ can . and nTO‘ thechargefluctuationsinthefastsurfacestatesand can be obtained from the foregoing equations by sepaoxide traps. due to from ( x = 0. Capture probabilities electrons for and holes.q ( x . resulting in a shot . The rates (number/cm2.(a) . a t (x = 0. the following parameters will be defined.. Psl nss. . (c). in number/cm2.cPsPs 4.Similarly. Gnss. induce a net charge of .thereverseprocess[process(f)] will spectrum. (e). . in cmz/s.

represent the amplification factor and the gate . C. Lumped circuit model for a n MOS transistor. and A V y is the dc voltage drop across the thin sl l b of the semiconductor located fromy to y + A y along I l e : conductingchannel(Fig. 4. that the induced charges are shared by two capacitcts. wherethefactor Cw/(Cw+Co) resultsfromthe f. Induced Charge Fluctuation in the Conducting Charinel The net charge fluctuation per unit area in the c'mduction band of the conducting channel.tlct To obtain the noise voltage across the drain electrode. and is given by y from electron tunneling into or out of the oxidetr:. T h a t is. and only those charges inducedin Cw appear iin ture is used [ 2 3 ] . namely.tion 8 i d can therefore be related to AVY and is given 'l)y where the relation [ 2 3 ] . (oxide capz1c. 8 v d is the open-circuit noise region. 4. ~ and T~ are unknown c m ..&) GnTo(o)Ax :') This fluctuation is amplified by the drain section only.h p. can be obtained fromtheWiener-Khintchinetheorem. SavdAf. This is shown in Fig. NTTo is the concentration of oxide traps at x. and F. the thin dropped sincei t has a very short time constant resulting slab. I t is showninAppendix I that the domin2nt low-frequency term in ( 5 ) is the first term which con ICS voltage at the drain electrode.. field-effect strucCw (depletion layer capacitance) and C. The total .216 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES. w is the angular frequency. due to the fluctuationin the thin slab at.p states located a t a region from x t o %+Ax. oxide traps.he chargefluctuationsinthetraps. where Q N is the electron charge density per unit area in the conducting channel and can be obtained from QN = S.ies close tothetrapenergy level (elastic). fluctuation The of 6ns is channel is divided into three subsections. Surface Noise The drain noise current 8 i d .thesourcesection. T h e power spectrum of thefluctuation 6 v d . caused by the current 6A fluctLl. but not are important to due large energy change. and those of the drain section. The entire the conducting channel. fromthepresence of thesurfaceelectricfield. Fig.i. Transiti ~ n s between an oxide trap state and the states in t h e c m duction or valence bands are also possible(inelast I:). V y . 2 is the width of the conducting channel. and holes a t t h e inTa-face.ud and egd represent sweeps out all the surface electrons the into bCik signal of the source section. and e. Thevoltagefluctuation across the thin slab. m* is the effective mass of electrons in the ox. D n(x')dx' where D is the depth of the conducting channel and n ( x ' ) is theelectronconcentration in theconducting channel. D.~ Q N is the s jm . a n d f t o is the equilibrium Fermi-Dirac occupation factor of the traps. I t is important to note that the transition probabili. stants. FEBRUARY 1972 functions in the oxide. 1).itle. which is induced by l. the charge fluctuationS Q N is given by [5) + shot noise term 'exp (.ies between the oxide trap states and the surface st: 1:es comemainlyfromthosesurfacestateswith ener!. where Af is the frequency bandwidth.canbeexpressed as follows : where .un is themobility of electronsand is assumEd to be constant. [24] was used. Therefore. of the induced charge due to the charge fluctuation:.a small-signal lumped model for the tance). is the Planck's const: nt. 1vhic..andthedrainsection. 1 is the ' potential barrier between fast the surlslce state and theoxide trap. where 6nTo(0) is the steady-state value of &To. in the surface states. T ~ T.

