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ANS: One of the key premises in Global Literacy’s is that, in the borderless global marketplace, culture actually matters more, not less. “All business is global business, all customers are local customers, and competition comes from everywhere,” “The question is, how do you survive in this new multicultural marketplace? We really have to understand the importance of culture to make that happen. And that the world has changed, but the software inside of our heads for how to lead and conduct business hasn’t really changed.” Along with cultural understanding, the book reports that there are new “business literacy’s” that managers and executives must learn in order to do business in the global marketplace. They are: • Personal literacy: understanding and valuing yourself. “This is about self-awareness, self-renewal, and having strong values, but being flexible enough to know that people from other cultures have different values and ethics,” “It also means being able to make fast decisions but balance that with thoughtful consideration. Asians are probably best at personal literacy. They’re able to live and work in contradiction and ambiguity, holding paradoxes and opposing forces in their heads at the same time.” • · Social literacy: engaging and challenging other people. “We learn from the Japanese about this because…so much of what gets said is nonverbal, and they learn to read environments, contexts, and circumstances very well. We in the United States are big talkers.” • · Business literacy: focusing and mobilizing your business. North American businesses, particularly those in the U.S., have perfected this skill. “We’re the world’s problem solvers,” he said. “The business of America is business. We’re a fast-paced, action-oriented society. We love building new things and tearing them down when they don’t work. We’re good at navigating through chaos and leading people through change.” • · Cultural literacy: valuing and leveraging cultural differences. European business professionals possess this skill in abundance, Rosen explained. “These are people who understand their own cultural heritage, but they also recognize their own strengths and shortcomings,” he said. “They’re inquisitive internationalists, and they really try to build bridges across cultures.” • Because of all this reasons we have to think globally and act locally for a achieving success.
Q 13) What is the difference between primary activities in the value chain and support activities? ANS (13) VALUE CHAIN :
Do you see any reasons why managing by objectives may result in increased use of Matrix Organizational structures? ANS – (18)MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO) . Primary Activities go in a proper order one after the another to carry on the process.Value Chain is a set of key activities that directly produce or support the production of what a firm ultimately offers to customers. They play a Secondary Part in the organization. Marketing & sales and After Sales Service cannot take place. Without such activities it is impossible to perform the value chain. They all are linked by each other. Human Resource Management. Some of the support activities are Firm Infrastructure. SUPPORT ACTIVITIES IN THE VALUE CHAIN : Support Activities are those supportive factors which are necessary for the primary activities to go in proper pace and form. Q18. Operations in the firm. Technology Development and Procurement. PRIMARY ACTIVITIES IN THE VALUE CHAIN : Primary Activities are those activities which form the basic part of a value chain. If there are no Inbound Logistics and Operations in the firm than Outbound Logistics. Some of the primary activities are Inbound Logistics. All these supportive factors of the organization result into the best output as they prove to be a boom for Primary Activities and also the internal development of the organization. Outbound Logistics. Marketing & sales and After Sales Service.
verifiable and measureable. Appraisals would be more objective and impartial since employee performance is evaluated against. There is a meeting of minds between superior and subordinates. It is based on assumption that people perform better when they know what is expected on them and can relate their personal goals to the organizational objectives. It allows persons to better control their own performance. Goals are set in an atmosphere of participation.MBO is an overall philosophy of management that concentrates on measurable goals and end results. • • • . Specific goals are products of concrete thinking. Motivational Force : Both appraiser and appraise are committed to the same objective. It is a process whereby a superior and his subordinate managers jointly identify its common goals. MBO. MBO is a systematic and rational technique that always allows management to attain maximum results from available resources by focusing on achievable goals. • • • MBO focuses attention on what must be accomplished (goals) rather than hoe it is to be accomplished (methods). verifiable objectives. providing resources for goal accomplishment. The individual is given the freedom to police his own activities. Objective Appraisal : MBO provides a basis for evaluating a person’s performance since goals are jointly set by superiors and subordinates. mutual trust and confidence. It allows managers increased opportunities to provide subordinates with a better fix on the job and clarify the path to personal rewards. Joint goal setting sessions enhance team spirit and intergroup communications. by concentrating on key result areas translates the abstract philosophy of management into concrete phraseology. They tend to force specific planning into setting highly specific. MBO BENEFITS : • Clear goals : MBO produces clear and measureable performance goals. challenging and attainable goals. developing action programmers. A clear set of verifiable goals provides an outstanding guarantee for exercising better control. FEATURES : • MBO emphasizes participation setting goals that are tangible. • Better Planning: MBO programmers sharpens the planning process. It forces managers to think of result oriented planning rather than planning for activities or work.all these activities demand careful planning. Facilitates Control : MBO helps in developing controls. removing obstacles to performance. define each individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected by him and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members. Management by self control replaces management by domination.
