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Honour Killings in Sindh and Police
Barrister Abdul Khalique Shaikh
Sindh Police in collaboration with GJP, UNDP
Published in 2009 @ Copyright Barrister Abdul Khalique Shaikh Printed by: Masmedia 2D-1/16, Siddique House, Nazimabad # 2, Karachi. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior permission of the author.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR Mr. Abdul Khaliique Shaikh is serving as DIG in Sindh Police. He has done his L.L.B from the University of London, L.L.M (Criminal Justice) from Oxford Brookes University and was called to the Bar at Lincoln’s Inn London. After joining police service of Pakistan in 1992 he has served in various capacities and has vast experience of handling and supervising investigations of honour killings in Sindh. He has also been associated with training of police officers of various ranks. Presently he is focal person for the prevention of Karo-Karo Project being executed by Sindh Poice in collaboration with the Gender Justice Project, UNDP.
Contents Foreword About the Project Executive Summary Chapter 1 Introduction Methodology Honour Killings in Sindh Statistics on Honour Killings Analysis of official figures Unofficial figures on Honour Killings Chapter 2 Forms and causes of Honour Killings Forms of Honour Killings Causes of Honour Killings Chapter 3 Police and Honour Killings Police Perception of Honour Killings Results of survey on perceptions Police Investigations of Honour Killings Traditional mindset of police investigators Steps taken by Sindh Police to improve police handling of the Honour Killings ix xi 01 07 10 10 11 11 13 15 19 21 21 23 27 29 29 29 31 33 36 iii .
SP Investigation and DPO 43 Role in preventing Honour Killings 49 Chapter 5 Legislative Response Bibliography Annexure Questionnaire for Police Officers (Honour killings study) 51 53 57 59 61 iv .O.Chapter 4 39 Guidelines for professional handling by police officers 41 Objective of the guidelines 41 Definition of Honour killings 42 Receiving and conveying information 42 Role of the first responder to the scene of crime 43 Role of SHO. SPO. I.
O NGOs PPO SDPO SHO SP SPO UNDP Assistant Sub-Inspector Central Police Office District Police Officer Deputy Superintendent of Police First Information Report Inspector General of Police Investigating Officer Non Governmental Organizations Provincial Police Officer Sub-Divisional Police Officer Station House Officer Superintendent of Police Supervisory Police Officer United Nations Development Program v .Acronyms ASI CPO DPO DSP FIR IGP I.
Iqbal Ahmed Detho. SSP Sindh Police. Nadeem Mehboob.Acknowledgements This study on honour killings in the province of Sindh and police response to such incidents could not have been written without encouragement. Ms Sobhya Agha. Sohail Abro and Kazim Raza were particularly helpful in completing this study. DIG Headquarters Sindh Police. UNDP Islamabad. Sharjeel Kharal. Zeeshan and Aisha Durani of the Gnder Justice Unit. support and assistance of various individuals. Mr Saud Ahmed. I am extremely grateful to them for their excellent contributions and much needed encouragement at every stage of the project. Barrister Abdul Khalique Shaikh vi . It would be appropriate to acknowledge all those friends and colleagues who extended their valuable support in conducting and publishing this study. Project Officer of the prevention of Karo-Kari project. Kashif Noon. Mr.
preventing sexual harassment and handling honour killings have been implemented and a helpline for women has been setup to create an environment where women feel safe and better victim support services can be provided. standing operating procedures on dealing with cases of violence against women. Above all the Sindh Police has initiated a project on prevention of honour killings in collaboration with the vii .Message I am delighted to see this in-depth study on state of honour killings in Sindh province and the way the police officers handle or should handle such cases. presently working as Deputy Inspector General of Police in Karachi is manifestation of the commitment of the Sindh Police for improving state of women in society. The Sindh Police has been cognizant of the fact that sincere and concerted efforts are needed to end violence against women ranging from domestic violence to killings in the name of honour. A number of steps have been taken to improve police response to the violence against women. more women police stations are being set up to encourage women victims to come forward and seek police assistance for redressal of their complaints. Human Rights cells have been setup at district level to deal with cases of violations of human rights. This study will not only help various dedicated human rights activists to understand police perspective of the menace of honour killings but it will go a long way in enhancing capacity of the police officers tasked with investigation of the murders committed with the motive of karo-kari. Abdul Khalique Shaikh. The study conducted by one of our officers Mr.
I appreciate the project team of Sindh Police and GJP Unit.Gender Justice Unit.S. This study was also conducted as one of the activities of the project. Sindh viii . Babar Khattak PSP Provincial Police Officer/IGP. UNDP for successful execution of the project and bringing out this excellent study on a very important subject. S. UNDP. I am confident that this study will form the basis on which various districts of Sindh Police will formulate and implement well thought out strategy to effectively prevent or significantly reduce incidents of killings in the name of honour.
Khairpur and Naushehro Feroze. The project focuses on the four districts of Sindh including Sakhar. Sindh police has already taken various steps including training of police officers and awareness campaigns in collaboration with national and international organizations. Though this is not the first study on honour killings but most of the studies give perspective of a human rights activist only. The study is expected to be tremendously useful in implementing the project on prevention of honour killings undertaken by Sindh Police in collaboration with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Honour killings are deplorable and every civilized society should respond to such incidents in a responsible way. critically evaluates police handling of the honour killing cases and not only identifies the problem but puts forward good practice guidelines to be followed by the police officers. This study inter alia. ix . train them in investigative methods and create general awareness about the pernicious problem of killings in the name of ghariat. The project is expected to sensitize the police officers. There is increasing realization among the Sindh police leadership about the seriousness of the issue and the need for evolving a comprehensive strategy aimed at effectively countering the inhuman custom of karo-kari. Ghotki. These districts have been in hitting headlines in the print and electronic media for ghastly murders in the name of honour.Foreword I am pleased to introduce a well researched study on honour killings in Sindh. The police organization is the premier agency to deal with such killings.
Saud Ahmed PSP Deputy Inspector General of Police (Headquarters) Sindh x . Abdul Khalique Shaikh and his team for undertaking the study and implementing the project on prevention of honour killings as focal person of the project. I hope the project will go a long way in reducing the incidents of honour killings.I appreciate commendable efforts made by Mr. creating awareness about the issue and bringing culprits to the book by prompt and professional police response.
