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EDUARDO GONZALES DATE: December 9, 2010
REPRODUCTION/PROCREATION: The most important of the biological processes that living things undertake because it ensured preservation of species. ‐ Requires the gametes (germ cells) of the male and the female to form a zygote (fertilized ovum). SPERM CELL (spermatozoon): male gamete EGG CELL (ovum): female gamete GAMETES: The only unique cells in that they are haploid (other cells are diploid). HAPLOID: possess only 23 chromosomes DIPLOID: contain 46 chromosomes
FERTILIZATION: A process wherein a sperm cell and an ovum unite. The resulting cell in the process (zygote) is DIPLOID because it inherits all the chromosomes in both gametes. EMBRYO: The developing human individual from the time of implantation to the end of the 8th week after fertilization. FETUS: The developing human individual from the end of the 8th week after fertilization until birth. Sperm cell (23n) + Ovum (23n) (fertilization) Fetus Zygote (46n) (mitosis) Embryo
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: o Responsible for gametogenesis Spermatogenesis: production of male gametes (spermatozoon or sperm cell) Oogenesis: production of female gametes (ovum or egg cell) o Also produce the hormones that account for the anatomic and physiological differences between the sexes o Male reproductive system: provides for a means for the male gametes to be deposited into the female genital tract o Female reproductive system: provides the appropriate milieu for a successful pregnancy MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: o components: 1. testes 2. duct system of each testis 3. copulatory organ (penis) 4. accessory glands.
FIRST COMPONENT OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM TESTES TESTES: They are organs that produce the male gametes (spermatozoa or sperm cells) and the male hormone (testosterone). SCROTUM: A sac under the penis that is made up of skin and subcutaneous tissue. It encloses the testes. TUNICA ALBUGINEA: A tough fibrous capsule of the testis that is made up dense irregular connective tissue. MEDIASTINUM TESTIS: Thickened portion at the posterior surface of Tunica Albuginea. ‐ It is where blood and lymphatic vessels enter and/or exit, and the ductuli efferentes (segments of the testicular duct system) leave, the testis. ‐ Where the tunica albuginea sends connective tissue septa called septulae testis into the substance of the testis that divides the organ, although incompletely, into lobules (lobuli testis). LOBULI TESTIS: About 250/testis. Each contains 1-4 seminiferous tubules. SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES: highly-coiled tubes that occupies the greater part of each testicular lobule. Also, it is where the male gametes, spermatozoa or sperm cells, are produced by a process called spermatogenesis.
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PRIMORDIAL GERM CELLS: o The earliest recognizable stem cells of the male and female gametes. o They arise from the endoderm of the yolk sac (between 2nd – 8th weeks of intrauterine life.) o 4th week of intrauterine life – they begin to migrate to the developing gonads, undergoing mitosis along the way. o End of 5th week – they start to reach the developing gonads: In Ovaries: they differentiate into oogonia (precursor cells of ova). In Testes: they differentiate into spermatogonia (precursor cells of spermatozoa). SPERMATOGENESIS: The process of producing spermatozoa from spermatogonia. It starts at puberty and continues until old age. Each testis produces 94.6 X 106 spermatozoa/day. It has 3 stages: STAGE OF SPERMATOGENESIS 1. Spermatocytogenesis 2. Meiosis a. Meiosis 1 b. Meiosis 2 3. Spermiogenesis FROM Spermatogonia 1° Spermatocytes (diploid) 2° Spermatocytes Spermatids GIVE RISE TO Spermatocytes 2° Spermatocytes Spermatids (haploid) Spermatozoa
Type Ad (dark) Spermatogonium Type Ap (pale) Spermatogonium Type B Sperma -togonium Primary Spermatocyte
Outer edge of Seminiferous Tubule Before puberty, by multiple mitosis Large, flat, ovoid More rounde d
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Dispers ed A couple of nucleoli that are associat ed with nuclear membra ne
Fine threads or clumps
MEIOSIS 1 - forms two secondary spermatocytes with haploid number of chromosomes SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTE o about half the size of primary spermatocyte o only 23 chromosomes but in duplicate pairs called chromatids.
