810 views

Uploaded by Chirag Sanghani

- Materials Modelling
- Fatigue Analysis
- FE-SAFE
- Plasticity
- Continuum Theory of Plasticity by Khan and huang
- Fatigue Analysis of a Shaft on Ansys
- ANSYS Fatigue
- Fatigue Analysis of Welded Joints
- A Fatigue Primer for Structural Engineers
- Bilinear Isotropic Hardening Behavior
- Fatigue Analysis - Notes
- Fatigue ANSYS
- Plasticity
- Fatigue for Engineers
- AbaqusDirectCycling
- Fundamentals of Metal Fatigue
- Fundamentals of Engineering Plasticity
- ansys workbench optimization
- ASTM E1049-1985 Standard Practices for Cycle Counting in Fatigue Analysis
- Computational Methods for Platicity-Souza

You are on page 1of 6

25th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering

June 4 - 9, 2006, Hamburg, Germany

LOW CYCLE FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF MARINE STRUCTURES

American Bureau of Shipping Daewoo Shipbuilding and Daewoo Shipbuilding and Aerospace and

16855 Northchase Drive Marine Engineering Co., LTD Marine Engineering Co., LTD Mechanical Engineering

Houston, TX 77060 1 Aju-dong, Geoje-si, 1 Aju-dong, Geoje-si, University of Arizona

USA Gyeongsangnam-do, 656-714 Gyeongsangnam-do, 656-714 Tucson, AZ 85721, USA

cwang@eagle.org KOREA KOREA phw@ame.arizona.edu

jgkang3@dsme.co.kr yikim@dsme.co.kr

Originally published by American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,

and reprinted with their kind permission.

behavior and strength of marine steels is first presented.

There are situations where a marine structure is Characteristic parameter values of cyclic stress-strain

subjected to stress cycles of such large magnitude that curve and strain-life curve are established based on the

small, but significant, parts of the structural component literature study, experimental testing and nonlinear

in question experiences cyclic plasticity. Welded joints FEA. An S-N curve is then proposed in order to define

are particularly vulnerable because of high local stress the fatigue strength in the low cycle regime. Finally, a

concentrations. Fatigue caused by oscillating strain in fatigue damage calculation method is developed based

the plastic range is called “low cycle fatigue”. Cycles to on a hot spot stress approach.

failure are typically below 104. Traditional welded joint

S-N curves do not describe the fatigue strength in the MATERIAL BEHAVIOR AND STRENGTH

low cycle region (< 104 number of cycles). Typical UNDER LOW CYCLE CYCLIC LOADS

Class Society Rules do not directly address the low

cycle fatigue problem. It is therefore the objective of For life prediction in welded joints, it is necessary

this paper to present a credible fatigue damage to define fatigue strength. For fatigue strength within

prediction method of welded joints in the low cycle low cycle regime, the general strain-life curve will be

fatigue regime. employed.

The general strain-life curve has the form, See

INTRODUCTION Dowling (1999),

ε a = ε ea + ε pa

Certain duty cycles associated with operations of a

The elastic strain-life curve is defined as

ship may produce oscillatory stresses whose magnitudes

exceed the yield strength of the material. For example, σ 'f

ε ea = ( 2 N f )b

the welded joints in certain members of tankers and E

FPSO’s during the loading/offloading process for which And the plastic strain-life curve is defined as

the total number of cycles during the service life is

expected to be less than 104. Fatigue associated with

ε pa = ε 'f ( 2 N f )c

cyclic plasticity (“low cycle fatigue”) must be

considered as a principal failure mode, yet the design S- where

N curves specified in typical class society rules are not Nf = cycles to failure

defined below 104 cycles. To perform a safety check for εa = notch strain amplitude

low cycle fatigue, it is necessary to define the S-N

curve, define the stress associated with the S-N curve ε ea = elastic notch strain amplitude

(here the hot spot stress is used), and the process by ε pa = plastic notch strain amplitude

which nominal stress is transformed to hot spot stress.

E = modulus of elasticity

ABS TECHNICAL PAPERS 2006

σ 'f = fatigue strength coefficient This is convenient when dealing with both high and low

cycle fatigue as high cycle fatigue analysis is

b = fatigue strength exponent conventionally performed in terms of stress.

