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Define the terms ‘deduction’ & ‘induction’. Empirical Research Process: Deductive Method
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Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. This is informally called ‘top down’ approach. Conclusion follows logically from premises. (available facts) Arguments based on laws, rules and accepted principles are generally used for deductive reasoning.
(A Performance gap) It is the unsatisfactory situation. Then. Understanding the background of the problem. When. narrow and reductionist findings Management Problem: Under deductive method first you have to identify what the management problem is. After identifying the management problem we have to figure out the basic problem that prompts the research. Research Questions 3. random and representative sample Data collection based on surveys. Describing and analyzing of a management problem in great detail can be done by categorizing the problem under each of the following areas. (how much. Why. i. questionnaires and scales Precise. Management Question 2. Who and How. 1. Research Problem: Here we explain the Knowledge gap. desired.• • • • This is a quantitative method. the causes of the problem and the negative consequences is very essential. i. Where. What. symptoms of the problem. If the full knowledge is available there is no need of doing a research. Investigative Questions .e. how many) Large. Hence the hierarchy of question will create. This is the beginning of the research process. either no knowledge or insufficient knowledge relating to the management problem or the performance gap.e. gradually breakdown the original question in to more specific ones. That explains the gap between actual vs.
Hypotheses: It is the tentative explanation about the relationship between two or more variables Empirical Research Process: Inductive Method 4. Empirical Generalization 3. Measurement Question Literature Review: This is a critical summary and an assessment of the current state of knowledge or current state of the art in a particular field. The framework is a research tool intended to assist a researcher to develop awareness and understanding of the situation under scrutiny and to communicate this. Repeat Observation (is there a pattern) 2. moving from specific observation to broader generalizations and theories . Identify issue to be studied • Inductive reasoning works the other way.4. Conceptual Framework: A conceptual framework is described as a set of broad ideas and principles (foundation) taken from relevant fields of enquiry and used to structure a subsequent presentation This should be intended as a starting point for reflection about the research and its context. Make Observation s 1.
• • This is called bottom up approach Conclusion is likely based on premises Involves a degree of uncertainty This is a qualitative method Small. non-random and theoretical samples • • • Comprehensive. interviews and observation for data collection Deductive Approach VS Inductive Approach Theory Theory Hypotheses Tentative Hypotheses Pattern Observation Confirmation Observation (b) List 3 strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches. holistic and expansive findings • Researcher has primary instrument. Strength of Inductive Method There is flexibility Give a holistic view More creative Situational factors are accommodated Strength of Deductive Method .
Comprehensive. reductionist random. scales Large. observation nonrandom. questionnaires. testing data Surveys. control. representative Precise. theoretical narrow. description. description. Narrow focus (c) Compare the deductive (quantitative) and the inductive (qualitative) method under the following criteria. Point of Comparison Goal of investigation Deductive Method Inductive method Prediction. expansive . Understanding. Problem is stated in a very specific way Independent and dependent variables are clearly specified Findings are specific Objectivity is there Weaknesses of Inductive method Less generalization Subjectivity or bias can be happen Less repeatability Weakness of Deductive method Certain variables can be ignored Contextual or situational factors are ignored Highly structured or little room for flexibility. Small. Instruments collection Sample size Nature of study findings for hypothesis hypotheses generation Interviews. holistic.
Hygiene factors create a favourable environment for motivation and prevent job dissatisfaction. ii. Interpersonal Relations with superiors and other subordinates. Personal Life and Employee Benefits. They create positive and a longer lasting effect on employee’s performance and are related to work it. Adequate provision of such factors (called satisfiers) make people happy with their jobs because they serve man's basic needs for psychological growth. He called them "dissatisfies' as their absence cause dissatisfaction but their presence is not motivating but only prevent dissatisfaction. Working Conditions. Such hygiene factors are Company's Policies and Administration.(d) What is the research method adopted in the following cases. Supervision. The motivating factors are Achievement. Status. This attitude towards work depends on two sets of factors namely hygiene or maintenance factors and the motivating factors. In addition. The information collected relates to the attitude of people towards work. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory (1959) This theory is based on the information collected by him and his associates (in the USA in 1959) by interviewing two hundred engineers and accountants. Justify your answer. . Hawthorne studies (1924 – 1932) The Hawthorne experiments were innovative studies in human relations that were conducted between 1924 and 1932 at Western Electric Company's Hawthorne Works in Chicago. Motivating factors act as forces of job satisfaction. Salary. i. According to Herzberg. they also motivate employees in their work. Recognition for Accomplishment. Job Security. the hygiene factors do little contribution to provide job satisfaction.