25 1216 1218 1040 2 045 Lbm) 51.5. and 4 wereheatedinthe energy of 0. and pd<<l.eV).0 1.0 nonepitaxial (100) (100) 5. where L is the sourceanddraincontacts.14 2 73 3.5 46. which is biased t o V DV. T h e devicegeometry. gate voltage). This was followed by and Q N . c 5 9 10 11 12 7 on 8 6 13 14 (111) 0.2 51.5 (111) 3.Tominimizeany possible channel length. and 600°C for 0.Q voltagefluctuationfromall of the traps in the oxide for the entire channel is then given by 111. .O Z(pm) Effective OHT Gate A TemperaTime (10-8cma) ture(OC) 3 -25 3.0 46. theenergyrangeinthegapthatcanbeprobed.0 96.o 3.25 3. pd.0 24.0 I - 600 none 1000 800 600 600 600 none none 900 600 0.28 2.thiswas followed byaphosphorousgettering electrode./Ay areindependent of V.5 36.asa function of the time constant. 1.14 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OXIDETRAP ON AND SURFACE STATE DENSITIES T h e capacitance-dcgatevoltage (C.2 0.o 1150 1 4.7 1. DEVICE FABRICATION T h e devices used in this study were fabricated in our laboratory under carefully controlled and reproducible conditions.pieces 2 .0 36 .66 2.75AV~’ for n-type silicon with Fermi oxidecharges.o 46.the narrower 800°C. respectively.PU AND SAH: SURFACE ~I~NOISE TABLE I 277 PARAMETERS N-CHANNEL OF THE DEVICES OXYGEN AND HEATTREATMENT CONDITIONS (OHT) Substrate or Epitaxial Layer Layer AreaDensity Width Thickness Thickness Length OrientaDevice tion Type Number __.0 50.5 1.o 3.eV).At Contact holes for drain and source electrodes were cut small V D .5 (1 00) ( 100) 1.0 (100) 5.2 (111) 3.5 1030 4. .42 5.2 0. 2) the total (all timeconstants)oxide trap and surface state density p(states/cm2 .onlythosetrapswith and then withdrawn from the furnace in an ultrapure energy level coinciding with Fn(y) contributetothe argonambient. and 3) theoxidetrapdensity.(y).the noise measured at the drain traps. Hence the smaller the V D . thechannelcanbeconsideredasuniform.0 24. and 24 h . pure oxygen ambient (which will be called oxygen heat where & is the surface potential and VC’ is the effective treatment or O H T in this paper) separately a t 1000°C.84 eV above the edge of the valence band.2 51. 3.70 2.V ) characteristics at different signal frequencies are used to obtain: 1) the total oxide and surface state charge density. (13) gravingtechniques.75 V DeV when V D used as the control.0 24.doping. Piece number 1 was levels approximately in a range of 0. and AV. Since F n ( y ) is a function of y along the length of andsubsequentdrift of thesurfacestatesand oxide the channel [or V y ( y ) ] .L. Qo (number/cm2). special care was given to maintaining simplified t o the cleanliness of the slices throughout the processing. aluminum evaporation forming the gate electrode and AVy/Ay can then be replaced by VD/.5 (111) 3.__ Doping ND(cm-8) Epitaxial Channel Gate Oxide n on p+ n on p+ n on p+ p+ n on p n on p n on p n p n on p n on p P P P P Dbm) xo(A) 1188 1320 3. A thick layer of oxide was first grown on a chemically etched degreased and silicon slice. Equation (13) can then be contamination.=0.then followecl b y a phosphorous 1 W2TT02 4Y diffusion.0 - I 3. by the photoengraving process. T h e slicewas then broken into four pieces and of the contributions from those traps with the energy each processed was separately.2 51:2 46.5 1.5X10’6 3.0 1128 - 2080 1830 1770 2100 1970 2542 2542 2542 2542 2547 2547 2547 2547 2570 2500 2570 2570 2570 2570 none 1000 800 0.94 3.5 (100) 1. In order to control the amount of is small (Aq5.0 (100) 5.14 3.0 36. b. pTT()(states/cm2. 3). T o reducethesodiumcontamination noise.7 (100) 4.0 42 .0 (h) 1 on 2 3 n4a.2 0.5.0 36.0 36. is actually the sum cycle.and O H T conditions are given in Table I. T h e oxide was then stripped off and a thin The factor fto(l -fto) in the integrand behaves like layer (about 1000 A) of silicon dioxide was regrown on a 6 function and is peaked at the electron quasi-Fermi the surface in an ultrapure oxygen ambient a t 1000°C level F n ( y ) (Fig.7 1. Therefore. The N T T 0 f t 0 ( 1 -fto)T110 4VY windowsforthe n+ islandswere c u t usingphotoen__ dVydz.25 3.- (” ”) ’ + and the short-circuitnoise current is IV.14 3.7 (100) (100) 4.

