.z.

* ..

."#*
?*a,,?;...

Shree Book Centre 9803, Dalmia Bldg, Opp Sandesh Hotel, TH~Kataria Marg, Matunga (W), Mumbai-400 016 (INDIA) ' 9 Tel: 24377516,24374559 Fax: 24309183
I

..,

.:'
.

.

'

i; !

Email: shreebk@vsnl.com

PREFACE
Vedic Mathematics 02002, Sterling Publishers Private Limited ISBN 81 7963019 6 Reprint2003,2004,2005

All you wanted to know about 'Vedic Mathematics' is a manifestation and a coagulation of genuine illustrations and methods of fast calculations. This magical tool is unique in its field and will serve two purposes: It will help enhance the calculating speed of students; and

All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any fomi or by any means, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Will be beneficial in preparations for the MBAICAT entrance examinations.

How to use this book
First of all learn all the multiplication methods and techniques explained in this book in the section or, multiplication. Do the exercises provided at the end of every topic so that the techniques can be understood completely. Then understand Squaring and Cubing techniques. After this, whenever you come across a multiplication sum, try to solve that by the formulae and techniques explained in this book. A mere reading of the book from one end to the other will not help in the long run. If you wish to benefit fully, make it a habit to use these methods. Once you have mastered Multiplication techniques, then you can proceed to the chapters on Division, Square Roots and Cube Roots.

Nora FROM THE PUBLISHER The author spec~fically disclainrs any liability, loss or risk whatsoevel; which is incurred or likely to be incurred as a consequence of any direct indirect use of information given in this book. The contents of this work ore a personal interpretation of the subject by the author

Published by Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi-110020. Lo.so.Iyp~.sel Vikas (:ornpograph~cs.New Delhl- I 10020. by I'rmre~/arStcrhng Publ~shcrs Ltd., New Dclhi-I lOO2O. (P)

.. .

Caution

Do not proceed to the chapter on Square Roots without 'understanding the chapter on Division completely. They are linked. Understanding the process of square roots without understanding division will be a futile exercise. After understanding the process of division, and that of square roots and cube roots, make it a habit to use these methods. Simultaneous equations can be learned any time.

.

CONTENTS
Preface Multiplication
1. First Formula Multiplying two-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Multiplying three-digit numbers by three-digit numbers Applications 2. Quick Formula Multiplication of digits near 100 Multiplication of digits near 50 Multiplication of digits near 200 Multiplication of digits near 150 The Importance of bases in Quick Formula
3

Criss-Cross Technique Multiplying two-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Multiplying three-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Multiplying four-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Multiplying five-digit numbers by two-digit numbers

Real Magic Denominator ending with 9 Denominator ending with 8 Denominator ending with other digits Numerator having more than one digit after the decimal 2. Criss-CrossTechnique Division format Division of a number by a smaller three-digit number (Flag digit = 1) Division of a number by a larger three-digit number (Flag digit = 2) . Type II A Word to all Maths Enthusiasts The 'Achiever' Institute Mental Multiplication Techniques Multiplying two-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Multiplying three-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Multiplying four-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Multiplying five-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Multiplying three-digit numbers by three-digit numbers Division 1.Multiplying three-digit numbers by three-digit numbers Multiplying four-digit numbers by three-digit numbers 4 Division of a number by a four-digit number Decimal division Squares Squares of a number ending with 5 Finding squares of an adjacent number Forward method Reverse method Mental formula for finding squares Cubes Square Roots Square root of a perfect square Finding the square root in decimals Cube Roots Simultaneous Equations Peculiar Types-Type I.

First Formula I have called this'first Formula' because in my opinion a person willing to learn 'magical methods of fast calculations' should start from here. If this helps students. I have divided it into several parts. Dedicated Late Hazari Prasad Singh. Multiplying two-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Let us start with an example: who always encouraged me to excel .MULTIPLICATION Multiplication is supposed to be the toughest of all four mathematical operations. Students feel threatened by multiplication. I have dealt with this topic in detail. To make this topic easily graspable. . Each part is full of examples. In this book. 1. to my grandfather. and steps are explained clearly wherever required. The formula will be explained with various examples. I will feel rewarded.

You got 4225 as the answer. etc.55 by 55. We then multiplied 8 by the bottom left digit 7 and kept 56 on the left-hand side. you are getting inquisitive now and are planning to ask a loaded question. Now let us do it using the magical method: . Let me explain the method again !! We multiplied 5 by 5 and put 25 on the right-hand side. We added 1 to the top left digit 6 to make it 7 I understand. which is the left-hand side of We got the correct answer 4225. Did you get it? Let us do some more by the method learned just now ! What are the steps you took here? First you multiplied 65 by 5 and wrote it below the line (325). it is not like that.35 by 35. conventionally. . Your question is whether the applicability of the formula is limited to a number ending with 5 only? My answer is no. We added 1 to the top left digit 7 to make it 8.25 by 25. Now the method should be crystal clear to you In the same manner we can multiply the following: 15 by 15. We arrived at the right answer 5625.45 by 45.- w o p you multiply this in the conventional way? Let us solve it: We then mu~tip~iedit by the bottom I (7) got 42. thereafter. Then you multiplied 65 by 6 and wrote it below the first row leaving one space from the right (390): You add6d the numbers in the first row with the numbers in the second row by first bringing down the digit on the extreme right and adding the other digits. What did we do here? We multiplied 5 by 5 and put 25 as the right-hand side of the answer.

.

You can apply this technique to these sums also: (1 116 x 114 - (2) 117 x113 - .(7) 22 x 28 (8) 78 x 72 (9) 39 x 31 ~ultiplying three-digit numbers by three-digit numbers. 7. The steps will be: Multiply 5 by 5 and keep 25 on the right-hand side. can we extend the same formula to the three-digit numbers? The answer is yes. Multiply 12 by 11 and put 132 on the left-hand side. 3016 2. the first two-digits on the lefthand side are the same (1 1) and the total of the right-hand digits is 10. we can do that. Having done this for the two-digit numbers. 9021 5. 616 8. so we can apply our formula here. Our operation is complete. The answer is 13225. 3021 9. Answers: 1. 7221 6. 5616 Let us take an example: 115 x 115 ~nthe case mentioned above. Add 1 to 11 to make it 12. 1209 - In the case of three-digit numbers the first two-digits on the left should be the same and the total of the digits on the right should be 10. 7209 4. 1224 3.

What will you do in this case? 67 x 65 can be written as (65 + 2) x 65 From our First Formula we know that 65 x 65 = 4225. 24016 . x 152 - Answers: 1. Let us solve these: 1. Let us see how: You can break down 68 x 64 in two ways. The answer is 4355. 21016 4. 68x(62+2)and (66 + 2) x 64 2. 21024 9. 15624 6. Problems: 2. 18209 8. 13209 ~pplications: The utility of First Formula is very wide. 13221 4. 27224 10. 126 x 124 - 139 x 131 - 148 Further we are required to add 2 x 65 = 130 to 4225. Say 57 x 65. 24021 Can you apply the technique used above to find out what 68 x 64 equals to.Answers: 1 13224 . You can use this formula to multiply two-digit numbers when the first digits are the same. 15625 5. but the total of the last digits does not come to ten.