The Sindh Police took initiative to execute this project in four districts of upper Sindh. Khairpur and Naushehro Feroze districts of the Sakhar region because of high rate of Karo Kari incidence. but it also contributes to accentuate personal and tribal feuds.About the Project PREVENTION OF KAROKARI PROJECT The Province of Sindh has the highest incidence rate of Honour Killings. A training workshop has been organized to train master trainers among the police officers. Honour Killings are more prevalent in rural areas of the province. A victim support helpline 111-123-588 has been established in the four districts. xi • • • • • . Ghotki. Karo Kari is not only a gross human rights violation. though an increasing trend of incidence of this crime is being reported in urban and semi-urban areas too. leading to serious policing problems in the province. The incidence rate of Karo Kari is higher in upper Sindh. A research report has been prepared to study the problem of honour killing in Sindh and improve police handling of such cases. A documentary has been prepared to create awareness about the issue. A software has been developed and authenticated data base is being maintained on incidents of honour killings. The project activities already undertaken are as under: • Establishment of four Anti-Karo Kari cells in Sakhar .
As a result of the training the police officers are more responsive and there has been more awareness about preventive policing and preventive strategies pertaining to honour killing incidents. its gravity. Sobhya Agha Project Officer Prevention of Karokari project Sindh Police and UNDP xii .Objectives of the training workshop at District level include to give general awareness to the Police officers about concepts of human rights. sensitization of the trainees on violence against women. The positive results of the project are emerging as the FIRs are being registered by the victims or their relative. psychological and sociological aspects and police responsibilities and improvement in investigation of honour killings and overall capacity building of the officers in the field of crime investigation. Where the victim or their relatives are reluctant the FIRs are registered on behalf of the state. to make them familiar with the international Human Rights standards for law enforcement officers.
Honour Killings In Sindh Executive Summary .
Furthermore. As a result the accomplices of the main accused do not face trials in the courts. It has been observed that the police investigations are conducted in a perfunctory manner on many occasions. unprofessional handling of the investigation and poor supervision result into acquittal of the accused. These figures are compiled manually as there is no centralized software to maintain records of crimes. Police is the only agency involved in investigation of the crimes including honour related cases. Generally the police investigation officers’ investigations are superficial. Statistics suggest that this is more prevalent in the northern districts of the province. Due to this manual recording and compiling of figures there is likelihood of error in the reports prepared on the basis of the official crime figures. The figures of the formally reported crimes are available with the Central Police Office (CPO) Sindh. These statistics omit the incidents which were hushed up by the perpetrators and their collaborators. Consequently the perpetrators of this heinous crime are not deterred and it becomes increasingly difficult to eliminate or prevent murders of innocent women and men in the name of honour.Executive Summary It is believed that the province of Sindh has the highest rate of the incidents of honour killings in the country. Even in challaned cases only the principal accused is/are arrested and the role of those involved in aiding and abetting is not probed. Once comprehensive software is developed to record the crime data on daily basis the chances of error will be considerably reduced and the official crime figures including those on the honour killings or violence against women will be much more reliable. This will greatly 3 .
The criminal justice. Police officers may not be completely free ofr gender bias. The incidents of honour killings have been taking place in various parts of the country and this has a lot to do with general status of women in our society. Not all of them deprecate the practice of honour killings. has not been able respond effectively to the menace of hnour killings either by protecting the potential victims of punishing the offenders. as a whole.assist in showing the magnitude of the problem and assessing its seriousness. An evironemnt where commodification of women is not discouraged the men consider women their property such practices are ikely to be common. Likewise. The areas where informal justice system is more in vogue and the formal justice system is weak the perpetrators of honour killings are more likely to be encouraged by general weakness of the state institutions and lack of effective deterrence. The results of the survey reinforced the observation that the traditional mindset of a police officer is part of the problem and a hurdle in 4 . A survey on police perception of honour killings and their handling revealed that 88% of the respondents saw no difference between honour killings and other murders and they thought there was no reason to give special attention to the murder cases with honour as motive. the violence against women in general and the killings in the name of honour in particular have direct relevance with the overall crime situation and the writ of the government in the society. Honour killings take place in various forms ranging from suspicion of illicit relations to blame for being victims of rape and fake honour killings done to settle a private dispute or even as a means of extortion.
Police leadership has. An avid adherence to these guidelines should ensure that the police investigations of the honour killings are conducted in a professional manner and common flaws are eliminated from the investigations. improving their investigation skills and putting in place a dependable victim support programme besides addressing the prevalent gender bias and traditional mindset through useful training. The accessories to the murders committed in the name of honour are also sent up for trial. no doubt. These procedures will also ensure proper supervision of the investigations at various levels and will create an environment where violence against women is prevented reduced and vulnerable women feel safe in the society. what is needed is a comprehensive response and concerted effort to tackle the flagrant violation of right to life by sensitizing police officers. This necessitates a comprehensive training of the police officers aimed at improving their role as law enforcement officers in investigation of the cases and protection of the potential victims. 5 . been cognizant of the problem of honour killings and various piecemeal solutions have been attempted to address the issue and improve police response in handling such cases. However. Furthermore it will help create effective deterrence for the potential criminals and effectively prevent incidents of honour killings and maximize chances of conviction of the accused (s) involved in these cases.effective handling of the cases. The police officers need to be provided with good practice guidelines to be implemented as Standing Operating Procedures to be followed while dealing with matters pertaining to honour killings.
A wide range of reforms aimed at addressing conventional gender bias among the law enforcement and judiciary. The above mentioned legislative measures will go a long way in eliminating discriminatory provisions in the existing laws and preventing abuse of such provisions by the perpetrators of killings in the name of honour. Those involved in conducting faislas or jirgas. One important part of the solution involves legislative response. The legislation should be aimed at eliminating discriminatory aspects of laws. plugging in loopholes in the existing laws which provide the accused opportunities to get away after playing direct or indirect role in commission of crimes in the name of honour.The problem of honour killings has to be addressed by a befitting response by various institutions. radically improving the investigative methods of police. the legislative response alone cannot offer an ideal solution to this deeprooted problem. well co-ordinated preventive policing strategies and effective public awareness campaign will enable the institutions of criminal justice system in our country to successfully tackle the issue honour killings. 6 . The laws should be modified to ensure the side characters involved in the murders in the name of honour should also be held accountable. a reliable victim support programme. deciding on custody of the potential victim of killing should also be brought to justice. Additionally the amendments in the laws may ensure stringent punishments for the criminals including specified minimum mandatory sentence. However.