A (100) n on p. Heat treatment in an argon ambient at different tealperatures does notchangetheoxidechargedensitli significantly. 1:3 IO" I *r I / I I b I i I I a * I 0 -7 -6 .+0. 2 x 10j1 0 1 '6 dol's Fig.8X10" states/cm2. the highest oxide charge density is obtained for a d t .eV). .4 eV. Total density of states versus voltage gate for devices fabricated on (111) surfaces acd oxygen heat treated at 600°C. . CFo(w) is then used to evaluate PTTO(W) from (16). 5. I L 700 900 500 T"C Fig. Argon I I100 _L-_. Tl t: C.eV).Similarresultsareobtainedfordevice. 7 .exceptthatthe oxidt: charge densities are much lower. A (100) n on p.en heattreatment. Fixed Oxide Charge Density Qo Typical C-V curves at different frequencies for d j"ferent OHT conditions are shown Fig. in IIized (to k T / q ) surface potential Us is also labeled f x device 4(a). T h e d a t aof pTTo are obtained from (see Appendix I1 for the derivation) where C T O is the equivalent parallel capacitance of charging disand charging of the oxide traps by tunneling andis given by T h e d a t a of C(w) and C(150 kHz) = C(00) are used t o evaluate CTo(w) from (17).. 0 (111) n-type. C.. (l). w A . 5. 6 and compared with those I 11' the Deal's triangle [25] (solidline). i cal (zero surface states and oxide traps) ' curves.278 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES. Low-frequency and high-frequency capacitance vers the gate voltage curves for devices (4a). 6. is obtainedfromthefrequency dependence of the C-V curves shown in Fig...and (5).E -5 I -4 -3 -2 . unit These curves show increasi~ig the surface state or oxide t r a p effect a t low OHT temper Iture and low-signal frequency. FEBRUARY 1972 1- 4 -8 -7 . 0 (111) n on p+. 7 ": 6t B. T h e oxide charl!:e density Qo for each device is obtained by comparingtl . \ : o..3 eV and 2.bZ ?* -5 -4 vc volts Fig. (1 I) n-type (argon annealmg). T h e resultsfortypical (111) samples with OHT at 600°C (units4aand4b)areshowninFig. is obtained using the Termantechnique [26] whichinvolvesthegraphical differentiation of the high-frequency C-V curves..eV at E. I t is evident th: I. pTTo(states/cm2.1 1 I .+0..eV at E.L results are shown in Fig. fabricated on a (100) surface.. Total Density of States p The total (all time constants) oxide trap and surface state density. compares favorably with 0.I? high-frequency (150 kHz) C. Fixed oxide charge density versus the temperatureof oxy. The frequency dependence of the oxide trap density. pTTo is obtained from the measured C(f) and C(HFE1.3 that observed on the thin very oxide capacitance previously reported [ 2 7 ] . The norm. vice fabricated a on (111) surface oxygen and heat treatedatthe lowest temperature (600°C). p(states/cm*. The larger peak at eV+E. O H T zt 1200°C yields the lowest number of oxide charge!. Oxide Trap Density PTTO 4 5[ jl 2__I.V curves with the theorel . .50 kHz) using the small-signal equivalent given circuit in Appendix 11. 5. 7 whichindicate peaked surface states of 5 X l 0 l 1 states/cm2.

and100 H z for the (111) device O H T a t 6OO0C (unit 4a). A typical result of pTTo(w) is shown in Fig. I t is obvious that a lower temperature OHT gives higher lo\nr-. as the humpsobservedonlow-frequency C-I/ plots and the trapdensityplots(Figs.L RESULTS 1/f NOISE ON lo-= e.4 eV.. a t frequencies of 10. frequencies using when 10-20 10-21 N E I 'v. Fig. O H T increasesandshiftsthe noise peaks toward more negative V Gdue to increasing positive charge Qo. 7 is also shown as dashed lines. or oxide trap capacitance.4 eV is not evidentthe in ~TTO(W) data to due the decreasing resolution a t higher(16). for device (4a). T h e secondary peak of p ( w ) a t E. 8. Oxide trap density. 7 and 8).frequency noise as well as higher oxide charges Qo. A T h e noise power (short-circuit rms noise current) of the devices was measured a t a drain voltage V Dof SO mV.+0. Humps observed are between flat the band the andonset of strong surface inversion (US=% Up). T h e solid curves show the relative magnitudes of noise humps at f = 20 Hzfordevices fabricated on the (111) surface and oxygen heat treated a t differenttemperatures. Noise power versus gate voltage for device (4a) with frequency as a parameter. Large humps were observed at the same surface Fermi level position.FU AND SAH: SURFACE l / f NOISE 279 '1 I Fig. using a Hewlett-Packard 302-A wave analyzer. and 4c) at two frequencies.+0. The dashed curves show . 10 for three devices (units 4a. Noise a t higherfrequenciesdecreasesandbecomesdifficult to detect due to amplifier noise because of the low drain voltage used here.20. T h e effects of oxygenheattreat:ment on the noise areshowninFig. E. 9. Dependence on T r a p Energy Fig. 4b.versusgate voltage.40. 10 and 100 Hz. 11. 9 shows the typical narrow-band noise power a as function of gatevoltage V Q orsurfaceFermienergy position E-E.The noisemeasuredheretherefore is A . The drain voltage of SO mV correspondstoabout 1. 8 fora (111)device O H T a t 600°C (unit 4a) where the total density of states p(al1 w ) from Fig. A high-gain low-noise preamplifier designed was for these measurements.5 kT (at room temperature) of energyspread. Theextremeuniformity of the noise power attributed to the reproduci- bility of the fabrication technique on a silicon slice is demonstrated in Fig. with frequency as a parameter. y -z EXPERIMENTA.