.Increased Responsibility. these two sets of factors are quite independent of each other. formulate some tentative hypotheses. observation and repeat observation done in the theory. According to Herzberg. based on some empirical data and guides managers to improve employee motivation. Therefore this is Inductive Method Zero Mid Point Hygiene Dissatisfaction Factors Motivation Satisfaction Factors High Low Low High iii. Creative and Challenging Work. This is related to research methodology of Inductive Method since it has an empirical validity. His theory is simple to grasp. assumptions. and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories.e. What are the benefits gained from a comprehensive literature review. 2. Herzberg provided stimulus to other researchers to develop alternative theories of motivation. Peters’& Waterman’s ‘In Search of Excellence’ (1982). Opportunity for Growth and Development. when undertaking a research project? . This research has begun with specific observations and measures begin to detect patterns and regularities. i. hygiene factors affect an individual's willingness to work while motivating factors affect his ability and efficiency to work.
.The purpose of a literature review is to describe the work that has been reported on a subject or field. identify information. It explains how the information in the report will be used to supplement the original purpose statement. It counts each study as an equal unit in a straw poll to attain consensus. It combines studies from diverse environments. In addition there is a definite benefit in using the meta-analytic method in a literature review as it makes the evaluation more applicable. which may be a selective choice of an article to support the author’s point of view. Resolving conflicts among apparent contradictory previous studies too is a crucial purpose of the review. It places each work in the context of its role to the understanding of the topic under review. In other words the main purpose of a literature review is to demonstrate the scholarly capacity. The process of drawing conclusions from individual study is frequently obscure. The review is also useful in describing the relationships of each work to the others under consideration. It also identifies areas of prior studies to prevent duplication of the endeavor. and varying robust methodology. It demonstrates an individual’s ability to identify the significant information and sketch existing knowledge. and the methodology often not effectively described to enable a replicating process. and shed light on any gap in the previous research and position on the way forward for further research. Its effectiveness is illustrated consistently across a range of studies. The review addresses clearly focused questions. It helps fill in the gap in the research that the work will address. It considers the value of methodology of the constituent rather than dramatically regarding the conclusion of all as a valid voice. Its major benefit is subjective. and outline the presented knowledge. and illustrates evidence of appropriate search for unpublished material. It has an explicit enclosure and exclusion criteria for studies. making generalization to other populations more justifiable. and generates rationale or justification for the study. It serves in identifying new ways to understand. without considering that studies have different sizes.
At the same time. A large amount of information is incorporated quickly by the people. identifying the concepts & variables needed for the study. The conclusions are more reliable and precise due to the techniques employed. In brief: • • • • • To avoid duplication of work To identify gaps or inconsistencies in the existing knowledge To gain background knowledge of research topic To define and clarify the research problem To develop conceptual framework. This reduces delay between research discoveries and implementation of successful diagnostic and beneficial strategies. It has a bigger and more methodologically sound study which can be weighed to have more power. It ensures that key variables affecting the research problem are not left out of the study • • • • To develop hypotheses for testing To operationalize concepts To select proper data collection tools To strengthen discussion of research findings. . and researches used to append several weeks and sometimes months going through the available electronic and non electronic sources to find information on their research topic. Compare and contrast findings of your study with other studies (local & foreign) What are the benefits gained from a comprehensive literature review. It also provides consistency and generalizing of findings. The review recognizes inconsistency in the result across studies and can generate new hypothesis about a particular subgroup. The library is a rich storage base for secondary data. when undertaking a research project? Literature survey is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from secondary sources of data in the areas of specific interest to the researcher. the quantity systematic review enhances the precision of the overall result.Literature review limits biasness in identifying and declining studies.
and organize rest of the research process effectively. 1. A clearer idea emerges as to what variables would be most important to consider. This helps the research to clearly focus on the problem to research. wasting efforts on trying to rediscover something that is already known. Research question is an interrogative sentence (Kerlinger. Following benefits can be enjoyed through a good literature review. Research question should deal with the relationship between two or more variables. the literature survey helps the development of the theoretical framework and hypotheses for testing. One does not run the risk of “reinventing the wheel” that is. State the characteristics (attributes) of: a) A well‐formulated research question. Reviewing the literature on the topic area at this time helps the researcher to focus further interviews more meaningfully on certain aspects found to be important in the published studies. why they would be considered important. even if these had not surfaced during the earlier questioning.The researcher could start the literature survey even as the information from the unstructured and structured interviews is being gathered. • • Important variables that are likely to influence the problem situation are not left out of the study. • • • • The problem statement can be made with precision and clarity. and how they should be investigated to solve the problem. Thus. A research question should be clear and unambiguous to the best possible extend. 1973 P17). Testability of the finding of the current research is enhanced. The problem investigated is perceived by the scientific community as relevant and significant. . 2. 3.