t Examples: 1.3) = 4225 . 77 x 76 = (a) 77 x (73 + 3) = 5621 = . 55x54 In the way mentioned above. Examples: 1.41 = 1968 = (a) 56 x (54 . 16000 last digits is less than 10. 7. Now let us solve some of the examples 1. 56 x 53 = (a) 48x(42-1) =2016.48 = 1968 = (b) (49 .1) x 54 = 3024 .1) x 41 = 2009 .(b) (74 + 3) x 76 = 5624 2. 13104 where the first digit remains the same but the total of the$ 4.56 = 2968 = (b) (57 . 78 x 76 = (a) 78 x (72 + 4) = 5616 = (b) (74 + 4) x 76 = 5624 (55 .2 ) ~ 5 3 =3021-106 = 2915 + 231 = + 228 = + 312 = 5. Let us take some more examples to 4.Let us solve these: ~ eus take a few more examples.55 = 2970 = (b) (56 . 15872 Let me take an exam~le: In this case our first digits are the same (4) but the total ol the last two digits is less than 10.54 = 2970 = (a) 55 = 4352 3.2) = 3025 - = 2915 = (b) ( 5 7 . 15624 6. 2. 11448 15738 18354 3.1) = 3024 . Answers: exceeded 10. 119x114 = (a) 119x(111+3) = 13209 + 357 =I3566 = (b) (116+3)~114= 13224 + 342 =I3566 (1) 117x112 (4) 128x125 (7) 128x124 (10) 143x148 (2) (5) (8) (11) 108x106 122x129 138x133 138x134 (3) 124x126 (6) 126x129 (9) 146x147 (12) 117x115 Upto this point we have worked with those numbers whose first digits were the same and the total of the last digit$.195 = 4030 = (b) (68-3)x62 =4216-186 = 4030 + 5928 304 = 5928 3. 21462 . 65 x 62 5852 5852 Problems: = (a) 65 x (65 .53 = 2968 = (a) 55x(55-1) =3025. you can multiply a whole range of numbers. 5. 55 53 clarify.1) X 53 = 3021 . 16254 9. 8. 48x41 2.

1 .143.Excess digits will be added to fhe leftMultiplication of digits near 100 hand side. The number of digits on the right-hand side Let me give you a formula for multiplication of digits near of the slash will be equal to the number of zeros in the 10 0. same result 76. To solve this. we can understand this as: . our base is 100.2. 89 is 1 1 less than 100. 1 gives the 4 Crosswise operation (87-11) or (89-13) . Let us start with an example: 7 In other words.) Mathematics'. we tentatively get the right part of 871. 821-18 781-22 601 . 76 1143 = 76 x Base (100) +I43 = 7600 + 143 Let us look at some more examples. 3 the answer = 60.which we tentatively put as the left part After learning First Formula one should try and learn Quick 10 0.goes to the left to make it 7743. the base for all our operation will be 6. As the name suggests. Formula. Quick Formula of the answer. This can be written as: Steps explained Our base is 1 0 0.but we can keep only two digits on the right. We get 76 1. This formula is based upon 'Nikhilam' of 'Vedic and ( 11 and get . For the right part we multiply (-13) (+ 1 3 . 82 78 1 1 - 1 8 22 87 is 13 less than 100.therefore it is written as Operating crosswise. we measure the distance of 87 and 89 from Examples: 100 and write it in the following manner: 0') .therefore it is written as (82-22) (78-18)= 60 or 891-11. I have tried to explain the technique through 5. base. as 4) various examples.

22 60 1396 = 6396 60 x (Base) 100 + 396 6000+396=6396 Crosswise operation gives us: (113+8)or(108+ l 3 ) = 121 I l 3 / + 13 108/+ 8 121 I Multiplying (+13) and (+8) we get 104. 82l. .I 8 781. l l 3 / + 13 108/+ 8 121 1104 Crosswise operation gives us: (87+12)or(112-13)=99 871 . 87 x 112 This can be written as: 87 I 112 1 + 13 12 Multiplying (1-13) and (+12) we get -1 56.Multiplying (-18) and (-22) we get 396.13 1121 + 12 Problems: 121 x 100 (Base) + 104 = 12204 2.

1.42 2 . only one thing will change.3) gives us 61. now we will operate in the 100 divided by 2 zone. 7. 4. Earlier we were operating in the 100 zone. 10.Therefore we will divide the number obtained after crosswise operation by 2. 8232 9612 10904 11526 12. 9. 62 Crosswise operation (62 + 13) or (63 + 12) 4 7 6 4 1 61 - + - 3 14 42 1 1 1 Crosswise operation (47 + 14) or (64 . All the operations remain the same. 61 x 100 (Base) . 6.(12) 113 x 102 ~ ~ l t i p l i c a t i ofndigits near 50 o We have learnt to multiply digits near 100. Difference of the digits taken from ?=so Examples: Answers: 1. Now we will learn to multiply digits near 50. 8188 6612 10812 7802 3.

2668 212 x 192 212 192 3. 200 = 100 x 2 4. Problems: (3) 58 (4) x 53 - 2. But does this formula hold good for :digits near 200 also? Let us see. 1. 2 x (219) x (Base) I 88 = 43888 + You can verify this by other multiplication methods. 2444 7. 2208 I+ 12 I8 96 9. 3. 3128 2 x (2O4)I- 2 x 204 x (Base) I 96 40800-96 = 40704 . I Answers: 1. crosswise operation by 2. 2773 8. (7) 46 x 48 52 x 47 59 47 Example: (8) - 208 x 21 1 - - 208 I + 211 1 + 8 11 Crosswise operation (208 t 11) gives us 219. . The difference of the digits is taken from 200. The base is 100. Example: '. Let us take some more examples. 3074 4. So we will multiply the digits obtained through . 3024 5.Vultiplication of digits near 200 b e have learned to multiply digits near 100 and 50 by using 'Quick Formula'.

131 I! i Answers: 1.1 Crosswise operation (187-1Blor 1184. 3 40188 . 4. 37572 2 x (171) x (Base) + 208 342+208 =34408 2 x (178) x (Base) + 172 = 35672 Problems: (1) 206 x 203 (2) - - 212 x 218 (3) - 197 x 204 - - .41818 2 46216 .

- 160 1 -24 gives us 160. The multiplication factor is $. 160x$x 100 ( ~ a s e1. 132 x 152 - 4.Multiplication of digits near 150 You have learned Quick Formula for the multiplication digits near 100. I Here: (4) 4 problems: 156 x 158 - (2) 143 x 152 - 162 x 156 (5) 1. The difference of the digits is taken from 150. So the multiplication factor will be Let me explajn this by an example: $.24 ) 240 x (Base) 100 I. (1) Now 1 will explain the formula for the multiplication of digit near 150. 2. The base is 100.50 and 200.24 .

The importance of bases i n Quick Formula How do we find the multiplication factor? Simply, divide by the base = 100.

9

9 6

I I

- 1 - 4

?.

XS

Multi~lication facq Viz. Digits near 100

or 5 x 10 (Base) + 4 = 54

50 200 250 300 350
I

400 450 500

Choice of bases
You can choose bases such as 10, 100 or 1000.T number of digits on the right-hand side of the slash will equal to the number of zeros in the base.

3
!

Multiplication factor = 2 x 20 x 10 (Base)/- 16 = 400 -1 6 = 384

Examples:

se 100 se 1000

(We have seen a lot of examples in the previous pages.)

Base 10 1. 12 x8 -

12 8 10

1 1 1

+ 2 - 2 - 4
= I 007 x I 000 (Base) - 198 = 1007000-198= 1006802

10 x 10 (Base) - 4 100-4 =96

i Example - 2
B
I $

d

x 1512

{ Here the multiplication factor = 3 ' 2

i
Digits near multiples of 1000

X

1508/+ 1512 / +

8 12

1520 / 096*

Near 500 Example - 1 In this case: The base is 1000. The difference of digits is taken from 500.
i

512 x 498

'

The number of digits on the right-hand side of the slash is equal to the number of zeros in the base. Problems:

"

(1)

36 x 28

(2)

44 x 36

(3)

25 x 32

1 So the multiplication factor becomes 3 . -

x 24

The number of digits on the right hand side = number of zeros in the base.
512 / x 498 /

(7)

487 x512

+
-

12 2

510 / - 024 = 1 x 510 XI (base) - 024 000

4 d
;(lo) 2016 k x 1982

&

Answers: 1. 1008 4. 360 2. 1584
5. 262128

criss-CrossTechnique
have learnt 'First Formula' and 'Quick Formula' before s. While learning the above you must have wondered at you would do when you are required to multiply similar digits. When you have three, four or five digits t by . . . l~i ~ l i e d two or three digits. Do not worry. Learn the provided under this heading which will surely help you solve any kind of multiplication you come across.