parameters are V c ( E . m d tive and negative bias tests. ) -3. the slopesfluctuatebetween 1.v2 versus f) is tendtochangefrom 1.57. Curve @)-afterapositive log-log plots of noisepower versus frequency for the bias-temperaturetest. -5.35 is observed near observed between these two devices.Slopes gre ater 9. 0 control.0 V.plots fordevices fabricated on (100) 5. T h e slopes of the dot since theslope of the power spectra (i.Fig. The gate voltages here also corcurves ( b ) and ( c ) are the profiles after sequential posirespond to surface accumulation. First.:s) and (100) surfaces (dashed lines) and oxygen heat treated a t clifferent temperatures. both were (100) devices O H T 12(b) shows thesimilarplotsfor a (100) device Jiith a t 600°C.08 Gettering to 1. X 1000°C.4 = e17 main hump) and -8.62.9.0 eV) V. the magniA -20 -I5 -I0 -5 0 . weak inversion. weak inversion.curve (c)-after sequentialpositiveand (111) device O H T at 600°C (unit4a).6 :1. Noise power versus frequency a t different surface potential ranges.0 to about 2.The noise generatelf in phorous gettering) unit and 10 (with phosphorous this region is amplified by the whole transitor.'The slope a t V O . Curve ( a ) is the originalnoiseprofile.hence the noise humps) to shift along the gate voltage cantly as the drain voltageof the device is increase1:l u p axis. A 800°C. and 600°C OHT (unit 8). These slopes do not change sigr1.0 V). 12(a) shows the Fig. 11.0and-6.0 eV). Curve @)-original. t h a n 1.E E .6 V (near the peak of the noise ve ':jus = V c curve) is about1. slope of 1. This implies t h a t devices fabricated on to the surface accumulation. 13. Fig. (b) Device (8). T h e noise profiles of the device are measured beto beyond and channel current saturation (5.c:en C. changesfromaccumulationtostronginversion. No significant noise h u m / ) is observed for the control sample (unit 5) which also llad no hump in theC-V plot (Fig. 13 for unit 9 (no phosnearthen+sourcecontact. FrequencyS@ectrunz v vo115 . t thesimilar.0 asthesurace sensitive to p r T o versus x in the oxide.ifi. (a) Device (4a). saturation is generated mainly in the channel re :ion The results are shown in Fig.er number of surface states. gettering [28]-[30]). fore and after electrically stressing the device a t 250°C This indicates that the noise measured beyond current for about 10 min under an electric field of lo6 V/cm. 12. which corresp m d the noise peak. Because of the ion drift or the slow trapping effect.0 (1.urfaces. @ 600°C. T h e frequencyspectra of the noisewere obtailed for fixed gate and drain voltages. Fig. B. Note that the noiselevels of the (100) devices are lower than those of the (111) devices due to a lo-f. and strmg (111) and (100) surfaces have different pZrTOdistribution inversionregions.Forgatevoltages betv. FEBRUARY 1972 4 d I000 2 1000 f tJ2 1 f I I Hz I I -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 VOltS I -2 I -I I 0 v .V curve (and pTTo in the oxide.Gatevoltage negative bias-temperature tests.0 are attributed to the large spatial variatiorl of the bias-temperature test will cause the C.5. Noise humps versus gate voltage a t f=20 Hz for devices (9) and (10). as can be understood from Fig.0 (0. (a> (b) Fig. Very different results are strong surface inversion. 5).280 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES. E f e c t of the Bias-Temperature Test and Phosphorous -5.respectively. Noise humps versus gate voltage for devices (device n 1rnbers labeled as shown) fabricated on (111) surfaces (solid li 18.