develop appropriate action plans. (2) to goals tend t o take precedence over the people who use it. (5) Over emphasis on short term goals at the expense of long term goals. training manuals. It is the clear violation of the integrity of subordinate’s personalities. instruction booklets. It leads to a tug of war in which the subordinate tries to set the lowest possible targets and superior the highest. periodic progress and final review sessions also consume time. It helps management to avoid management by Crisis and Fire Fighting. The formals. It minimizes the possible misunderstanding about what is expected of each individual and organizational subunit. It is not for everybody. MBO programs sometimes discriminate against superior performers. • MBO LIMITATIONS : • Pressure Oriented: MBO may prove to be self defeating in the long run since it is tied with the reward punishment psychology. Increase Paperwork: MBO programs introduce a tidal wave of newsletter. There is failure to limit objectives. marshal the resources properly and establish needed control standards.• Better Morale : MBO encourages commitment rather than rote compliance. Initially to instill confidence in sub-ordinates in the new system. • • • . Result oriented Philosophy : Managers are forced to develop individual and group goals.(4) There is over emphasis on quantifiable and easily measureable results instead of important ones. managers may demand regular reports and data in writing. Organizational Problems: MBO is not a palliative for all organizational ills. It is inconsistent with management philosophy. MBO creates more problems than it solves when: There is failure to teach the philosophy to all participants. at all levels of organization. resulting in ‘grueling exercise in filling out forms’ Goal Setting Problems: MBO works effective when important measureable objectives are jointly agreed upon. It works less when: (1) Verifiable goals are difficult to set. It is at functional of what top management demands and developmental of what people at work. The program is used as a “WHIP” to control employee performance. (3) Goals are inflexible and rigid. All have a tonic effect on the psychology of the subordinates. superior have to hold many meetings. • Time Consuming: BO demands a great deal of time to carefully set objectives. questionnaire and reports into the organization. To stay abreast of what is going on in the organization.
project managers are assigned a variety of projects rather than a single one. Frequent interactions take place and each specialist is forced to listen. understand and respond to the views of the other. Manager turn MBO into a sham and start “playing games”. Technical Excellence : Matrix structure ensures the maintenance of high technical standards. It allows pooling and sharing of specialized resources across products in a natural routine way. A number of project managers direct the activities of a number of projects while the functional heads allocate their resources to meet the requirements of these various projects. Balance : Matrix structure is a way of balancing customer’s need for project completion and cost control with the organization’s need for economic cooperation and development of technical capability for the future. MATRIX ORGANISATION STRUCTURE A permanent organization designed to achieve specific results by using teams of specialists from different functional areas in the organization is a MATRIX ORGANIZATION. Quick decisions can be taken and the organization can encounter the challenging and uncertain environment in a better way. There is usually a more equal division of authority between project managers and functional line managers. • • • . • • The normal vertical hierarchy is overlaid by a form of lateral influence. It is actually a hybrid structure combining both functional and product structures in the same part of the organization.e. They facilitate high quality and innovative solutions to technical problems. • Flexibility : Matrix form encourages constant interaction among members of the project unit and the functional department. Resources can be freely allocated across different products. Since many decisions are to be made at lower levels. • STRENGTHS : • Efficiency : A matrix form permits efficient utilization of resources especially manpower. the top management has more time to interact with the environment. Freeing top management : Matrix structure permits decision making at lower levels. FEATURES : • Matrix Structure is an extension of the Project Management Concept i.
In an attempt to cover themselves against blame. what might concern you in following this recommendation? Ans. The more successful lateral collaboration is achieved at a given level. Unfortunately. The two kinds of influence are negatively correlated. both functional and product managers share the same set of resources leading to unhealthy competition. Membership of the team is based on the special knowledge for the given aspects of the work. It increases the management costs to double. The use of matrix means the use of dual command. Development : A matrix structure helps employees to develop and grow.• Motivation : In matrix structures. It enlarges their experience and broadens their outlook. • • Therefore. I am owning a medium sized organization which have less product variety but its divided across the country. Costs : The matrix organization incurs great administrative costs than a conventional hierarchy. Therefore i am having functional structure so that I can have specialization of functional knowledge and there will be less duplication of resources. • WEAKNESSES : • Power Struggles : Matrix foresters power struggles between product and functional managers. more emphasis is placed on the authority of knowledge than the position of an individual in the organizational hierarchy. It is . managers try to put everything in writing. Managers often end up jockeying for power an influence. I know it’s good type of structure but it will more suitable for bigger organization or organization which is focus on products or customers. It exposes them to a wider arena full of challenges. The comfort of bureaucracy’s predictability is replaced by growing insecurity and stress. 19. It gives persons of high potential an excellent means of demonstrating their capabilities and make a name for themselves. the greater are the stresses up through the vertical hierarchy. If you were the president of the company that was organized along functional lines and a consultant suggested you organize along territorial lines or product lines. the advantages and disadvantages of the MBO have resulted in increased use of Matrix Organization having various Strengths and Weaknesses. • Stress : Matrix organizations can be stressful places to work in. Now a consultant suggesting me to go for product structure. Balance : It is rather difficult to strike a stable balance between project and functional authority.