7. 249344
10. 3995715

8. 260096
11. 4060216

f ~ u l t i ~ ltwo-digit numbers by two-digit numbers. ~in~
Let us start with an example, using the conventional approach: 68 544 272 3264

What are the steps we have taken?

1

i* E

We multiplied 68 by 8 and wrote it in the first row (544). Then we multiplied 68 by 4 and wrote it below the first line, after leaving one space on the right. We added them, beginning with the rightmost digit. We got the answer = 3264.

How will you do it faster?
Let me provide you a formula: a
X

b

X

Y

E
f

a~ by ax bx ax / (ay + bx) 1 by Cross

In algeb~ !t us take another example to check our understanding of we do the multiplication as shown above. How did we arrive at the figure 3264? we you understood the steps? Steps: We started from the right. 80+6 = 86..Answer 31 9 2 ax I (ay + bx) /by cross u -Remainder at each stage !t us tnke another example to make our understanding ystal clear: 87 x 68 -Answer .2 . 4 Remainder at each stage . x 52 3 95. kept 4 as the digit on t k extreme right and 6 as the remainder.e 24 + 8 and we get 32 as the left part of the answel Thus we get 3264 as the answer. . The remainder 6 is added to the middle portion. Let us take a e formula: a b example to show how we can incorporate the above formu in our multiplication exercises.You are familiar with such kinds of multiplication... We put 6 as the answer digit and 8 as tl remainder.. X X Y Example: 68 x 48 Assuming numbers as letters we can write down the abo\ example as shown below: (a) 6 (x) 4 (b) 8 (Y) 8 ax ay bx by 2813811 2 .. . The remainder 8 is added to the digit on the extreme le i.Remainder at each stage 48164+42/56 59 1 6 r.Answer - I n you do it now? y .

Then multiply and add the remainder 4 to it -i. Put 2 as the answer digit and 1 as the remainde Then multiply the numbers crosswise and add 14+ 44 (ay + bx).Steps explained again: First multiply the digits on the right-6 and 2.Left. (a x) = 35 + 4 = 39. Cross. Left . Start from right i - Some more'examples: . Steps explained again in short. Digit 5 i s the answer and 4 is remainder. Right Right.e. It comt 12. a1 becomes 45. The answer is 3952. the remainder 1 is added to 44.

c & x. When the remainder 3 is added to it. there was only one crossYou have learnt to multiply two-digit numbers by two-di~ here the number of crosses are two.Answer % . is. b c a X X Y ax ay bx by cx CY ax bx cx ax I ay + bx 1 by + cx / cy = 13 7 3 4 . Did you notice the utility of the criss-cro let us try to use the formula provided above. y. let us learn to multiply three-digit numbers two-digit numbers. 7 x 2 = 14. Do we notice some difference! Nothing much. a Y by CY Multiplying three-digit numbers by two-digit numbers .: technique? a b c X Y Now. a. . it becomes 17. numbers. us now turn towards the magical one. I shall explain it to you using. b. just make you aware of the difference. Second cross (ay + bx) = 6 + 8 = 14. only that o cross has increased. Then 7 is put as the answer digit and 1 is left as the remainder. Then 3 is kept as the answer and 3 as the remainder. I shall repeat the conventional method once again.he two-digits by two-digits. When the remainder 1 is added to if. First cross (by + cx) = 4 + 28 = 32. it becomes 33. 3 2 4 x 6 4 1 2 9 6 1 9 4 4 2 0 7 3 6 You are aware of the steps.Remainder at each stage me explain the steps: ax/ay+bx/by+cx/cy Cross Cross Let us compare this by the formula given for t multiplication of two-digit numbers by two digit numbers. (cy). After seeing the conventional multiplication techniques. 4 is kept as the answer digit and 1 as the remainder. We start from the right.

13. and 13 is put on the left of 7 a answer digit.Answer . Start from Right 624 x58 30/48+10/16+20/32 36 1 9 2 -&%3 .Last operation (ax) gives us 12.2. Steps explained in short: Right Right.Answer W . More examples: 22 3 3 6 .Remainder at each stage. Left Left. Cross . 16854 7 . Cross I .Remainder at each stage 44 3 5 2 4-&4 . - - - Let us take some more examples to understanc formula more clearly: 3 X 1 7 7 2 21 / 6 + 7 / 2 + 4 9 / 1 4 or 22 8 2 4 . 15120 5 12506 . 9 21192 .Remainder at each stage.Answer M . Thus we obtain the answer 13734. 15624 1 . remainder 1 is al to it (12 + 1 = 13).Remainder at each stage The numbers shown below are the remainders left at stage. nswers: I.Answer .

Let us do this by the criss-cross method. y. ay+bx=8+9=17+remainder=17+3=20. by + cx = 6 + 21 = 27 + remainder = 27 + 3 = 30. . The answer = 140032. Let us do that: Conventional method: 4273 x 24 17092 8546 102552 I am assuming that you are aware of the conventi approach and its complexity. numbers. The difference is in the number of crosses.Multiplying four-digit numbers by two-digit number You have learnt to multiply two-digit numbers by other digit numbers and three-digit numbers by two-I numbers. We will try using a.Remainder at each stage - abcd xY axlay+bxlby+cxlcy+dx/dy 43. dy = 6 x 2 = 12. whereas here in this case it is Ihree.3 is kept as the answer digit and the remainder is 3. cy+ dx = 14+18 = 32+remainder = 32 + 1 = 33. . What is the difference between the four-digits x two-digits and the three-digits x two-digits. . b. Now we will learn to multiply four-digit numbers by two. In the three-digits x two-digits the number of crosses were two. ax=12+remainder=12+2=14. This completes the answer. . a X Steps explained: Start from the right. 0 is kept as the answer digit and the remainder is 2.Remainder at each stage 4 8 4 9 x 4 6 15124+32148+16/24+36/54 2 2 3 0 5 4 -Answer -€4-&5 . d and x. x: 12/8+9/6+21/14+18 . . 3 7 8 4 x 3 7 9121+21/49+24/56+12/28 14 0 0 0 8 -Answer . c. b c d x Y More examples: 1. axlay+bxlby+cx/cy+dx/dy Cross Cross Cross Let us solve a sum to understand the formula: 2. . 2 is kept as the answer digit and the remainder is 1. 0 is kept as the answer digit and the remainder is 3.

113412 2.Remainder at each stage 7. 420798 11. 263552 10. here in this five-digits x two-digits the number of es will be one more than that in the four-digits x two. 367488 6. 503334 5. you are right. Yes. 'kt us write the formula: a b c d e X x Y a by CY dy e Y Y ax bx cx dx ex axIay+bxlby+cxlcy+dxldy+ex/ey cross cross cross cross Answers: 1. 301224 -et us solve a problem to have a clear understanding: 3. 266112 4. . 199826 8. 494676 9. 174744 . e learnt to multiply four-digit numbers by two-digit have you understood? As you increase one-digit at p. the number of crosses increases by one. 197839 12. 104713 14 4 0 6 4 8 -Answer ZZ-&W3 .Problems: lying five-digit numbers by two-digit numbers.

after leaving one space from the right (4823). First of all we multiplied 689 by 6 and wrote the answer in the first row (4134).ltiply three-digit numbers by three-digit numbers. 1010367 7.1 E t Answers: 1. 1477572 10. after leaving two spaces from the right (2067). 1322712 ultiplying three-digit nunibers by three-digit n ou have learnt a lot of things in multiplicat~on f so o~ can create your own formulae for iait by two-digit numbers. 556036 13. . Then we multiplied 689 by 3 and wrote the digits below . We then added them and got the answer as 259064. Then we multiplied 689 by 7 and wrote the answer in the second row. the second row. . 1805166 . . Now we F. et me start with the conventional approach just to show ou the number of steps required to solve it: iteps explained: 4.