In unit 10. the direction of the shifts on the noise curves (as well as C. preceding sections now are comparedu demonthus Several authors [18]. the interface to form the oxide traps during low-temperature OHT.Thus.14(b)showsthenormalized noisepowerplottedversus Qo forepitaxialn-channel MOS field-effect devices fabricated on (111) and (100) surfaces and oxygen heat treated at different temperatures. Third. a positive gate bias causes the curve to shift to a more negative direction.Fig. and the drift of negative ions. VI. surface Fermi level position or gate voltage are shown in Fig.ND OX:IDE OF TRAP we suggest that the slow trapping effect might be origiDENSITY DATA natedfromtunnelingintoorout of theoxidetraps.I face does not affect the noise so that these ions are not 1 0 4 L IO" 10'2 11 00 !O" 1012 the noise source. power in terms of the equivalent noise resistance (referred to the gate) Rgn is plotted versus Qo for the devices fabricated on p-type substrates and oxygen heat treatedatdifferenttemperatures(theseareinversion n-channel field-effect structures). The second and third observations indicate that positive ion (sodium [31]) drift toward the interI . [34] have reported the use of strating one-to-one the correspondence of the oxide the bias-temperature stress t o create the surface states trap density and noise power as a funct.Thisdifferencecan realized by comparing frequency the dependence o f theoxidetrapdensity P T T O . and a negative gate bias causes the curve to shift to a more positive direction. k/crn2 l/f noise is reduced slightly after drift (unit 9).adirectcorrelationbetweenthe quencynoiseindeedoriginatesfromtheoxidetraps.charge densities of the devices with no sodium drifts This is knownastheslowtrapping effect [32]-[33]. Hence Qo must be proporbe easily tional to the l/f noise since the noise is proportional to of the noiseequation. trap density distribution in energy and position were This also serves to demonstrate that the l/f low-frenotobtained.These differencescomefrom the and the oxide trap charge density PTTO (near the interfactor T T O / ( 1 + w ~ T ~ owhich appears in the integrand ~ ) face) are proportional Ell]. T h e verticalseparations of the noise D. For unit 9 (not gettered).the noise the integrands of the and PTTO equations. 14. Thus. COMPARISON NOISEA.Thedevicethat gen) in these samples. Again a linear dependence is observed. tf/crn' could be the noise sources.14(a). RelationBetweenFixedOxide Charge Densityand curves at higher frequencies are somewhat greater than Noise Power those of the oxide trap density curves. T h e experimental results obtained the from two which also give rise to the noise. 13) proves very 'This slow trapping effect was observed only on 6OO0C convincingly that theoxide traps near the 502-Si interOHT samples. T h e (4 (b) first observation suggests that the PzO6 layer (unit 10) Fig. shows a larger slow trapping effectat elevated temperature also shows higher noiseat room temperature. which Q. The fact that the noise power levels are proportional to the oxide . there is practically no shift.V curves) are different. Thenoise hump is also wider than the width of the corresponding oxide I t was thought that the total oxide charge density Qo trapdensitycurve. that is.FU A N D SAH: SURFACE 1/f NOISE 28 1 tude of the noise for unit 10 is much lower than that for unit 9 [curves ( a ) ] . For unit 10 (gettered). A straight line relationship is observed. KO shift was observed on (100) control face and the oxide charges are of the same origin (oxysamplesafterbias-temperaturetest.15(a)-(c). I n Fig. noise power and the surface state density could not be T h ed a t a of noise andoxidetrapdensityversus made. the noise is essentially constant (in fact i t decreases slightly for the nongettered unit 9) after drift. might be present since the Q.ion of the trap forstudyingthe noisecharacteristics. (a typical example is unit 10 inFig.Second. buttheoxide energylevelorFermilevelposi-tion a t theinterface. Noise ower versus fixed oxide charge density (at flat band) fordevices gevice numberslabeled as shown)fabricatedwith forms a barrierpreventingtheoxygenfromreaching different oxygen heat treatments. a negative bias causes the curve to shift slightly toward a more negative direction.

1 6 obtained between the theory and the experiment both in magnitude and shape. (a) Noisepowerversus gatevoltage. exp (. ing between the fast surface states and the oxide trap Fig. I V G "Oll5 vg "0115 10151 I I ( b') (c) Fig.+0. 17. Experimental correlations between noise power and ox de traps for device (44. volts shown in Fig. power significantly since x<<xo. However. (a> 6 x i 4 I 2 I 0 Fig.. concentration N T T ~ ( must be known. the spatial distribution of the oxide tra 2. 100 H z donot along the x axis and a change in 6 will change the slopc a t V c = -6V(unit4a)and appear in the theory due to the decreasing resolutionof of the concentration trap profile. which gave P T T O ( O ) and then NTTO(CO) =40kTpTT~(w). lj(c)comparedwitht!le broader noise hump indicate that the surface states it the main peak of E. ). we haw: w) perimental noise power versus gate voltage curvesfor device (4a). thest changes will not affect magnitude the of the noisc the CTo(w) d a t a a t higher frequencies.282 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES. Theoretical noisepower versus gate voltagecurvesusing experimental oxide trap concentrations given in Fig. (c) Totaldensity 'If states versus gatevoltage. Sincethehorizontai scale or the spatial spread ofN T T O ( Xshown in Fig. Excellent agreement is traps can be obtained from the signal frequency w. the position o = [ using the data given in Fig.20x) 1. from T T O = T O exp (20%' Hence and NTTo(u) NTTOT ~ . 16. The experimental noise humps Change in T O will shift the relative trap concentratio1 f = 4 0 . COMPARISON EXPERIMENTAL OF AND THEORETICAL CURVES NOISE T o compute the theoretical noise power of the device using (1j). Relative oxide trap concentration versus distance from the interfacefordevice ( 4 4 withgatevoltage as aparameter. N T T o will spread deeper into the A new theoretical low-frequency surface l/f noise oxide if a lower oxide trap tunneling barrier taken (for is model is presented that considers trapped charge tunnelexample due to coulomb lowering). CONCLUSIONS is proportional to B-l. 16 and exp ~ ~ o ( come from the oxide traps a t OTTO = 1. value of T~ = s and f3-1 = 2 A wereusedinFig. This evaluate41 x) is from experimental the oxide capacitance trap date.3 eV are probably rather f a s t states at room temperature and hence do not contribu :I to much of the low-frequency noise observed. FEBRUARY 1972 t I t 6x 1 I 4 . 1 7 shows the theoretical noise curves computed ' i i . . 8. 16. This i'j also consistent with our earlier data for this peak which had to be taken a t 130°K instead of 300°K to increa:r: the time constants to a convenient range [27]. 8. VIII. T h e doubleandsharphumpsinthetotalsurfaze statedensitydata of Fig. v o l t 5 v. NTTO(W)'VNTTO(~/'TTO). which was used to obtain N T T o ( x ) for noise calculation. 15. VII. :I)) Oxide trap densitiesversusgatevoltage. -7 -6 -5 -4 -7 -6 -5 -4 v. Since most of the contributions to th': Fig.