Chapter 1 Honour Killings In Sindh Honour Killings In Sindh .
looks at the current state of affairs in respect of the menace of honour killings. 9 . undertaken for the UNDP’s project. It attempts to critically assess the police handling of honour killings. providing protection to the potential victims and more importantly the investigation of the murders committed with the honour as motive. The police role. Legal framework relevant to the honour killings is also reviewed and an effort is made to pinpoint lacunas in the domestic laws which are frequently abused by the perpetrators of honour killings. The unabated incidents necessitate a comprehensive strategy to combat such a crime. This brief baseline study. The good practice guidelines for professional handling of the honour killings are also included in the study. The situation calls for an in-depth study to assess the reasons behind failure in prevention of the incidents and formulating an effective response to the problem. The study focuses on the northern districts of Sindh which are infamous for so called custom of karokari. Despite lack of authenticated and well documented statistics on honour killings it is widely perceived that the incidents of killings of in the name of honour are happening quite frequently in certain districts of Sindh. in prevention of the killings. is evaluated. This perception is supported by evidence in the shape of official figures and media reports.Introduction The harrowing murders in the name of honour continue to pose a formidable challenge to the society in general and the criminal justice system in particular.
journals. The data so collected was quantitatively analyzed. In this connection data compiled by the Madadgar project and Aurat Foundation were specifically studied. These questionnaires were given to the police officers serving in the three districts. These figures were compared with the officially tabulated data on honour killings.Methodology: Literature on various aspects of honour killings in general and dynamics of killings in the name of honour in the province of Sindh in particular were reviewed. The Proforma for data collection was designed with a view to get separate figures for the male and female victims and relationship of the victim and the accused. The police case files and papers pertaining to the high profile cases were qualitatively analyzed to evaluate the quality of investigation and point out common flaws in the police investigations of killings in the name of honour. The figures were collected for five years from 2004 to 2008. know for higher incidents of honour killings. 10 . Khairpur and Shaikarpur. Sakhar. These figures were compared to study the year-wise trends in honour killings and compare the number of male victims and female victims. Various secondary sources including books. Data was collected from police stations of the province to find out the number of incidents every year. Databases maintained by the NGOs were also referred to for collection and compilation of data. Questionnaires were filled by police officers of various ranks involved in investigation of crimes to get their perception about these killings and the way they conduct the investigations. research studies and human rights organization’s bulletins were referred to ascertain the causes and forms of honour killings.
The practice is believed to be more common in northern districts of Sindh as compared to southern Sindh. Ghotki. it has been observed that the practice has also been adopted by many non-Baloch communities of Sindh. Sakhar. Among those districts Jacobabad.Honour Killings In Sindh The killings in the name of honour have been reported in various parts of the province of Sindh. Larkana. However. Kandhkot. 1 2 Amnesty International Report 2004 p/181 Source: crime figures compiled by the Sindh Police Department. The so called custom of honour killings is no more confined to specific Boloch communities. Although apparently the awareness about the menace of honour killings have been increasing with growing interest of media and human rights activists no corresponding decline in the incidents have been witnessed. Shikarpur. 11 . Kambar. Khairpur and Ghotki have the highest reported incidents2. The practice has always been more commonly prevalent among Baloch tribes of Sindh and the districts closer to Sindh’s border with Balochistan have been known for relatively greater number of incidents. Out of 21 districts falling in interior of Sindh some districts are known for relatively frequent incidents of honour killings. The Amnesty Report (2004)1 mentions Sindh as the province with the highest number of honour killing incidents in the country. In order to get an insight into extent of the problem and its dynamics the statistics collected from more than one sources will be analyzed in the forthcoming paragraphs.
Despite these short comings the officially compiled crime figures can serve as a useful starting point to look at the seriousness and extent of the problem. In certain instances the offence is not reported to the local police instantly but the police take cognizance if the incident is reported in print or electronic media. Though most of the incidents are duly recorded at the police stations yet non-registration of FIRs cannot be ruled out. For instance the Karachi based 12 . Incidents of honour killings are also compiled by the Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Alternatively the incidents covered by print media are compiled and entered into the database. Admittedly with the vibrant media most of the cases are reported. The media coverage does highlight the issue but there are serious difficulties in getting the authenticated figures. This is done when the matter is brought to their notice directly through their helpline call centre or through a walking client. The crime figures including those for the karo-kari are compiled on the basis of the FIRs registered.Statistics on honour killings: The incidents of honour killings are widely covered by both the print and electronic media. The manual compilation of the crime figures is not free of errors and there is no system in place to monitor accuracy of the manual reporting system. Furthermore where the victims are killed in connivance with the family members the perpetrators may succeed in hushing up the matter. The NGOs have devised their own system of recording such incidents. Presently there is no proper computerized database to maintain crime figures. The basic official document to record a murder is the First Information Report (FIR) registered at the local police station where the killing took place.
dynamics and seriousness of the problem.Madadgar Helpline maintains database on violence against women including the honour killings by compiling the reports from as many as 26 different newspapers on daily basis. This will help draw attention of the various stake holders and policy makers. The figures compiled by the Sindh Police department on killings in the name of honour are presented and discussed here: 13 . Analysis of official figures: Despite the limitations discussed above the officially compiled crime figures do provide an insight into the issue. Regrettably the police authorities hardly look at these figures while devising their policing plans or settings goals and priorities for preventing policing. Once created and properly updated it will go a long way in showing the magnitude of the problem. The records complied by the police department may be under-reported but the figures collected by the databases maintained by the NGOs may be a bit over-reported. These databases include all the cases appearing in the print media even those which were misreported. In order to formulate an effective and comprehensive response to this problem we need to have accurate information about the nature. There is need for an authenticated system of compiling official records. Still these databases are a very useful source to assess the nature and quantum of the problem and to study trends and patterns of honour killings.
S. The figures are reproduced in the following table: S. Sindh Police) . The data collected on the honour killing cases from the Sindh Police Department also includes relationship of the victim and the accused which is very useful for understanding the dynamics of such killings.# Year Women killed 1 2004 79 2 2005 72 3 2006 89 4 2007 73 5 2008 110 Total (five years) 423 Men Killed Total Killed 51 130 39 111 44 133 33 106 42 152 209 632 (Source: figures compiled by the Sindh Police Department) The above figures indicate that total number of persons killed in 2008 have increased to 152 as compared to 106 in the preceding year.# Relationship 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total (five years) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 14 Husband Brother Father Son Sister Mother Other relative No relation 39 18 03 01 02 0 39 10 37 07 04 02 0 0 45 10 42 17 07 0 0 0 50 06 35 15 02 02 01 0 33 02 53 09 02 04 0 02 55 02 206 66 18 09 03 02 222 30 (Source: official police statistics. In five years from 2004 to 2008 out of 632 persons killed in the name of honour only 209 were men whereas women killed numbered 423 which is higher by over 100 per cent. It may be noticed that more women are being killed than men.
family friends or even neighbours. The figures collected from the Aurat Foundation 15 . This established that the responsibility to restore the honour to the family is not assumed by the near relatives only but by other members of the tribe or community as well. Interestingly the relatives other than the close ones were responsible in 222 cases which are higher than any other category of close relatives. Son murdered his mother in only 09 cases out of 556 officially recorded incidents. In 18 instances the father was nominated as offender. In 30 cases the accused were not related at all but were either members of the tribe. (Graphical representation of categories of relatives involved in killings) Unofficial figures on honour killings: For the purposes of the present study the reliance was made not on the official statistics alone but the data was collected from two NGOs namely Aurat Foundation and Madadgar Helpline. As per the figures collected for five years from 2004 to 2008 in 206 cases the named accused were husbands of the victim and brother was the principal accused in 66 cases.The above figures indicate that in most of the cases the women victims are killed by their husbands followed by brothers and fathers.