Remainder = 4 7 2 9 6 4 . c and x. b. z.Remainder Let us try to solve some more sums keeping the formuk mind: 30 0 6 1 8 -Answer C . We will aga bxplain this method using a.Now l e t us try to see the faster method.Answer .Remainder axlay + b x l a z + b y + c x l b z + c y / c z Td degree cross If we compare this formula with the three-digit by two-di formula.Remainder .Remainder - 27 0 4 9 6 -Answer WX2-4 . Let us solve one example using the above formula: 37 1 6 5 4 -Answer ZEL&2 . Let us start: a X X ax ay bx az by cx b Y bz CY c z . y. then we find that there is a change in the degr of crossing (thbrd step from the right). cz 27 4 0 3 2 -Answer .

287328 5. 3 x 8 2 4 1 6 6 6/3+16/18+8+8/48+12+4124+6/36 = 8 3 0 7 3 6 .et us solve some more examples keeping the formula in nind: I. using this formula: =I51 2 7 1 2 . only a second degree cross increases by 1.~~ltiplying four-digit numbers by three-digit numbers. 221616 13. 9. Let us solve: a b c d x x y z Answers: 1. 275232 10. Everything wnains the same.Remainder at each stage .Answer 24-&&3 .Answer . Having learnt to multiply three-digit numbers by three-digit numbers.327236 az bz cz dz a by CY dy Y ax bx cx dx ax/ay+bxlaz+by+cx/bz+cy+dx/cz+dyldz Td degree cross T d degree cross Let us solve an example.Remainder at each stage . four-digit numbers by three-digit numbers is not difficult. 352502 2. 595232 ~ 1 4 . 551384 6 224998 .

.4.Remainder at each stage . You can use the same criss-cross formula to solve the example: a b x y ax/ay+bx/by 4. x 637 4843 (11) 5896 x 347 -----. competitive exams. 2045912 7 1993168 . mental calculation is electronic and solving it on paper is mechanical. written in an up and down order. say a lot =I25 2 8 3 2 -Answer of experts.You are required to solve a lot of problems in a given time.: Multiplying two-digit numbers by two-digit numbers f Let me explain the mental calculation technique: I The mental multiplication technique is based on the criss(I2) 5949 cross technique. Mental Multiplication Techniques (3) w. If seconds whereas printing on a paper takes a few minutes. (9) . Have you ever tried to take a print-out from a computer.time? Do the sums mentally. 2851 178 2 2089731 . In the criss-cross technique. 3705096 3 702372 . + .Remainder at each stage difference.yes. X 563 (process whereas printing by a printer is a mechanical : 5732 w h y so? Because processing by CPU is an electronic j process. 11. 2148188 8 3730909 . 4420107 3 6 x 2 4 = 6112+12/24 = 8 6 4 . 6. 137 . 3598349 12. 3227116 9. 5.Answer -&2 . the digits a x 743 I Answers: 1. : NOW let me ask what you should you do to consume less 5321 . then you must be knowing that print-processing takes i I . 1607304 ' are written in a row. problems are not difficult. Much in the same manner. whereas here. digits were 743 . I hope you are able to understand this analogy.5 2 6 4 Problems: Mental multiplication techniques will be helpful to you if vou are planning to take competitive exams in the future. I i" . 10. It is the time constraint which makes all the .

3752 2444 1764 2254 3. . abc xy axlay+bxlby+cxlcy 336x62 = 20 8 3 2 . 7.Answer . 5.Remainder at each stage 79 x 83 = 65 5 7 j ? ! i ' I 4-2 Problems: - Answer Remainder at each stage (1) 7 8 x 6 4 (4) 46 x 73 (7) 77 x 34 (10) 68 x 54 Answers: (2) 67 x 56 (5) 47 x 52 (8) 63 x 28 (3) 35 x47 (6) 33 x 39 (9) 71 x26 (12) 7 4 x 2 9 1 i.Answer S 2 . 4. Let us do some more: ab x xy ax/ay+bx/by 63 x 74 = 46 6 2 . 3672 12.Answer .Remainder at each stage 638x 32 = 20 4 1 6 . Write the stagewise remainder at the bottom as shown. Multiplying three-digit numbers by two-digit numbers 1 / Work from right to left.Steps explained: Assume 24 to be below 36 and multiply. (11) 9 8 x 2 3 / Problems: 1.Answer 2-41 . 8. 9. 1645 1287 1846 6. 4992 3358 2618 2.Answer .Answer 44 .Remainder at each stage 75 x 64 = 48 0 0 . 11.Remainder at each stage 6 5 1 x 5 1 = 3 5 3 1 6 -Answer W . ~ 2 3 .Remainder at each stage 436x56 = 24 4 1 6 .Remainder at each stage 472 x 24 = 11 3 2 8 . 10.Remainder at each stage After learning mental multiplication of two-digit numbers by tw0-digit numbers.4 4 . Let us start with examples: i I . 2146 .Remainder at each stage 7-7x 23 = 17 7 1 .Remainder at each stage 538x64 = 34 4 3 2 -Answer 4 . let US proceed to three-digit numbers by two-digit numbers.Answer 4 .

25788 10. 11501 just now you have learnt to multiply three-digit numbers by two-digit numbers mentally. 26864 7. Let us start with examples: . 39903 5.Answers: 1. 32977 12. 335861 4.Remainder at each stage 6742x64=431488 .Answer 4dKU . Now let me explain mental multiplication of four-digits by two digits. 9688 9. 69803 11. 35256 4.Remainder at each stage 8742x76=66 4 3 9 2 .Remainder at each stage 6453x82=52 91 46 4530 - Answer Remainder at each stage Problems: Answers: 1. Multiplying four-digit numbers by two-digit numbers 9792 3. 30806 2. 116667 7. 39766 8. a b c d xy axlay+bx!by+cxlcy+dxIdy 4235x24=101640 -Answer -ZLX . 350928 10. 288521 . 37532 6.Answer 75ZW .

then you can multiply and create your own formulae for the following: six-digits x two-digits two-digits two-digits two-digits seven-digits x eight-digits nine-digits x x 64327 x 74 = 47 6 0 1 9 8 . I160206 1280672 10.Multiplying five-digit numbers by two-digit numbers Hopefully you have understood by now. how to mentally multiply four-digits by two-digits.Remainder at each stage Problems: (1) 64389x47 (4) 37426x31 (7) 41312x31 (10) 51342x51 Answers: 1. Let us start with examples: abcde x xy ax/ay+bx/by + cx/cy+dx/dy+ex/ey If you have really understood the fundamentals so far.Answer .Remainder at each stage - . 7. 3026283 4. 2618442 . Let us now learn t o mentally multiply five-digits by two-digits.

Answer . Try to teach these methods to as many people as you can. Real Magic I am certain that you will be thrilled after learning and understanding these methods. 162732 473848 237783 461676 7. 10. You will find this magical. Let us try to solve it 139 first by the conventional method: Answers: 1. . . a b c x y z ax/ay+bx/az+by+cx/bz+cy/cz 542 x236 = 12 7 9 1 2 . 4.Remainder at each stage 473x324=153252 &l4U - Answer Remainder at each stage Problems: (1) 573 x284 (4) 971 x 488 (7) 871 x273 (10) 948 x487 Denominator ending with 9 Find 3 up to 5 places of decimal. Let us start with an example: Division 1. Mental multiplication of three-digit numbers by three-digit numbers should not be difficult for you any more. Also you will find this very easy to work with. .Multiplying three-digit numbers by three-digit numbers You have learned to mentally multiply upto five-digit numbers by two-digit numbers.