ε 'f = fatigue ductility coefficient

104

c = fatigue ductility exponent

Open circles: base metal, Grade A

Heo et al (2004)

Thus the total strain-life curve can be expressed as Solid circles: welded joint

Heo et al (2004)

σ 'f

( ) ( )

εa = 2 N f b + ε 'f 2 N f c

E Total strain-life

The strain-life curve is defined by the last five Elastic strain-life

SSC-346

SSC-346

1000

parameters of the list. Because E is well known, the

focus of this study will be on the last four. It is expected

that the fatigue crack will form in the heat affected zone

(HAZ) so that special attention will be given to the Plastic strain-life

HAZ. SSC-346

Cycles to Failure, N

possible: 100

- Direct measurement from testing. 100 1000 104 105

the general literature, see Park and Figure 1: Strain-life curve

Lawrence(1998), and therefore other

methods may be employed Heo et al (2004) report the results of a fatigue test

- Use of published fatigue parameters of steels on 11 dogbone specimens of Grade A steel (base metal)

having similar monotonic properties. There having an upper bound yield and ultimate strength of

exists a large catalog of fatigue parameters 320 and 460 MPa. These data are plotted as the open

for a wide variety of steels. It is argued that circles in Figure 1. It should be noted that base metal

parameters for welded joints should be data is being compared to the HAZ curves of SSC-346.

similar to those of steels having roughly the Heo et al (2004) report the results of a fatigue test on 16

same monotonic properties welded specimens; non load carrying partially

- Empirical relationships for parameters based penetrated cruciform fillet welded joints. Stress-life data

on monotonic tests. Experience from is shown in Figure 1. Assuming that the fatigue cracks

extensive fatigue testing of steels has led to originated in the HAZ, this data is comparable to the

empirical forms in which the parameters can SSC-346 total strain-life curve. On the basis of this

be established from such monotonic data, it appears that the SSC-346 HAZ curves are non-

properties as ultimate strength and Brinnel conservative.

hardness While it is argued by Boardman (1982) and

Dowling (1999) that estimates of fatigue properties by

Park and Lawrence (1988) reporting in SSC-346 empirical forms should never be substituted for full

provide the strain-life parameters for HAZ and for weld scale testing of actual parts under service conditions,

material as relating to a specific detail. One of the the fact remains that these forms are useful in those

details consists of a center plate and two loading plates cases where data collection is impractical.

welded to the center plate by all around fillet welds. The Empirical relationships that will be useful are

base material is ASTM A-36. The Shielded Metal Arc summarized as follows:

Welding (SMAW) process and E7018 electrodes were - The fatigue strength coefficient is

used. Another series of tests were made on this approximately equal to the true fracture

cruciform joint using the Gas Metal Arc Welding stress from a tension test

(GMAW) process. The base metal was 12.7 mm plates

of ASTM A441 Grade 50 steel. σ ' ≈ σ~ f f

The Park and Lawrence parameters for HAZ - The fatigue ductility coefficient is

(SMAW; 12.7 mm plate) produce the strain-life curves approximately equal to the true fracture

shown in Figure 1. strain from a tension test

Note that the S-N curve of Figure 1 is given in ε ' ≈ ε~ f f

terms of pseudo stress. Low cycle fatigue involves

strain cycling and a strain-life relationship to define - Strain-life curves for a wide variety of

fatigue strength. However for engineering purposes it is engineering metals tend to all pass near the

useful to define pseudo stress range, SPR, as the modulus strain εa = 0.01 for a life Nf = 1000 cycles

of elasticity, E, times strain range, εR, - Strain-life curves for a wide variety of

S PR = Eε R engineering metals tend to all pass near the

strain εa = 0.01 for a life Nf = 1000 cycles

ABS TECHNICAL PAPERS 2006

- Ultimate strength can be approximated from where, for this application, σ = hot spot stress, ε = hot

Brinell hardness spot strain, K’ = cyclic strength coefficient, n’ = cyclic

σu= 3.45 BHN (MPa) hardening exponent, E = modulus of elasticity; for steel,

- The fatigue strength coefficient can be E = 206,850 MPa

estimated from ultimate strength The parameters K’ and n’ are provided in Table 1 for

σ 'f ≈ σ u + 345 MPa four types of ship steel, based on DSME testing

results.