5. 4. but on the subjective opinion of the researcher. If this was the researcher's conviction all along. In other these variable should all have empirical referents. Hypothesis should be simple as possible. data-based research findings. 1. Such an argument would be based not on the factual. it makes no sense if the researcher continues to argue that increased opportunities for employee participation would still help. 2010 pp 420). That is it should not be too broad in scope ad to be too general or too narrow to trivial b) A well‐ formulated hypothesis. The scope that defines by the research question should be of manageable size. A hypothesis should not only explain presently known facts but also predict future facts.4. A hypothesis should provide answer to the research question. then there was no need to do the research in the first place. 3. . 2. Distinguish between a) Objectivity & bias Sekaran has defined the objectivity as the interpretation of the results on the basis of the results of data analysis. For instance of a research had a hypothesis that stated that greater participation in decision making will increase organizational commitments and this was not supported by the results. In other words the results and findings of a research should derive from actual data and not n researcher’s own subjectivity or emotional values. Variables referenced in hypothesis should have a method for observing or experimentally creating each such variable. as opposed to subjectivity or emotional interpretations (Sekaran U. 4. The problem should be stated in such a way as to imply the possibility of its solution through empirical research.
Further Sekaran has stated that researcher himself will act as the root cause of a bias while there would be a bias due to problems of respondents. Identify the dependent and independent variables and diagrammatically illustrate the relationships. Primary data of a research is the collection of data that have been specifically collected for the research. 2010 pp 415). it is far easier to become attached to a certain viewpoint. Training & Supervisio n Productivit y of workers . 2010 pp 421). measurement instruments. Conversely secondary data can be defined as data that has been already collected by different researcher and published on media such as journals. 2010 pp 414). sample etc. This group is not exposed to any treatment in an experiment (Sekaran U. For an example. For example. Test group On the other hand bias can be described as any error that creeps into the data (Sekaran U. primary sources of data A control group is the experimental group tested without changing the variable. jeopardizing impartiality. to research the effect of MBA on student to become entrepreneurs. Test group on the other hand is expected to expose to the variables that researcher is expect to investigate.b) Control vs. Question 5 a) A manager believes that training and supervision would increase the productivity of workers. These data subsequently will analyze to find solutions to the problem reached (Sekaran U. c) Secondary vs. a group of non MBA students with other similar characteristics will be used as a control group. when using social research subjects such as political view of people.
In this context the researcher’s goal is to understand and describe the dependent variable. However. In the above context researcher will be interested in qualifying and measuring the dependent variable of productivity of workers. Off the job class room training Employee Productivit y Independent Variable Age groups of Employe es. There for the in other words the variance in the dependent variable is accounted for by the independent variable. In other words it’s the main variable which lends itself for investigation as a viable factor. or to explain its variability. In the above context the manager believe that training and supervision are those independent variables influencing the productivity of the workers positively perform productively. The Independent Variable An independent variable is one that influences the dependent variable in either a positive or negative way. Identify the different variables in this example & diagrammatically illustrate the relationships. as well as the other variable such as independent variable that influences this variable. it is also observed that employees over 60 years of age do not appear to derive much benefit & do not improve with such training. >60 & 60> Dependent Variable .Independent Variable Dependent Variable The Dependent Variable The dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the research in the above context. it’s the productivity of the workers. b) A manager finds that off‐the‐job classroom training has a favorable impact on employee productivity. or predict it. In this context there is a positive relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable.
Effectiveness iii. The manager believed that employee productivity has a direct positive relations with the off the job training but the new knowledge that explains that the age group of the employee having an impact on the outcome of being productive alters the exiting understanding by influencing both the independent and dependent variables.off the job class room training and employee productivity which is the dependent variable. this variance has a strong contingent effect on the dependent variable-independent variables relationship. This is well illustrated in the above diagram and the case. However in the said case the age grouped of the employee whether the employee is over 60 or less than 60 can be considered as a moderator variance. This is the presence of the third variable of the employee age group. This variable has the capacity to modify the original relationship between the independent variable. i. The off the job class room training that explain the variance in employee productivity is the independent variable. Efficiency ii.Moderating Variable As illustrated in the above diagram. the dependent variable or the primary variable for this research is the employee productivity. Q6 Reduce the following concepts to their variables. Quality Concept Efficiency achieve the goals Variable Men Material Technology Indicators Man hours Rs/ Cnts Units Machine hours Measures Man hour consumer per unit ROE Nr of input per output Resources utilized to Money . indicators and measures.
Employee satisfaction survey. line. CSR initiative governance reporting Customer complains Production records Machine machine records breakdown gearing compared to industry Corporate governance Good Researcher’s main objective is to ascertain the positive relationship between the independent .Nr of machine hours per unit Effectiveness Goal achievement Financial Profitability liquidity Non financial CSR HR Corporate governance Quality Meeting expectation customer HR Material Technology Triple bottom green meter reporting Customer satisfaction Nr of rejects Nr of reworks Nr of breakdowns ROI Gearing ratio ROI. benchmark.