Our next gross number is 25.Answer ?-WNMXi Problems: . One is more cumbersome than the other.Remainder . Quotient = 1 and remainder = 11.52517.13.Answer 51379 11 - Remainder Answer Remainder Steps: 73 is divided by 139 (5 digit ending with 9). By the magical method too. Let me explain the steps. Examples: 139 75 . 5 is written after the decimal and 3 is written in front of 5 as shown below.42281 87 3 4 122 1311 = 0.52517. You have learned the steps required to solve such kind of problems where the denominator ends with 9. . divide 25 by 14. divide 35 by 14. 5 is the quotient and 3 is the remainder.3 6.3 73 . There is no difference in the answers.4 3 9 1 5 3 . Our next gross number is 35. divide 72 by 14. Q = 5 and R = 2.IS reduced to 1. However.3 139 39 I Start dividing 73 by 14. Quotient = 2 and remainder = 7. 5 3 9 5 6 8 . or 7. . Q = 5 is written after 2 and R = 2 before 5 (below it). let us see the magical method: Check. the procedure adopted in both ihe methods is different. our answer is 0. divide 73 by 14.9.3 149-14.15 - 0.Remainder by 14. Let us look at some more examples. . Q = 2 is written after 5 and R = 7 before 2 (below it). whether both the answers are the same (?) By the conventional method our answer to 5 places of decimal is 0.9 -m= 75 0. our next dividend is 111 which is to be divided 63 6. Q = 1 is written after 5 and R = 11 before 1 (below it). 7. Quotient = 7.Now. Our next gross number is 72. - . Put the decimal point first. We have already found the answer up to four decimal places. Repeat the above steps if you want to find the values further. and thereby we have found the answer up to five places of decimal.

then divided it by 14.24022 3.474576 8.Answer .601351 10.466292 2.4021164 11.0. In the quotient digit. In case of denominator digits ending with 8 (one less than 9). 0.8 = I) the quotient of digit is added at every step and divided by the divisor for finding out the answer.3557046 Denominator ending with 8 You must be wondering whether the process explained is applicable only if a denominator ends with 9. 0. the steps are as follows: 1. 0. 0.358490 The procedure is repeated to find the solution to the required number of decimal places. Divide this by 14.Answers: 1. 0. 4. In the next step Q2 = 2 and R2 = 12.697478 0. 0. Our gross dividend comes out to be 35 in which we added 5 to make it 40.3 1 3 8 . 5.034482 0.5 5.43220 7. 0.565217 4. 0. 0. 0.. 0. Answers: 1. 9. but with a slight change. 0.49612 0. 1 time (9 .Remainder .48837 2. We can apply this technique to digits that end with 8. As in this case. 12.5 2 8 9 8 .54676 0. 0. Our gross dividend at step 2 becomes 122 + Q2 = 124. Let us see it applied to denominators ending with 8: -73 +5+2 +8+9 7.052631 0. The answer is no.T 8 = r . etc. 7.076923 0. 8. we found our first Q1 = 5 and R1 = 3. Let us take some more examples so that we can understand it better: 6.3 7.22023 69 .1 020408 7. 10. 2. 6. Placing of the remainder in front of the quotient remains the same as explained in the case 73 or where the denominator digit ends with 9.

Can you guess what happens in case the denominator digit ends in 6? Say.Multiply the numerator and the denominator by '34 5 to reduce the divisor: Once you see the operation you know instantaneously that in this case the quotient digit is multiplied by 2 (9 .2 = 2) and added to the quotient. Till now you have seen explanations of the following: - . We reduce 1 from both numerator and denominaior. All other operations remains the same as before.3 5 .r Denominator ending with other digits: "After learning this magical method for denominator digits ending with 8. 133 Apply the principle explained for the denominator ending with 9: Multiply the numerator and the denominator by 5 to reduce the divisor: 73 What will you do in the case of: and 73 m? This case is slightly different here. 136 14 +15+9+18+21 3 6 7 6 73 13' In this case. three times the of Q digit has been added (9-6=3). -73.Multiply the numerator and the denominator by 3.-. In this case we proceed as explained before. but our gross dividend changes. 71 . Let me take one example: Let us take the above mentioned cases one by on 73 .7.=0. you would like to learn the same for denominator digits ending with 7. 73 .Multiply the numerator and the 135 2 to get the answer: 73 .

quotient).but it is 7 (9. 0. We should bring the remainder forward after the completion of three operations. Let me take a few examples: Problems: Answers: 1.$$arlier our gross dividend used to be the remainder quotient. after completion of two operations. 3. 0. 5.35433 .482954 10. 738 1399 - 7. Everything remains the same as explained earlier. Will we be able to apply the same technique when digits after the decimal is more than 1 ? Say. 9 0. .557251 4 0.425617 8 0.52 13. Now you will ask me what shall we do when the number of digits after the decimal places are three. As shown in the example. 0.50877 6 0. 0. Here in this case our gross dividend is the remainder (9 .383371 .99 14 75 1 In the case explained above.459854 .*1* .491712 . we bring the remainder forward.55629 . our first gross number should ) have been 75.. 0. only the operation related to the remainder changes.397058 Numerator having more than one digit after the decimal 2 0. 7.38 = = 0.5 = 74.

as our division by divisor step is over. In this format we reduce large divisors to smaller ones.17 will go once in 32. Division o f a number by a smaller three-digit number (Flag digit = 1) One complete cycle of division is given by "Division + Direction".2. The remainder is 15.as shown. The digits on the extreme right of the divisor is taken as the flag digit. i. Criss-Cross Technique Division format The conventional format for division: Divisor ) Dividend ( Quotient Remainder The magical format for division: Flag Divisor 1 Dividend You will ask me why I should adopt this format when I have a well tested conventional format. 1 8 324673 : 8 t Remainder side Divisor +17 Flag-. I Division Our first digit for division is 32. Quotient : Remainder Some finer points that need to be taken care of: Number of digits on the remainder side is always equal to the number of digits in the flag. division by small two-digit numbers is easy but when it comes to larger divisors it becomes inefficient. Steps: Division by Divisor ' 7' + Direction from flag '8'.e. division by the divisor and direction from the flag. We will be dividing the dividend by the divisor 17. We will now seek directions from the flag digit. Here. A four-digit divisor can be reduced to a two-digit or a one-digit divisor. In the example shown above we have kept 8 as the flag digit.1 is written in the space reserved for the answer and 15 is written before 4. Let us see how: 1 I Quotient : Remainder Let us take an example to clarify: 178 ) 3246736 ( Quotient side . I have to say that by the conventional format. . thereby reducing the complicated process of multiplication involving large divisors.

17 will go 0 times. then reduce 1 from the previous quotient digit and work again. Division Divide 7 by 17. Our answer is 18240 and the remainder is 18 Salient points revised: Direction Our gross One complete operation involves division + direction.Direction Our next gross dividend is 154.8 x 1 = 146).After seeking direction [(3332)= I .and the remainder 3 before 3 as shown: (154.After taking direction (1068 x 8 = 106 . Seek direction [87.Our next dividend which will be divided by 17 is 146.it goes 2 times. Division Divide 42 by 17.we are left with 42. 77 . Put 8 in the answer space after 1 and the remainder 10 before 6 as shown: Direction Our gross dividend is 33. Put 2 in the answer space after 8 and the remainder 8 before 7 as shown: Direction 18-0x8= 18.64 = 42). Put 4 in the answer 1 place after 2. are left with I.As part of the direction.the digit which will be further divided by 17.which will be divided by 17.It can go 4 times. dividend is 87. ] we Division Divide 1 by 17. Put 0 in the answer place and the remainder 1 before 8 in the remainder column as shown: Direction Our gross dividend is 106. multiply the first answer digit with the flag digit and then subtract from the gross dividend.remainder= 18. If after taking direction.(8x 2)= 711. you obtain a negative number. Division Divide 146 by 17.it goes 8 times.