Periphe rally located
STAGES OF MEOISIS 1: 1. INTERPHASE: replication of chromosomes, etc. 2. PROPHASE o primary spermatocyte enters prophase of first meiotic division as soon as it is formed o takes 22 days to complete. Prophase ChroHomolog Stages matin ous MateChromos rial omes 1. Leptotene Start to condense Fine threads of chromatin within nucleus are formed Approac h each other to form 23 pairs seen as two pairs of sister chromatids (tetrads) corresponding segments of nonsister chromatids of the paired chromosomes are exchanged (crossing over)
Other characteri stics
Not entered spermatogrnic cell cycle yet; A Dormant reserve stem cell Only when needed Mitose to renew number or produce Type Ap Spermatogoni um Divide actively
Largest cell in male germ cell lineage
Cell division (mitosis)
3. Pachytene Produce Type B spermat ogonium
Reason for mitosis
4. Diplotene II. MEIOSIS
Duplicated chromosomes begin to separate move further from each other
nuclear membrane disappears
3. METAPHASE o homologous pairs of chromosomes align themselves in parallel fashion at equatorial plane of cell 4. ANAPHASE o units of a homolog pair move apart (separation of bivalents) in opposite direction o but chromatides of each chromosomes stay joined. o one member of each of 22 pairs of somatic chromosomes and Y chromosome move to one pole of cell o the other member of each of 22 pairs of somatic chromosomes and X chromosome move to opposite pole
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5. TELOPHASE o each of two groups of chromosomes acquires a nuclear membrane o cytoplasm divides equally between two daughter cells but they remain connected by cytoplasmic bridges because cytokinesis is incomplete o resulting daughter cells are secondary spermatocytes b. MEIOSIS 2 o secondary spermatocyte starts second meiosis immediately o completes second meiosis in a matter of hours, hence, hard to find in sections. SPERMATIDS o daughter cells produced after second meiosis o smallest of immature gametes o round or ovoid cells that contain darkly-staining nucleus.
PHASES OF SPERMIOGENESIS acrosomal vesicle formed by Golgi complex centrioles start to form flagellum 2. Acrosomal acrosomal vesicle transforms into acrosome or acrosomal cap nucleus elongates and condenses further tail lengthens cytoplasm redistributes to form middle piece. 3. Maturation residual cytoplasm phagocytosed by Sertoli cells mitochondria gather around middle piece and form mitochondrial sheath 1. Golgi spermiation o release of spermatozoon into lumen of seminiferous tubule o cytoplasmic bridges severed o spermatozoon is anatomically mature, but physiologically immature not capable of fertilizing the ovum yet not yet motile o additional maturation occurs in ductus epididymis
STAGES Of MEIOSIS 2 1. Prophase chromosomes condense two sister chromatides of a chromosome are still coupled. 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase chromosomes move to equatorial plane sister chromatides are pulled apart to opposite poles by the spindle. nuclear envelop is formed around each nucleus incomplete cytokinesis.
Final product: Spermatozoa number produced per day = 94.6 X 106 number in ejaculate = 20-250 million/ ml (note: normal volume of ejaculate =2-5 ml.)