whose having lot many products but our organization is not having such vast variety of product therefore I’ll recommend only functional structure. They are performed by mangers at middle level. it can have full concentrate on market changes for that product but same time there is risk of conflict between product group and corporate objective and also it will increase cost as there are more managers and there will be huge expenditure on advertising and all. Their time frame varies from 2-3 years. . This product line structure is good for FMCG companies like HUL. tactical and operational plans? Ans. They are long range plans. They are known as intermediate plans. P&G. 20. What are the key difference between strategic. etc.good for evaluating performance of the product. 1) Strategic plans :- - They are long range plans. Operational plans are short range plans. It is concerned with broad objectives of the organization. They offer details as to how the strategic plans will be accomplished. It is the responsibility of the top management. Their time frame varies for 3 or more years. Tactical plans are concerned with implementing strategic plans by co-ordinating the work of various departments in the organization. Strategic plans are designed to meet the broad objectives of an organization. Strategic plans focus on planning & forecasting. 2) Tactical plans :- - They are called as intermediate plans.
They cover day-to-day operation.- It concerned with integrating the work of various departments in the organization. implements internal goals. logistics.It focuses on support functions such as market planning. 1. They are performed at lower level. Benchmarking is a concept that is now widely accepted. 21. human resource management & so on. The process involved in filling the orders is then carefully analyzed & creative ways are encouraged to achieve the benchmark. . What is bench marking and what role it play in planning? Ans.Which compares relative costs or possibilities for product differentiation. than 5days do not become the standard if a firm in an unrelated industry can fill orders in 4days. 3) Operational plans :- - These are short range plans. Their time frame is of 1year. What should be the criteria? If a company needs 6days to fulfill a customer order and the competitor in the same industry needs only 5days. Strategic Benchmarking:. The 4days criteria becomes the benchmark even when at first this seems to be an unachievable goal. Operational Benchmarking :. 2. It is an approach for setting goals & productivity measures based on best industry practices. It focuses on co-ordination. Focus on control primarily. information systems. Tactical Benchmarking :. There are 3types of benchmarking viz. 3. Benchmarking is developed out of the need to have date against which performance can be measured.Which compares various strategies & identifies the key strategic elements of success.
4)Concerned with broad objectives of the organisation. This discrepancy may reflect a recent change made by the finance department. etc. 2) time frame:3 or more years. A common example is a customer service center that contains a record showing one version of a customer's status (orders. 3)Top management responsibility. therefore both these functions go hand-in-hand. .). one or more planning sessions must be held. 23)Compare strategic. In order to achieve an organizational goals planning is done before benchmarking. billing. allowing the organization to save time and repurpose information across the enterprise for greater efficiency.Strategic (long range plans):-1)Long range plan. It may help to break the pre-reading material down into several sessions and plan the sessions around reviewing and discussing the impact of that material on what the business wants to achieve. Data need to be gathers & analyzed. Due to proper planning. During the implementation of the new approach. the targets on goals can be achieved thus fulfilling the achievement of benchmarking. 22) What is the different between defining requirements and assessing resources in the planning recourse? Ans: To define business objectives.The benchmarking procedure depends on what is to be benchmarked? Then superior performers have to be selected. The following information should be prepared and distributed for review prior to the first session. customer service cannot serve accurate information. operational & tactical level. and the true status may not yet be available to other departments. Why are the boundaries between each are not clear? Ans. 5)Focus on planning & forecasting. which become the basis for performance goals. • • • • • An internal analysis of any existing web sites An inventory of top-level business functions An analysis of any partner sites and the services they offer to their partnering businesses A competitive analysis of web sites owned by the competition Any case studies available that show how other companies in similar situations are using the web. performance is periodically measured & corrective actions are taken at that time. Thus for benchmarking proper planning has to be at strategic. As a result. and a finance department in the same enterprise with different status information. ERP can eliminate these silos and reduce waste. tactical & operational control. These sessions should focus on the overall business objectives and not detailed functional or technical requirements (these requirements are defined in later phases). payments.
If the controlling function is to be effective. . The objective of objective function is to ensure that action contribute to goal accomplishment. it must be proceeded to other planning. All management function are interrelated to each other. If the measured performance had been found wanting. 2) Time frame:1years. Operational (short range plans):-1)Short range plans. 4)Cover day-to-day operations. the manager must find reasons & take corrective actions. • Taking corrective actions to ensure goal accomplishment. It helps in keeping the organizational activities in the right path & aligned with plans & goals. Thus controlling includes four things :• Setting standards of performance. • Comparing actual performance against the standards. If the performance is not found to be wanting. some planning decision must be made. These functions are linked & most managerial functions use a combination of above four things simultaneously to solve the problems which are faced by the companies. 2)Time frame:2-3years. 5)Focus on control. 3)Done usually at lower levels.Tactical (intermediate) :-1)Intermediate plan. 24) How is the control function linked to other managerial functions? Ans . • Measuring actual performance. It is measured & compared with that had been planned. altering the original plans. 3)Performed by managers at middle level. 5) Focus on coordination. implements internal goal. 4)Concerned with integrating the work of various department in the organization. primarily.
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