and (d). (c). we have E l >>/PI. Hence (5) can be expressed as 8QX = qsnTO’(0) cw cw + co [X X0 X0 -X E O X0 + + y -a 1 X0 X --dP+ Y E .Using (2a)-(2d). and neglecting an. and 6 n ~ o ’ .thosetermscontainingexp ( X 3 t ) . which are also given as (4a) and (Lib). I t is demonstrated theoretically experiboth and mentally that charge fluctuations in the oxide traps are responsible for the surface l/f noise. we have . The details presentedherecovertheweaksurfaceinversionrange. 171. The trapped charges communicate with conduction or valence bands via the thermal or S R H process.8n58. that is.Terms containing either Gns~(0) or S$s(O) are much smaller than those containing &To’(O). (26) If we concentrate only on thelow-frequencycomponents. Az3. is much larger than that of the tunneling process y ] . I t is suggested from the experimental evidence that these oxide traps arise from excess oxygen a t t h e SiO2-Si interface. we have1 y Hence in the inversion range. since this is where the large humps appear in both noise power the and oxide density. we have . 1111.S)a2]. By using (20) in (5). Thetime constants for Gnss and &??TO‘ can be approximated by I or1 1 l o r 1 -1 011 >>I I.. APPENDIX I DERIVATION OF ’TIME CONSTANTS AND ~ Q N I t waspointed out inSection 11-A thatthetime constant of 6ns is much shorter than those of 6 $ ~ . Anincreasing density of the oxide trap as we go deeper into the oxide from the interface is needed to account for the noise power spectra l/f” with n greater than 1.0. and AM. frequency trap The spectra of the noise depend strongly the on spatial distribution of theoxidetrapdensity.FU AND SAH: SURFACE I/f NOISE 283 states. the reciprocal of the time constant for the Since Shockley-Read-Hallrecombinationprocesses(a). those terms containing 6nTo’(0) are A13.(b).

F. Ct. G. Rev. ED-14. S. Hawkins. 1967. 1955. detailed The mathematicalderivations will bepresentedelsewhere. Solid-State Electron. and F. u L . Press. Phys. vol.. vol. 11. Rev. R. p. Bell Syst.. E. vol. I.Mass. Solid-Slate Electron. For distributed oxide traps. R. vol. is t l (2 capacitance due to the interface states. ser. p.. 950. and G t is the conductance representing t b t : tunnelingbetweentheinterfacestatesandthe oxiclc: traps.. Kingston. Solid-State Electron. Hsu. McNuttand P.McWhorter. Pa. 10. R.Eng. 1970. 843. London. 2. where CTOand GTOarl: . p.. Lundquist. . Phys. 775-777. J . Appl. vol. 1953.ElectronDevices. 1961.Phys.. '!'he effect of bulk generation recombination and in che depletion layer is neglected here since i t was pointed out by Nicollian and Goetzberger [ 3 6 ] that this effect 7. p. 1966. Hyde. 16. Sah. F. C. 797. 615. Ctois the capacitance due I ( I oxide traps. 123.Surfacestates and l / f noise in MOS transistors. J. and Svensson. R. E. 1957. S. 1059. pp. 1904. 91. Phys. p. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Theauthors would like tothank M. 2 . Brit. I. J . Ed. Montgomery. in Semiconductor Surface Physics. Rev. 1952. p.D. p. p. K. IEEE Trans.J . Bew.. L. 2 . E. B69. J . vol. 1969. 1063. A. Sah and F. L. and E. Morrison. = .'Rev. vol. I.. Christensson... 716.(a) Withtraps located at x sion range. 78. Phys.. G. R:M. vol. Phys. Leventhal. New York: Plenum. Proc. A. S. are t k r c small signal components the of quasi-Fermi energ levels of the interface states and the oxide traps no] malized t o k T / q . T h e circuit elements are gi-c.. F. Philadelphia: Univ. 1569. Berz. 226. Physica (Utrecht). Bloodworth.A ' ~ ~ o f t O ( 1 -ftD) q2 kT F/cm3 REFERENCES T. C. 1955.c:n as follows: the equivalent parallel capacitance and conductance of r the oxide traps. 18(a) shows the equivalent circuit for the traps local. ser. 1950. (16) can be obtained.Sc. 1955. Hielscher. The equivalent circuit for the entire MOi3 structure is shown in Fig.Dep. u+ and us are the small-signal potential a t x anll at the interface normalized to k T / q . Solid-Slate Electron. 