# Year Women killed 1 2006 221 2 2007 183 3 2008 148 Total(three years) 552 (Source: Aurat Foundation database) Men Killed Total Killed 130 351 104 287 96 244 330 882 It is obvious from these statistics that there is wide gap between the number of incidents recorded by the Aurat Foundations and the official statistics. According to this database as many as 2829 persons were killed in honour killing incidents in the province of Sindh from 2004 to 2008. S. According to the Aurat Foundation’s database only in three years 882 persons were killed in the name of honour whereas the official data compiled by the police department record only 391 incidents in three years. Madadgar Helpline Karachi’s database shows figures which are very high for the same five-year period. The discrepancy between the figures of the above three sources creates serious doubts on the authenticity of the data collection by these sources.# 1 2 3 4 5 Total 16 Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 (five years) Total Killed 579 501 603 675 471 2829 (Source: Madadgar Helpline Karachi) .Karachi pertaining to murder of men and women in the name of honour are presented in the following table: S.
Recently the Sindh Police has taken initiative to computerise crime statistics and its analysis. 17 .In view of above it would be advisable to devise an authenticated system of recording violence against women cases in general and killings in the name of honour in particular. Once reliable records are maintained at official level it would be far more convenient to understand the severity of the problem. As and when the computerised database is made available a clear picture on the level and seriousness of the issue will become clear.
Chapter 2 Forms and Causes of Honour Killings Honour Killings In Sindh .
When her name is linked with a man that is considered extremely shameful by the so called proud male members. Any of such violations or aberrations are viewed as a challenge to his position and affront to his family’s honour. In certain communities ‘relationship’ of a female with a male is simply intolerable. This kind of concept prevailing in the society empowers the man to control and monitor the behaviour of women in society. If she is suspected of having developed sexual relationship with a man that is seen as dishonour to the family or even to the entire community or tribe. The women are expected to internalize these norms and ensure strict adherence to the roles prescribed by the men. This concept of honour and treatment of women as a property gives the man control over her sexuality and conduct related to it. The man assumes the responsibility and right to take penal action if the strict code of the so called custom is violated by a woman. The man is seen a custodian of the honour of a family. They are held personally responsible for any kind of deviation. There is very strict code to be followed which curtails her liberty as an individual.Forms and Causes of Honour Killings Forms of honour killings: In conservative sections of society a female member of a family is expected to conform to certain norms. Her behaviour and activities are judged with reference to that conservative code. The so called honourable men of the family or tribe take it as their responsibility to set the record straight by killing that woman 21 . The concept of honour puts enormous restrictions on the women in the society.
There is a wide variety of circumstances falling in the category of illicit relations. be enough to invoke the motive of honour. (iii) Another form is fake honour killings where there is no issue related to so called honour but the real motive is extortion by threatening the victim. Various forms of honour killings are summarized here: (i) The most common form of honour killings is dishonour to family which is usually suspicion of illicit relations but it may extend to marriage without family’s consent and even divorcing husbands. Mere suspicion of relationship between a female and a male may. However. (ii) A less frequent form of honour killings may be as victims of rape as they deemed to have brought shame on their family. in certain cases. Their plight is worse confounded by absence of proper shelter houses or other protective measures to save them from their would be killers. They are usually chased and sometimes killed. It may culminate in her killing. Regrettably. the killing may be result of an illicit relationship or mere suspicion or in some cases nothing more than a misunderstanding. sometimes even if the girl is victim of rape she is blamed for it and her presence in the family is seen as stigma and source of continuing shame for the family. Many couples who decide to get married against the wishes of the family have to run for their lives.who has blackened their tribe and the man responsible for that act. This method is adopted by extortionists and particularly a relatively affluent but member of a non-violent and weak 22 .
The women as a whole are not properly empowered. It is not expected from them to take decisions independently. The situation is worse in upper Sindh where the women enjoy relatively less freedom especially in conservative families.community is targeted for this purpose. This is done because it is believed that the some of the police officers and judges still have the traditional mindset and they do not see honour killings as horrific crimes but in their eyes the severity of the crimes is mitigated because of the motive of ghairat involved. Causes of honour killings: The incidents of honour killings have been taking place in various parts of the country and this has a lot to do with the general status of women in our society. Although it may be appropriate to clarify here that legally the courts are no more obliged to award reduced sentences on the plea of grave and sudden provocation. 23 . In order to save his life the targeted person has to agree for a jirga and usually he pays compensation to save his life. They go to the extent of killing their woman and then declaring the targeted person as a karo-involved in illicit relationship with that woman. A large number of them are economically dependant on their men. (iv) Another category is the murders committed to settle private dispute but the declared motive is honour in expectation of lenient attitude from the police and judiciary. Once they are seen acting independently and making informed choices they are considered recalcitrant.
An environment where commodification of women is not discouraged the men consider women their property and consider it their right to take all major decisions and decide on disposal. Women are seen to embody the honour of the men to whom they belong, as such they must guard their virginity and chastity. When a woman enters into illicit relations she defiles the honour of the man responsible for her protection. He safeguards his honour by killing the couple. The violence against women in general and killings in the name of honour in particular have direct relevance with the overall crime situation and the writ of the government in rural society. The incidents of murder in districts of lower Sindh are far less than those in upper Sindh Source: officially compiled crime figures by the police department.. The same trend reflects in the incidents of killings in the name of honour in the upper Sindh. Interestingly the non-Muslim communities resident in the same districts are not known for practices of honour killings. It must be clarified at the outset that there have recently been several landmark judgments of the superior courts which have declared there is nothing ‘religious or honourable’ about these ‘vile and iniquitous’ acts and that they amount to intentional murder 4. Simialrly the areas where informal justice system is more in vogue and the formal justice system is weak the perpetrators of honour killing are more likely to be encouraged by general weakness of the state and lack effective deterrence. It would
Source: officially compiled crime figures by the police department. Aurat Publication and Information Services Foundation (October 2004) p/3
not be exaggeration to say that since the perpetrators have been getting away with the murders either by manipulating loopholes in the laws, influencing and managing the police investigations or through jirgas, there are hardly any examples to deter the would be killers from commission of such horrific crimes. The Criminal Justice System, as a whole, has not been able to respond effectively to the menace of honour killings either by protecting the potential victims or punishing the offenders. There are no shelter homes. There is no dependable victim support helpline in the interior of the province where they can get instant support. Cases of Babli Lashari who was killed in Larkana and Irfan Pathan killed in Sukhar in 2009 indicate lack of protective mechanism for the victims. Babli Lashari had sought assistance from the Women Police Station of Sakhar and she was handed over to her family by the lady police officer at the police station. She was subsequently murdered. Irfan Pathan had approached the court for protection and soon after that he was murdered. These instances show that there is urgent need to devise reliable means of protecting potential victims.