- For steels having an ultimate strength below

about σu = 1400 MPa, a fatigue limit occurs Table 1: Parameters for the cyclic stress-strain curve

near 106 cycles at a stress amplitude around

σa = σu/2. From the elastic strain-life curve, it Material A AH32 AH36 DH36

follows that K’ (MPa) 592 669 694 739

⎛ 2σ 'f ⎞ N’ 0.114 0.108 0.112 0.106

1

b=− log ⎜ ⎟

6.3 ⎜ σ u ⎟ The cyclic stress-strain curves are plotted in Figure 2.

⎝ ⎠

- A typical value of the fatigue strength

500

exponent b is -0.085. For soft metals, values

of around b equals to -0.12 are common as DH36

AH36

are values of b equals to -0.05 for hardened 400 AH32

materials A

- Values around c = -0.60 are common for the

Stress (MPa)

fatigue ductility exponent. A relatively 300

narrow range of c in the range of -0.50 to -

0.80 appears to include most engineering

materials 200

approximated from the Brinnel hardness

100

2Nt = exp(13.6 – 0.0185 BHN)

This is the value of life, N, for which the elastic

and plastic-strain life curves are the same, i.e., the point 0

where the curves cross. This relationship can be used to 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

Strain

estimate the fatigue ductility exponent

Figure 2: Cyclic stress-strain curves for different steel

PSEUDO HOT SPOT STRESS RANGE grades

CALCULATION

The second step is to employ Neuber’s rule which

Both ABS existing ship rules and upcoming IACS relates the actual stress σ and strain ε in the material, in

Common Structural Rules for tankers use the hot spot both the elastic and plastic states, to the nominal or

stress approach for fatigue assessment for only high elastic stress S. In terms of stress amplitude:

cycle fatigue. It is therefore consistent to develop low S a2

cycle fatigue assessment procedure based on hot spot σ aε a =

E

stress approach. Although some fatigue testing

where σa and εa are stress and strain amplitudes

measurements, as shown in Figure 1, are based on notch

respectively. The elastic stress amplitude is Sa = SL/2

stress, the geometry of the local notch at a weld varies

along the weld profile, and it may be difficult to find a σa and εa is then be determined based on the

geometry on which to base the analysis. simultaneous solution of the above two equations.

The transformation from elastic hot spot stress range to Material strain range, εR, is then computed as:

pseudo hot spot stress range is now considered. The εR = 2 εa

procedure is described by Dowling (1999). and the pseudo hot spot stress range is obtained by

The stress range SE for any of the j loading/offloading SL = E εR

cycles is assumed to be constant amplitude. The The subscript “L” implies stress associated with low

following discussion applies to any of the loading cycle fatigue. Using this procedure, the relationship

cycles. between the elastic hot spot stress range and pseudo hot

First define the cyclic stress-strain curve the form of spot stress range is derived and presented in Figure 3

which is [Dowling (1999)], for the four materials under consideration.

1 / n'

σ ⎛σ ⎞

ε = + ⎜⎜ ' ⎟⎟

E ⎝K ⎠

ABS TECHNICAL PAPERS 2006

S-N CURVE APPLIED FOR LOW CYCLE 100 mm Profile flame cut, ground

and polished, corners

gauge

FATIGUE length radiused to 1.5 mm

12 mm

Figure 4 shows pseudo hot spot stress vs. number 102 mm

152

mm

of cycles to failure, with TWI (1974) and Heo et. al.

403 mm

(2004) data based on a Neuber correction. The 900 mm

specimen used in TWI (1974) is shown in Figure 5 with Ground

38 mm

a longitudinal non-load carrying fillet welds. As stated end

in TWI (1974), the final failure which was taken being c) 8 mm fillet weld 12 mm

152 mm

the point at which a sudden drop occurred in the cyclic

tensile load. A SCF of 1.55 is applied.

Figure 5: Test specimen from TWI (1974)

AH32 AH36 Heo et. al. (2004) test data is based on fatigue

6000

testing of a non-load-carrying partially penetrated

cruciform fillet joint, as shown in Figure 6. Test was

5000 carried out under stain control condition and strain ratio

Pseudo Hot Spot Stress Range, SL (MPa)

4000 between zero and specified maximum value. Test was

DH36

topped when the load dropped down to 50% of initial

3000

A value which corresponded to small amount of crack

propagation. A SCF of 1.28 is applied.