Herewearekeeping Q=9 for the reason explained in the previous step.64 = 42. As this is a negative number. I can now hope that the division steps. I had taken an extra long example only to drive the point home. Steps: 32+17=Q=I. Our answer is 182397 and the remainder is 72.8 x 4 = [-51 Here we see that the answer is-5 after seeking direction. we cannot proceed further.R=15 Gross dividend 154.R=12.direction 197 . As explained earlier. we will go back and reduce the Q digit by 1.24 = 173.8 x 1 = 146. take direction 106 . 146+17=Q=8. jake direction 86 . take direction 128-56=72. after direction 27 .: Gross digit on remainder side is 128. Gross digit 203.R=8. Gross dividend 86. take. will be clear to you. Direction Gross dividend 27. .R=10. take direction 15 . R=2. 1. 156 ) 48764 ( Let us make our format. Now. 131+17=Q=7. After this long explanation. 42+17=Q=2.Let me illustrate it by an example: Gross digit 197. 173+17=Q=9.R=20. Gross dividend 106.72 = 131.16 = 70 Division 70+17=Q=4. we will work with smaller examples. Le. take direction 203 .

Q=658. R=89 R=33 R-90 R=61 R=15 R=l18 R=31 R=70 R=35 R=88 (7) (9) (11) (13) (15) (17) (19) One digit as the flag digit (right one).Answers: (1) Q=244. Q255. Q-43. Q=117. Q--86. R=66 Q=370. -10. Problems: (1) (3) (5) 40897t167 326312+157 58919+159 32163~126 13662t116 62123t154 83448t137 (2) (4) (6) (8) (10) (12) (14) 50326t132 46896+217 61312t138 12462t138 86962a184 12633~173 47132t113 I 9 6 8 9 : 8 (21) (23) (7) (9) (11) (13) 80 . Q-42. Q=218. One digit as the divisor (left one). Q=609. then you can make use of the format given below: (3) (5) Q=207b. R=149 Note: If you have to divide by a large two-digit number say 6898 + 89.

we will subtract the cross of the flag digit and quotient: This comes to 34. It goes 4 times and leaves a remainder= 5. Here the direction steps will be: Gross dividend is 66. Direction The gross dividend is 62. goes 2 times . In such cases we put two digits in the flag and one digit as divisor as shown below: Iwill explain the working procedure step by step: Division After making the format. R = 6. divide the first gross digit 37 by 8.e. . Subtract "Left digit of the flag x First digit of quotient digit i. Say. R = 6. which when divided by 8 goes 3 times. . 54-(8 x 4)=54-32=22. For direction. Division Next dividend for division is 22. take direction . which when divided by 8. subtract cross of the flag digit with quotient digit. Division Now the dividend is 30. Direction Remainder 6 has been placed towards the remainder side. Direction Next gross dividend is 54.Division of a number by a larger three-digit number (Flag digit = 2) Now I will explain what happens when the divisor number is extra large.

R=843 (11) Q=51. Q=7. By using two digits in the flag we can divide any number by four digits.(4 x 3) = 348 . R = 17 Q Direction 174 . Example: 82747641566 Let us make our format: Problems: (1) 80649+984 (4) (2) 60312+762 (5) 612314869 (8) 763215594 (1 1) 50321+972 (3) 51336462 (6) 786325789 (9) 68323~964 (12) 99631+997 4312+978 68 1 82 7 4 (7) l3263+876 (10) 89033+879 Steps: Answers: (1) Q=81. Last dividend digit 6 will be placed on this. R=945 (3) Q=59.[(6x2)+(8~5)]=122 (Step-3) 122 177 - 58 1196 (7) Q=15. R=114 R=180 R=521 Division 82+ 15. Answer = 423 and remainder = 336. R=401 (Step-2) 174 . R=478 (5) Q=70.12 = 336.The last dividend digit 8 will be placed on 34 and it becomes 348 from which we will subtract "Last flag digit x Last quotient digit". R=928 Division 122~15. R=17 Direction 177-cross 1196 . R=289 (10) Q=101. Q=5. R=123 (9) Q=70. i. 348 . R=7 Direction 77 . Let us see how. = 2.[Last flag digit x last quotient digit] 1196 .e. R=254 (12) Q=99. (6) Q=99. (4) Q=44. R=749 (8) Q=128. Division of a number by a four-digit number. Remainder = 336.(6 x 5) = 47 Division 47~15.52 (2) Q=79.[8 x 71 = 1140 (remainder) Quotient = 627 Remainder = 1140 hxl 6 = 119. 85 .

R=379 Q=46. Q=30. R=80 k378 R=756 R=1255 R=1171 R=728 R=343 R=1659 (7) (9) (11) (13) (15) (17) (19) Q=34. Q=30. Here. we have only added three extra zeros to solve it up to three places of decimals. Q=24.Problems: (1) (3) (5) (7) 106356+ 1274 382123 + 1584 87342 + I897 38321 + 1997 18432 +I964 8li'62+ 1643 38347 + 1549 Declmal division Having discussed so much on division. Let us make our division format: (9) (11) (13) (15) (17) (19) 56498 + 1859 38413 + 1269 64321+1843' Everything remains the same as explained earlier. We will have to solve this also as we did earlier. R=614 (3) (5) Q=241. Q=19. Q=9. let us now work to find the result up to a few places of decimals instead of remainders. Answers: (1) Q=83. Say we want to find 3246738 + 178 up to 3 places of decimal. Q=49. .

Direction. 106 .8 x 1 = 146 146+17=Q=8. take direction 154 .R=8 I I 7 8 6 4 3 :2 :0 +- One zero is added here as w have to e find the answer to one decimal place.32 = ? 1+17=Q=O.R=2 Gross dividend 20. Direction 87 .R=10 If you are required to divide up to one decimal place. R = 3 Gross dividend 33.0 x 8 = 18 18+17. suppose you have to find the answer up to five decimal places. Gross dividend 87. for divisions involving three or four-digit numbers.Q=I. You will put the decimal sign as soon as you enter the remainder zone. (1) 86432 + 197 (2) 343762 + 1654 Gross dividend 10.16 = 71 71 + 1 7 = Q = 4 . R =15 Direction gross dividend = 154.101 We can use the same technique for finding answers in decimals. direction 10 . direction 30 .1 x 8 = 22.Steps explained: How to make the format for decimal division? Division 32+17.64 = 42 42+17=Q=2. direction 20 . The answer is 18240. Gross dividend 18.0 x 8 = 20 Gross dividend 30.Q=1. then the following format is applicable.Q=O.R=l Now.(1 x 8) = 2 2+17. then our format will look like the following: added here to find the answer to two We have entered into the remainder zone now. direction 18 . Direction 33. what will you do? You will add five zeros to the right of the dividend and divide the whole operation following the division procedure explained earlier. so we will put a decimal after the digits found so far as part of the answer. . Problems: Find the answer upto four places of decimal.R=l Suppose the answer required is up to two places of decimal. 86432 t 197 Gross dividend 106.