1969.?. p. 631. J . DuPre.t:d in the range of Ax a t x . Small-signal equivalent circuits for a n MOS structure incause a constant high conductance in the strong invmcluding thetunneling mechanism. H.: T h e small-signal equivalent circuit which includes the SRH process between the interface states and the conduction or valence band states and the tunneling prol::ess between oxide states the trap (located from x to x + A x ) andtheinterfacestatescan bederivedfrom (2c) and using (2d) (la)-(lf). Winston. Phys.. Tech. p. C. 359. 1950. G. Fig.. Cambridge. 1968. p. '9) (3 ) 2 (37) By taking the derivativeof CTOwith respect to w and using (34). vol. vol.284 IEEE TRANSACTIONSON ELECTRON DEVICES. 1956.and u t . Burstein and S. G. Mansour. FEBRUARY 1972 APPENDIXI r SMALL-SIGNAL EQUIVALENTOF A N MO!: CIRCUIT STRUCTURE INCLUDING THE TUNNELING PROCESI.Inst. (33) Ct. vol. Van der Ziel. Firle and H. and G. T. J. Petritz. Flinn. Chung. t o % + A x . Phys. Phys.. R. 13. 1956. p. A p p l . vol. Lett. 72. vol.. and G. M. 31. C. which was not observed in this study. K O is the dielectric constant of t h : silicon dioxide and eo is the electric permittivity of t h : free space. the equivalent circuit is just the parallel combinationof the circuit f a r each trap. Bloodworth. Tunneling Phenomena in Solids. J.vol. Lundstrom. . 103.. Bess. Arnold. p.. vol. Nov.Elec. Brit.whohaveassistedinthetedious noise (3 L) measurements. p. p. Phvs. l. I. They are given by (. A.. p. R. Tech. 18. 242.thesis.. 1970. T. 99..QilI Fig. 956. L. vol. 833. Berz. Rev. 1967. H. p. 26. 18(b). 13. and G. and are the hole and electron capacitances. 2. S. SOL. Appl. Abowitz. C. 1594. 1969. Mansour. alt: the hole and electron recombination conductanc c: through the SRH process. where W is the width of the depletion layer. G. Hawkins. T. vol. (b) Equivalent parallel capacitance and conductance for the entire MOS structure. Rev.

IBM J . This MAT method wasextended t o examine the warm electron distributions by the present author and C . ED-13. 46. pp. [27] W. IEEE. and a spherical parabolic band characterized by e = f i 2 / 2 m is assumed. S. The opticalphonon is assumed to have an energy E R . the electron distribution is obtained solving the Boltzmann transby port equation in the maximum anisotropy truncation (MAT) approximation of Baraff. 200. vol. 1965. T. vol. Deal..QDWZI(E)-= 1 1 3 +r [ 1 cosh (eHD eR/2hT) cosh ( e R / 2 k T ) + + where Y exp ( d ) 1 Mn(E) .. May 1967. Sah. Transformation and VariabIe Linear System. the electron drift velocities a t Si avalanche n are calculated. The author was with the School of Electrical Engineering. 5.. Y .andabsorptionandionization. Grove. Correspondence Calculation of Electron Drift Velocity PETER C.Jonesand R. Develop. 657. N.Later. 25. IEEE. . 1970. Cornel1 University. Proc. Le. 3rd ed. 52. H. Appl. IEEE. Balkand J. p. Q = eEl with l/l = l / A + l/li. and IV. Feb... Deal. R. 8 .(‘Phosphateglassstabilization of F E T devices.. 5. J. H. L. Sah. Nicollian and A. Solid State Electron. ~ R Kerr. Pliskin. 36. Soc. . [34]B. Of course. 795. [30] P. 15213. B. S.” Proc. 57. Griffiss Air Force Base. 1055. tribution functionwhose validity was first verified inSi by comparing thetheoreticalandexperimentalvalues of ionizationrate. Under the case of a high electric field applied to a homogeneous nondegenerate semiconductor. J. E. Eldridge. FEBRUARY 1972 285 [21] --. MI(€) E B I ( ~ ) . p... C. So far. Vol. interests in semiconductor avalanche [1]-[5] have been lirnited t o ionization rate studies. The calculated electron drift velocity varies from X l o 7 to 2. N.m&) (la) D Y = --> d de mo(e) = e ~ o ( e ) . [33] -. 114. Lax. where is the cosine of the angle between field and momentum.). Solid-state Electron. E this correspondence. Logan. p. vol. 222-237. S. Terman. 