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Parts of spermatozoa 1. Head o condensed nucleus o acrosome or acrosomal cap o contains hydrolytic enzymes that o disperse cells of corona radiata o digest zona pellucida of ovum 2. Tail o basic structure is similar to cilia (except for end piece) o central core (axoneme) o 9+2 arrangement of microtubules o central pair surrounded by 9 peripheral doublets SEGMENTS OF THE TAIL 1. Neck / segment attached to the head connecting piece 2. Middle piece about 5 micra in length surrounded by mitochondrial sheath 3. Principal thinner but longer (up to 50 micra) than piece middle piece enclosed by fibrous sheath 4. End piece Short; not enclosed by fibrous sheath does not exhibit 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules
TESTIS: SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES lobules (lobuli testis) o about 250/ testis o separated by septulae testis o each contains 1-4 seminiferous tubules o highly-coiled tubes o sites of spermatogenesis o small (150-250 µm in diameter) but long (3070 cm) o occupy greater part of testicular lobules o wall outer fibrous sheath inner stratified epithelium, whose cells consist of: developing gametes Sertoli cells
SERTOLI CELLS o large, tall cells o broad bases; tapering as they extend into free surface o lateral surfaces have folds that enclose developing gametes o maturing gametes form 4-8 layers of cells in epithelium o spermatogonia occupy basal area of epithelium between Sertoli cells o as progenies of spermatogonia differentiate, they move inward toward lumen o bases are bound by occluding junctions o occluding junction: serves as blood-testis barrier that protects more mature cells from blood-borne toxins and antigens and from elements of immune defense system. provide nutrients and protection for developing gametes phagocytose excess cytoplasm of maturing gametes produce fluid that fill lumen of seminiferous tubules (facilitates transport of spermatozoa through excretory ducts) synthesize a number of proteins and a hormone, inhibin. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from pituitary gland increases activity of Sertoli cells FSH enhances spermatogenesis inhibin produced by Sertoli cells has a negative feedback effect on FSH production by pituitary gland. INTERSTITIAL CELLS (OF LEYDIG) o in connective tissue in spaces between seminiferous tubules o large and ovoid o cytoplasm is eosinophilic o contain elongated crystals (of Reinke) in their cytoplasm (significance is unknown, but they increase with age) TESTOSTERONE o maintains epithelium of seminiferous tubules o controls spermatogenesis o responsible for secondary sexual characteristics of the male o controls accessory glands of male reproductive system o secretion of testosterone is controlled by luteinizing hormone (LH) from pituitary gland. SECOND COMPONENT OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM – DUCT SYSTEM OF EACH TESTIS I. intratesticular ducts A. tubuli recti connect seminiferous tubules to rete testis epithelium is simple columnar except initial segment (formed by Sertoli cells) B. rete testis network of anastomosing canals within mediastinum testis lined by single layer of cuboidal or squamous cells with thick basal lamina surrounded by vascular connective tissue C. ductuli efferentes drain rete testis
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12-20 fine tubules that penetrate tunica albuginea highly tortuous at head of epididymis,they merge to form ductus epidydimis functions passageway for sperms ciliated cells help propel sperms non-ciliated cells absorb fluid formed by seminiferous tubules.
small, rounded or pyramidal pale-staining cytoplasm and coarse nuclei probably stem cells. main site for absorption of excess fluid from seminiferous tubules site of accumulation, maturation and storage of spermatozoa sperm cells stay 2-6 days in ductus epididymis spermatozoa fully motile when they leave note: it takes only about 15 minutes for motile spermatozoa to cover distance between vagina and abdominal cavity.
2. connective tissue - binds coils of ductus epididymis 3. blood vessels. B. ductus (vas) deferens continuation of ductus epididymis from initial segment to deep inguinal ring, embedded in spermatic cord
A. ductus epididymis: main component of epididymis Epididymis C-shaped structure that occupies superior and posterior surfaces of testis segments of epididymis 1. head 2. body 3. tail constituents of epididymis 1. ductus epididymis highly-coiled tube; diameter just 1 mm when uncoiled, length > 6 meters. lined by pseudostrafied epithelium that consists of two types of cells principal cells tall columnar proximally but become cuboidal distally with stereocilia (microvilli that are as long as cilia but nonmotile) secretory cells but secretion is not well-studied; may aid in maturation of sperms absorbs fluid that originated from seminiferous tubules. basal cells
SPERMATIC CORD: consists of structures that enter/leave testis structures enveloped by three layers of dense connective tissue 1. internal spermatic fascia 2. cremasteric fascia contains cremaster muscle
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3. external spermatic fascia
constituents 1. ductus (vas) deferens, 2. its artery and vein 3. testicular artery 4. pampiniform plexus of veins 5. lymphatics 6. nerves
2. muscularis very thick smooth muscle fibers arranged in 3 layers: outer and inner-longitudinally oriented middle - circularly oriented
DUCTUS (VAS) DEFERENS 3. adventitia connective tissue with blood and lymph vessels, and nerves merges with connective tissue of spermatic cord C. ejaculatory ducts union of ductus deferens and duct of seminal vesicle penetrates substance of prostate gland empties into posterior part of prostatic urethra mucosa also with folds that project into lumen epithelium is simple columnar muscularis unlike ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct has no muscular layer.