Add 1 to the upper left-hand digit 8 i.5252 Although I have explained this earlier in the chapter on First Formula. (7) 385.Answers: (1) (4) SQUARES Squares of a number ending with 5 438. Our answer is 7225. Multiply 9 to the lower left-hand digit 8.i. 8 +I = 9.4066 Steps: Multiply 5 by 5 and put composite digit 25 on the righthand side. we can find out the square of any twodigit number ending with 5. I shall explain it again for the benefit of the students. put this on the left-hand side. 9 x 8 = 72 .7544 (10) 5. Using this method.e. .7411 284.e.

say (752 = 5625). Problems: (1) (36)' (5) (57)' (9) (96)' (2) (37)' (6) (66)' (10) (97)' Answers: (1) 1296 (5) 3249 (9) 9216 (2) 1369 (6) 4356 (10) 9409 . But I am explaining it for the benefit of the students: 75' 762 2 5625 is known Add (75 + 76 = 151) to this to get 76' = 5776.Finding squares of an adjacent number Forward method: Answers: (1) 225 If we know the square of a number. (2) 625 (6) 4225 (10) 11025 (14) 21025 (3) 1225 (7) 5625 (11) 13225 (15) 24025 (4) 2025 (8) 7225 (12) 15625 (16) 27225 75' = 5625 (known) (5) 3025 (9) 9025 (13) 18225 Steps: It is very easy. how do we find out the square of 76. The format shown above is self explanatory.

say 70. Now let me explain the reverse method through which you will be able to find out squares of a number which is one less than the given number.. 6 here) = 20125 (9) 4096 / 205 ' 1 = 225 (13) 7056 You can work like this up to 1g2.6 = 196 14+414' 15+5/5' (Apply step no. The number of digits after the slash can be only one. Our operating zone is 10 x 1 or simply 10. Let us first find the square of 1 1 using the formula: 112 = 11 + 111' = 1 1 = 121 21 The formula is self explanatory.how do we find out the square of 69? Mental formula for finding squares.What about the numbers above 20? . However. We added 1 to 1 1 to make it 12... If the number of digits after the slash exceeds one. Will you be able to find the squares of other numbers in a similar manner ? Try . let me explain it for more clarification: The slash used here is just a separator.(69+7O)= 4900. then we place only the rightmost digit on the extreme right after the slash. (70)2 = (9' 6) = 4900 (known) 4900 .Reverse method Did you like the forward method? You have learnt to find out the square of a number which is 1 more than the given number whose square is known.. 6 here) 18 /. Let me explain with an example: Suppose we know the square of a number.139 = 4761 Answers: (1) 841 (5) 1936 142 1' 5 = = = 18/16 (Apply step no. 1 1 is one more than 10. and the remaining digits get added to the number on the left-hand side of the slash.

Is it going to hold good for the whole range from 21 to 29? Let us check: 22'= 2 x ( 2 2 + 2 ) / 2 * 23' = 2 x (23 + 3) 13' = 2~(24)14=48/4=484 = 2 x (26) 1 9 = 5219 = 529 CUBES To find out cubes of a two-digit number. you should be able to easily memorise the squares of numbers up to 99 without much hassle. to simplify the matter. This is the ultimate finding. a2 b. we take the help of the formula: 2 4 ' = 2 ~ ( 2 4 + 4 ) / 4 ~= 2 ~ ( 2 8 ) / 1 6 = 5 6 / .The formula remains the same with a slight change. In the above formula. We have simply broken 3a2 b and 3ab2 into two parts a2b and a2b and ab2 and 2ab2.a2bx b/a = ab2 and ab2 x b h = b3 The common ratio between the top terms is b/a. This change is because now we are operating in the 10 x 2 zone. . The complete formula comes into being when you add the terms at the top to those at the bottom. ab2. can you now find out the squares of the numbers 31 to 39? This can be written as: a3 + a2b + ab2 2ab2 + b3 2a2b By the method explained above. we see that the terms a3. We have to only dig out b/a and our desired result will be there. and b3 are placed at the top and the two terms 2a2 b and 2ab2 are placed at the bottom. If we scrutinise the top term closely. 6 = 5 7 6 Having learnt this. then we find that: a3 x b/a = a2b.

a2 b = 2 so that 2 a2 b = 4 and ab2 = 4 so 2ab2 = 8. a 3 = 8 a n d b =2 a 1 a b Steps: Our first term is a3 = ( 1 ) = 1. Our operation is over now. For the second row. b = 5 and 2 = a 253 = 8 20 50 125 40 100 15 6 2 5 . a 3 = l . Second row comes as 4 and 8. W e h a v e a = 1 .Remainder at each stage 163 =I 6 36 216 12 72 4 0 9 6 . the unit digit 6 is retained as part of the answer and the remainder 21 is added to the left. h e r e a = l . b = 2a3 = 8 and 1 7 2 8 . Let us take another example to clarify our method further: 2 l 3 H e r e .e. Put all this in the first row. a = 2. The second term is a2 b = (a)3x b/a = 1 x2 = 2. b =and 6 =6. 213 = 8 4 2 1 8 4 9 2 6 1 1 223 Here. - . maintaining a space. a = 2. The fourth term is b3 = (a b2 ) x bla = 4 x 2 = 8.Answer 1 =1 - Remainder at each stage ~ e t u s f i n d l 6 ~ .Remainder at each stage %l. b = 2 a n d b / a = 2 After adding the remainder 21 to (36 + 72) we get 129. 9 is retained as the answer and 12 is added to the left. 0 is retained and 3 is added to the left. a3 = 8. On adding the remainder 12 to the left we get 30.Answer .%X- Steps explained: From the digit in the right 216.a3=l 253 Here. The answer is 4096.Answer . a = 2 . b = l . double the two middle terms i.Let me explain this with the help of an example: 1 23. Now add them. Adding the digits on the extreme left gives 4. The third term is ab2 = (a2 b) x bla = 2 x 2 = 4.

b = 7 and b a - 2 7 19 6 3 .273Here.Remainder at each stage 8 In this way you can find cubes of any two-digit numbers. a = 2.a3 = 8.Answer +&X&34 . Problems: (1) 143 (4) 193 CI) 283 (10) 323 (13) 3g3 (16) 453 (19) 4g3 (22) 543 (25) 573 (28) 613 Answers: (1) 2744 (4) 6859 ( ) 21952 7 .

7 and 8. Let me explain with the help of an example: 4 1 00 After reading the example given. Number Duplex a a2 2 ab 2 [ac] + b2 2 ad + 2 bc 2 ae + 2 bd + c2 2af+2be+2cd Duplex SQUARE ROOTS Square root of a perfect square ab abc abcd abcde abcdef Number For finding square roots. 6. We have to learn to find the 'Duplex' of a number. 9 and 00. we are required to have some background. Steps: The number of digits in a square root will Group the numbers as per the pairing technique known to you. 3. Also.And. . we can say that perfect squares end with I . (Start from the last digit and make a group taking two digits together). Let us see: Last digit 1 4 9 6 2 21 212 2124 21243 22 = 4 2x(2x1)=4 2 x ( 2 x 2 ) + 12=9 2(2x4)+2(1~2)=20 2 (2 x 3) + (1 x 4) + 22 = 24 e 5 6 9 Knowledge of the duplex is required to find out square roots. 5. or that a perfect square does not end with 2. 4.

62 = 36. As part of direction. we subtract 82= 64 from this and obtain 0. Our problem is solved. 6 is put before 4 as shown.Division + Direction. 46-36=10 (remainder) is written before the next digit 2. i. Our next gross dividend is 36. We have found the square root to be 46 ( n12 =4/2 = 2).Find out the first answer digit by the method known to you. Put 4 in the answer place (See the division format for the answer place) and keep the double of the first answer digit i. Now our gross dividend is 64. Now we are ready to find the square root. We found the first answer digit to be 6. the first answer digit is 4. We keep the first answer digit separate while finding out the duplex. The divisor becomes 12. leaving only the first answer digit. 12 goes 8 times and the remainder is equal to 6 .e. as from our previous knowledge we know that the digits in. 105 . Note: You can avoid the last step if you wish to. finding the square root is also a two-step process . In the above example.e. 2 x 4 = 8 as the divisor. Steps: We 'ound the first answer digit to be 1. Divisor becomes 2. Salient points expIained: Like division. we subtract the duplex of the quotient numbers. I The gross dividend is 102. and the example taken above is a complete square. We get the remainder as 0. the square root will be n12 = 2. but let me explain it further. and by way of direction. from which we will subtract the duplex of 6. Now let me take an example to clarify: Steps: Here our gross dividend is 51. 2 1 1 4 0 Here our divisor becomes double the first answer digit. 8 goes 6 times and the remainder is 3.