211. J . Electrochew. A p. A constant mean free path A is assumed for optical phonon scattering. p.July 1964. Eaton. Phys. Burkhardt. recent t work which uses IMPATT diodes as millimeter-wave solid-state sources (see. and above which the ionization mean freepath li. Tech. 10. The distribution function is expanded in a seriesof Legendre polynomials. J .” Proc.” IEEE Trans. pp. M. Balk. Quanfum Mechanics. Sklar. The major merit of MAT is that it can give valid solutions for cases ranging from high field where the Manuscript received August 23. In this correspondence. = = A/Ji. [24] NI. 266. There has hardly been any publication related o electron drift velocity [6]. [22] L. 1664. the temperature dependence is studied byincluding both emission and absorption in optical phonon scattering. Bell. A. 55. pp.9 X IO7 cm/s at Si ava1 lanche. Phys. opticalphononemission.. Snow. SOC. 58.Y. I t is noted that an exact relation m&+eH) =exp (enD)m&) is used instead of the commonly used Taylor expansion. Slate Methods in [35] S.‘ [28] D . it is also useful for studying silicon pvn avalanche transit-time diodes [ 8 ] . vol. D.VHF noise dueto surface states in MOS devices.. A. 1968. two fundamental scattering processes. 1 ~~~ [29J J. Met.. 1967. T. He is now with the Department of Electrical Engineering. H. Lett. c t . and C. Sept. This is understandable from a device standpoint because the conventional Read-type analysisfor p+n-n+ diodesbecomesquestionablein the millimeterwave range in view of the fact that the transit-time effect in the avalanche region cannot be neglected. [31] E. 152153. New York: Wiley. Eldridge and P. D. vol. p. . A. 1960. J. I251B. Lee [lo]. is constant.. Trans. 1967. a t S Avalanche i a n almostsphericallycarrierdistribution is considered [ l ] t o t h e relatively low field case where the effective part of the distribution is spike-shaped [2]. Baraff [9] published a n elaborate calculation of a dis4. vol. IEEE (Lett. Goetzberger. Solid-State Electron. M. M. Mod.. A. pp.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES. Grove. 1547. Electron Devices. Gupta. Improvements are made to the MAT procedure so thatthesymmetricalpart of thedistributionfunctioncanbe obtained in a straightforward manner. 1971. 654-671. Syst. 32.. Y . R. vol. [23] C. Theory of low-frequencygenerationnoiseinjunction-gate field-effect transistors. 242. . 171) makes the drift velocity study at semiconductor avalanche useful for device analysis. P. 539. 1970. 1970. 285. Snow. 1964.CHEN Abstract-In evaluating the electron drift velocity at Si avalanche. Jan. 1967.Hurlston. This work was supported in part by the Air Force Systems Command. vol. [36] E. vol. 1962. 1965. and E. H. Following the MAT scheme of Baraff. a n alternative procedure of the MATmethod is presented so that thesolution can be obtained in a straightforward way. Furthermore. and C. New York:McGrawHill.” Proc. vol. Pa. below which no ionization occurs. and [32] S. Res. I M E . p. Severaltheoreticalstudiesoncarrierdistributionfunctions at semiconductor avalanche have been available in the literature [1][ ] In 1962. In the Case where the .areconsidered. 1966. Baraff [4] was able to show that the electron distributions thatwere obtained by the use of a simple “maximum anisotropy truncation” (MAT) scheme to sclve the general Boltzmann equation agree well with the more elaborate numerical calculation. Rev.Hunter. the first two of the well-known infinite Boltzmann hierarchy of coupled-differential equations take the form: . vol. vol. 376. vol. p. Hofstein. 13. pp. Appl. 9. T. 1558-1563. There is a threshold energy E { . “An investigation of instability charge motion in metal-silicon oxide-silicon structures. M. vol. E. 1969. “The equivalent circuit model in solid-state electronicsPart I : The single energy level defect centers. Ithaca. [26] L. Pittsburgh. Rome Air Development Center. The value of Zi is to be regarded as infinite for energy below ei. 17. University of Pittsburgh. Sah. for example. Phys. However.Schiff. The temperature dependence of electron drift velocity is studied by including both optical phonon emission and absorption rather than emission alone. E. p. 814. 1968.

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