Chapter 3 Police and Honour Killings Honour Killings In Sindh .
The police officers seemed to be 29 . The questionnaire was designed with an objective of exploring the police perception of honour killings. The respondents were made to fill a questionnaire without disclosing their identity.Police and Honour Killings Police perception of honour killings: Police officers are not completely free from gender bias. Empirical analysis of the survey revealed that 67% of the respondents thought the honour killings were not justified but 30% approved the practice of honour killings. its handling by police officers. The policemen come from the same social background and many of them do not see honour killings as completely unjustifiable. This does not mean that they do not take cognizance of the killings done in the name of honour but many of them may not consider it a very serious incident requiring due diligence. Sakhar and Shaikarpur. Not all of them deprecate the practice of honour killings. Results of survey on perception: A survey on police perception of honour killings and their handling was conducted for the purposes of this study. 33 police officers of various ranks dealing with crime investigations and deployed in districts with higher incidents of honour related murders were involved in the survey as respondents. A sizable number of them consider illicit relations as great source of dishonour to the family to which the woman belongs. its comparison with other murder cases and issues related to investigation of honour killings. The police officers were serving in the districts of Khairpur.
When asked why police fail to arrest other accomplices the three reasons cited were since the complainant does not mentions them in the FIR the police investigation remains confined to the named accused. 30 . The result of the survey reinforces the observation that the traditional mindset of a police officer is part of the problem and a hurdle in effective handling of the cases.aware of the fact that most of the killings in the name of honour use honour as a pretext but the real motive is some other reason. 39% believed the honur killings was an issue because of media reporting whereas 56% considered it an issue even otherwise. The top three reasons behind these fake honour killings mentioned by the respondents were property dispute. This explains why police officers treat the honour killngs like an ordinary murder. This necessitates well coordinated training of the police officers aimed at improving their role as law enforcement officers in investigation of the cases and protection of the potential victims. as the accused usually surrenders before the police officers and confesses his guilt the investigation does not go beyond that. Another reason mentioned was police connivance or negligence. The survey showed that 88% of the respondents saw no difference between honour killings and other murders. matrimonial problems and settling score with an enemy. Ramifications of the inability to see the differences will be further discussed in the forthcoming paragraphs. Similarly 88% of the respondents thought the honour killings are committed by more than one person in connivance with other accomplices.
Police investigations of honour killings: Formal police investigation begins with registration of F.I. A number of the honour killings are result of mingling of minds among several family members. The murder may have been committed by several persons as principal offenders involved in execution of crime but only one person is nominated. Dawn 31 . The complainant and the accused in the FIR are in connivance.R. Likewise the post-mortem is supposed to be crucial piece of evidence in determining the cause of death and it also assists in ascertaining the circumstances in which the murder took place. This is where the problem may start. Since the police investigations do not rely much on forensic evidence for lack of facilities and training most of the prosecution cases rest on the statements of the witnesses.I. Thus oral evidence forms foundations of the prosecution cases. Once the witnesses change their version 5 For relevant discussion see Police and Honour Killings by Abdul Khalique Shaikh. The witnesses mentioned in the F. It has been observed that in certain cases the post-mortem reports omit crucial details which make it extremely difficult to ascertain the true facts.I. Due to lack of proper training and professionalism most of the useful evidence from the scene of crime is neither properly collected nor preserved for forensic analysis.R are deliberately composed in such a way to make the prosecution case weak from very beginning. The killing with motive as honour is different from other murders in many respects5.R are supposed to turn hostile if need be. The contents of the F. It is part of the criminal conspiracy that the complainant will compromise with the nominated accused.
cannot rely on the confession in the court. and pressuring complainants to drop charges on the basis of such oaths. The case study of Tasleem Solangi bears testimony to the fact that police investigations in most of the honour killing cases are superficial and do not go deep into the conspiracy in which various other characters may be involved. Furthermore. including witness interviews. In most of the cases the principal accused involved in the murder confesses before the police officer that he had killed the victims to restore honour to his family. closing cases on oath by the accused or on behalf of the accused by family elders. or incorrectly transcribe witness statements and sometimes even instruct witnesses to change their stories and include details that ostensibly support their cases. and forensic work. The observation made in the report titled Crime or Custom? Violence Against Women in Pakistan 2000 6 on police handling of investigation of sexual violence seem relevant here. For these reasons the perpetrators of honour killings are rarely convicted during trial. in accordance with the Evidence Act the confession before a police officer is inadmissible in the court of law. thereby. 32 . site visits. However. such as interviewing family elders in lieu of eye witnesses or the accused to come forward. The police. It has been observed in the report that in addition to failing to conduct timely and comprehensive investigations.in the court the prosecution cases lose ground and it becomes impossible to get the offenders convicted. the police frequently use unprofessional and inappropriate investigative methods. Tasleem 6 A report by Human Rights Watch: Crime or Custom? Violence Against Women in Pakistan 2000. the police frequently embellish. modify.
The police challaned just one accused and the case was closed. their facilitators. concealing the design to murder and facilitating commission of her murder by illegal omission were also held responsible and as many as 18 accused were booked by police and sent up for trial. These included principal offenders. In addition to this. Recently the law has been amended to deny the benefit of 33 . those responsible for taking and handing over her custody against her wish. However. abetting. Her husband surrendered before the police who was arrested and a weapon of offence was recovered from him. those not involved in execution of the crime but had reasons to know that their actions could result into Tasleem being killed and police officers who did not conduct the investigation with due diligence and caused the destruction of important evidence related to the crime. destroying evidence. those who conducted jirga. Subsequently. However. conspiring. most of the trials do not proceed because the Qisas and Diyat Ordinance made the offence of murder compoundable offence. perfunctory police investigation is not the only reason for failure of prosecutions in the courts.Solangi was murdered on 6th of March 1998. In most of the cases the wali of the victim and the offender are related to each other and they compromise in the court and the murder case is dropped. the complainant of the FIR who happened to be his uncle and other witnesses to the incident and recovery of weapon resiled from their earlier statements to facilitate his acquittal. the judges have the discretion not accept compromise between the parties. The lady doctor who gave a manipulated report without conducting post-mortem was also brought to justice. When the case was reopened and the investigation team broadened the circle of the investigation those involved in aiding.