Divide by 6.2 goes 4 times and R = 0. R = 3. Gross dividend. Divide 8 by 2 .Duplex of 14 O9-2x(I ~ 4 ) 1= Direction Step 2 = 16 . It comes to 28. digit 3.Duplex of 4 = 16-16 = 0. The Operation is complete here. Take Direction 41-Duplexof54=41-2(20)=1. Direction . Divisor = 6.Duplex of 4 16-42 = 0 So the remainder = 0 Example: . Divide by 6. R = 4. 2 goes I time and R = 0. Direction . Q = 4. 16 . R = 5. (6 will be put down on 1 to make it 16) v. [Remainder = 0 1 Direction Step 1 = 09 .Next gross dividend 09. 53. Our next gross dividend is 2. take direction and subtract the duplex of 5 from 53. we subtract l 2 = 1 from 9 and obtain 8. Q = 5.next gross dividend = 9. Steps explained in short First answer. Gross dividend. Our operation is complete here as we have already got a three-digit answer = We will now proceed to find the remainder.1 -1 = 0 is written before the next digit 2. 35. As part of the direction.

566 (4) 159.R = 1 6 (If we take Q = 6. R = 9.Finding the square root i n decimals In all the above examples I have found remainders but let us try to find square roots of incomplete squares. 160-Duplexof55=110 110+16.R=14 148 .Q=5. Q = 3.Q=5.Duplex of 556 [2 x (5 x 6) + 5*] = I 48-85=63 63+16.Duplex of 5563 = 150 [2 x (5 x 3) + 2 x (5 x 6)1 60 +l6.022 (5) 41 (8) 446.254 (2) 475. 150 .Duplex of 5 = 96 96+16.633 Problems: (1) 186241 (4) 25362 (7) 18634 (2) 225646 (5) 1681 (8) 199432 (11) 13637 (14) 742822 (17) 163462 Step explained: (10) 10876 Number of digits in square root = $ =3 (13) 63473 (16) 60123 (19) 50217 First answer digit 8. then negative comes) (20) 48324 Answers: (1) 431.506 7 We have found three required answer digits before the decimal.578 ( ) 136. R = 12 Our answer is 855. Now we will proceed towardsfinding the answer digit after the decimal.Q=6.R=15 .Q=3.R = I 2 121 . Example: Add 00 in the dividend and take 150 as the gross dividend. Divisor = 16 92+16.

Now we see 9 and ascertain that Z3 8 is less than 9 and 33 = 27 is more. You have thus found the first digit and the last digit.33is 7 and vice versa. - Another example: Procedure of finding a cube Start from the right and put a comma when the three digits are over. That number is your first digit.261 .175. 32. Let us take an example: 1 8 7 4 5 6 3 2 9 From the above illustration we can make out that the last digit of 23is 8.728 .Example: - Cube Roots Finding cube roots requires some background. Now see the first group of numbers and ascertain which number's cube is less than the group.32. By seeing the last digit.261 2 I Steps: Counting from the last. we ascertain that the last digit of the cube root will be 1 . All the others repeat themselves. compare that with the table provided above. You will get the last digit.768 3 2 We find the cube root of the last digit which is equal to 2 . Our first digit thus comes to 2.616 After putting the comma.and the answer is 21. .1. Last digit 9.768 . we put a comma after 9. 9. see the last digit of the number.

5 x 11) = -27+55=28 . Therefore I have decided to cover this topic in the book. - Note: This technique is valid for exact cubes only. This is a good method of finding approximations.3 x 9) . we put 3 as our first digit as 33 = 27 is less than 32 and 43 = 64 is more. Let me start with an example: 5x 6x = 9 If in this example we are able to find the value of x.For the first two digits 32. then finding the value of y is not very difficult. Our answer is 32. Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous equation is a topic which comes in use frequently.(. To find the value of x we make an operational point. 5y Operational point - 3y = 11 Numerator = Denominator Numerator (Coefficient of y in the 1st row x constant in the 2nd row) Coefficient of y in the 2nd row x constant in the 1st row) [Coefficients are taken with the signs intact] Thus the numerator (N) = (.

Answer: x = 0 and y=+ 8 7 Numerator = Denominator Problems: Check it yourself: 12x+78y = 12Answer:y=O. y = 4 (4) .x=l 16x+96y Answers: (1) (3) = 16 Type Il (2) - ~=2. that when one isjn ratio then the other . How much time would you take to solve it? A couple of minutes.3 x 6) . are you able to see that the coefficients of y and the constants are in the same ratio. In this case. -18+25=7 The formula says.y=l x=3.(Coefficient of y in the 2nd row x coefficient of x in 1st row) [Coefficients are taken with the signs intact] The denominator = ( .y=5 x = 7.( .For denominator: Peculiar Types 'Operational point Example: 6x + 7y = 8 l 9 x + l 4 y = 16 Denominator (Coefficient of y in the 1st row x coefficient of x in the 2nd row) . therefore x = 0. is 0 In this equation you find that the coefficient of y is in ratio with the constant term.y=2 x=-2.5 x 5) = X 1 Solve it for x and y.

The price of this book has been kept low so that these methods which have been drawn from our ancient knowledge bank "Vedas" should spread with lightening speed. If you are able to understand the "Magical Methods". was due to a lot of unexplained steps.y=l . Many people had other books on Vedic mathematics with them but were not using them. finding x and y becomes easy. I have tried to explain the intermediate steps in detail. then add it once and subtract it once. y = . 1 After this.IIM Bangalore (2) ~=3. Find it yourself: C I \ I I i i Answers: (1) x = l .1 22x + 22y = 22 22 (x + y) = 22 = 1 orx+y I A Word To All Maths Enthusiasts My dear friends. I welcome your suggestions for the improvement of this book. This.Whenever you find x and y coefficients interchanged. y = 2 B. Let us see how: Addition gives us: 6 8 ~ 68y = 204 68 (x. MBA.y) = 204 = 3 orx-y Subtraction gives us: Answer: x = 2. then recommend this book to your friends. PRADEEP KUMAR I I . I found.Tech. In my book. This reduces the large coefficients into workable coefficients. Every one I met praised 'Vedic Mathematics'. Win prizes for the best suggestions.

in India. Achiever's training is based on these two crucial elements. Apart from the syllabi.for Schools (Class 9 and above) 9 The 'Achiever' Institute Achiever is an organisation founded by Mr. . Also.There was a lack of training institutes in Gurgaon that specifically trained.in July 1998 to cater to the students of Gurgaon. The CAT examinatioo is known for its surprise elements. two things are of prime importance (1) Ability to calculate fast and (2) Ability to read fast. Kumar was quite aware of this.Sharpen Your Saw -Workshop on Magical Meth. Mr. ~ f Fast Calculations and Reading Speed Enhancemen '@ Magical Methods of Fast Calculations . students for the MBN CAT entrance examinations. Now Achiever offers the following: Classroom training for MBNCAT aspirants A Foundation Course for MBNCAT aspirants (Postalyear of Graduation) for students in their 2"6 GD and Interview Preparation for MBNCAT aspirants Mock Interviews (for candidates going to face job interviews). which calls for a balanced approach. and so he took up the initiative to start Achiever.b . Achiever teaches the students "Magical Methods of Fast Calculations". In this examination.an IIM alumni . Pradeep Kumar . Achiever has developed exercises to increase the reading speed of a person from a nominal speed to 800-1000 words per minute. These magical methods are 10 to 15 times faster than the conventional methods.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.