2000 Elastic

Behavior 20 mm

1000

11 mm

Elastic Hot Spot Stress Range, SE (MPa)

0 20 mm

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

400 mm

Figure 3: Pseudo hot spot stress range as a function

of elastic hot spot stress range

Figure 6: Testing specimen presented in Heo et. al.

(2004)

The D curve is also plotted in Figure 4 for

reference. The median of the pooled TWI and DSME

The inverse slope of the median-2 standard

data is calculated based on least square fit. A design

deviation curve is 2.43. It is observed from Figure 1

curve is normally defined as the median curve minus

showing the Park-Lawrence model and the

two standard deviations. It is seen that for low cycle

experimental data in Figure 4, that there is a tendency

region, N < 104, using D curve, as a design S-N curve

for the S-N curve to have a curvature that bends

for low cycle fatigue, will yield conservative results.

upwards in the area where cycle to failure is below

1000. It will be ideal that this tendency be reflected in

the design S-N curve for low cycle fatigue, although

104

Median (least squares line)

TWI and DSME

based on Neuber analysis

using D curve would be conservative. However,

m = 2.43

modifying D curve for cycles to failure less than 1000

triangles = TWI

circles = DSME may complicate the damage model calculation.

Pseudo Hot Spot Stress Range, (MPa)

Extended

D-Curve

m=3

FATIGUE DAMAGE CALCULATION

1000 SUBJECTED TO LOW CYCLE LOADS

linear damage accumulation rule (Miner’s rule) applies,

Median - 2*sigma

that rainflow analysis is used to identify stress cycles,

m = 2.43

and that the material at the hot spot of the weld will

experience cyclic plasticity under stress cycles SLj as

100

100 1000 104 105

shown in Figure 7. General methods of such analyses

Cycles to Failure, N to produce a damage index are described in detail in the

books by Dowling (1999) and Lee et al (2005). The

Figure 4: S-N curve in low cycle region damage model proposed here uses linear damage

accumulation and implicitly, rainflow analysis, and is

ABS TECHNICAL PAPERS 2006

are constant amplitude. Damage due to the low cycle

static stresses is described in the following. Boardman, B.E., (1982), “Crack Initiation Fatigue –

Data, Analysis, Trends, and Estimation”, Proceedings

Basic application of Miner’s rule produces the of the SAE Fatigue Conference, P-109, SAE,

expression of static stress damage, Warrendale, PA.

k

1

DB =

K ∑ n j S Ljq DEn, (1995), “Offshore Installations, Guidance on

Design, Construction and Certification”, Department of

j =1

Let, Energy, UK, Amendment to the Fourth Edition,

nj London, HMSO.

fj =

n Dowling, N.E., (1999), Mechanical Behavior of

Materials, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

fi = (number of the jth loading-offloading cycles)/

(number of wave induced cycles) at any life. Then the Heo, J.H., Kang, J.K, Kim, Y., Yoo, Y.S., Kim, K.S.,

total damage associated with the high stress duty cycles and Urm, H.S., (2004), “A Study on the Design

is, Guidance for Low Cycle Fatigue in Ship Structure”,

n

k Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of Practical Design

DB =

K j =1∑ q

f j S Lj of Ships and Other Floating Structures, Luebeck-

Travemunde, Germany.

Spj

Sj(t) (2005), “Fatigue Testing and Analysis”, Elsevier

Butterworth – Heinemann, Oxford, UK.

SLj tcj

SBj

Characterization of Fabricated Ship Details for Design

– Phase II”, Ship Structures Committee, SSC-346.

ttj

Strength Steels”, A compendium of reports from a

sponsored research programme, The Welding Institute,

Svj Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CBI 6AL,

England.

Figure 7: A single loading/offloading cycle of the jth

type

CONCLUSIONS

concern in modern marine industry, especially the

application of FPSOs with frequent loading/unloading

operations. In this paper, typical material behavior

under low cycle large stress range is first investigated.

Characteristic material parameters are recommended

based on experimental test data. The pseudo hot spot

stress range can be calculated based on elastic hot spot

stress range and material stress-strain curve with the

application of Neuber’s rule. A suitable design S-N

curve is derived with reference to the available test data.

Fatigue damage can then be expressed in terms of

Miner’s rule. The procedure in this paper could be used

as a basis for authorities to establish the design criteria

for better control marine safety due to cracks from low

cycle fatigue and eventually the combination of low

cycle fatigue and high cycle (considering dynamic hull

girder loads, dynamic wave pressure and dynamic tank

pressure loads resulting from ship motions) fatigue.