173 of the Criminal Procedure Code is placed before the trial court. 34 . Because of these reasons an impression is created that ‘the legal system favours perpetrators who commit violence their family women by mitigating punishments and providing legal loopholes to escape from any kind of punishment' Tahir S. The reason for the easy arrest is that the named offender knows that he will get himself released with support of the complainant and the witnesses or the case will be compromised in the court under Qisas and Diyat Ordinance or the witnesses will turn hostile paving way for his acquittal. Khan Beyond Honour Oxford 2006. The investigation rarely goes 7 The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2004 was passed to address the issue of compoundability in honour related murders. The police investigators have a traditional mindset towards criminal cases. The investigating officer is at the best interested in arrest of the nominated accused. Generally in honour killing cases only one or very few accused are named in the FIR. In many cases either the accused surrenders before the police or he is arrested with or without little effort. From the conventional police view the case is treated as detected and considered as ‘good work’ on part of investigation branch and the file is closed. The performance of the police investigation is judged on the basis of number of the cases detected. The impact of the amendment is yet to be seen. Once the accused is arrested by the investigating officer and the weapon of offence is recovered he is challaned and a final report under s.compromise to the parties to a murder if the offence was committed in the name of honour 7 .
I. 35 .R when a complaint of a cognizable offence is received by them.I. Where the honour killing is not handiwork of one person various family members or fellow tribesmen may be involved in the joint criminal enterprise. Although it is imperative on the police officers to provide protection to the potential victims of honour killings yet the fathers manage to use police to recover or unlawfully arrest and detain their adult daughters who have married men of their choice. This is done by registering F. The S. The investigating officers rarely distinguish the killing in the name of honour from ordinary murders 8.deep into the conspiracy. Contrary to this the complainant of an honour killing is more likely to abort or frustrate the entire trial process by his non-cooperation with the prosecution and supporting the defendant’s case in the court.C requires the police officers to register F. Besides the principal offender (s) several persons may be involved in conspiring.Rs of abduction against the man with whom the girl has married against the wishes of her father or other family members. When a father approaches the local police station with a fabricated story of abduction of his daughter the police officers usually go ahead with registration of a criminal case and the investigation teams make efforts to trace out the couple and 8 Please see findings of the survey above. In an ordinary murder the complainant will try to name all the characters involved in the murder either directly or indirectly. abetting or concealing the crime. aiding.P. 154 Cr. The complainant will vigorously pursue the investigation and its outcome and follow its progress during trial. He will like to choose dependable witnesses who can testify in the court against the accused.
kidnapping for ransom.R the so called complainant can manage an order for registration of F. The perpetrators of such crimes go unpunished and get encouraged to repeat similar or even more serious offences. Women police stations were established to facilitate protection of the potential victims of violence against women and promptly react to the violations 36 . highway robberies and other such crimes takes precedence to other crimes considered less in importance and seriousness. For them information related to terrorism. When such a couple is traced out the man is arrested and the girl is pressurized by the family to consent to be given in custody of her father or brothers. Police officers try not to get deeply involved in civil disputes of the citizens or disputes within the family members.I. When women are injured some police officers treat such cases as family affairs and encourage them to compromise.C.I.arrest the man accused of abduction. Sindh police have organized seminars and workshops and short duration training courses either on their own or in collaboration with reputable NGOs or other international organizations.P. Even if the local police refuse to register F. Steps taken by Sindh Police to improve police handling of the honour killings: Police leadership has been cognizant of the problem of honour killings and various piecemeal solutions have been attempted to address the issue and improve police response in handling such cases. A traditional police officer has his own priorities about the categories of crimes.R from the district court under S.22-A of the Cr.
37 . particularly in respect of women and children. Women police desks and human rights cells have been established in selected districts to address the women-specific issues requiring police intervention. what is needed is a comprehensive response and concerted effort to tackle the flagrant violation of right to life by sensitizing police officers. Standing Orders for dealing with violence against women has been issued for strict compliance. However.of their rights. The Police Order 2002 also laid down specific duties for the police officers in this regard. Article 4(2)(a) expects a policeman to afford relief to people in distress situations. Article 3(d) requires a policeman to aid individuals who are in danger of physical harm particularly women and children. In addition to the above mentioned measures the provincial police chiefs had been issuing circulars and standing orders requiring the police officers to assist women in distress. One such project is the Madadgar Helpline in Karachi funded by the UNDP. improving their investigation skills and putting in place a reliable victim support programme. The gender bias and traditional mindset need to be addressed through training. Efforts have been made to increase ratio of female police officers in the province. Occasionally police have been assisting the NGOs dealing with cases of violence against women including those involving killings in the name of honour.
Chapter 4 Honour Killings In Sindh Guidelines .
Good Practice Guidelines 9 (Guidelines For Professional Handling By Police Officers) Having pointed out the flaws in police handling of the honour killings it would be useful to make an attempt to lay down the good practices guidelines to be followed by police officers at police station level and their supervisory police officers for just and professional handling of the cases. (i) To ensure that the police investigations of the honour killings are conducted in a professional manner and to eliminate common flaws from the investigations. Objective of the guidelines: These guidelines have been prepared keeping in view the following objectives in mind. (iii) To create effective deterrence for the potential criminals and effectively prevent incidents of honour killings. (ii) To ensure that accessories to the murders committed in the name of honour are also sent up for trial. (iv) To maximize chances of conviction of the accused (s) involved in these cases. 41 . (v) To ensure proper supervision of the investigations at various levels. These guidelines may be implemented if approved by the PPO Sindh. 9 These guidelines were also submitted to the Provincial Police Officer Sindh for issuing standing order to be followed by the police officers in Sindh.
the policeman receiving the information should immediately pass on the information to all the police officers in the hierarchy from the police station staff to the Superintendent of Police Investigations and the District Police Officer concerned. or any other rescue centre or by source including but not limited to written complaint. print or electric media report etc. any general or specially set up reporting centre. Receiving and Conveying Information: (a) Whenever an information is received at the police station. NGO’s report.(vi) To ensure proper reporting of the murders committed in the name of honour and record authenticated statistics. victim support helpline. The cases where the motive is not clear at the time of lodging of the First Information Report (FIR) but during the course of investigation the motive of restoring honour to the family is detected will be treated as honour killing. To create an environment where violence against women is prevented and vulnerable women feel safe in the society. These cases will include both the premeditated killings as well as those committed due to sudden provocation. at Madadgar 15. 42 . Definition of honour killings: For the purposes of these guidelines the term ‘honour killing’ is to be understood as any murder or attempted murder of a man or woman where motive behind the murder or attempted murder is suspicion/objection by the murderer(s) of the character/conduct of the man and/or woman attacked.