histological layers 1. mucosa with longitudinal folds in distal dilated segment (ampulla), forms more numerous, deeper and complex folds epithelium: pseudostratified columnar with stereocilia (but shorter than in ductus epididymis) lamina propria:loose connective tissue with elastic fibers
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D. Urethra: (taken with urinary system) Segments: 1. Prostatic traverses prostate gland 2. membranous traverses sphincter urethrae muscle 3. spongy (penile urethra; cavernous urethra) traverses penis terminates in external urethral orifice (meatus). COPULATORY ORGAN – PENIS skin covers penis externally no hair follicles few sweat glands hypodermis rich in blood vessels with some smooth muscle cells no fat cells tunica albuginea internal to hypodermis thick, tough, dense connective tissue capsule connective tissue elements from capsule enclose and separate cavernous bodies that make up penis in flaccid penis, 2mm thick in fully erect penis, 0.5mm thick 1. corpora cavernosa penis (2) structurally identical occupy dorsum of penis 2. corpus spongiosum penis (1) central portion occupied by spongy urethra glans penis enlarged, conical distal part prepuce – skin cover glands of Tyson in undersurface of prepuce and proximal portion of glans penis atypical sebaceous glands; not associated with hair follicles secretion can accumulate and form a cheesy material (smegma). ACCESSORY ORGANS combined secretions account for most of the volume of male ejaculate or semen average volume of male ejaculate (semen) = 2-5 ml seminal vesicles = 60%. prostate gland = 30% spermatozoa <10% ( but 20-250 million/ml) bulbourethral glands = 1 -2 drops A. prostate gland largest of accessory glands chestnut-shaped base (4 cm in dia) is under apex of urinary bladder vertical diameter = 3 cm AP diameter= 2 cm prostatic urethra passes through center of gland. capsule dense connective tissue smooth muscle cells more numerous than collagenous fibers and fibroblasts often referred to as a fibromuscular organ septae incompletely divides gland into about 50 poorly-defined lobules.
cavernous bodies labyrinthine system of vascular channels lined by unfenestrated endothelium vascular channels separated by connective tissue with elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells erectile tissue - blood channels are ordinarily collapsed but fill up with blood under influence of erotic stimuli.
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3 groups of tubuloalveolar glands arranged concentrically around prostatic urethra 1. main prostatic glands bulk of gland occupy peripheral 2/3 of gland 20 ducts open independent of each other on sides of urethral crest on posterior aspect of prostatic urethra 2. submucosal glands occupy inner third of gland ducts open into prostatic sinuses on each side of urethral crest 3. mucosal glands small group of glands that occupy innermost area ducts open over entire surface of prostatic urethra. PROSTATE GLAND alveoli lined with simple cuboidal, simple columnar, or pseudostratified columnar epithelium corpora amylacea; prostatic concretions lamellated, small concretions composed of glycoproteins and other substances that are deposited around cell fragments increase in size and number, and calcify with age secretion is an alkaline fluid that contains enzymes fibrinolysin prostaglandins a compound with antibiotic properties.
B. seminal vesicles pair of glands lie between fundus of bladder and rectum and above prostate gland sac-like about 5cm long actually, each is a long (10-15 cm), narrow tube that is coiled secretion contains fructose - source of energy of spermatozoa prostaglandins fibrinogen. capsule very vascular connective tissue
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histologic layers 1. mucosa forms intricately branched folds lumen looks like a maze
Capsule: thin connective tissue Septae: arise from capsule and divide gland into small lobules Lobules: Alveoli: epithelium is simple cuboidal ducts epithelium simple tall cuboidal or columnar proximally pseudostratified epithelium in main duct.
epithelium: nonciliated pseudostratified columnar (or cuboidal) lamina propria
2. muscularis inner circularly- arranged (thin layer) outer longitudinally- arranged (thicker layer) 3. adventitia connective tissue with elastic fibers. C. bulbourethral glands (of Cowper) pair of pea-sized (diameter = 1 cm), yellowish organs behind and lateral to membranous urethra embedded in fibers of sphincter urethrae muscle duct opens into proximal part of penile urethra compound tubuloalveolar, mucus-secreting gland secretion is clear, viscous fluid that is discharged at or a little before the onset of ejaculation.
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