- Materials ModellingUploaded byPriyanka Gupta
- Fatigue AnalysisUploaded byGun Awan
- FE-SAFEUploaded bychandrasmg
- PlasticityUploaded byKishore Mylavarapu
- Continuum Theory of Plasticity by Khan and huangUploaded bySaeed Ghaffari
- Fatigue Analysis of a Shaft on AnsysUploaded byumar naeem
- ANSYS FatigueUploaded byRaghu_Nandana__1312
- Fatigue Analysis of Welded JointsUploaded byangelobuijtels
- A Fatigue Primer for Structural EngineersUploaded byv
- Bilinear Isotropic Hardening BehaviorUploaded byricardobor
- Fatigue Analysis - NotesUploaded byMotoro Akinwole
- Fatigue ANSYSUploaded byapi-3717939
- PlasticityUploaded byNavneet Chaubey
- Fatigue for EngineersUploaded byPrasanna
- AbaqusDirectCyclingUploaded byJuraj Fajta
- Fundamentals of Metal FatigueUploaded bypkpnitian_152297088
- Fundamentals of Engineering PlasticityUploaded bypragerspole
- ansys workbench optimizationUploaded byanmol6237
- ASTM E1049-1985 Standard Practices for Cycle Counting in Fatigue AnalysisUploaded bySVV_company
- Computational Methods for Platicity-SouzaUploaded byMel Santos
- Fracture Lecture of AbaqusUploaded byMohammed Abu Sufian
- NAFEMS Books.xlsxUploaded byds_srinivas
- Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Life PredictionUploaded byNicolau Morar
- Abaqus ScriptingUploaded byHarun Alrasyid
- Cumulative Fatigue Damage and Life Prediction TheoriesUploaded byrafaguera
- ASME & NAFEMS_2004_What is Verification and Validation_SCUploaded byjadamiat
- ABAQUS User SubroutineUploaded byknan1
- Abaqus Convergence DiscussionUploaded byBolarinwa
- Dynamics Study of an Automobile Exhaust SystemUploaded byJunia Maria Gândara
- VDI 3842- Vibrations In Piping System.pdfUploaded bysafaozhan

- Unit I TestUploaded byMANOJ M
- GEASUploaded byMiko Gorospe
- Reinforced Concrete Frank ColumbusUploaded byKamilly
- guy tower.docxUploaded byashraf04_ce
- TFA Course for Foremen & QC TechnUploaded byPrabhu Rajalingam
- Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment (T.L)Uploaded byHomer Silva
- CaCO3 Filled FoamUploaded byrozichka
- Compressive Behaviour of CFRP-Confined Rectangular Concrete ColumnsUploaded bytyui7383
- Steelbeam to Concrete Shear WallUploaded byYuan Sorensen
- R2_Design Formulae for Bending (2014!08!01)Uploaded byAbhishek Kumar
- Effects of Temperature and Moisture on SMCUploaded bysenencostas
- Vol.2 issue 5Uploaded byPragyan Bhattarai
- 03 A48Uploaded byLC Chong
- Mechanical Failure ModesUploaded bySankara Rao
- DNV Rp-f112-2008 - Design of Duplex Stainless Steel Subsea Equipment Exposed to Cathodic ProtectionUploaded byzaxader
- Ductile Iron ValvesUploaded byCattleya Malaika
- HSC RC ColumnUploaded byyanimuhammad
- Control PlanUploaded byNavtalukdar
- Green-building Construction-Stone: A Case StudyUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Indentation Yield StrengthUploaded byKhinwah Siew
- PCI-B207Uploaded bySyapril Janizar
- CE6315-Strength of Materials LabUploaded bykattabomman
- Design Mega Columns-N-M ImperialUploaded bytuanna2000
- ASTM A106.2004.pdfUploaded byRober Moises Chumbe Sovero
- A Correlation for Predicting the Abrasive Water Jet CuttingUploaded byYo Gold
- A10Uploaded byCharlie Chong
- Timoshenko (26 31)Uploaded byKhalid Yousaf
- No-Fines Concrete with Coir FiberUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- Blast Resistant ConcreteUploaded byJoseph Uday Kiran Mekala
- Remya - Soil Stabilization Using Polymer Infused RootsUploaded byRohit Thomas