immediately attend to the scene of crime and make all possible efforts to arrest the accused suspected of involvement in the offence. forensic other evidence from the scene of crime. weapon of offence.(b) The towns. passing or recording the information of an honour killing incident should treat it as seriously as an incident of terrorism. preserved. hair. finger prints and any other evidence should be collected. bullets. duty officer. Role of SHO: (a) The Station House Officer (SHO) should. semen. (b) If the first responder is other than the investigation staff. on receipt of information. (c) The policemen receiving. he should immediately relay message to the investigation team to reach the scene without delay. patrolling officer. empties. districts or capital cities where a special cell on human rights is established the information should be immediately conveyed to them. investigation staff or any other junior or senior officer. 43 . He should immediately preserve the scene of crime. packaged and labeled and sent to the forensic science laboratory or the chemical examiner as the case be. (d) Blood stains. (c) Every possible effort be made not to destroy any physical. fibers. Role of the first responder to the scene of crime: (a) The first responder to the scene of crime may be SHO himself.
(f) The SHO should resist any political or other influence and should not let anybody distort the facts or concoct an account which may result into concealment of facts or undue favours to any of the suspected aiders.O: (a) The case must investigated by an officer not below the rank of a DSP. (g) SHO should also take preventive action against the parties under relevant sections of the Criminal Procedure Code where deemed appropriate. 44 . It should be his responsibility not to miss mentioning background of the offence which may assist in the ensuing investigation. (c) He should provide every possible assistance to the Investigation staff to investigate the offence with due diligence. abettors. SP Investigation and DPO.(b) The SHO should also immediately pass on the information to the SPO/SDPO. Role of I. executioners or other accessories to the crime. If any jirga was held before the murder or if the relatives of the victim(s) had declared the victim as Kari or karo that should be mentioned in the FIR. (e) Where the heirs of the victim are reluctant to lodge FIR the SHO should make a police officer complainant in the FIR. (d) He should get the FIR registered without delay on the basis of the initial information.
O should collect and preserve all the evidence. (g) The post-mortem examination should be conducted without unnecessary delay. in doing so he should not avoid any undue harassment to the persons. (e) The I.O should investigate diligently to uncover accessories to the crime if any and will challan them under the relevant sections in accordance with the role played by each accessory to the crime. (f) The I.O should make sure that the investigation goes deep into the circumstances of the incident and its background. 45 .(b) The Investigating officer should take all the steps mentioned above as functions of the first responder to the scene of crime. (c) The I. (i) The I.O should also collect information and evidence if the relatives of the victim or the accused had collectively decided on declaring the victim(s) as kari and/or karo. However.O should collect information on any jirgas held prior to the indent or after the incident having anything to do with declaring the victim(s) as kari and/or karo. (d) He should record statements of all the concerned persons. If the I.O suspects any mischief in the post-mortem proceedings or its report he should immediately bring this into notice of the senior officers and he may refer the matter to a medical board if appropriate. (h) The I.
Role of SPO: a) b) 46 The Sub-Divisional Police Officer should play his supervisory role and will closely monitor the investigation.O should ensure strict adherence to the Police Rules 23. (l) If the parties choose to compromise and seek not to pursue the case.3 particularly the provisions related to preventing the destruction of evidence which may assist in ascertaining the cause of death. examination of crime scene etc. The SPO should visit the scene of crime without delay and supervise functions mentioned under role of the first . preservation of all kinds of evidence. under no circumstances I. In case of any delay on part of the forensic examiners concerned the matter should be brought into the notice of the senior officers with a view to expediting the outcome of the examination. (n) At the scene of crime the I. marking and sealing of clothing or anything connected with the incident.O may decide to accept compromise.O should keep follow up of the chemical examiner’s report or expert opinion on other forensic evidence. The law does not permit compounding of such case by police.O should encourage independent witnesses to come forward. (m) The investigation must be completed within the stipulated period and challan be submit without delay.(j) The I. The expert opinion should be collected without delay. (k) The I.
He should guide the junior ranking officers in conduct of the investigation and take corrective steps where necessary.O. c) He should point out the omissions on the part of I. He should ensure that the investigation is entrusted to an officer not below the rank of a Deputy Superintendent of Police who will become actual I. SHO and I. Role of SP Investigation: a) b) c) Superintendent of Police investigation is responsible for close supervision of the honour killing cases It should be mandatory for the SP Investigation to visit the scene of crime at the first available opportunity. The SP Investigation should co-ordinate with the prosecution branch one the case is challaned and should regularly follow the progress of the case at trial stage.O which may hamper investigation of the case.responder. The SP Investigations should keep the DPO apprised of the progress into investigation and will seek his assistance where required. The SP Investigation should ensure strict adherence of the investigation staff to the guidelines.O of the case and should not delegate the investigation to any of his subordinates. If the accused are acquitted. SP investigation should prefer an appeal to the appellate court on appropriate grounds. 47 d) e) f) g) .
The DPO must establish a reliable system of reporting to have authenticated statistics on honour killings.Role of DPO: a) The District Police Officer must realize that the honour killing cases are to be given due importance and deserve his personal supervision. It is responsibility of the DPO to ensure compliance of the standing operating procedures. Where possible and to a reasonable extent the well reputed NGOs may be co-opted to ensure justice is done objectively. The DPO should arrange refreshers in his district for officers of various ranks to make them aware of the good practice guidelines relating investigation of honour killings. The DPO should. in his crime meetings with the SHO and other staff. b) c) d) e) f) g) 48 . The DPO should carefully follow the press reports concerning incidents in his district and he should not only thoroughly probe the matters reported in media but where his version is different it should be given to the media after due verification. sensitize the police officers on importance of the honour related murders and the standing operating procedures to be adopted by them in dealing with honour killings.
the DPO. SHO and investigation staff should take preventive action under relevant sections of Cr.Role in preventing honour killings: a) The DPO. 49 . Consequently the there has been no visible decline in the incidents of honour killings despite increasing awareness and activism by the civil society. SPO. Where it is reported that there is credible threat to any man or woman’s life being suspected as kari/karo. SPO and SHO should provide adequate security until other arrangements are made. b) c) d) It has been observed that a number of the above mentioned guidelines are not being followed by the police officers. The DPO. Since police cannot provide protection for longer duration to the individuals the NGOs be involved to send women to shelter houses for their protection. SP Investigation.C if there is apprehension of breach of peace on the basis of information received. SPO and SHOs should make arrangements to gather intelligence of incidents which may result into a pre-meditated honour killings. Nonadherence to these good practices has resulted into acquittal of the perpetrators of such killings from the courts. Particular attention should be paid to any jirga which is reported to have established somebody as a kari or karo.P.
Chapter 5 Legislative Response Honour Killings In Sindh .
53 . (iii) The amendments in the laws which may ensure stringent punishments for the criminals. Those involved in conducting faislas or jirgas.Legislative Response The problem of honour killings has to be addressed by a befitting response by various institutions. (ii) Plugging in loopholes in the existing laws which provide the accused opportunities to get away after playing direct or indirect role in commission of crimes in the name of honour. The laws need to be amended to eliminate possibilities of abuse of legal provisions by the perpetrators of such crimes. There should be specified minimum mandatory sentence. One important part of the solution involves legislative response. (v) The appropriate amendments should ensure those involved in concealment of the offence after the commission of murder or those involved in hushing up should also be brought to justice to create deterrence for others. deciding on custody of the potential victim of killing should also be nabbed. (iv) The laws should be modified to ensure the side characters involved in the murders in the name of honour should also be held accountable. The legislation should be aimed at achieving the following objectives: (i) eliminating discriminatory aspects of laws.
abetting. These legislative response should attempt to rectify the following issues: (a) Registration of F.I. Although the existing law does not prevent a police officer from becoming a complainant in FIRs but if one of the heirs of the victim challenges the police decision of denying him to be complainant in the FIR the police officer will be on weak footing in defending his decision.I. if the police are authorized to exercise unfettered discretion in refusing the so called complainant that may have other serious consequences of abuse of authority. A solution has to be found to deny the accused of this provision of law. This discretion by the police 54 . The complainant does not name all the accused involved but usually just one person is shown as responsible for the killings so that all other accomplices involved either in execution. assisting or concealing the crime escape prosecution of the offence.C. The contents of FIR are narrated in such a manner that the accused can avail loopholes and can get away with the killing subsequently.R: The complainant in the FIR is usually in league with the killers.C. An amendment in the law may give the police officer option to refuse the informant related to the accused to be complainant of the FIR after recording reasons for such a refusal in writing. When the police officers refuses to register a complainant’s FIR the courts can order registration of cases under S. aiding.P. Moreover.(vi) The amendments are different stages involved in handling of the honour killings cases. 154 Cr. The police officers are duty bound to lodge the FIR as narrated by the complainant under S.22-A of the Cr.R on behalf of the state. In certain instances police officers decide to lodge F.P.
the trial should be expeditious with regular hearings. The judges should declare the witness hostile and convict the accused on other evidence if there is any. Moreover.C by an office in the rank of Assistant Sub-Inspector of police or above. when the judge will not allow the parties to compromise the parties will try to ensure the witnesses resile from their earlier version in the court while giving live testimony. This aspect has been addressed by the Criminal Law Amendment Act. Under the existing law a criminal case can be investigated under S.156 Cr. In order to avoid incompetent handling of the case and countering undue influence of the local influential persons an officer not below the rank of a Deputy Superintendent of Police should be authorized to investigate the murder where motive is believed to be honour. 55 .officer may be exercised where the officer has reasons to believe that the complainant of the FIR is in collusion with the accused and it should apply to the cases of honour killngs only. (c) Trial: The legislative response pertaining to the trial should ensure the honour killing cases should not be compoundable under in any circumstances. Furthermore. Strict action has to be introduced for such witnesses. (b) Investigation: The Criminal Procedure Code needs to be amended to raise the level of the officers authorized to investigate the case. P. There should be guidelines for the judge to give regard to the fact that the witnesses were resiling from their earlier statements made before the police officers because they might be in collusion with the accused.
the legislative response alone cannot offer an ideal solution to this deeprooted problem. The above mentioned legislative measures will go a long way in eliminating discriminatory provisions in the existing laws and preventing abuse of such provisions by the perpetrators of killings in the name of honour. A wide range of reforms aimed at addressing conventional gender bias among the law enforcement and judiciary. well co-ordinated preventive policing strategies and effective public awareness campaign will enable the institutions of criminal justice system in our country to successfully tackle the issue honour killings. radically improving the investigative methods of police. However.(d) Sentencing: There should be minimum mandatory sentence for the perpetrators of honour killings. 56 . a reliable victim support programme.
L. February 25th. Kari nahin shaheed aurtain. S. Hadi. Nadeem Law Book House. Khan. Lahore. The Criminal Procedure Code. 1898: Updated and Exhaustive Latest Commentary. Haider.Bibliography Chaudhri Muhammad Naseem Justice (Retd. S. Karachi. paradigms and violence against women. Ghazi. Amnesty International. M. Pakistan: Violence against Women in the name of honour. Lahore. A. Hanif. Dawn. 1992. National Language Authority.K. Civil and Criminal Law Publication. London. Nazir Ahmed Police Laws of Pakistan.. Shaikh. Oxford University Press. G. 2006. T Beyond Honour: A Historical Materialist Explanation of honour Related Violence. C. Lahore. Lahore. Punjab House. & Hossain. 57 . 2007. (ed). Ehsan Violence against women. Aurat Foundation. Nadeem Law Book House. Pakistan Penal Code (XLV of 1860). ‘Police and Honour Killings’.M. 2008. Printing Press Lahore 2008. Oxford University Press. 2004. 1996. 2005.F. Farani. NewYork.A Police Order 2002. Islamabad. Welchman. 2009. 1999 Sadiq. Honour crimes.) Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973. Wagha (ed). 2009.
Honour Killings In Sindh Annexure .
(ii) ………………. 4.. Is there difference between honour killing and other murders? 11. If yes. Do you think those who kill men and/or women for honour are justified? Do you think most of the honour killing cases are due to honour or some other reasons and allegation of dishonour is mere allegation? The decision to kill somebody for honour is taken by more than one person jointly.. 2. 9. 7. 10. Questionnaire serial number: Rank of the police officer: Length of service: Have you ever handled a case of karo-kari in your career? What do you think are main three reasons for Karo-kari incidents? (i) ………………. 3. why the other persons involved in planning of killings are not arrested by police? 8.Questionnaire for Police Officers (Honour killings study) 1. Is it correct? If yes. 5. (iii) ………………… 6. what is the difference? 61 .
Are the jirgas helpful? 17. Give suggestions for preventing honour killings: Name of research assistant ………………. Do you think the government should make strict laws for preventing honour killings? 14. 62 . Why the perpetrators of honour killings don’t get convicted? 15. Is defective investigation a reason for acquittal of the accused? 16.12. Are women being killed in the name of honour or it is mere an issue raised by the media? 13.
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